Bio


Scott Rozelle is the Helen F. Farnsworth Senior Fellow and the co-director of the Rural Education Action Program in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. He received his BS from the University of California, Berkeley, and his MS and PhD from Cornell University. Previously, Rozelle was a professor at the University of California, Davis and an assistant professor in Stanford’s Food Research Institute and department of economics. He currently is a member of several organizations, including the American Economics Association, the International Association for Agricultural Economists, and the Association for Asian Studies. Rozelle also serves on the editorial boards of Economic Development and Cultural Change, Agricultural Economics, the Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, and the China Economic Review.

His research focuses almost exclusively on China and is concerned with: agricultural policy, including the supply, demand, and trade in agricultural projects; the emergence and evolution of markets and other economic institutions in the transition process and their implications for equity and efficiency; and the economics of poverty and inequality, with an emphasis on rural education, health and nutrition.

Rozelle's papers have been published in top academic journals, including Science, Nature, American Economic Review, and the Journal of Economic Literature. He is fluent in Chinese and has established a research program in which he has close working ties with several Chinese collaborators and policymakers. He is the chair of the International Advisory Board of the Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy; a co-director of the University of California's Agricultural Issues Center; and a member of Stanford's Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center and Food, Security, and the Environment Program.

In recognition of his outstanding achievements, Rozelle has received numerous honors and awards, including the Friendship Award in 2008, the highest award given to a non-Chinese by the Premier; and the National Science and Technology Collaboration Award in 2009 for scientific achievement in collaborative research.

Academic Appointments


Program Affiliations


  • Center for East Asian Studies

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Themes related to China, especially agricultural policy, the emergence and evolution of markets and other economic institutions, and the economics of poverty and inequality.

Projects


  • Perfecting Parenting, Stanford University / Rural Education Action Program (11/1/2014 - Present)

    The overall goal of our proposed work is to better understand parenting practices in rural China. We hope to learn about the impact on child development from an intervention designed to increase parent-child interactions.

    Location

    Shaanxi, China

  • Standardized Parents, Stanford University / Rural Education Action Program

    Our goal in conducting this study is to provide policymakers with objective evidence on the quality of healthcare delivered in rural areas of Northwest China. We will also compare the quality of care delivered at different tiers of the health system and assess what factors are correlated with better care.

    Location

    China

  • Intestinal Worms, Stanford University / Rural Education Action Program

    The overall goal of our project is to assess the relationship between worm prevalence and indicators of rural Chinese children’s health, academic performance, and raw cognitive function. Those indicators include anemia, performance on a standardized math exam, and performance on an internationally-scaled test of executive function* (working memory and processing speed).

    Location

    Guizhou, China

  • Baby Nutrition, Stanford University / Rural Education Action Program

    The overall goal of our proposed work is to identify simple and sustainable ways of improving infant nutrition in rural China. Our project will create an infrastructure through which caregivers and local health care clinics can provide ongoing education and nutritional supplements to reduce and prevent anemia in their communities. Finally, we will present the project’s feasibility and results to key policymakers capable of funding and promoting the most effective solutions.

    Location

    Shaanxi, China

  • Seeing is Learning, Stanford University / Rural Education Action Program

    Tens of millions of children in rural and migrant areas of China that have uncorrected vision, and the condition is having a serious impact on their education. Following three years of research and five randomized controlled trials studying this issue, we are now working with local governments in rural China to incorporate vision care into the healthcare agenda.

    Location

    Gansu, China

  • Assessing and Credentialing Vocational High Schools, Stanford University / Rural Education Action Program

    Is China building a new professional class or spending billions on teen daycare? The government has invested heavily in making vocational school a viable alternative to academic high school. However, many vocational schools fail to provide fair, safe, or human capital-enhancing experiences. REAP is testing a system that holds schools accountable to clear quality standards and provides students and their families with the information they need to make informed schooling choices.

    Location

    China

  • Teacher Performance Pay, Stanford University / Rural Education Action Program

    The overall goal of this project is to provide guidance for policymakers on how teacher performance pay should be designed to most effectively improve student achievement.

    Location

    China

  • Computer-Assisted Learning, Stanford University / Rural Education Action Program

    Previously, we conducted five large-scale trials to evaluate Computer Assisted Learning (CAL), a computer program designed to teach remedial math and Chinese. The results of the trials have shown that CAL boosts students’ academic performance and confidence. In order to see whether CAL can be scaled-up throughout the country, we need to know whether prefectural education bureaus are capable of managing CAL programs.

    Location

    Qinghai, China

2018-19 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Effect of Caregiver's Mental Health on Early Childhood Development across Different Rural Communities in China. International journal of environmental research and public health Zhang, S., Dang, R., Yang, N., Bai, Y., Wang, L., Abbey, C., Rozelle, S. 2018; 15 (11)

    Abstract

    Previous research has found that there are high rates of developmental delays among infants and toddlers in rural areas of China. Caregiver mental health problems might be one significant predictor of developmental delays among infants and toddlers, as has been found in other areas of the world. One way that the mental health of caregivers could affect early childhood development is through its effect on parenting practices. In this study, we used data from four major subpopulations of rural China to measure the correlation of caregiver mental health problems with the developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers. To do so, the study used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID III) to examine the rates of developmental delays among 2514 rural infants/toddlers aged 6⁻30 months old. The results of the testing demonstrate that 48% of the sample's infants/toddlers have cognitive delays; 52% have language delays; 53% have social-emotional delays; and 30% have motor delays. The data collection team also assessed caregiver mental health by using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) questionnaire. According to the findings, 39% of caregivers in the sample have symptoms of at least one kind of mental health problem (depression, anxiety, or stress). We also found that most caregivers do not engage in positive parenting practices, while a significant share of caregivers engage in negative parenting practices. The statistical analysis found that showing signs of mental health problems is significantly and negatively associated with infant/toddler developmental outcomes. The study also found that caregivers who show signs of mental health problems are significantly less likely to engage in interactive parenting practices. The study confirms that society needs to pay more attention to caregiver mental health problems in order to improve infant/toddler developmental outcomes in rural China and increase human capital accumulation in China as a whole.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph15112341

    View details for PubMedID 30360569

  • Anxiety in Rural Chinese Children and Adolescents: Comparisons across Provinces and among Subgroups INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH Liu, H., Shi, Y., Auden, E., Rozelle, S. 2018; 15 (10)

    Abstract

    China's competitive education system has produced notably high learning outcomes, but they may be costly. One potential cost is high levels of anxiety. China has launched several initiatives aimed at improving student mental health. However, little is known about how effective these programs and policies are. The goal of this paper was to examine anxiety levels among children and adolescents in rural China, and to identify which subpopulations were particularly vulnerable to anxiety. Data were aggregated from 10 different school-level surveys conducted in rural areas of five provinces between 2008 and 2015. In total, 50,361 students were evaluated using the 100-item, nine-subcategory Mental Health Test (a variation of the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale). Seven percent of students were at risk for overall anxiety. However, over half of students were at risk for at least one subcategory of anxiety. Students at higher risk for anxiety included students from poorer counties and families, female students, secondary school students, and students with lower levels of academic performance. Many students in rural China are at risk for anxiety, and certain student subpopulations are particularly vulnerable. We suggest that China's government review and update student mental health programs and policies.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph15102087

    View details for Web of Science ID 000448818100029

    View details for PubMedID 30248994

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6210330

  • Do Infant Feeding Practices Differ Between Grandmothers and Mothers in Rural China? Evidence From Rural Shaanxi Province. Family & community health Yue, A., Zhang, N., Liu, X., Tang, L., Luo, R., Yang, M., Rozelle, S., Medina, A. 2018; 41 (4): 233–43

    Abstract

    The overall goal of this study is to examine whether infant feeding practices differ between mothers and grandmothers in rural China. We randomly sampled 1383 caregivers of infants aged 18 to 30 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally designated poverty counties in rural areas. Results show that a high fraction of caregivers of 18- to 30-month-old children living in low-income areas of rural China do not regularly engage in positive infant feeding practices. Only 30% of children in our sample achieved adequate dietary diversity. Only 49% of children in our sample were fed meat in the day prior to survey administration. Few caregivers reported giving any vitamin supplements (such as calcium or iron supplements) to their children. We find that 33% of the children were cared for by grandmothers rather than mothers, and that grandmothers feed a less diversified diet to children than do mothers. Most (84%) caregivers rely solely on their own experiences, friends, and family members in shaping their feeding behaviors. Overall infant feeding practices are poor in rural China. Grandmothers engage in poorer feeding practices than do mothers. Grandmothers have improved their feeding practices compared to when their own children were young. Our results suggest shortcomings in the quality of infant feeding practices, at least in part due to an absence of reliable information sources.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/FCH.0000000000000198

    View details for PubMedID 30134338

  • Anemia and student's educational performance in rural Central China: Prevalence, correlates and impacts Li, L., Huang, L., Shi, Y., Luo, R., Yang, M., Rozelle, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: 283–93
  • Is Infant/Toddler Anemia a Problem across Rural China? A Mixed-Methods Analysis INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH Wang, L., Sun, Y., Liu, B., Zheng, L., Li, M., Bai, Y., Osborn, A., Lee, M., Rozelle, S. 2018; 15 (9)

    Abstract

    In the past, iron-deficiency anemia in children has had a widespread presence in rural China. Given the recent economic growth in China, it is unclear if anemia among infants/toddlers remains a problem. The objective of this study is to measure the anemia rate in rural Chinese infants/toddlers across four major subpopulations and attempt to discover the sources of anemia. We use a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative data on 2909 rural Chinese infants/toddlers and their families with qualitative interviews with 84 caregivers of infants aged 6 to 30 months. Quantitative analysis indicates that the overall prevalence of anemia (43%) within sampled infants/toddlers was high, especially in comparison to the low rates of stunting (2⁻5%), being underweight (2%), and wasting (2⁻4%). These findings suggest that in rural China, anemia stems from the poor quality of the diets of infants/toddlers, rather than insufficient quantities of food being consumed. Qualitative analysis illustrates the factors that are contributing to anemia. Caregivers do not understand the causes of this condition, the symptoms that would lead one to recognize this condition, or the steps needed to treat their child with this condition. The findings offer a comprehensive understanding of the limited awareness of anemia among rural Chinese caregivers.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph15091825

    View details for Web of Science ID 000445765600034

    View details for PubMedID 30142959

  • Effect of a Local Vision Care Center on Eyeglasses Use and School Performance in Rural China A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA OPHTHALMOLOGY Ma, Y., Congdon, N., Shi, Y., Hogg, R., Medina, A., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S., Iyer, M. 2018; 136 (7): 731–37

    Abstract

    Visual impairment is common among children in rural China, but fewer than one-third of children with poor vision own and wear eyeglasses.To study the effect of hospital-based vision centers on academic performance, ownership of eyeglasses, and eyeglasses-wearing behavior in rural Chinese children.Cluster randomized, investigator-masked, clinical trial from September 2014 through June 2015. A vision center capable of providing refractive services was established in the Hospital of Yongshou County, a nationally designated poor county in rural Shaanxi Province, western China. All 31 rural primary schools in Yongshou County participated; participants were all children in grades 4 through 6 (aged approximately 10-12 years) with uncorrected visual acuity of Snellen 6/12 or worse in either eye (2613 children). Data analysis was conducted March through May 2016, and data were analyzed by the intention-to-treat principle.After teacher-led vision screening early in the school year (September-October 2014), schools were randomly assigned to either early referral (December 2014-February 2015) to the vision center for refraction and free eyeglasses if needed or late referral (March-June 2015) for the identical intervention.The primary outcome was score on a study-administered mathematics test (June 2015) adjusted for baseline score. Secondary outcomes were self-reported eyeglasses ownership and wear at final examination (June 2015).All 2613 children evaluated were of Han Chinese race/ethnicity, and 1209 (46.3%) were female. Twelve hundred children (45.9%) met the vision criteria. Among these, 543 (45.3%) were randomized to early screening and 657 (54.7%) to late screening; 433 (79.7%) of the early screening group and 516 (78.5%) of the late screening group completed the study. Of eligible children, 120 (27.7%) owned eyeglasses at baseline. The adjusted effect on test scores comparing early and late groups was 0.25 SD (95% CI, 0.01-0.48; 1-sided P = .04), with the point estimate equivalent to half a semester of additional learning. At the end of the study, 347 of the 433 participants in the early group (80%) reported owning eyeglasses and 326 (75%) reported wearing eyeglasses; among the 516 participants in the late group, 371 (61%) reported owning and 286 (55%) reported wearing eyeglasses.In this study, early provision of free eyeglasses was seen to improve children's academic performance and wearing of spectacles. These findings suggest that a county hospital-based vision center may be an effective way to improve children's educational opportunities in rural China.isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN03252665.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.1329

    View details for Web of Science ID 000438554300007

    View details for PubMedID 29801081

  • Human Capital and the Middle Income Trap: How Many of China's Youth are Going to High School? DEVELOPING ECONOMIES Wang, L., Li, M., Abbey, C., Rozelle, S. 2018; 56 (2): 82–103

    View details for DOI 10.1111/deve.12165

    View details for Web of Science ID 000433595300003

  • Revisiting the Role of Human Capital in Development: Discussion DEVELOPING ECONOMIES Fuwa, N., Kudo, Y., Otsuka, K., Thisse, J., Rozelle, S. 2018; 56 (2): 140–44

    View details for DOI 10.1111/deve.12168

    View details for Web of Science ID 000433595300006

  • Parental Migration and Left-Behind Children's Depressive Symptoms: Estimation Based on a Nationally-Representative Panel Dataset INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH Zhou, M., Sun, X., Huang, L., Zhang, G., Kenny, K., Xue, H., Auden, E., Rozelle, S. 2018; 15 (6)

    Abstract

    China's rapid urbanization in the past several decades have been accompanied by rural labor migration. An important question that has emerged is whether rural labor migration has a positive or negative impact on the depressive symptoms of children left behind in the countryside by their migrating parents. This paper uses a nationally representative panel dataset to investigate whether parental migration impacts the prevalence of depressive symptoms among left-behind children in China. Using DID and PSM-DID methods, our results show that parental migration significantly increases the depression scores of 10 and 11-year-old children by 2 points using the CES-D depression scale. Furthermore, we also find that the negative effect of decreased parental care is stronger than the positive effect of increased income in terms of determining the depressive symptoms status of children in rural China.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph15061069

    View details for Web of Science ID 000436496900020

    View details for PubMedID 29795049

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6025488

  • Health Seeking Behavior among Rural Left-Behind Children: Evidence from Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces in China INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH Guan, H., Wang, H., Huang, J., Du, K., Zhao, J., Boswell, M., Shi, Y., Iyer, M., Rozelle, S. 2018; 15 (5)

