Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Profiling of repetitive RNA sequences in the blood plasma of patients with cancer. Nature biomedical engineering Reggiardo, R. E., Maroli, S. V., Peddu, V., Davidson, A. E., Hill, A., LaMontagne, E., Aaraj, Y. A., Jain, M., Chan, S. Y., Kim, D. H. 2023


    Liquid biopsies provide a means for the profiling of cell-free RNAs secreted by cells throughout the body. Although well-annotated coding and non-coding transcripts in blood are readily detectable and can serve as biomarkers of disease, the overall diagnostic utility of the cell-free transcriptome remains unclear. Here we show that RNAs derived from transposable elements and other repeat elements are enriched in the cell-free transcriptome of patients with cancer, and that they serve as signatures for the accurate classification of the disease. We used repeat-element-aware liquid-biopsy technology and single-molecule nanopore sequencing to profile the cell-free transcriptome in plasma from patients with cancer and to examine millions of genomic features comprising all annotated genes and repeat elements throughout the genome. By aggregating individual repeat elements to the subfamily level, we found that samples with pancreatic cancer are enriched with specific Alu subfamilies, whereas other cancers have their own characteristic cell-free RNA profile. Our findings show that repetitive RNA sequences are abundant in blood and can be used as disease-specific diagnostic biomarkers.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41551-023-01081-7

    View details for PubMedID 37652985

    View details for PubMedCentralID 3684276

  • Mutant KRAS regulates transposable element RNA and innate immunity via KRAB zinc-finger genes. Cell reports Reggiardo, R. E., Maroli, S. V., Halasz, H., Ozen, M., Hrabeta-Robinson, E., Behera, A., Peddu, V., Carrillo, D., LaMontagne, E., Whitehead, L., Kim, E., Malik, S., Fernandes, J., Marinov, G., Collisson, E., Brooks, A., Demirci, U., Kim, D. H. 2022; 40 (3): 111104


    RAS genes are the most frequently mutated oncogenes in cancer, yet the effects of oncogenic RAS signaling on the noncoding transcriptome remain unclear. We analyzed the transcriptomes of human airway and bronchial epithelial cells transformed with mutant KRAS to define the landscape of KRAS-regulated noncoding RNAs. We find that oncogenic KRAS signaling upregulates noncoding transcripts throughout the genome, many of which arise from transposable elements (TEs). These TE RNAs exhibit differential expression, are preferentially released in extracellular vesicles, and are regulated by KRAB zinc-finger (KZNF) genes, which are broadly downregulated in mutant KRAS cells and lung adenocarcinomas invivo. Moreover, mutant KRAS induces an intrinsic IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) signature that is often seen across many different cancers. Our results indicate that mutant KRAS remodels the repetitive noncoding transcriptome, demonstrating the broad scope of intracellular and extracellular RNAs regulated by this oncogenic signaling pathway.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111104

    View details for PubMedID 35858545

  • LncRNA Biomarkers of Inflammation and Cancer. Advances in experimental medicine and biology Reggiardo, R. E., Maroli, S. V., Kim, D. H. 2022; 1363: 121-145


    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are promising candidates as biomarkers of inflammation and cancer. LncRNAs have several properties that make them well-suited as molecular markers of disease: (1) many lncRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner, (2) distinct lncRNAs are upregulated based on different inflammatory or oncogenic stimuli, (3) lncRNAs released from cells are packaged and protected in extracellular vesicles, and (4) circulating lncRNAs in the blood are detectable using various RNA sequencing approaches. Here we focus on the potential for lncRNA biomarkers to detect inflammation and cancer, highlighting key biological, technological, and analytical considerations that will help advance the development of lncRNA-based liquid biopsies.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-92034-0_7

    View details for PubMedID 35220568