Clinical Focus

  • Diagnostic Radiology

Academic Appointments

  • Clinical Assistant Professor, Radiology

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology (2019)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Body Imaging Fellowship (2018) CA
  • Residency: UCSD Radiology Residency (2018) CA
  • Internship: Newton-Wellesley Hospital Transitional Year (2014) MA
  • Medical Education: University of New Mexico School of Medicine (2013) NM
  • Fellowship, Stanford Unviersity, Body MRI (2019)
  • Residency, University of California San Diego, Diagnostic Radiology & Nuclear Medicine (2018)
  • MD, University of New Mexico, Medicine (2013)
  • PhD, University of New Mexico, Biomedical Sciences, Immunology (2013)
  • BS, University of California San Diego, Majors in Physics & Molecular Biology (2002)

All Publications

  • Convolutional neural network-automated hepatobiliary phase adequacy evaluation may optimize examination time. European journal of radiology Cunha, G. M., Hasenstab, K. A., Higaki, A., Wang, K., Delgado, T., Brunsing, R. L., Schlein, A., Schwartzman, A., Hsiao, A., Sirlin, C. B., Fowler, K. J. 2020; 124: 108837


    To develop and evaluate the performance of a fully-automated convolutional neural network (CNN)-based algorithm to evaluate hepatobiliary phase (HBP) adequacy of gadoxetate disodium (EOB)-enhanced MRI. Secondarily, we explored the potential of the proposed CNN algorithm to reduce examination length by applying it to EOB-MRI examinations.We retrospectively identified EOB-enhanced MRI-HBP series from examinations performed 2011-2018 (internal and external datasets). Our algorithm, comprising a liver segmentation and classification CNN, produces an adequacy score. Two abdominal radiologists independently classified series as adequate or suboptimal. The consensus determination of HBP adequacy was used as ground truth for CNN model training and validation. Reader agreement was evaluated with Cohen's kappa. Performance of the algorithm was assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and computation of the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Potential examination duration reduction was evaluated descriptively.1408 HBP series from 484 patients were included. Reader kappa agreement was 0.67 (internal dataset) and 0.80 (external dataset). AUCs were 0.97 (0.96-0.99) for internal and 0.95 (0.92-96) for external and were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.24). 48 % (50/105) examinations could have been shorter by applying the algorithm.A proposed CNN-based algorithm achieves higher than 95 % AUC for classifying HBP images as adequate versus suboptimal. The application of this algorithm could potentially shorten examination time and aid radiologists in recognizing technically suboptimal images, avoiding diagnostic pitfalls.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108837

    View details for PubMedID 31958630

  • Data-driven self-calibration and reconstruction for non-cartesian wave-encoded single-shot fast spin echo using deep learning. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI Chen, F., Cheng, J. Y., Taviani, V., Sheth, V. R., Brunsing, R. L., Pauly, J. M., Vasanawala, S. S. 2019


    Current self-calibration and reconstruction methods for wave-encoded single-shot fast spin echo imaging (SSFSE) requires long computational time, especially when high accuracy is needed.To develop and investigate the clinical feasibility of data-driven self-calibration and reconstruction of wave-encoded SSFSE imaging for computation time reduction and quality improvement.Prospective controlled clinical trial.With Institutional Review Board approval, the proposed method was assessed on 29 consecutive adult patients (18 males, 11 females, range, 24-77 years).A wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE sequence was developed for clinical 3.0T abdominal scans to enable 3.5× acceleration with full-Fourier acquisitions. Data-driven calibration of wave-encoding point-spread function (PSF) was developed using a trained deep neural network. Data-driven reconstruction was developed with another set of neural networks based on the calibrated wave-encoding PSF. Training of the calibration and reconstruction networks was performed on 15,783 2D wave-encoded SSFSE abdominal images.Image quality of the proposed data-driven approach was compared independently and blindly with a conventional approach using iterative self-calibration and reconstruction with parallel imaging and compressed sensing by three radiologists on a scale from -2 to 2 for noise, contrast, sharpness, artifacts, and confidence. Computation time of these two approaches was also compared.Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare image quality and two-tailed t-tests were used to compare computation time with P values of under 0.05 considered statistically significant.An average 2.1-fold speedup in computation was achieved using the proposed method. The proposed data-driven self-calibration and reconstruction approach significantly reduced the perceived noise level (mean scores 0.82, P < 0.0001).The proposed data-driven calibration and reconstruction achieved twice faster computation with reduced perceived noise, providing a fast and robust self-calibration and reconstruction for clinical abdominal SSFSE imaging.1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.26871