    Abstract

    More than 60 million children in rural China are “left-behind”—both parents live and work far from their rural homes and leave their children behind. This paper explores differences in how left-behind and non-left-behind children seek health remediation in China’s vast but understudied rural areas. This study examines this question in the context of a program to provide vision health care to myopic rural students. The data come from a randomized controlled trial of 13,100 students in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces in China. The results show that without a subsidy, uptake of health care services is low, even if individuals are provided with evidence of a potential problem (an eyeglasses prescription). Uptake rises two to three times when this information is paired with a subsidy voucher redeemable for a free pair of prescription eyeglasses. In fact, left-behind children who receive an eyeglasses voucher are not only more likely to redeem it, but also more likely to use the eyeglasses both in the short term and long term. In other words, in terms of uptake of care and compliance with treatment, the voucher program benefitted left-behind students more than non-left-behind students. The results provide a scientific understanding of differential impacts for guiding effective implementation of health policy to all groups in need in developing countries.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph15050883

    View details for Web of Science ID 000435197300051

    View details for PubMedID 29710797

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5981922

  • Depressive Symptoms of Chinese Children: Prevalence and Correlated Factors among Subgroups INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH Zhou, M., Zhang, G., Rozelle, S., Kenny, K., Xue, H. 2018; 15 (2)

    Abstract

    Economic growth and socioeconomic changes have transformed nearly every aspect of childhood in China, and many are worried by the increasing prevalence of mental health issues among children, particularly depression. To provide insight into the distribution of depressive symptoms among children in China and identify vulnerable groups, we use data from the 2012 China Family Panel Survey (CFPS), a survey that collected data from a large, nationally representative sample of the Chinese population. Using the CFPS data, we construct a sample of 2679 children aged 10-15 years old from 25 provinces in China. According to our results, the incidence of depression varies by geographic area. Specifically, we find that rates of depressive symptoms are significantly lower in urban areas (14% of sample children) than in rural areas (23% of sample children). Our results also show that children from ethnic minorities, from poorer families, and whose parents are depressed are more likely to be depressed than other children. In contrast, we find that depressive symptoms do not vary by gender.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph15020283

    View details for Web of Science ID 000426721400108

    View details for PubMedID 29414881

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5858352

  • Using daily text messages to improve adherence to infant micronutrient powder (MNP) packets in rural western China: A cluster-randomized controlled trial PLOS ONE Wang, X., Luo, R., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Yue, A., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2018; 13 (1): e0191549

    Abstract

    To evaluate the effectiveness of daily text messages as a means to improve caregivers' adherence to infant micronutrient powder (MNP) in rural Shaanxi Province of China.638 infants aged 6-11 months in 234 villages were involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). All caregivers were given free infant MNP packets at baseline in April 2013 and the follow-up survey was in July 2013. We randomly assigned 318 infants in 117 villages to treatment group (receiving daily text message) and 320 infants in the other 117 villages as control group.On average, daily text messages increased the number of MNP packets fed (marginal effect = 4.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16, 9.10). The text message is more likely to increase the consumption of MNP packets if the primary caregiver was the mother (marginal effect = 12.19; 95% CI = 0.69, 23.68). Receiving the text message appears to significantly increase the likelihood of full adherence when the primary caregiver can either check (odds ratio = 2.93; 95% CI = 1.34, 6.40) or knows how to send (odds ratio = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.53, 6.97) text messages.Daily text messages improved the consumption of infant MNP packets. However, the impact was not large enough to increase the probability of caregivers being fully adherent to the feeding instruction, which is to feed 5-7 packets per week as recommended. In addition, when the mother is the caregiver and when the caregiver can check or knows how to send text messages there is greater adherence by the primary caregivers.http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN44149146.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0191549

    View details for Web of Science ID 000422911300112

    View details for PubMedID 29352304

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5774801

  • Ethnicity and MCH outcomes: widening gaps across time and space LANCET GLOBAL HEALTH Wang, L., Rozelle, S. 2018; 6 (1): E2–E3
  • Prevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in school-aged children: A school based study in western Sichuan, People's Republic of China. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Openshaw, J. J., Medina, A., Felt, S. A., Li, T., Huan, Z., Rozelle, S., Luby, S. P. 2018; 12 (5): e0006465

    Abstract

    Taenia solium cysticercosis affects millions of impoverished people worldwide and can cause neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system which is potentially fatal. Children may represent an especially vulnerable population to neurocysticercosis, due to the risk of cognitive impairment during formative school years. While previous epidemiologic studies have suggested high prevalence in rural China, the prevalence in children as well as risk factors and impact of disease in low-resource areas remain poorly characterized.Utilizing school based sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study, administering a questionnaire and collecting blood for T. solium cysticercosis antibodies in 2867 fifth and sixth grade students across 27 schools in west Sichuan. We used mixed-effects logistic regression models controlling for school-level clustering to study associations between risk factors and to characterize factors influencing the administration of deworming medication. Overall prevalence of cysticercosis antibodies was 6%, but prevalence was significantly higher in three schools which all had prevalences of 15% or higher. Students from households owning pigs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% CI 1.08-3.03), from households reporting feeding their pigs human feces (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03-2.16), and self-reporting worms in their feces (adjusted OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.18-2.91) were more likely to have cysticercosis IgG antibodies. Students attending high prevalence schools were more likely to come from households allowing pigs to freely forage for food (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.72-2.98) and lacking a toilet (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.46). Children who were boarding at school were less likely to have received treatment for gastrointestinal worms (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.80).Our study indicates high prevalences of cysticercosis antibodies in young school aged children in rural China. While further studies to assess potential for school-based transmission are needed, school-based disease control may be an important intervention to ensure the health of vulnerable pediatric populations in T. solium endemic areas.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006465

    View details for PubMedID 29738570

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5959190

  • Rural education across China's 40 years of reform: past successes and future challenges CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Yue, A., Tang, B., Shi, Y., Tang, J., Shang, G., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2018; 10 (1): 93–118
  • The relationship between birth season and early childhood development: Evidence from northwest rural China. PloS one Bai, Y., Shang, G., Wang, L., Sun, Y., Osborn, A., Rozelle, S. 2018; 13 (10): e0205281

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation between birth season and early childhood development.BACKGROUND: Almost all previous studies that examine the effect of birth season on early childhood development were conducted in developed countries with a limited sample size. The present study was conducted in poor, rural areas of western China, a developing region with a continental monsoon climate.METHOD: We administered a hemoglobin test to 650 infants (52% boys), aged 8-10 months, using a Hemocue Hb 201+ finger prick system, and assessed the cognitive and psychomotor development of sample infants using Bayley Scales of Infant Development.RESULTS: Infants born in winter have higher Hb concentrations (t = 3.63, p < 0.001) compared to infants born in summer. Similarly, cognitive development scores (t = 5.17, p < 0.001) and psychomotor development scores (t = 10.60, p < 0.001) were significantly higher among winter-born infants.CONCLUSION: The findings point to the involvement of birth season in early childhood development and suggest that aspects of the environment shape the experiences that contribute to early childhood development. Policy suggestions such as providing infants with ample opportunities for movement and stimulation during the cold season are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0205281

    View details for PubMedID 30307998

  • Ability tracking and social trust in China's rural secondary school system SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT Li, F., Loyalka, P., Yi, H., Shi, Y., Johnson, N., Rozelle, S. 2018; 29 (4): 545–72
  • Effect of Parental Migration on the Academic Performance of Left Behind Children in North Western China JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Bai, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Shi, Y., Mo, D., Rozelle, S. 2018; 54 (7): 1154–70
  • Migration, Schooling Choice, and Student Outcomes in China POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW Wang, X., Bai, Y., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2017; 43 (4): 625-+

    View details for DOI 10.1111/padr.12101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000418096800002

  • Tuberculosis detection and the cost of integrated care in rural China: a cross-sectional standardised patient study Sylvia, S., Xue, H., Zhou, C., Shi, Y., Yi, H., Zhou, H., Rozelle, S., Pai, M., Das, J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: S60
  • High prevalence of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Tibetan schoolchildren in western Sichuan, China: a cross-sectional study Li, T., Openshaw, J. J., Chen, X., Medina, A. C., Felt, S. A., Zhou, H., Rozelle, S. D., Luby, S. P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: S89
  • The quality of primary care and correlates among grassroots providers in rural China: a cross-sectional standardised patient study Shi, Y., Yi, H., Zhou, H., Zhou, C., Xue, H., Rozelle, S., Medina, A., Sylvia, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: S16
  • Cluster-randomized controlled trial of the effects of free glasses on purchase of children's glasses in China: The PRICE (Potentiating Rural Investment in Children's Eyecare) study PLOS ONE Wang, X., Congdon, N., Ma, Y., Hu, M., Zhou, Y., Liao, W., Jin, L., Xiao, B., Wu, X., Ni, M., Yi, H., Huang, Y., Varga, B., Zhang, H., Cun, Y., Li, X., Yang, L., Liang, C., Huang, W., Rozelle, S., Ma, X. 2017; 12 (11): e0187808

    Abstract

    Offering free glasses can be important to increase children's wear. We sought to assess whether "Upgrade glasses" could avoid reduced glasses sales when offering free glasses to children in China.In this cluster-randomized, controlled trial, children with uncorrected visual acuity (VA)< = 6/12 in either eye correctable to >6/12 in both eyes at 138 randomly-selected primary schools in 9 counties in Guangdong and Yunnan provinces, China, were randomized by school to one of four groups: glasses prescription only (Control); Free Glasses; Free Glasses + offer of $15 Upgrade Glasses; Free Glasses + offer of $30 Upgrade Glasses. Spectacle purchase (main outcome) was assessed 6 months after randomization.Among 10,234 children screened, 882 (8.62%, mean age 10.6 years, 45.5% boys) were eligible and randomized: 257 (29.1%) at 37 schools to Control; 253 (28.7%) at 32 schools to Free Glasses; 187 (21.2%) at 31 schools to Free Glasses + $15 Upgrade; and 185 (21.0%) at 27 schools to Free Glasses +$30 Upgrade. Baseline ownership among these children needing glasses was 11.8% (104/882), and 867 (98.3%) children completed follow-up. Glasses purchase was significantly less likely when free glasses were given: Control: 59/250 = 23.6%; Free glasses: 32/252 = 12.7%, P = 0.010. Offering Upgrade Glasses eliminated this difference: Free + $15 Upgrade: 39/183 = 21.3%, multiple regression relative risk (RR) 0.90 (0.56-1.43), P = 0.65; Free + $30 Upgrade: 38/182 = 20.9%, RR 0.91 (0.59, 1.42), P = 0.69.Upgrade glasses can prevent reductions in glasses purchase when free spectacles are provided, providing important program income.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02231606. Registered on 31 August 2014.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0187808

    View details for Web of Science ID 000415987000020

    View details for PubMedID 29161286

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5697864

  • Tuberculosis detection and the challenges of integrated care in rural China: A cross-sectional standardized patient study PLOS MEDICINE Sylvia, S., Xue, H., Zhou, C., Shi, Y., Yi, H., Zhou, H., Rozelle, S., Pai, M., Das, J. 2017; 14 (10): e1002405

    Abstract

    Despite recent reductions in prevalence, China still faces a substantial tuberculosis (TB) burden, with future progress dependent on the ability of rural providers to appropriately detect and refer TB patients for further care. This study (a) provides a baseline assessment of the ability of rural providers to correctly manage presumptive TB cases; (b) measures the gap between provider knowledge and practice and; (c) evaluates how ongoing reforms of China's health system-characterized by a movement toward "integrated care" and promotion of initial contact with grassroots providers-will affect the care of TB patients.Unannounced standardized patients (SPs) presenting with classic pulmonary TB symptoms were deployed in 3 provinces of China in July 2015. The SPs successfully completed 274 interactions across all 3 tiers of China's rural health system, interacting with providers in 46 village clinics, 207 township health centers, and 21 county hospitals. Interactions between providers and standardized patients were assessed against international and national standards of TB care. Using a lenient definition of correct management as at least a referral, chest X-ray or sputum test, 41% (111 of 274) SPs were correctly managed. Although there were no cases of empirical anti-TB treatment, antibiotics unrelated to the treatment of TB were prescribed in 168 of 274 interactions or 61.3% (95% CI: 55%-67%). Correct management proportions significantly higher at county hospitals compared to township health centers (OR 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.25, p < 0.001) and village clinics (OR 0.02, 95% CI: 0.0-0.17, p < 0.001). Correct management in tests of knowledge administered to the same 274 physicians for the same case was 45 percentage points (95% CI: 37%-53%) higher with 24 percentage points (95% CI: -33% to -15%) fewer antibiotic prescriptions. Relative to the current system, where patients can choose to bypass any level of care, simulations suggest that a system of managed referral with gatekeeping at the level of village clinics would reduce proportions of correct management from 41% to 16%, while gatekeeping at the level of the township hospital would retain correct management close to current levels at 37%. The main limitations of the study are 2-fold. First, we evaluate the management of a one-time new patient presenting with presumptive TB, which may not reflect how providers manage repeat patients or more complicated TB presentations. Second, simulations under alternate policies require behavioral and statistical assumptions that should be addressed in future applications of this method.There were significant quality deficits among village clinics and township health centers in the management of a classic case of presumptive TB, with higher proportions of correct case management in county hospitals. Poor clinical performance does not arise only from a lack of knowledge, a phenomenon known as the "know-do" gap. Given significant deficits in quality of care, reforms encouraging first contact with lower tiers of the health system can improve efficiency only with concomitant improvements in appropriate management of presumptive TB patients in village clinics and township health centers.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002405

    View details for Web of Science ID 000414064100010

    View details for PubMedID 29040263

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5644979

  • The effect of a micronutrient powder home fortification program on anemia and cognitive outcomes among young children in rural China: a cluster randomized trial BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Luo, R., Yue, A., Zhou, H., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Martorell, R., Medina, A., Rozelle, S., Sylvia, S. 2017; 17: 738

