Current Role at Stanford

Research Epidemiologist for the Maldonado Lab

All Publications

  • Insurance Status, Comorbidity Diagnosis, and Hepatitis C Diagnosis Among Antibody-Positive Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Health services research and managerial epidemiology Goodman, S. H., Zahn, M., Boden-Albala, B., Lakon, C. M. 2023; 10: 23333928231175795


    In California, laboratories report all hepatitis C (HCV)-positive antibody tests to the state; however, that does not accurately reflect active infection among those patients without a viral load test confirming a patient's HCV diagnosis. These public health surveillance disease incident records do not include patient details such as comorbidities or insurance status found in electronic medical records (EMRs).This research seeks to understand how insurance type, insurance status, patient comorbidities, and other sociodemographic factors related to HCV diagnosis as defined by a positive viral load test among HCV antibody-positive persons from January 1, 2010 to March 1, 2020.HCV antibody-positive individuals reported to the California Reportable Disease Information Exchange (CalREDIE), with a medical record number associated with the University of California, Irvine Medical Center, and an unrestricted EMR (n = 521) were extracted using manual chart review.HCV diagnosis as indicated in a patient's EMR in the problem list or disease registry.Less than a quarter of patients in this sample were diagnosed as having HCV in their EMR, with 0.4% of those diagnosed (5/116) patients with indicated HCV treatment in the medication field of their charts. After adjusting for multiple comorbidities, a multinomial logistic regression found that the relative risk ratios (RRRs) of HCV diagnosis found that patients with insurance were more likely to be diagnosed compared to those without insurance. When comparing uninsured patients to those with government insurance at the P < .05 level (RRR = 10.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.14-27.22)) and those uninsured to private insurance (RRR = 6.79 (95% CI: 2.31-19.92).These low frequencies of HCV diagnosis among the study population, particularly among the uninsured, indicate a need for increased viral load testing and linkage to care. Reflex testing on existing samples and improving HCV screening and diagnosis can help increase linkage to care and work towards eliminating this disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/23333928231175795

    View details for PubMedID 37197291

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10184194

  • Measuring Hazards of Undetectable Viral Load among Hepatitis C Antibody Positive Residents of a Large Southern California County HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH AND MANAGERIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY Goodman, S., Zahn, M., Bruckner, T., Boden-Albala, B., Lakon, C. M. 2021; 8: 23333928211066181


    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common bloodborne infection in the U.S. However, only a small proportion of persons are treated and cured. Previous research has not characterized sociodemographic characteristics of who receives treatment. We examined predictors of undetectable for HCV in Orange County, the sixth largest county in the United States, where HCV is the most commonly reported infection.From 2014 to 2020, we acquired public health surveillance data from 91,165 HCV antibody-positive care encounters from the California Reportable Disease Information Exchange (CalREDIE). We used a time-to-event proportional hazards framework to estimate individual and area-level correlates of time-to-HCV undetectable viral load among HCV + individuals.Older adults (>65 years) showed an increased hazard of undetectable viral load relative to younger adults (HR = 2.00). In addition, residents of census tracts with greater enrollment in health insurance showed a greater likelihood of undetectable viral load (HR = 1.36). The moderating effect of higher tract median household income and higher tract levels of health insurance were more likely to have undetectable viral load and was statistically significant.In a large urban county, HCV antibody-positive older adults appear much more likely to show undetectable viral load compared to younger adults. Residents in areas with higher quartiles of health insurance enrollment have an increased likelihood of undetectable viral load. The extent to which constraints impede HCV care requires further investigation, including follow-up studies on health insurance type to test the relationship of health insurance type to undetectable viral load.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/23333928211066181

    View details for Web of Science ID 000730672100001

    View details for PubMedID 34926722

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8671667

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men: results of the first integrated biological and behavioral survey in Burkina Faso, West Africa BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Ouedraogo, H., Ky-Zerbo, O., Grosso, A., Goodman, S., Samadoulougou, B., Tarnagda, G., Baguiya, A., Tiendrebeogo, S., Lougue, M., Sawadogo, N., Traore, Y., Barro, N., Baral, S., Kouanda, S. 2019; 19: 5