    View details for PubMedID 31322799

  • Deep residual network for off-resonance artifact correction with application to pediatric body MRA with 3D cones. Magnetic resonance in medicine Zeng, D. Y., Shaikh, J., Holmes, S., Brunsing, R. L., Pauly, J. M., Nishimura, D. G., Vasanawala, S. S., Cheng, J. Y. 2019


    To enable rapid imaging with a scan time-efficient 3D cones trajectory with a deep-learning off-resonance artifact correction technique.A residual convolutional neural network to correct off-resonance artifacts (Off-ResNet) was trained with a prospective study of pediatric MRA exams. Each exam acquired a short readout scan (1.18 ms ± 0.38) and a long readout scan (3.35 ms ± 0.74) at 3 T. Short readout scans, with longer scan times but negligible off-resonance blurring, were used as reference images and augmented with additional off-resonance for supervised training examples. Long readout scans, with greater off-resonance artifacts but shorter scan time, were corrected by autofocus and Off-ResNet and compared with short readout scans by normalized RMS error, structural similarity index, and peak SNR. Scans were also compared by scoring on 8 anatomical features by two radiologists, using analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey's test and two one-sided t-tests. Reader agreement was determined with intraclass correlation.The total scan time for long readout scans was on average 59.3% shorter than short readout scans. Images from Off-ResNet had superior normalized RMS error, structural similarity index, and peak SNR compared with uncorrected images across ±1 kHz off-resonance (P < .01). The proposed method had superior normalized RMS error over -677 Hz to +1 kHz and superior structural similarity index and peak SNR over ±1 kHz compared with autofocus (P < .01). Radiologic scoring demonstrated that long readout scans corrected with Off-ResNet were noninferior to short readout scans (P < .05).The proposed method can correct off-resonance artifacts from rapid long-readout 3D cones scans to a noninferior image quality compared with diagnostically standard short readout scans.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.27825

    View details for PubMedID 31115936

  • Fully automated convolutional neural network-based affine algorithm improves liver registration and lesion co-localization on hepatobiliary phase T1-weighted MR images. European radiology experimental Hasenstab, K. A., Cunha, G. M., Higaki, A., Ichikawa, S., Wang, K., Delgado, T., Brunsing, R. L., Schlein, A., Bittencourt, L. K., Schwartzman, A., Fowler, K. J., Hsiao, A., Sirlin, C. B. 2019; 3 (1): 43


    Liver alignment between series/exams is challenged by dynamic morphology or variability in patient positioning or motion. Image registration can improve image interpretation and lesion co-localization. We assessed the performance of a convolutional neural network algorithm to register cross-sectional liver imaging series and compared its performance to manual image registration.Three hundred fourteen patients, including internal and external datasets, who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for clinical care from 2011 to 2018, were retrospectively selected. Automated registration was applied to all 2,663 within-patient series pairs derived from these datasets. Additionally, 100 within-patient series pairs from the internal dataset were independently manually registered by expert readers. Liver overlap, image correlation, and intra-observation distances for manual versus automated registrations were compared using paired t tests. Influence of patient demographics, imaging characteristics, and liver uptake function was evaluated using univariate and multivariate mixed models.Compared to the manual, automated registration produced significantly lower intra-observation distance (p < 0.001) and higher liver overlap and image correlation (p < 0.001). Intra-exam automated registration achieved 0.88 mean liver overlap and 0.44 mean image correlation for the internal dataset and 0.91 and 0.41, respectively, for the external dataset. For inter-exam registration, mean overlap was 0.81 and image correlation 0.41. Older age, female sex, greater inter-series time interval, differing uptake, and greater voxel size differences independently reduced automated registration performance (p ≤ 0.020).A fully automated algorithm accurately registered the liver within and between examinations, yielding better liver and focal observation co-localization compared to manual registration.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s41747-019-0120-7

    View details for PubMedID 31655943