    Abstract

    Anemia early in life has been associated with delayed cognitive and motor development. The WHO recommends home fortification using multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs) containing iron as a strategy to address anemia in children under two. We evaluated the effects of a program freely distributing MNP sachets to caregivers of infants in rural China.We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Shaanxi province, enrolling all children aged 6-11 months in target villages. Following a baseline survey, investigators randomly assigned each village/cluster to a control or treatment group. In the treatment group, caregivers were instructed to give MNPs daily. Follow-up was after 6, 12, and 18 months of intervention. Primary outcomes were hemoglobin concentrations and scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.One thousand, eight hundred and-two eligible children and their caregivers were enrolled. At baseline 48% (870) of children were anemic and 29% (529) were developmentally delayed. Six hundred and-ten children (117 villages) were assigned to the control group and 1192 children (234 villages) were assigned to the treatment group. Assignment to the treatment group was associated with an improvement in hemoglobin levels (marginal effect 1.77 g/L, 95% CI 0.017-3.520, p-value = 0.048) and cognitive development (marginal effect 2.23 points, 95% CI 0.061-4.399, p-value = 0.044) after 6 months but not thereafter. There were no significant effects on motor development. Zero effects after the first 6 months were not due to low compliance, low statistical power, or changes in feeding behavior. Hemoglobin concentrations improved in both the treatment and control groups over the course of the study; however, 22% (325) of children remained anemic at endline, and 48% (721) were cognitively delayed.Providing caregivers with MNP sachets modestly hastened improvement in hemoglobin levels that was occurring absent intervention; however, this improvement did not translate into improved developmental outcomes at endline.ISRCTN44149146 ; prospectively registered on 15th April 2013.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4755-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000412110200002

    View details for PubMedID 28946866

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5613507

  • The Impact of an Academic High School Tuition Relief Program on Students' Matriculation into High Schools in Rural China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Bai, Y., Zhang, L., Yi, H., Zheng, L., Rozelle, S. 2017; 43: 16-28
  • The impact of conditional cash transfers on the matriculation of junior high school students into rural China's high schools JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS Li, F., Song, Y., Yi, H., Wei, J., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Chu, J., Johnson, N., Loyalka, P., Rozelle, S. 2017; 9 (1): 41-60
  • Off-farm employment and agricultural specialization in China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Wang, X., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2017; 42: 155-165
  • Effect of Deworming on Indices of Health, Cognition, and Education among Schoolchildren in Rural China: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Liu, C., Lu, L., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Sylvia, S., Medina, A., Rozelle, S., Smith, D. S., Chen, Y., Zhu, T. 2017

    Abstract

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infect over one billion people worldwide. There is concern that chronic infection with STHs among school-aged children may detrimentally affect their development, including their health, cognition, and education. However, two recent Cochrane reviews examining the impact of deworming drugs for STH on nutrition, hemoglobin, and school performance found that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature provide an insufficient evidence base to draw reliable conclusions. This study uses a cluster-RCT to add to existing evidence by assessing the impact of a deworming intervention on nutrition, cognition, and school performance among schoolchildren in rural China. The intervention, implemented by local health practitioners in a setting with a baseline infection prevalence of 41.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 39.8%, 43.9%) and infection intensity of 599.5 eggs per gram of feces among positive-tested schoolchildren (95% CI = 473.2, 725.8), consisted of distributing a 400-mg dose of albendazole accompanied with educational training about STH infection, treatment, and prevention. The intervention was conducted twice over the course of the study-at baseline in May 2013 and later in November 2013. We found that the deworming intervention reduced both infection prevalence and infection intensity, but these declines in infection were not accompanied by an impact on outcomes of nutrition, cognition, or school performance. Our interpretation is that the impact of deworming was attenuated by the light infection intensity in our sample population. Evidence from future RCTs is needed to assess the effect of deworming on key outcomes in areas with moderate and severe worm infections.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0354

    View details for PubMedID 28093533

  • Human Capital and China's Future Growth JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES Li, H., Loyalka, P., Rozelle, S., Wu, B. 2017; 31 (1): 25-48
  • The Education Gap of China's Migrant Children and Rural Counterparts JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Wang, X., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2017; 53 (11): 1865–81
  • The impact of investment on drinking water quality in rural China CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Yue, A., Shi, Y., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Johnson, N., Rozelle, S., Zhao, Q. 2017; 9 (2): 255-269
  • More Poop, More Precision: Improving Epidemiologic Surveillance of Soil-Transmitted Helminths with Multiple Fecal Sampling using the Kato-Katz Technique AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Liu, C., Lu, L., Zhang, L., Bai, Y., Medina, A., Rozelle, S., Smith, D., Zhou, C., Zang, W. 2017; 97 (3): 870–75

    Abstract

    Soil-transmitted helminths, or parasitic intestinal worms, are among the most prevalent and geographically widespread parasitic infections in the world. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of helminth infection are critical for informing and assessing deworming interventions. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique, the most widely used laboratory method to quantitatively assess infection prevalence and infection intensity of helminths, has often been compared with other methods. Only a few small-scale studies, however, have considered ways to improve its diagnostic sensitivity. This study, conducted among 4,985 school-age children in an area of rural China with moderate prevalence of helminth infection, examines the effect on diagnostic sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique when two fecal samples collected over consecutive days are examined and compared with a single sample. A secondary aim was to consider cost-effectiveness by calculating an estimate of the marginal costs of obtaining an additional fecal sample. Our findings show that analysis of an additional fecal sample led to increases of 23%, 26%, and 100% for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm prevalence, respectively. The cost of collecting a second fecal sample for our study population was approximately USD4.60 per fecal sample. Overall, the findings suggest that investing 31% more capital in fecal sample collection prevents an underestimation of prevalence by about 21%, and hence improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method. Especially in areas with light-intensity infections of soil-transmitted helminths and limited public health resources, more accurate epidemiological surveillance using multiple fecal samples will critically inform decisions regarding infection control and prevention.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0728

    View details for Web of Science ID 000423202900046

    View details for PubMedID 28722571

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5590569

  • China's Looming Human Capital Crisis: Upper Secondary Educational Attainment Rates and the Middle-income Trap CHINA QUARTERLY Khor, N., Pang, L., Liu, C., Chang, F., Mo, D., Loyalka, P., Rozelle, S. 2016; 228: 905-926
  • More is not always better: evidence from a randomised experiment of computer-assisted learning in rural minority schools in Qinghai JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS Lai, F., Zhang, L., Bai, Y., Liu, C., Shi, Y., Chang, F., Rozelle, S. 2016; 8 (4): 449-472
  • The gender gap among school children in poor rural areas of western China: evidence from a multi-province dataset INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR EQUITY IN HEALTH Zhou, H., Mo, D., Zhou, C., Medina, A., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2016; 15

    Abstract

    The gender gap remains a major impediment in the path towards equality and it is especially wide in low-income countries. Up to the early 2000s, many studies documented extensive inequalities in China: girls had poorer health, less nutrition and less education than their male counterparts. The goal of this study is to examine whether the gender gap persists, given that China is now making the transition into the ranks of upper-middle income countries. We consider educational outcomes, mental and physical health status, as well as non-cognitive outcomes.We draw on a dataset containing 69,565 observations constructed by combining data from 7 different school-level surveys spanning 5 provinces. The surveys were all conducted by the authors between 2008 and 2013 using uniform survey instruments and data collection protocols in randomly selected schools across western provinces in rural China. The sample children range in age from 9 to 14 years (with 79 % of the sample being aged 10 to 12). Our analysis compares rural girls with rural boys in terms of 13 different indicators.With the exception of anemia rates, the health outcomes of girls are equal to those of boys. Girls and boys are statistically identical in terms of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and prevalence of intestinal worm infections. Girls performed better than boys on five of six cognitive and educational performance indicators. Girls performed worse than boys on all mental health indicators. All estimates are robust to the inclusion of different age ranges, controlling for the level of household assets, ethnic minority status, as well as the addition of provincial dummies.Our findings suggest that with the exception of non-cognitive outcomes, anemia and standardized math test scores, the gender gap in our study areas in China appears to be diminishing.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12939-016-0442-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000384376800004

    View details for PubMedID 27686497

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5041561

  • Impact of Text Message Reminders on Caregivers' Adherence to a Home Fortification Program Against Child Anemia in Rural Western China: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Zhou, H., Sun, S., Luo, R., Sylvia, S., Yue, A., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2016; 106 (7): 1256-1262

    Abstract

    To test whether text message reminders sent to caregivers improve the effectiveness of a home micronutrient fortification program in western China.We carried out a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 351 villages (clusters) in Shaanxi Province in 2013 and 2014, enrolling children aged 6 to 12 months. We randomly assigned each village to 1 of 3 groups: free delivery group, text messaging group, or control group. We collected information on compliance with treatments and hemoglobin concentrations from all children at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We estimated the intent-to-treat effects on compliance and child anemia using a logistic regression model.There were 1393 eligible children. We found that assignment to the text messaging group led to an increase in full compliance (marginal effect = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.16) compared with the free delivery group and decrease in the rate of anemia at end line relative to the control group (marginal effect = -0.07; 95% CI = -0.12, -0.01), but not relative to the free delivery group (marginal effect = -0.03; 95% CI = -0.09, 0.03).Text messages improved compliance of caregivers to a home fortification program and children's nutrition.

    View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303140

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377939700048

    View details for PubMedID 27077354

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4984765

  • Who drops out from primary schools in China? Evidence from minority-concentrated rural areas ASIA PACIFIC EDUCATION REVIEW Lu, M., Cui, M., Shi, Y., Chang, F., Mo, D., Rozelle, S., Johnson, N. 2016; 17 (2): 235-252
  • The impact of integrating ICT with teaching: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in rural schools in China COMPUTERS & EDUCATION Bai, Y., Mo, D., Zhang, L., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2016; 96: 1-14
  • Are Children with Siblings Really More Vulnerable Than Only Children in Health, Cognition and Non-cognitive Outcomes? Evidence from a Multi-province Dataset in China CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Zhou, H., Mo, D., Luo, R., Yue, A., Rozelle, S. 2016; 24 (3): 3-17

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cwe.12155

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379957200002

  • Gender and Off-farm Employment: Evidence from Rural China CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Wang, X., Han, L., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2016; 24 (3): 18-36

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cwe.12156

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379957200003

  • Effects of Parental Migration on Mental Health of Left-behind Children: Evidence from Northwestern China CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Shi, Y., Bai, Y., Shen, Y., Kenny, K., Rozelle, S. 2016; 24 (3): 105-122

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cwe.12161

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379957200008

  • Reply. American journal of ophthalmology Ma, X., Congdon, N., Yi, H., Pang, X., Zhou, Z., Meltzer, M. E., He, M., Yizhi, L., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S. 2016; 163: 196-197

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajo.2015.12.022

    View details for PubMedID 26774336

  • Are China's Farms Growing? CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Ji, X., Rozelle, S., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Zhang, T. 2016; 24 (1): 41-62

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cwe.12143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373001200003

  • The new rural social pension program in rural China: participation and its correlates CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Zhao, Q., Brosig, S., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Yue, A., Rozelle, S. 2016; 8 (4): 647-661
  • Trends and determinants of rural residential solid waste collection services in China CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Wang, A., Shi, Y., Gao, Q., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Johnson, N., Rozelle, S. 2016; 8 (4): 698-710
  • Parental migration and smoking behavior of left-behind children: evidence from a survey in rural Anhui, China. International journal for equity in health Yang, T., Li, C., Zhou, C., Jiang, S., Chu, J., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2016; 15 (1): 127-?

    Abstract

    Parental migration is most an important factor affecting children's behaviors. Few studies have addressed the association between parental migration and children's smoking behavior in China. This study aims to estimate the current smoking prevalence among children, evaluate the association of parental migration and the smoking behavior of children and identify factors associated with smoking behavior among left-behind children (LBC).A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 cities in Anhui province during July and August, 2012. All participants were interviewed face-to-face using a standardized questionnaire. Only children 10 to 14 years old that live in rural villages for at least 6 months during the previous year were included in the study.A total of 1343 children met the sampling criteria and participated in the study. Of these, 56 % are LBC and 44 % live with both parents. The average rate of smoking is 3.4 %. The rate of smoking is statistically higher for LBC with both parents out (rate = 6.1 %; OR = 5.59, P < 0.001) than for children living with both parents (1.4 %). Similarly, the rate of LBC with father home only (rate = 5.0 %; OR = 5.60, P = 0.005) is also statistically higher than for children living with both parents when controlling other variables. Factors affecting the smoking behavior of LBC, include gender (i.e., boys), (perceived) school performance and primary caregiver.Parental migration is associated with a significant increase in smoking behavior among children. Intervention studies that target LBC would help to develop strategies to reduce smoking among rural children. Gender-specific strategies and anti-smoking education also appears to be needed to reduce tobacco use among rural LBC.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12939-016-0416-7

    View details for PubMedID 27491773

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4974696

  • Maternal health services in China's western rural areas: uptake and correlates CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Liu, C., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Zhou, H., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2016; 8 (2): 250-276
  • Nutritional Deficiencies, the Absence of Information and Caregiver Shortcomings: A Qualitative Analysis of Infant Feeding Practices in Rural China. PloS one Yue, A., Marsh, L., Zhou, H., Medina, A., Luo, R., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Kenny, K., Rozelle, S. 2016; 11 (4)

    Abstract

    Development during the first two years of life is critical and has a lasting impact on a child's health. Poor infant and child nutrition can lead to deficiencies in essential micronutrients, which may cause a weakened immune system and lasting effects on children's growth and development. Recent studies in rural Shaanxi Province found an anemia prevalence of 54.3% among rural children aged six to twelve months. While new large-scale, quantitative research has begun to catalogue the extent of child malnutrition and anemia, no effort has yet been made to look more closely at the potential reasons for rural children's nutritional deficiencies through qualitative analysis. This study aims to elucidate some of the fundamental causes of poor complementary feeding practices that may lead to anemia among children in rural Shaanxi Province, China.We interviewed sixty caregivers participating in a large survey on child health and nutrition. We conducted three waves of interviews with children's primary caregivers in seventeen rural villages within four nationally-designated poverty counties in the southern part of Shaanxi Province.The qualitative analysis reveals that poor complementary feeding practices are common across our sample. Information gathered from our interviews suggests that complementary feeding practices are impeded by two constraints: absence of understanding topics related to infant health and nutrition under caregivers, as well as inadequate sources of information on these topics. Poverty does not appear to constrain child feeding practices.Our results uncover lack of proper knowledge on infant and child nutrition among rural caregivers in China. This situation causes them to fail incorporating micronutrient rich foods in their children's diet. Age-appropriate complementary feeding can stimulate children's physical and cognitive development, but in its absence it leads to iron-deficiency anemia. We suggest that steps be taken to educate caregivers to improve complementary feeding of their infants and children.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0153385

    View details for PubMedID 27073864

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4830571

  • Dropping Out of Rural China's Secondary Schools: A Mixed-methods Analysis CHINA QUARTERLY Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Ma, Y., Yi, H., Liu, C., Johnson, N., Chu, J., Loyalka, P., Rozelle, S. 2015; 224: 1048-1069
  • Computer technology in education: Evidence from a pooled study of computer assisted learning programs among rural students in China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Mo, D., Huang, W., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2015; 36: 131-145
  • Persistence of learning gains from computer assisted learning: Experimental evidence from China JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING Mo, D., Zhang, L., Wang, J., Huang, W., Shi, Y., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2015; 31 (6): 562-581