    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) are at significant risk for HIV infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among MSM in Burkina Faso.A cross-sectional biological and behavioral survey was conducted from January to August 2013 among MSM in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. MSM 18 years old and above were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS). A survey was administered to study participants followed by HIV testing. Population prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for the RDS design were produced using the RDS Analysis Tool version 6.0.1 (RDS, Inc., Ithaca, NY).A total of 662 MSM were enrolled in Ouagadougou (n = 333) and Bobo-Dioulasso (n = 329). The majority were unmarried, with an average age of 22.1 ± 4.4 years old in Ouagadougou and 23.1 ± 4.7 years old in Bobo-Dioulasso. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 1.7% (95% CI: 0.9-3.1) in Ouagadougou and 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.6) in Bobo-Dioulasso. HIV prevalence among MSM under 25 years old was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.6-2.8) and 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-2.5) respectively in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, compared to 5.4% (95% CI: 2.2-12.5) and 6.6% (95% CI: 3.4-12.3) among those 25 years old or older in these cities (p = 0.010 and p < 0.001).Results from this first biological and behavioral survey among MSM in Burkina Faso suggest a need for programs to raise awareness among MSM and promote safer sex, particularly for young MSM to prevent HIV transmission. These programs would need support from donors for innovative actions such as promoting and providing pre-exposure prophylaxis, condoms and water-based lubricants, HIV counseling, testing, early treatment initiation and effective involvement of the MSM communities.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-018-6361-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000454916500013

    View details for PubMedID 30606172

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6318977

  • Hepatitis B, C and Delta Viruses’ Infections and Correlate Factors Among Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso, West-Africa Open Virology Journal Ouedraogo, H. G., Kouanda, S., Goodman, S. H., Biènou. Lanou, H., Ky-Zerbo, O., Samadoulougou, B. C., Dabire, C., Camara, M., Traore, Y., Baral, S., Barro, N. 2019; 13: 16
  • HIV among Female Sex Workers in Five Cities in Burkina Faso: A Cross-Sectional Baseline Survey to Inform HIV/AIDS Programs AIDS RESEARCH AND TREATMENT Ouedraogo, H., Ky-Zerbo, O., Baguiya, A., Grosso, A., Goodman, S., Samadoulougou, B., Lougue, M., Sawadogo, N., Traore, Y., Barro, N., Baral, S., Kouanda, S. 2017; 2017: 9580548


    Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a vulnerable population for HIV infection and a priority for HIV/AIDS response programs. This study aimed to determine HIV prevalence among FSWs in five cities in Burkina Faso.FSWs aged 18 and older were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS) in five cities (Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Koudougou, Ouahigouya, and Tenkodogo) in Burkina Faso from 2013 to 2014. HIV testing was performed using the HIV testing national algorithm. We conducted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess correlates of HIV in all cities combined (not RDS-adjusted).Among Ouagadougou, Koudougou, and Ouahigouya FSWs, RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 13.5% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 9.6-18.7), 13.3% (95% CI: 7.6-22.4), and 13.0% (95% CI: 7.6-21.3), respectively, compared to 30.1% (95% CI: 25.5-35.1) among Bobo-Dioulasso FSWs. Factors associated with HIV infection were age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.84 95% CI: 3.78-16.20), being married or cohabitating (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.31-4.49), and history of pregnancy (aOR = 5.24, 95% CI: 1.44-18.97).These results highlight the need to strengthen HIV prevention among FSWs, through behavior change strategies, and improve access to sexual and reproductive health services.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2017/9580548

    View details for Web of Science ID 000415657600001

    View details for PubMedID 29270318

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5705869

  • Examining the Correlates of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Goodman, S. H., Grosso, A. L., Ketende, S. C., Ouedraogo, G. H., Kouanda, S., Ky-Zerbo, O., Samadoulougou, C., Baral, S. 2016; 43 (5): 302-309


    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a population at risk for HIV acquisition and transmission and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of HIV among MSM is higher than that of other reproductive-aged adults. Early and frequent STI testing and treatment can help prevent HIV acquisition and transmission and may improve linkage to care.A cross-sectional study used respondent-driven sampling of MSM in the urban centers of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, to complete a questionnaire and HIV and syphilis testing. The binary-dependent variable in these analyses was self-reported prior STI testing in the past 12 months. Independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and psychosocial factors, selected according to the modified social ecological model. Bivariate associations at the P<0.05 level were used to create a manual forward stepwise multivariable logistic regression.Seventy-six percent of participants (511/672) did not test for STIs in the last 12 months. Testing for STIs was associated with STI symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 2.56; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39-4.76) and independently associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.01-2.20) and discussing HIV and STIs with main male partners (adjusted OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.23-1.76).These data suggest that periodic targeted STI screening for MSM in Burkina Faso may represent an important component of comprehensive HIV prevention programming. The relationship between depression and STI risks is well established, and these data further indicate that screening for depression may be warranted during these clinical encounters.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000437

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375071900007

    View details for PubMedID 27100767