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jcal.12106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367655100006

  • Population Prevalence of Need for Spectacles and Spectacle Ownership Among Urban Migrant Children in Eastern China JAMA OPHTHALMOLOGY Wang, X., Yi, H., Lu, L., Zhang, L., Ma, X., Jin, L., Zhang, H., Naidoo, K. S., Minto, H., Zou, H., Rozelle, S., Congdon, N. 2015; 132 (12): 1399-1406
  • China's Left-Behind Children: Impact Of Parental Migration On Health, Nutrition, And Educational Outcomes. Health affairs Zhou, C., Sylvia, S., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Yi, H., Liu, C., Shi, Y., Loyalka, P., Chu, J., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2015; 34 (11): 1964-1971

    View details for DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0150

    View details for PubMedID 26526256

  • Safety of Spectacles for Children's Vision: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY Ma, X., Congdon, N., Yi, H., Zhou, Z., Pang, X., Meltzer, M. E., Shi, Y., He, M., Liu, Y., Rozelle, S. 2015; 160 (5): 897-904

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajo.2015.08.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363914800008

    View details for PubMedID 26284747

  • Impact of Free Glasses and a Teacher Incentive on Children's Use of Eyeglasses: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY Yi, H., Zhang, H., Ma, X., Zhang, L., Wang, X., Jin, L., Naidoo, K., Minto, H., Zou, H., Lu, L., Rozelle, S., Congdon, N. 2015; 160 (5): 889-896

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajo.2015.08.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363914800007

    View details for PubMedID 26275472

  • When will we ever learn ... to change policy: current state of impact evaluation JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2015; 7 (4): 402-422
  • Assessment of human-natural system characteristics influencing global freshwater supply vulnerability ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Padowski, J. C., Gorelick, S. M., Thompson, B. H., Rozelle, S., Fendorf, S. 2015; 10 (10)
  • Does computer-assisted learning improve learning outcomes? Evidence from a randomized experiment in migrant schools in Beijing ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Lai, F., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Huang, X., Rozelle, S. 2015; 47: 34-48
  • Intended And Unintended Consequences Of China's Zero Markup Drug Policy HEALTH AFFAIRS Yi, H., Miller, G., Zhang, L., Li, S., Rozelle, S. 2015; 34 (8): 1391-1398

    Abstract

    Since economic liberalization in the late 1970s, China's health care providers have grown heavily reliant on revenue from drugs, which they both prescribe and sell. To curb abuse and to promote the availability, safety, and appropriate use of essential drugs, China introduced its national essential drug list in 2009 and implemented a zero markup policy designed to decouple provider compensation from drug prescription and sales. We collected and analyzed representative data from China's township health centers and their catchment-area populations both before and after the reform. We found large reductions in drug revenue, as intended by policy makers. However, we also found a doubling of inpatient care that appeared to be driven by supply, instead of demand. Thus, the reform had an important unintended consequence: China's health care providers have sought new, potentially inappropriate, forms of revenue.

    View details for DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.2014.1114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000361141000020

  • Non-use of health care service among empty-nest elderly in Shandong, China: a cross-sectional study BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH Zhou, C., Ji, C., Chu, J., Medina, A., Li, C., Jiang, S., Zheng, W., Liu, J., Rozelle, S. 2015; 15
  • Teaching the Language of Wider Communication, Minority Students, and Overall Educational Performance: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Qinghai Province, China ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Lai, F., Zhang, L., Qu, Q., Hu, X., Shi, Y., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2015; 63 (4): 753-776

    View details for DOI 10.1086/681233

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355827200005

  • Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Southwestern China: A Cross-Sectional Study of Links to Cognitive Ability, Nutrition, and School Performance among Children. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Liu, C., Luo, R., Yi, H., Zhang, L., Li, S., Bai, Y., Medina, A., Rozelle, S., Smith, S., Wang, G., Wang, J. 2015; 9 (6)

    Abstract

    Empirical evidence suggests that the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in remote and poor rural areas is still high among children, the most vulnerable to infection. There is concern that STH infections may detrimentally affect children's healthy development, including their cognitive ability, nutritional status, and school performance. Medical studies have not yet identified the exact nature of the impact STH infections have on children. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between STH infections and developmental outcomes among a primary school-aged population in rural China.We conducted a large-scale survey in Guizhou province in southwest China in May 2013. A total of 2,179 children aged 9-11 years living in seven nationally-designated poverty counties in rural China served as our study sample. Overall, 42 percent of the sample's elementary school-aged children were infected with one or more of the three types of STH-Ascaris lumbricoides (ascaris), Trichuris trichuria (whipworm) and the hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. After controlling for socioeconomic status, we observed that infection with one or more STHs is associated with worse cognitive ability, worse nutritional status, and worse school performance than no infection. This study also presents evidence that children with Trichuris infection, either infection with Trichuris only or co-infected with Trichuris and Ascaris, experience worse cognitive, nutritional and schooling outcomes than their uninfected peers or children infected with only Ascaris.We find that STH infection still poses a significant health challenge among children living in poor, rural, ethnic areas of southwest China. Given the important linkages we find between STH infection and a number of important child health and educational outcomes, we believe that our results will contribute positively to the debate surrounding the recent Cochrane report.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003877

    View details for PubMedID 26110518

  • Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Southwestern China: A Cross-Sectional Study of Links to Cognitive Ability, Nutrition, and School Performance among Children. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Liu, C., Luo, R., Yi, H., Zhang, L., Li, S., Bai, Y., Medina, A., Rozelle, S., Smith, S., Wang, G., Wang, J. 2015; 9 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003877

    View details for PubMedID 26110518

  • Exploring the dropout rates and causes of dropout in upper-secondary technical and vocational education and training (TVET) schools in China INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Yi, H., Zhang, L., Yao, Y., Wang, A., Ma, Y., Shi, Y., Chu, J., Loyalka, P., Rozelle, S. 2015; 42: 115-123
  • Factors Underlying Different Myopia Prevalence between Middle- and Low-income Provinces in China OPHTHALMOLOGY Zhou, Z., Ma, X., Yi, H., Pang, X., Shi, Y., Chen, Q., Meltzer, M. E., Price-Sanchez, C., He, M., Rozelle, S., Morgan, I., Congdon, N. 2015; 122 (5): 1060-1062

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353337600036

    View details for PubMedID 25660492

  • Impact of urbanization on cultivated land changes in China LAND USE POLICY Deng, X., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Zhang, J., Li, Z. 2015; 45: 1-7
  • Survey using incognito standardized patients shows poor quality care in China's rural clinics. Health policy and planning Sylvia, S., Shi, Y., Xue, H., Tian, X., Wang, H., Liu, Q., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2015; 30 (3): 322-333

    Abstract

    Over the past decade, China has implemented reforms designed to expand access to health care in rural areas. Little objective evidence exists, however, on the quality of that care. This study reports results from a standardized patient study designed to assess the quality of care delivered by village clinicians in rural China. To measure quality, we recruited individuals from the local community to serve as undercover patients and trained them to present consistent symptoms of two common illnesses (dysentery and angina). Based on 82 covert interactions between the standardized patients and local clinicians, we find that the quality of care is low as measured by adherence to clinical checklists and the rates of correct diagnoses and treatments. Further analysis suggests that quality is most strongly correlated with provider qualifications. Our results highlight the need for policy action to address the low quality of care delivered by grassroots providers.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/heapol/czu014

    View details for PubMedID 24653216

  • Poor vision among China's rural primary school students: Prevalence, correlates and consequences CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Yi, H., Zhang, L., Ma, X., Congdon, N., Shi, Y., Pang, X., Zeng, J., Wang, L., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2015; 33: 247-262
  • Unequal Access to College in China: How Far Have Poor, Rural Students Been Left Behind? CHINA QUARTERLY Li, H., Loyalka, P., Rozelle, S., Wu, B., Xie, J. 2015; 221: 185-207
  • Impact of Childcare and Eldercare on Off-farm Activities in Rural China CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Qiao, F., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L., Yao, Y., Zhang, J. 2015; 23 (2): 100-120

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cwe.12109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352097700006

  • Gut Instincts: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Rural China PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES Lu, L., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Medina, A., Smith, S., Rozelle, S. 2015; 9 (3)

    Abstract

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect more than two out of every five schoolchildren in the poorest regions of rural China, an alarmingly high prevalence rate given the low cost and wide availability of safe and effective deworming treatment. Understanding of local knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding STH infection in rural China has until now, been sparse, although such information is critical for prevention and control initiatives.This study aims to elucidate the structural and sociocultural factors that underlie high STH infection rates as well as explain why deworming treatment is rarely sought for children. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted in six rural villages in Guizhou Province; participants included schoolchildren, children's parents and grandparents, and village doctors. Data analysis exposed three predominant reasons for high STH prevalence: (1) lack of awareness and skepticism about the high prevalence of STH infection, (2) local myths about STH infection and deworming treatment, and (3) poor quality of village health care.The findings from this study reveal reasons for why deworming treatment is not sought, and inform specific recommendations for a deworming intervention that can more effectively address underlying barriers to deworming in areas of persistently high STH infection rates. The main barrier to seeking STH treatment is not availability or cost of the drugs, but rather the lack of impetus to seek the drugs. A comprehensive nationwide deworming program in China should involve annual provision of free deworming treatment in village clinics or schools, distribution of culturally appropriate educational materials to inform children and families about STH infection, and improvement of the quality of health care delivered by village clinicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003643

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352199400096

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4373855

  • Gut instincts: knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminths in rural China. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Lu, L., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Medina, A., Smith, S., Rozelle, S. 2015; 9 (3)

    Abstract

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect more than two out of every five schoolchildren in the poorest regions of rural China, an alarmingly high prevalence rate given the low cost and wide availability of safe and effective deworming treatment. Understanding of local knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding STH infection in rural China has until now, been sparse, although such information is critical for prevention and control initiatives.This study aims to elucidate the structural and sociocultural factors that underlie high STH infection rates as well as explain why deworming treatment is rarely sought for children. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted in six rural villages in Guizhou Province; participants included schoolchildren, children's parents and grandparents, and village doctors. Data analysis exposed three predominant reasons for high STH prevalence: (1) lack of awareness and skepticism about the high prevalence of STH infection, (2) local myths about STH infection and deworming treatment, and (3) poor quality of village health care.The findings from this study reveal reasons for why deworming treatment is not sought, and inform specific recommendations for a deworming intervention that can more effectively address underlying barriers to deworming in areas of persistently high STH infection rates. The main barrier to seeking STH treatment is not availability or cost of the drugs, but rather the lack of impetus to seek the drugs. A comprehensive nationwide deworming program in China should involve annual provision of free deworming treatment in village clinics or schools, distribution of culturally appropriate educational materials to inform children and families about STH infection, and improvement of the quality of health care delivered by village clinicians.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003643

    View details for PubMedID 25807188

  • THE PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN CHINA: EVIDENCE FROM THE CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY SOUTHEAST ASIAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Li, L., Luo, R., Sylvia, S., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2015; 46 (2): 306-321
  • Mental health and dropout behavior: A cross-sectional study of junior high students in northwest rural China INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Huan, W., Yang, C., Fei, H., Shi Yaojiang, Y. J., Qu, Q., Rozelle, S., Chu, J. 2015; 41: 1-12
  • Giving kids a head start: The impact and mechanisms of early commitment of financial aid on poor students in rural China JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Yi, H., Song, Y., Liu, C., Huang, X., Zhang, L., Bai, Y., Ren, B., Shi, Y., Loyalka, P., Chu, J., Rozelle, S. 2015; 113: 1-15
  • The Han-Minority Achievement Gap, Language, and Returns to Schools in Rural China ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Yang, Y., Wang, H., Zhang, L., Sylvia, S., Luo, R., Shi, Y., Wang, W., Rozelle, S. 2015; 63 (2): 319-359

    View details for DOI 10.1086/679070

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346349600004

  • Irrigation investment in China: trends, correlates and impacts CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW He, F., Shi, Y., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Johnson, N., Rozelle, S. 2015; 7 (3): 344-359
  • Micronutrient deficiencies and developmental delays among infants: evidence from a cross-sectional survey in rural China. BMJ open Luo, R., Shi, Y., Zhou, H., Yue, A., Zhang, L., Sylvia, S., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2015; 5 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008400

    View details for PubMedID 26438137

  • Text Messaging and its Impacts on the Health and Education of the Poor: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Rural China WORLD DEVELOPMENT Mo, D., Luo, R., Liu, C., Zhang, H., Zhang, L., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2014; 64: 766-780
  • Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China NUTRIENTS Luo, R., Shi, Y., Zhou, H., Yue, A., Zhang, L., Sylvia, S., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2014; 6 (12): 5975-5991

    Abstract

    Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6-11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb). Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6-11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01), and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01). The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/nu6125975

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346796100037

    View details for PubMedID 25533008

  • Learning but Not Acting in Rural China Women in the Ningxia Autonomous Region, Voting Rights Training, and Voting Behavior in Village Elections ASIAN SURVEY Pang, X., Zeng, J., Rozelle, S. 2014; 54 (6): 1009-1036
  • AN INVESTIGATION OF VISION PROBLEMS AND THE VISION CARE SYSTEM IN RURAL CHINA SOUTHEAST ASIAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Bai, Y., Yi, H., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Ma, X., Congdon, N., Zhou, Z., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2014; 45 (6): 1464-1473
  • Effect of providing free glasses on children's educational outcomes in China: cluster randomized controlled trial BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL Ma, X., Zhou, Z., Yi, H., Pang, X., Shi, Y., Chen, Q., Meltzer, M. E., le Cessie, S., He, M., Rozelle, S., Liu, Y., Congdon, N. 2014; 349

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.g5740

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342425700006

  • Integrating computer-assisted learning into a regular curriculum: evidence from a randomised experiment in rural schools in Shaanxi JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS Mo, D., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Qu, Q., Huang, W., Wang, J., Qiao, Y., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2014; 6 (3): 300-323
  • The education of China's migrant children: The missing link in China's education system INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Lai, F., Liu, C., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Ma, X., Bai, Y., Sharbono, B., Rozelle, S. 2014; 37: 68-77
  • Road Expansion and Off-Farm Work in Rural China CHINA QUARTERLY Qiao, F., Rozelle, S., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Luo, R. 2014; 218: 428-451
  • Improving the Health and Education of Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural China: Iron Supplementation Versus Nutritional Training for Parents JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Wong, H. L., Shi, Y., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2014; 50 (4): 502-519
  • GENDER INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION IN CHINA: A META-REGRESSION ANALYSIS CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY Zeng, J., Pang, X., Zhang, L., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2014; 32 (2): 474-491

    View details for DOI 10.1111/coep.12006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331606300014

  • Encouraging classroom peer interactions: Evidence from Chinese migrant schools JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS Li, T., Han, L., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2014; 111: 29-45
  • Do poor students benefit from China's Merger Program? Transfer path and educational performance ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Chen, X., Yi, H., Zhang, L., Mo, D., Chu, J., Rozelle, S. 2014; 34 (1): 15-35
  • Dormitory management and boarding students in China's rural primary schools CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Yue, A., Shi, Y., Chang, F., Yang, C., Wang, H., Yi, H., Luo, R., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Chu, J. Y., Rozelle, S. 2014; 6 (3): 523-550
  • Marketing Raw Milk from Dairy Farmers before and after the 2008 Milk Scandal in China: Evidence from Greater Beijing AGRIBUSINESS Jia, X., Luan, H., Huang, J., Li, S., Rozelle, S. 2014; 30 (4): 410-423

    View details for DOI 10.1002/agr.21375

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344348300004

  • Effect of providing free glasses on children's educational outcomes in China: cluster randomized controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) Ma, X., Zhou, Z., Yi, H., Pang, X., Shi, Y., Chen, Q., Meltzer, M. E., le Cessie, S., He, M., Rozelle, S., Liu, Y., Congdon, N. 2014; 349: g5740-?

    Abstract

    To assess the effect of provision of free glasses on academic performance in rural Chinese children with myopia.Cluster randomized, investigator masked, controlled trial.252 primary schools in two prefectures in western China, 2012-13.3177 of 19,934 children in fourth and fifth grades (mean age 10.5 years) with visual acuity <6/12 in either eye without glasses correctable to >6/12 with glasses. 3052 (96.0%) completed the study.Children were randomized by school (84 schools per arm) to one of three interventions at the beginning of the school year: prescription for glasses only (control group), vouchers for free glasses at a local facility, or free glasses provided in class.Spectacle wear at endline examination and end of year score on a specially designed mathematics test, adjusted for baseline score and expressed in standard deviations.Among 3177 eligible children, 1036 (32.6%) were randomized to control, 988 (31.1%) to vouchers, and 1153 (36.3%) to free glasses in class. All eligible children would benefit from glasses, but only 15% wore them at baseline. At closeout glasses wear was 41% (observed) and 68% (self reported) in the free glasses group, and 26% (observed) and 37% (self reported) in the controls. Effect on test score was 0.11 SD (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.21) when the free glasses group was compared with the control group. The adjusted effect of providing free glasses (0.10, 0.002 to 0.19) was greater than parental education (0.03, -0.04 to 0.09) or family wealth (0.01, -0.06 to 0.08). This difference between groups was significant, but was smaller than the prespecified 0.20 SD difference that the study was powered to detect.The provision of free glasses to Chinese children with myopia improves children's performance on mathematics testing to a statistically significant degree, despite imperfect compliance, although the observed difference between groups was smaller than the study was originally designed to detect. Myopia is common and rarely corrected in this setting.Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03252665.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.g5740

    View details for PubMedID 25249453

  • Accuracy of Rural Refractionists in Western China INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE Zhou, Z., Zeng, J., Ma, X., Pang, X., Yi, H., Chen, Q., Meltzer, M. E., He, M., Rozelle, S., Congdon, N. 2014; 55 (1): 154-161

    Abstract

    We assessed the prevalence and predictors of inaccurate refractive error among rural refractionists in western China.A subset of primary school children with visual acuity (VA) ≤6/12 in ≥1 eye, undergoing subjective refinement by local refractionists after cycloplegic autorefraction in an ongoing population-based study, received repeat refraction by university optometrists for quality control.Among 502 children (mean age 10.5 years, 53.2% girls), independent predictors of poor (inaccurate by ≥1.0 diopter [D]) refraction by 21 rural practitioners (66.7% with high school or lower education) included hyperopia (odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-7.3, P < 0.001), astigmatism (OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 2.5-5.6; P < 0.001) and VA uncorrectable to >6/12 by the rural refractionist (OR = 4.7; 95% CI, 3.1-7.3; P = < 0.001). Among 201 children whose vision was uncorrectable in ≥1 eye by the rural refractionists, vision could be improved to >6/12 by the university optometrist in 110 (54.7%). We estimate vision could be so improved in 9.1% of all children refracted by these rural refractionists. A reason for inaccuracy in this setting is the erroneous tendency of rural refractionists to adjust instrument values for accommodation, even under cycloplegia.Rural refractionists in western China have little formal training and frequently fail to optimize VA among children, even when autorefractors are used. Training is needed emphasizing better use of automated refraction, particularly in children with astigmatism and hyperopia.

    View details for DOI 10.1167/iovs.13-13250

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331877200017

    View details for PubMedID 24327616

  • Social learning and parameter uncertainty in irreversible investments: Evidence from greenhouse adoption in northern China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Wang, H., Yu, F., Reardon, T., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2013; 27: 104-120
  • Do you get what you pay for with school-based health programs? Evidence from a child nutrition experiment in rural China ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Sylvia, S., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2013; 37: 1-12
  • Can information and counseling help students from poor rural areas go to high school? Evidence from China JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS Loyalka, P., Liu, C., Song, Y., Yi, H., Huang, X., Wei, J., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Chu, J., Rozelle, S. 2013; 41 (4): 1012-1025
  • The human capital roots of the middle income trap: the case of China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Zhang, L., Yi, H., Luo, R., Liu, C., Rozelle, S. 2013; 44: 151-162

    View details for DOI 10.1111/agec.12059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327302100015

  • Information, college decisions and financial aid: Evidence from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in China ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Loyalka, P., Song, Y., Wei, J., Zhong, W., Rozelle, S. 2013; 36: 26-40
  • The impact of teacher training on teacher and student outcomes: evidence from a randomised experiment in Beijing migrant schools JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS Zhang, L., Lai, F., Pang, X., Yi, H., Rozelle, S. 2013; 5 (3): 339-358
  • LIQUIDITY CONSTRAINTS AND POSTHARVEST SELLING BEHAVIOR: EVIDENCE FROM CHINA'S MAIZE FARMERS DEVELOPING ECONOMIES Sun, D., Qiu, H., Bai, J., Liu, H., Lin, G., Rozelle, S. 2013; 51 (3): 260-277

    View details for DOI 10.1111/deve.12018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323197000002

  • The impact of vouchers on preschool attendance and elementary school readiness: A randomized controlled trial in rural China ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Wong, H. L., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2013; 35: 53-65
  • The subsidization of farming households in China's agriculture FOOD POLICY Huang, J., Wang, X., Rozelle, S. 2013; 41: 124-132
  • Will Demographic Change Slow China's Rise? JOURNAL OF ASIAN STUDIES Eggleston, K., Oi, J. C., Rozelle, S., Sun, A., Walder, A., Zhou, X. 2013; 72 (3): 505-518
  • Impact of the Global Financial Crisis in Rural China: Gender, Off-farm Employment, and Wages FEMINIST ECONOMICS Zhi, H., Huang, Z., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. D., Mason, A. D. 2013; 19 (3): 238-266
  • Providing quality infrastructure in rural villages: The case of rural roads in China JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Wong, H. L., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2013; 103: 262-274
  • Does financial aid help poor students succeed in college? CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Wang, X., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Yue, A., Shi, Y., Chu, J., Rozelle, S. 2013; 25: 27-43
  • College is a Rich, Han, Urban, Male Club: Research Notes from a Census Survey of Four Tier One Colleges in China CHINA QUARTERLY Wang, X., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S. 2013: 456-470
  • Can One-to-One Computing Narrow the Digital Divide and the Educational Gap in China? The Case of Beijing Migrant Schools WORLD DEVELOPMENT Mo, D., Swinnen, J., Zhang, L., Yi, H., Qu, Q., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2013; 46: 14-29
  • Computer assisted learning as extracurricular tutor? Evidence from a randomised experiment in rural boarding schools in Shaanxi JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS Lai, F., Zhang, L., Hu, X., Qu, Q., Shi, Y., Qiao, Y., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2013; 5 (2): 208-231
  • Impact of a Senior High School Tuition Relief Program on Poor Junior High School Students in Rural China CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Chen, X., Shi, Y., Mo, D., Chu, J., Loyalka, P., Rozelle, S. 2013; 21 (3): 80-97
  • Roots of Tomorrow's Digital Divide: Documenting Computer Use and Internet Access in China's Elementary Schools Today CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Yang, Y., Hu, X., Qu, Q., Lai, F., Shi, Y., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2013; 21 (3): 61-79
  • Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Reduces Anemia and Anxiety in Rural China's Elementary School Children JOURNAL OF NUTRITION Zhang, L., Kleiman-Weiner, M., Luo, R., Shi, Y., Martorell, R., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2013; 143 (5): 640-647

    Abstract

    Despite growing wealth and a strengthening government commitment to improve livelihoods and welfare, many students across rural China have inadequate access to micronutrient-rich diets. Poor diets can lead to nutritional problems, such as iron-deficiency anemia, that can adversely affect health, attention, learning, and mental health. The overall goal of this paper is to assess the impact of multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) on anemia and anxiety among students in poor areas of rural China. To achieve this goal, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in 54 randomly chosen elementary schools in 8 of the poorest counties in Shaanxi Province in Northwest China. Study participants were 2730 fourth-grade students, mostly aged 10-12 y. Schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a control group that received no intervention and an intervention group that received a daily MMS with 5 mg of iron (ferrous sulfate) for 5 mo. Our primary outcome measures were hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations (assessed by HemoCue 201+ technology), anemia prevalence (defined as Hb) concentrations ≤120 g/L), and anxiety (using a written mental health test). The results showed that 42.4% of students were anemic at baseline. The Hb concentration was 121.7 ± 10.7 g/L in the treatment group and 123.4 ± 11.4 g/L in the control group. MMS increased Hb concentrations by 1.7 g/L ± 0.15 and reduced anemia rates by 7.0 percentage points (P < 0.05). Anxiety was reduced by 0.30 SDs (P < 0.01). MMS reduced both anemia and anxiety. Our results should encourage further research on the linkages between nutrition and mental health in a development context.

    View details for DOI 10.3945/jn.112.171959

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318056700013

    View details for PubMedID 23514770

  • The Feminisation of Agriculture with Chinese Characteristics JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES De Brauw, A., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2013; 49 (5): 689-704
  • Guest Editors' Words CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2013; 21 (3): 1-3
  • Neglected Rural Public Health Issue: The Case of Intestinal Roundworms CHINA & WORLD ECONOMY Zhang, L., Cai, Y., Wang, X., Ma, X., Medina, A., Smith, D. S., Rozelle, S. 2013; 21 (3): 25-43
  • Does Women's Knowledge of Voting Rights Affect their Voting Behaviour in Village Elections? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in China CHINA QUARTERLY Pang, X., Zeng, J., Rozelle, S. 2013: 39-59
  • Eggs versus chewable vitamins: Which intervention can increase nutrition and test scores in rural China? CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Kleiman-Weiner, M., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2013; 24: 165-176
  • The impact of biofuel growth on agriculture: Why is the range of estimates so wide? FOOD POLICY Zhang, W., Yu, E. A., Rozelle, S., Yang, J., Msangi, S. 2013; 38: 227-239
  • School Dropouts and Conditional Cash Transfers: Evidence from a Randomised Controlled Trial in Rural China's Junior High Schools JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Mo, D., Zhang, L., Yi, H., Luo, R., Rozelle, S., Brinton, C. 2013; 49 (2): 190-207
  • Information, College Decisions and Financial Aid: Evidence from a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in China Economics of Education Review Loyalka , P., Song, Y., Wei, J., Zhong, W., Rozelle, S. 2013; 36: 26-40
  • Project design, village governance and infrastructure quality in rural China CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Liu, C., Zhang, L., Huang, J., Luo, R., Yi, H., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S. 2013; 5 (2): 248-280
  • Gender Inequality in Education in China: A Meta-Regression Analysis Contemporary Economic Policy, Zeng, J., Pang, X., Zhang, L., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2013
  • Do You Get What You Pay For with School-Based Health Programs? Evidence from a Child Nutrition Experiment in Rural China Economics of Education Review Rozelle, S., et al 2013
  • Computers and the academic performance of elementary school-aged girls in China's poor communities COMPUTERS & EDUCATION Yang, Y., Zhang, L., Zeng, J., Pang, X., Lai, F., Rozelle, S. 2013; 60 (1): 335-346
  • Are elite university graduates aiding China's transition to an innovation-based economy? Results from a career choices survey among would-be innovators in China and the USA ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF ACCOUNTING & ECONOMICS Zhang, L., Pollak, E., Darwin, R., Boswell, M., Rozelle, S. 2013; 20 (1): 58-69
  • The Effects of Well Management and the Nature of the Aquifer on Groundwater Resources AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Huang, Q., Wang, J., Rozelle, S., Polasky, S., Liu, Y. 2013; 95 (1): 94-116
  • The nature and causes of the global water crisis: Syndromes from a meta-analysis of coupled human-water studies WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH Srinivasan, V., Lambin, E. F., Gorelick, S. M., Thompson, B. H., Rozelle, S. 2012; 48
  • Estimating production technology for policy analysis: trading off precision and heterogeneity JOURNAL OF PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS Huang, Q., Howitt, R., Rozelle, S. 2012; 38 (2): 219-233
  • Global biofuel production and poverty in China APPLIED ENERGY Huang, J., Yang, J., Msangi, S., Rozelle, S., Weersink, A. 2012; 98: 246-255
  • Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Correlated Risk Factors in Preschool and School-Aged Children in Rural Southwest China PLOS ONE Wang, X., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Wang, G., Chen, Y., Medina, A., Eggleston, K., Rozelle, S., Smith, D. S. 2012; 7 (9)

    Abstract

    We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0045939

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309517500047

    View details for PubMedID 23029330

  • Marketing China's milk: A case study of the sales activity of dairy farmers in greater Beijing CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Huang, J., Wu, Y., Yang, Z., Rozelle, S., Fabiosa, J., Dong, F. 2012; 23 (3): 675-689
  • Where is the balance? Implications of adopting Special Products and Sensitive Products in Doha negotiations for world and China's agriculture CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Yang, J., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Martin, W. 2012; 23 (3): 651-664
  • Shifting Fiscal Control to Limit Cadre Power in China's Townships and Villages CHINA QUARTERLY Oi, J. C., Babiarz, K. S., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Rozelle, S. 2012: 649-675
  • China's Milk Scandal, government policy and production decisions of dairy farmers: The case of Greater Beijing FOOD POLICY Jia, X., Huang, J., Luan, H., Rozelle, S., Swinnen, J. 2012; 37 (4): 390-400
  • Biofuels and the poor: Global impact pathways of biofuels on agricultural markets FOOD POLICY Huang, J., Yang, J., Msangi, S., Rozelle, S., Weersink, A. 2012; 37 (4): 439-451
  • Does it pay to be a cadre? Estimating the returns to being a local official in rural China JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS Zhang, J., Giles, J., Rozelle, S. 2012; 40 (3): 337-356
  • Effectiveness of provider incentives for anaemia reduction in rural China: a cluster randomised trial BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL Miller, G., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Sylvia, S., Shi, Y., Foo, P., Zhao, Q., Martorell, R., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2012; 345

    Abstract

    To test the impact of provider performance pay for anaemia reduction in rural China.A cluster randomised trial of information, subsidies, and incentives for school principals to reduce anaemia among their students. Enumerators and study participants were not informed of study arm assignment.72 randomly selected rural primary schools across northwest China.3553 fourth and fifth grade students aged 9-11 years. All fourth and fifth grade students in sample schools participated in the study.Sample schools were randomly assigned to a control group, with no intervention, or one of three treatment arms: (a) an information arm, in which principals received information about anaemia; (b) a subsidy arm, in which principals received information and unconditional subsidies; and (c) an incentive arm, in which principals received information, subsidies, and financial incentives for reducing anaemia among students. Twenty seven schools were assigned to the control arm (1816 students at baseline, 1623 at end point), 15 were assigned to the information arm (659 students at baseline, 596 at end point), 15 to the subsidy arm (726 students at baseline, 667 at end point), and 15 to the incentive arm (743 students at baseline, 667 at end point).Student haemoglobin concentrations.Mean student haemoglobin concentration rose by 1.5 g/L (95% CI -1.1 to 4.1) in information schools, 0.8 g/L (-1.8 to 3.3) in subsidy schools, and 2.4 g/L (0 to 4.9) in incentive schools compared with the control group. This increase in haemoglobin corresponded to a reduction in prevalence of anaemia (Hb <115 g/L) of 24% in incentive schools. Interactions with pre-existing incentives for principals to achieve good academic performance led to substantially larger gains in the information and incentive arms: when combined with incentives for good academic performance, associated effects on student haemoglobin concentration were 9.8 g/L (4.1 to 15.5) larger in information schools and 8.6 g/L (2.1 to 15.1) larger in incentive schools.Financial incentives for health improvement were modestly effective. Understanding interactions with other motives and pre-existing incentives is critical.ISRCTN76158086.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.e4809

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306997800001

    View details for PubMedID 22842354

  • Nutrition and Educational Performance in Rural China's Elementary Schools: Results of a Randomized Control Trial in Shaanxi Province ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Luo, R., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Rozelle, S., Sharbono, B., Yue, A., Zhao, Q., Martorell, R. 2012; 60 (4): 735-772
  • Rental markets for cultivated land and agricultural investments in China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Gao, L., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2012; 43 (4): 391-403
  • Dropping out: Why are students leaving junior high in China's poor rural areas? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Yi, H., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Shi, Y., Mo, D., Chen, X., Brinton, C., Rozelle, S. 2012; 32 (4): 555-563
  • Food Standards and Welfare: General Equilibrium Effects JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Xiang, T., Huang, J., Kancs, d., Rozelle, S., Swinnen, J. 2012; 63 (2): 223-244
  • Liquid biofuels in China: Current status, government policies, and future opportunities and challenges RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS Qiu, H., Sun, L., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2012; 16 (5): 3095-3104
  • The Limits of Health and Nutrition Education: Evidence from Three Randomized-Controlled Trials in Rural China CESIFO ECONOMIC STUDIES Luo, R., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Zhang, H., Miller, G., Medina, A., Rozelle, S. 2012; 58 (2): 385-404
  • Checking into China's cow hotels: Have policies following the milk scandal changed the structure of the dairy sector? JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE Mo, D., Huang, J., Jia, X., Luan, H., Rozelle, S., Swinnen, J. 2012; 95 (5): 2282-2298

    Abstract

    China's milk scandal is well known for causing the nation's largest food safety crisis and for its effect on thousands of children. Less, however, is known about the effect on the other victim: China's small dairy farmers. Although small backyard producers were not the ones that added melamine to the milk supply, the incomes of dairy farmers fell sharply after the crisis. In response, one of the actions taken by the government was to encourage small dairy producers to check into production complexes that were supposed to supply services, new technologies, and provide for easy/bulk procurement of the milk produced by the cows of the farmers. Because both farmers and their cows were living (and working) away from home, in the rest of the paper we call these complexes cow hotels. In this paper we examine the dynamics of China's dairy production structure before and after the milk scandal. In particular, we seek to gain a better understanding about how China's policies have been successful in encouraging farmers to move from the backyard into cow hotels. We also seek to find if larger or smaller farmers respond differently to these policy measures. Using data from a sample of farmers from dairy-producing villages in Greater Beijing, our empirical analysis finds that 1 yr after the milk scandal, the dairy production structure changed substantially. Approximately one quarter (26%) of the sample checked into cow hotels after the milk scandal, increasing from 2% before the crisis. Our results also demonstrate that the increase in cow hotel production can largely be attributed to China's dairy policies. Finally, our results suggest that the effects of government policy differ across farm sizes; China's dairy policies are more likely to persuade larger farms to join cow hotels. Apparently, larger farms benefit more when they join cow hotels. Overall, these results suggest that during the first year after the crisis, the government policies were effective in moving some of the backyard farmers into cow hotels (although 60% farmers remained backyard producing).

    View details for DOI 10.3168/jds.2011-4720

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303074900005

    View details for PubMedID 22541457

  • Transfer paths and academic performance: The primary school merger program in china INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Mo, D., Yi, H., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S., Medina, A. 2012; 32 (3): 423-431
  • China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme Improved Finances Of Township Health Centers But Not The Number Of Patients Served HEALTH AFFAIRS Babiarz, K. S., Miller, G., Yi, H., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2012; 31 (5): 1065-1074

    Abstract

    China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme, launched in 2003, was designed to protect rural households from the financial risk posed by health care costs and to increase the use of health care services. This article reports on findings from a longitudinal study of how the program affected the use of health care services, out-of-pocket spending on medical care, and the operations and financial viability of China's township health centers, which constitute a middle tier of care in between village clinics and county hospitals. We found that between 2005 and 2008 the program provided some risk protection and increased the intensity of inpatient care at township health centers. Importantly, the program appears to have improved the centers' financial status. At the same time, the program did not increase the overall number of patients served or the likelihood that a sick person would seek care at a township center. These findings serve as a benchmark of the program's early impact. The results also suggest that the composition of health care use in China has changed, with people increasingly seeking outpatient care at village clinics and inpatient care at township health centers.

    View details for DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.2010.1311

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303873100023

    View details for PubMedID 22566448

  • Persistent Poverty in Rural China: Where, Why, and How to Escape? WORLD DEVELOPMENT Glauben, T., Herzfeld, T., Rozelle, S., Wang, X. 2012; 40 (4): 784-795
  • Behind before they begin: The challenge of early childhood education in rural China AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Luo, R., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Zhao, Q., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S., Sharbono, B. 2012; 37 (1): 55-64
  • Quality and Inclusion of Producers in Value Chains: A Theoretical Note REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Vandemoortele, T., Rozelle, S., Swinnen, J., Xiang, T. 2012; 16 (1): 122-136
  • The effect of off-farm employment on the decisions of households to rent out and rent in cultivated land in China CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Huang, J., Gao, L., Rozelle, S. 2012; 4 (1): 5-17
  • Impact of China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Township Health Centers Health Affairs Rozelle, S., Babiarz , K. S., Miller, G., Yi, H., Zhang , L. 2012; 31 (5): 1065-1074
  • Children of China's Future YaleGlobal Online Eggleston, K., Oi , J. C., Rozelle, S., Sun, A., Zhou, X. 2012
  • Pesticide use and farmers' health in China's rice production CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Qiao, F., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2012; 4 (4): 468-484
  • Parental training, anemia and the impact on the nutrition of female students in China's poor rural elementary schools CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Shi, Y., Chang, F., Su, X., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2012; 4 (2): 151-167
  • A complementary measurement of changes in China's forestry area using remote sensing data JOURNAL OF FOOD AGRICULTURE & ENVIRONMENT Deng, X., Fang, Y., Uchida, E., Rozelle, S. 2012; 10 (3-4): 1355-1358
  • The rise of migration and the fall of self employment in rural China's labor market CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Wang, X., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2011; 22 (4): 573-584
  • College education and the poor in China: documenting the hurdles to educational attainment and college matriculation ASIA PACIFIC EDUCATION REVIEW Wang, X., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Glauben, T., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S., Sharbono, B. 2011; 12 (4): 533-546
  • Do roads lead to grassland degradation or restoration? A case study in Inner Mongolia, China ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Deng, X., Huang, J., Huang, Q., Rozelle, S., Gibson, J. 2011; 16: 751-773
  • Anaemia among Students of Rural China's Elementary Schools: Prevalence and Correlates in Ningxia and Qinghai's Poor Counties JOURNAL OF HEALTH POPULATION AND NUTRITION Luo, R., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Zhao, Q., Shi, Y., Miller, G., Yu, E., Sharbono, B., Medina, A., Rozelle, S., Martorell, R. 2011; 29 (5): 471-485

    Abstract

    Although the past few decades have seen rising incomes and increased government attention to rural development, many children in rural China still lack regular access to micronutrient-rich diets. Insufficient diets and poor knowledge of nutrition among the poor result in nutritional problems, including iron-deficiency anaemia, which adversely affect attention and learning of students in school. Little research has been conducted in China documenting the prevalence of nutritional problems among vulnerable populations, such as school-age children, in rural areas. The absence of programmes to combat anaemia among students might be interpreted as a sign that the Government does not recognize its severity. The goals of this paper were to measure the prevalence of anaemia among school-age children in poor regions of Qinghai and Ningxia, to identify individual-, household- and school-based factors that correlate with anaemia in this region, and to report on the correlation between the anaemic status and the physical, psychological and cognitive outcomes. The results of a cross-sectional survey are reported here. The survey involved over 4,000 fourth and fifth grade students from 76 randomly-selected elementary schools in 10 poor counties in rural Qinghai province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, located in the northwest region of China. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and standardized tests. Trained professional nurses administered haemoglobin (Hb) tests (using Hemocue finger prick kits) and measured heights and weights of children. The baseline data showed that the overall anaemia rate was 24.9%, using the World Health Organization's blood Hb cut-offs of 120 g/L for children aged 12 years and older and 115 g/L for children aged 11 years and under. Children who lived and ate at school had higher rates of anaemia, as did children whose parents worked in farms or were away from home. Children with parents who had lower levels of education were more likely to be anaemic. The anaemic status correlated with the adverse physical, cognitive and psychological outcomes among the students. Such findings are consistent with findings of other recent studies in poor, northwest areas of China and led to conclude that anaemia remains a serious health problem among children in parts of China.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296910300007

    View details for PubMedID 22106753

  • INVERSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY AND FARM SIZE: THE CASE OF CHINA CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY Chen, Z., Huffman, W. E., Rozelle, S. 2011; 29 (4): 580-592
  • Do Trees Grow with the Economy? A Spatial Analysis of the Determinants of Forest Cover Change in Sichuan, China ENVIRONMENTAL & RESOURCE ECONOMICS Zhao, H., Uchida, E., Deng, X., Rozelle, S. 2011; 50 (1): 61-82
  • HIGH ANEMIA PREVALENCE IN WESTERN CHINA SOUTHEAST ASIAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Luo, R., Wang, X., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Shi, Y., Miller, G., Rozelle, S., Yu, E., Martorell, R. 2011; 42 (5): 1204-1213

    Abstract

    We assessed the prevalence of anemia among schoolchildren in western China as determined by seven cross-sectional surveys involving 12,768 children aged 8-12 years. Subjects were selected randomly from 283 primary schools in 41 economically disadvantaged counties of Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi and Sichuan Provinces. Data were collected through questionnaires and hemoglobin levels were measured. The anemia prevalence was 34% using the WHO hemoglobin cutoff of < 120 g/l. Boarding students and girls were more likely to be anemic. The prevalence of anemia in schoolchildren was high. Iron deficiency is a significant nutrition issue in China.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295186800020

    View details for PubMedID 22299447

  • Early commitment on financial aid and college decision making of poor students: Evidence from a randomized evaluation in rural China ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW Liu, C., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Wang, X., Rozelle, S., Sharbono, B., Adams, J., Shi, Y., Yue, A., Li, H., Glauben, T. 2011; 30 (4): 627-640
  • Biofuel Development, Food Security and the Use of Marginal Land in China JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Qiu, H., Huang, J., Keyzer, M., van Veen, W., Rozelle, S., Fisher, G., Ermolieva, T. 2011; 40 (4): 1058-1067

    Abstract

    With concerns of energy shortages, China, like the United States, European Union, and other countries, is promoting the development of biofuels. However, China also faces high future demand for food and feed, and so its bioenergy program must try to strike a balance between food and fuel. The goals of this paper are to provide an overview of China's current bioethanol program, identify the potential for using marginal lands for feedstock production, and measure the likely impacts of China's bioethanol development on the nation's future food self-sufficiency. Our results indicate that the potential to use marginal land for bioethanol feedstock production is limited. Applying a modeling approach based on highly disaggregated data by region, our analysis shows that the target of 10 million t of bioethanol by 2020 seems to be a prudent target, causing no major disturbances in China's food security. But the expansion of bioethanol may increase environmental pressures due to the higher levels of fertilizer use. This study shows also that if China were able to cultivate 45% of its required bioethanol feedstock on new marginal land, it would further limit negative effects of the bioethanol program on the domestic and international economy, but at the expense of having to apply another 750 thousand t of fertilizer.

    View details for DOI 10.2134/jeq2011.0012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292084100002

    View details for PubMedID 21712574

  • MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND THE RISE AND FALL OF BACKYARD HOG PRODUCTION IN CHINA DEVELOPING ECONOMIES Qiao, F., Chen, J., Carter, C., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2011; 49 (2): 203-222
  • The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Off-farm Employment and Earnings in Rural China WORLD DEVELOPMENT Huang, J., Zhi, H., Huang, Z., Rozelle, S., Giles, J. 2011; 39 (5): 797-807
  • The impact of the Doha trade proposals on farmers' incomes in China JOURNAL OF POLICY MODELING Yang, J., Huang, J., Li, N., Rozelle, S., Martin, W. 2011; 33 (3): 439-452
  • Mapping poverty in rural China: how much does the environment matter? ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Olivia, S., Gibson, J., Rozelle, S., Huang, J., Deng, X. 2011; 16: 129-153
  • Efficiency of Land Allocation through Tenancy Markets: Evidence from China ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Kimura, S., Otsuka, K., Sonobe, T., Rozelle, S. 2011; 59 (3): 485-510

    View details for DOI 10.1086/649639

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288652500001

  • Subsidies and distortions in China's agriculture: evidence from producer-level data AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS Huang, J., Wang, X., Zhi, H., Huang, Z., Rozelle, S. 2011; 55 (1): 53-71
  • Private Migrant Schools or Rural/Urban Public Schools: Where Should China Educate Its Migrant Children? Economics of Education Review Rozelle, S. 2011
  • Alarmingly High Anemia Prevalence in Western China Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health Rozelle , S., et al 2011; 42 (5)
  • What is keeping the poor out of college? Enrollment rates, educational barriers and college matriculation in China CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Wang, X., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Glauben, T., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S., Sharbono, B. 2011; 3 (2): 131-149
  • Community service, educational performance and social responsibility in Northwest China JOURNAL OF MORAL EDUCATION Luo, R., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Li, H., Rozelle, S., Sharbono, B. 2011; 40 (2): 181-202
  • Pressure cookers or pressure valves: Do roads lead to deforestation in China? JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT Deng, X., Huang, J., Uchida, E., Rozelle, S., Gibson, J. 2011; 61 (1): 79-94
  • Conducting influential impact evaluations in China: the experience of the Rural Education Action Project JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS Boswell, M., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Luo, R., Shi, Y. 2011; 3 (3): 420-430
  • The effects of price on household demand for food and calories in poor countries: are our databases giving reliable estimates? APPLIED ECONOMICS Gibson, J., Rozelle, S. 2011; 43 (27): 4021-4031
  • How widespread are nonlinear crowding out effects? The response of private transfers to income in four developing countries APPLIED ECONOMICS Gibson, J., Olivia, S., Rozelle, S. 2011; 43 (27): 4053-4068
  • Empirical assessment of water management institutions in northern China AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT Huang, Q., Wang, J., Easter, K. W., Rozelle, S. 2010; 98 (2): 361-369
  • Policy support and emerging farmer professional cooperatives in rural China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Deng, H., Huang, J., Xu, Z., Rozelle, S. 2010; 21 (4): 495-507
  • The effect of primary school mergers on academic performance of students in rural China INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Liu, C., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Rozelle, S., Loyalka, P. 2010; 30 (6): 570-585
  • China's agriculture: drivers of change and implications for China and the rest of world 27th Conference of the International-Association-of-Agricultural-Economists Huang, J., Yang, J., Rozelle, S. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 47–55
  • Does taking one step back get you two steps forward? Grade retention and school performance in poor areas in rural China INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Chen, X., Liu, C., Zhang, L., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S. 2010; 30 (6): 544-559
  • New evidence on the impact of China's New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme and its implications for rural primary healthcare: multivariate difference-in-difference analysis BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL Babiarz, K. S., Miller, G., Yi, H., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2010; 341

    Abstract

    To determine whether China's New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), which aims to provide health insurance to 800 million rural citizens and to correct distortions in rural primary care, and the individual policy attributes have affected the operation and use of village health clinics.We performed a difference-in-difference analysis using multivariate linear regressions, controlling for clinic and individual attributes as well as village and year effects.100 villages within 25 rural counties across five Chinese provinces in 2004 and 2007. Participants 160 village primary care clinics and 8339 individuals.Clinic outcomes were log average weekly patient flow, log average monthly gross income, log total annual net income, and the proportion of monthly gross income from medicine sales. Individual outcomes were probability of seeking medical care, log annual "out of pocket" health expenditure, and two measures of exposure to financial risk (probability of incurring out of pocket health expenditure above the 90th percentile of spending among the uninsured and probability of financing medical care by borrowing or selling assets).For village clinics, we found that NCMS was associated with a 26% increase in weekly patient flow and a 29% increase in monthly gross income, but no change in annual net revenue or the proportion of monthly income from drug revenue. For individuals, participation in NCMS was associated with a 5% increase in village clinic use, but no change in overall medical care use. Also, out of pocket medical spending fell by 19% and the two measures of exposure to financial risk declined by 24-63%. These changes occurred across heterogeneous county programmes, even in those with minimal benefit packages.NCMS provides some financial risk protection for individuals in rural China and has partly corrected distortions in Chinese rural healthcare (reducing the oversupply of specialty services and prescription drugs). However, the scheme may have also shifted uncompensated new responsibilities to village clinics. Given renewed interest among Chinese policy makers in strengthening primary care, the effect of NCMS deserves greater attention.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.c5617

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283553200002

    View details for PubMedID 20966008

  • Access to groundwater and agricultural production in China AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT Zhang, L., Wang, J., Huang, J., Huang, Q., Rozelle, S. 2010; 97 (10): 1609-1616
  • Natural refuge crops, buildup of resistance, and zero-refuge strategy for Bt cotton in China SCIENCE CHINA-LIFE SCIENCES Qiao Fangbin, F. B., Huang JiKun, J. K., Rozelle, S., Wilen, J. 2010; 53 (10): 1227-1238

    Abstract

    In the context of genetically modified crops expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, a 'refuge' refers to a crop of the same or a related species that is planted nearby to enable growth and reproduction of the target pest without the selection pressure imposed by the Bt toxin. The goal of this study is to discuss the role of natural refuge crops in slowing down the buildup of resistance of cotton bollworm (CBW), and to evaluate China's no-refuge policy for Bt cotton. We describe in detail the different factors that China should consider in relation to the refuge policy. Drawing on a review of scientific data, economic analyses of other cases, and a simulation exercise using a bio-economic model, we show that in the case of Bt cotton in China, the no-refuge policy is defensible.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11427-010-4076-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283120000010

    View details for PubMedID 20953946

  • Farmer Participation, Processing, and the Rise of Dairy Production in Greater Beijing, P. R. China CANADIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS-REVUE CANADIENNE D AGROECONOMIE Huang, J., Wu, Y., Yang, Z., Rozelle, S., Fabiosa, J., Dong, F. 2010; 58 (3): 321-342
  • A decade of Bt cotton in Chinese fields: Assessing the direct effects and indirect externalities of Bt cotton adoption in China SCIENCE CHINA-LIFE SCIENCES Huang JiKun, J. K., Mi JianWei, J. W., Lin Hai, H., Wang Zijun, Z. J., Chen RuiJian, R. J., Hu RuiFa, R. F., Rozelle, S., Pray, C. 2010; 53 (8): 981-991
  • Water Governance and Water Use Efficiency: The Five Principles of WUA Management and Performance in China1 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION Wang, J., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Huang, Q., Rozelle, S. 2010; 46 (4): 665-685
  • Productivity, efficiency and technical change: measuring the performance of China's transforming agriculture Conference on Trends and Forces in International Agricultural Productivity Growth Jin, S., Ma, H., Huang, J., Hu, R., Rozelle, S. SPRINGER. 2010: 191–207
  • Irrigation water demand and implications for water pricing policy in rural China ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Huang, Q., Rozelle, S., Howitt, R., Wang, J., Huang, J. 2010; 15: 293-319
  • Economic Growth and the Expansion of Urban Land in China URBAN STUDIES Deng, X., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Uchida, E. 2010; 47 (4): 813-843
  • Why is China's Blue Revolution so "Blue"? The determinants of conservation tillage in China JOURNAL OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION Wang, J., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S., Farnsworth, H. F. 2010; 65 (2): 113-129
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services with Dual Goals of Environment and Poverty Alleviation ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Gauvin, C., Uchida, E., Rozelle, S., Xu, J., Zhan, J. 2010; 45 (3): 488-501

    Abstract

    The goal of this article is to understand strategies by which both the environmental and poverty alleviation objectives of PES programs can be achieved cost effectively. To meet this goal, we first create a conceptual framework to understand the implications of alternative targeting when policy makers have both environmental and poverty alleviation goals. We then use the Grain for Green program in China, the largest PES program in the developing world, as a case study. We also use a data set from a survey that we designed and implemented to evaluate the program. Using the data set we first evaluate what factors determined selection of program areas for the Grain for Green program. We then demonstrate the heterogeneity of parcels and households and examine the correlations across households and their parcels in terms of their potential environmental benefits, opportunity costs of participating, and the asset levels of households as an indicator of poverty. Finally, we compare five alternative targeting criteria and simulate their performance in terms of cost effectiveness in meeting both the environmental and poverty alleviation goals when given a fixed budget. Based on our simulations, we find that there is a substantial gain in the cost effectiveness of the program by targeting parcels based on the "gold standard," i.e., targeting parcels with low opportunity cost and high environmental benefit managed by poorer households.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00267-009-9321-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275789700007

    View details for PubMedID 19536592

  • Impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation events on China's rice production JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES Deng Xiangzheng, X. Z., Huang Jikun, J. K., Qiao Fangbin, F. B., Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P., Burke, M., Rozelle, S., Battisti, D. 2010; 20 (1): 3-16
  • Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy APPLIED ENERGY Qiu, H., Huang, J., Yang, J., Rozelle, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y. 2010; 87 (1): 76-83
  • Growing Pains: Tensions and Opportunity in China's Transformation Oi, J. C., Rozelle, S., Zhou , X. Shorenstein APARC. 2010
  • The challenges facing young workers during rural labor transition CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Li, X., Liu, C., Luo, R., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S. 2010; 2 (2): 185-199
  • A comparison of rural and urban healthcare consumption and health insurance CHINA AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Wang, H. H., Huang, S., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S., Yan, Y. 2010; 2 (2): 212-227
  • Village Elections, Public Goods Investments and Pork Barrel Politics, Chinese-style JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Luo, R., Zhang, L., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2010; 46 (4): 662-684
  • Anemia in Rural China's Elementary Schools: Prevalence and Correlates in Shaanxi Province's Poor Counties ECOLOGY OF FOOD AND NUTRITION Luo, R., Kleiman-Weiner, M., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Sharbono, B., Shi, Y., Yue, A., Martorell, R., Lee, M. 2010; 49 (5): 357-372

    Abstract

    Despite growing wealth in China, a significant share of children across rural China still have no access to iron-rich foods, vitamins, and other micronutrients. Such poor diets may result in high incidences of nutritional problems, including anemia. The objective of the study was to increase understanding of the extent of anemia, and identify structural correlates of anemia in poor Shaanxi province's primary schools. The article shows that the overall anemia rate is 21.5 percent when using a blood hemoglobin cutoff of 115 g/L (39 percent with a cutoff of 120 g/L). We find that those students that are boarding at school and eat lunch away from home are more likely to be anemic. Children with anemia are found to have lower height for age (HAZ) scores. If this part of Shaanxi province is representative of all poor counties in China, these findings mean millions of children in poor rural China may be anemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/03670244.2010.507437

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284103700002

    View details for PubMedID 21888576

  • Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade APPLIED ENERGY Yang, J., Huang, J., Qiu, H., Rozelle, S., Sombilla, M. A. 2009; 86: S37-S46
  • Producing and Procuring Horticultural Crops with Chinese Characteristics: The Case of Northern China WORLD DEVELOPMENT Wang, H., Dong, X., Rozelle, S., Huang, J., Reardon, T. 2009; 37 (11): 1791-1801
  • Changes in trade and domestic distortions affecting China's agriculture FOOD POLICY Huang, J., Liu, Y., Martin, W., Rozelle, S. 2009; 34 (5): 407-416
  • The evolution of groundwater governance: productivity, equity and changes in the level of China's aquifers QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY Wang, J., Huang, J., Huang, Q., Rozelle, S., Farnsworth, H. F. 2009; 42: 267-280
  • HEALTH INSURANCE AND CATASTROPHIC ILLNESS: A REPORT ON THE NEW COOPERATIVE MEDICAL SYSTEM IN RURAL CHINA HEALTH ECONOMICS Yi, H., Zhang, L., Singer, K., Rozelle, S., Atlas, S. 2009; 18: S119-S127

    Abstract

    The overall goal of the paper is to understand the progress of the design and implementation of China's New Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) program between 2004 (the second year of the program) and 2007. In the paper we seek to assess some of the strengths and weaknesses of the program using a panel of national-representative, household survey data that were collected in 2005 and early 2008. According to our data, we confirm the recent reports by the Ministry of Health that there have been substantial improvements to the NCMS program in terms of coverage and participation. We also show that rural individuals also perceive an improvement in service by 2007. While the progress of the NCMS program is clear, there are still weaknesses. Most importantly, the program clearly does not meet one of its key goals of providing insurance against catastrophic illnesses. On average, individuals that required inpatient treatment in 2007 were reimbursed for 15% of their expenditures. Although this is higher than in 2004, on average, as the severity of the illness (in terms of expenditures on health care) rose, the real reimbursement rate (reimbursement amount/total expenditure on medical care) fell. The real reimbursement rate for illnesses that required expenditures between 4000 and 10,000 yuan (over 10,000 yuan) was only 11% (8%). Our analysis shows that one of the limiting factors is constrained funding.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hec.1510

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267744300010

    View details for PubMedID 19551747

  • Introduction to the symposium on agriculture in transition CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Fleisher, B. M., Brada, J., Rozelle, S., Swinnen, J. 2009; 20 (2): 263-264
  • Reforming intellectual property rights and the Bt cotton seed industry in China: Who benefits from policy reform? RESEARCH POLICY Hu, R., Pray, C., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Fan, C., Zhang, C. 2009; 38 (5): 793-801
  • Why did the communist party reform in China, but not in the Soviet Union? The political economy of agricultural transition Chinese-Economists-Society-Europe Conference 2007 Rozelle, S., Swinnen, J. F. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2009: 275–87
  • Dynamically optimal strategies for managing the joint resistance of pests to Bt toxin and conventional pesticides in a developing country EUROPEAN REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Qiao, F., Wilen, J., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2009; 36 (2): 253-279
  • Farm technology and technical efficiency: Evidence from four regions in China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Chen, Z., Huffman, W. E., Rozelle, S. 2009; 20 (2): 153-161
  • The impact of climate change on China's agriculture AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Wang, J., Mendelsohn, R., Dinar, A., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L. 2009; 40 (3): 323-337
  • Moving off the farm and intensifying agricultural production in Shandong: a case study of rural labor market linkages in China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Huang, J., Wu, Y., Rozelle, S. 2009; 40 (2): 203-218
  • Water management institutional reform: A representative look at northern China AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT Huang, Q., Rozelle, S., Wang, J., Huang, J. 2009; 96 (2): 215-225
  • Conservation Payments, Liquidity Constraints, and Off-Farm Labor: Impact of the Grain-for-Green Program on Rural Households in China AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Uchida, E., Rozelle, S., Xu, J. 2009; 91 (1): 70-86
  • Development challenges, tuition barriers, and high school education in China ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Liu, C., Zhang, L., Luo, R., Rozelle, S., Sharbono, B., Shi, Y. 2009; 29 (4): 503-520
  • Effect of Migration on Children's Educational Performance in Rural China Comparative Edonomic Studies Chen, X., Huang, Q., Rozelle, S., Sharbono , B. 2009; 51
  • Understanding the Water Crisis in Northern China: What the Government and Farmers are Doing INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT Wang, J., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Huang, Q., Zhang, L. 2009; 25 (1): 141-158
  • Bt Cotton in China: Are Secondary Insect Infestations Offsetting the Benefits in Farmer Fields? AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES IN CHINA Wang Zi-Jun, Z. J., Lin Hai, H., Huang Ji-kun, J. K., Hu Rui-fa, R. F., Rozelle, S., Pray, C. 2009; 8 (1): 83-90
  • Malnutrition in China's rural boarding schools: the case of primary schools in Shaanxi Province ASIA PACIFIC JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Luo, R., Shi, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Rozelle, S., Sharbono, B. 2009; 29 (4): 481-501
  • Governance Structures and Resource Policy Reform: Insights from Agricultural Transition ANNUAL REVIEW OF RESOURCE ECONOMICS Swinnen, J. F., Rozelle, S. 2009; 1: 33-54
  • Contribution of Wheat Diversity to Total Factor Productivity in China JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS Jin, S., Meng, E. C., Hu, R., Rozelle, S., Huang, J. 2008; 33 (3): 449-472
  • Fighting global food price rises in the developing world: the response of China and its effect on domestic and world markets AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Yang, J., Qiu, H., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2008; 39 (3): 453-464
  • Small holder incomes, food safety and producing, and marketing China's fruit Annual Meeting of the Allied-Social-Science-Association Huang, J., Wu, Y., Zhi, H., Rozelle, S. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2008: 469–79
  • Incentive Complementarity in China's Rural Enterprises REVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION Mohapatra, S., Goodhue, R. E., Rozelle, S. 2008; 33 (1): 63-79
  • Migration and household investment in rural China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW De Brauw, A., Rozelle, S. 2008; 19 (2): 320-335
  • Dynamically optimal strategies for managing resistance to genetically modified crops JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY Qiao, F., Wilen, J., Rozelle, S. 2008; 101 (3): 915-926

    Abstract

    This paper develops a dynamic model of the evolution of pest a population and pest resistance to characterize the socially optimal refuge strategy for managing a pest's resistance to genetically modified crops. Previous theoretical economic analyses of this problem focus on steady states; we also address refuge policies along the optimal path to the final equilibrium. To elaborate on our theoretical analysis of the resistance problem, we develop a simulation model calibrated to cotton (Gossypium spp.) production in China. Our results show the importance of fitness cost as a determinant of the qualitative nature of optimal refuge policies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258337200035

    View details for PubMedID 18613595

  • Feminization of agriculture in China? Myths surrounding women's participation in farming CHINA QUARTERLY de Brauw, A., Li, Q., Liu, C., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L. 2008: 327-348
  • Water management reform and the choice of contractual form in China ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Huang, Q., Rozelle, S., Msangi, S., Wang, J., Huang, J. 2008; 13: 171-200
  • Development of groundwater markets in China: A glimpse into progress to date WORLD DEVELOPMENT Zhang, L., Wang, J., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2008; 36 (4): 706-726
  • Reconciling the returns to education in off-farm wage employment in rural China REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS de Brauw, A., Rozelle, S. 2008; 12 (1): 57-71
  • Will the Biosafety Protocol hinder or protect the developing world: Learning from China's experience FOOD POLICY Huang, J., Zhang, D., Yang, J., Rozelle, S., Kalaitzandonakes, N. 2008; 33 (1): 1-12
  • Growth, population and industrialization, and urban land expansion of China JOURNAL OF URBAN ECONOMICS Deng, X., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Uchida, E. 2008; 63 (1): 96-115
  • Genetically modified rice, yields, and pesticides: Assessing farm-level productivity effects in China ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Huang, J., Hu, R., Rozelle, S., Pray, C. 2008; 56 (2): 241-263
  • Consumption of dairy products in urban China: results from Beijing, Shangai and Guangzhou AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS Fuller, F., Beghin, J., Rozelle, S. 2007; 51 (4): 459-474
  • The ripple effect: Biofuels, food security, and the environment ENVIRONMENT Naylor, R. L., Liska, A. J., Burke, M. B., Falcon, W. P., Gaskell, J. C., Rozelle, S. D., Cassman, K. G. 2007; 49 (9): 30-43
  • The dynamics of Chinese rural households' participation in labor markets 26th Meeting of the International-Association-of-Agricultural-Economists (IAAE) Brosig, S., Glauben, T., Herzfeld, T., Rozelle, S., Wang, X. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2007: 167–78
  • Elections, fiscal reform and public goods provision in rural China JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS Luo, R., Zhang, L., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2007; 35 (3): 583-611
  • Are the poor benefiting from China's land conservation program? Annual Meeting of the American-Agricultural-Economics-Association Uchida, E., Xu, J., Xu, Z., Rozelle, S. CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. 2007: 593–620
  • Summary of agriculture of Zigong district in China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Ma, H., Rae, A. N., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2007; 37 (1): 29-42
  • Irrigation management reforms in the Yellow River Basin: Implications for water saving and poverty IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE Wang, J., Huang, J., Xu, Z., Rozelle, S., Hussain, I., Biltonen, E. 2007; 56 (2): 247-259

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ird.306

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246090300010

  • Water saving technology and saving water in China AGRICULTURAL WATER MANAGEMENT Blanke, A., Rozelle, S., Lohmar, B., Wang, J., Huang, J. 2007; 87 (2): 139-150
  • The Rise of Self-employment in China: Development or Distress World Development Mohaptra, S., Rozelle, S., Goodhue, R. 2007; 35 (1)
  • Agricultural trade liberalization and poverty in China Conference on Law, Finance and Economic Development Huang, J., Jun, Y., Xu, Z., Rozelle, S., Li, N. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2007: 244–65
  • Incentive contracts and bank performance - Evidence from rural China ECONOMICS OF TRANSITION Li, H., Rozelle, S., Zhou, L. 2007; 15 (1): 109-124
  • Agriculture and groundwater development in northern China: trends, institutional responses, and policy options WATER POLICY Wang, J., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Huang, Q., Blanke, A. 2007; 9: 61-74
  • The rise of self-employment in rural China: Development or distress? WORLD DEVELOPMENT Mohapatra, S., Rozelle, S., Goodhue, R. 2007; 35 (1): 163-181
  • Enhancing productivity on suburban dairy darms in China Agricultural Economics Ma, H., Rae, A., Huang , J., Rozelle , S. 2007; 37 (1)
  • Cultivated land conversion and potential agricultural productivity in China LAND USE POLICY Deng, X., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Uchida, E. 2006; 23 (4): 372-384
  • Climbing the development ladder: Economic development and the evolution of occupations in rural China JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Mohapatra, S., Rozelle, S., Huang, J. 2006; 42 (6): 1023-1055
  • Livestock in China: Commodity-specific total factor productivity decomposition using new panel data AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Rae, A. N., Ma, H., Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 2006; 88 (3): 680-695
  • Self-employment with Chinese characteristics: The forgotten engine of rural China's growth CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY Zhang, J., Zhang, L., Rozelle, S., Boucher, S. 2006; 24 (3): 446-458

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cep/byj034

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239016700009

  • Got milk? The rapid rise of China's dairy sector and its future prospects FOOD POLICY Fuller, F., Huang, J., Ma, H., Rozelle, S. 2006; 31 (3): 201-215
  • Incentives to managers or participation of farmers in China's irrigation systems: which matters most for water savings, farmer income, and poverty? AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Wang, J. X., Xu, Z. G., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 2006; 34 (3): 315-330
  • Getting rich and eating out: Consumption of food away from home in urban China CANADIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS-REVUE CANADIENNE D AGROECONOMIE Ma, H. Y., Huang, J. K., Fuller, F., Rozelle, S. 2006; 54 (1): 101-119
  • Fostering or stripping rural China: Modernizing agriculture and rural to urban capital flows DEVELOPING ECONOMIES Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Wang, H. 2006; 44 (1): 1-26
  • Privatization of tubewells in North China: Determinants and impacts on irrigated area, productivity and the water table HYDROGEOLOGY JOURNAL Wang, J. X., Huang, J. K., Huang, Q. Q., Rozelle, S. 2006; 14 (3): 275-285
  • Irrigation, agricultural performance and poverty reduction in China FOOD POLICY Huang, Q. Q., Rozelle, S., Lohmar, B., Huang, J. K., Wang, J. X. 2006; 31 (1): 30-52
  • From Marx and Mao to the Market: The Economics and Politics of Agrarian Transition Rozelle, S., Swinnen , J. Oxford University Press. 2006
  • Grain for green versus grain: Conflict between food security and conservation set-aside in China WORLD DEVELOPMENT Xu, Z. G., Xu, J. T., Deng, X. Z., Huang, J. K., Uchida, E., Rozelle, S. 2006; 34 (1): 130-148
  • The emergence of agricultural commodity markets in China Summer Conference of the Chinese-Economists-Society on Technoloyg, Human Capital and Economic Development Huang, J., Rozelle, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: 266–80
  • Incentives in water management reform: assessing the effect on water use, production, and poverty in the Yellow River Basin ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Wang, J. X., Xu, Z. G., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 2005; 10: 769-799
  • Labor market emergence and returns to education in rural China Annual Meeting of the Allied-Social-Sciences-Association Li, Q., de Brauw, A., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L. X. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING. 2005: 418–24
  • Economies of scale and scope and the economic efficiency of China's agricultural research system INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW Jin, S. Q., Rozelle, S., Alston, J., Huang, J. K. 2005; 46 (3): 1033-1057
  • Evolution of tubewell ownership and production in the North China Plain AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS Wang, J. X., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 2005; 49 (2): 177-195
  • Irrigation, poverty and inequality in rural China AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS Huang, Q. Q., Dawe, D., Rozelle, S., Huang, J. K., Wang, J. X. 2005; 49 (2): 159-175
  • Grain for green: Cost-effectiveness and sustainability of China's conservation set-aside program LAND ECONOMICS Uchida, E., Xu, J. T., Rozelle, S. 2005; 81 (2): 247-264
  • Insect-resistant GM rice in farmers' fields: Assessing productivity and health effects in China SCIENCE Huang, J. K., Hu, R. F., Rozelle, S., Pray, C. 2005; 308 (5722): 688-690

    Abstract

    Although no country to date has released a major genetically modified (GM) food grain crop, China is on the threshold of commercializing GM rice. This paper studies two of the four GM varieties that are now in farm-level preproduction trials, the last step before commercialization. Farm surveys of randomly selected farm households that are cultivating the insect-resistant GM rice varieties, without the aid of experimental station technicians, demonstrate that when compared with households cultivating non-GM rice, small and poor farm households benefit from adopting GM rice by both higher crop yields and reduced use of pesticides, which also contribute to improved health.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1108972

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228810900048

    View details for PubMedID 15860626

  • Prices and unit values in poverty measurement and tax reform analysis WORLD BANK ECONOMIC REVIEW Gibson, J., Rozelle, S. 2005; 19 (1): 69-97
  • The engines of a viable agriculture: Advances in biotechnology, market accessibility and land rentals in rural China Conference on the First 40 Years of the Universities Service Centre for China Studies Rozelle, S., Huang, J., Otsuka, K. UNIV CHICAGO PRESS. 2005: 81–111
  • Chinese animal product consumption in the 1990s AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS Ma, H. Y., Rae, A., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 2004; 48 (4): 569-590
  • Local government behavior and property right formation in rural China JOURNAL OF INSTITUTIONAL AND THEORETICAL ECONOMICS-ZEITSCHRIFT FUR DIE GESAMTE STAATSWISSENSCHAFT Brandt, L., Rozelle, S., Turner, M. A. 2004; 160 (4): 627-662
  • Insider privatization with a tail: the screening contract and performance of privatized firms in rural China JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Li, H. B., Rozelle, S. 2004; 75 (1): 1-26
  • The sequencing of reform policies in China's agricultural transition ECONOMICS OF TRANSITION de Brauw, A., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 2004; 12 (3): 427-465
  • Working until you drop: The elderly of rural China CHINA JOURNAL Pang, L. H., de Brauw, A., Rozelle, S. 2004; 52: 73-94
  • Success and failure of reform: Insights from the transition of agriculture JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE Rozelle, S., Swinnen, J. F. 2004; 42 (2): 404-456
  • Is it better to be a boy? A disaggregated outlay equivalent analysis of gender bias in Papua New Guinea JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Gibson, J., Rozelle, S. 2004; 40 (4): 115-136
  • China's rural labor market development and its gender implications International Rice Congress Zhang, L. X., de Brauw, A., Rozelle, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2004: 230–47
  • Cultivated land conversion and bioproductivity in China Conference on Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability Huang, J. K., Deng, X. Z., Rozelle, S. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2004: 135–148

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.563268

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225599600013

  • Reassessing China's livestock statistics: An analysis of discrepancies and the creation of new data series ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Ma, H. Y., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 2004; 52 (2): 445-473
  • Tracking distortions in agriculture: China and its accession to the World Trade Organization WORLD BANK ECONOMIC REVIEW Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S., Chang, M. 2004; 18 (1): 59-84
  • Privatizing rural China: Insider privatization, innovative contracts and the performance of township enterprises CHINA QUARTERLY Li, H. B., Rozelle, S. 2003: 981-1005
  • Migration and incomes in source communities: A new economics of migration perspective from China ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Taylor, J. E., Rozelle, S., de Brauw, A. 2003; 52 (1): 75-101
  • Poverty and access to roads in Papua New Guinea ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Gibson, J., Rozelle, S. 2003; 52 (1): 159-185
  • Biotechnology as an alternative to chemical pesticides: a case study of Bt cotton in China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Huang, J. K., Hu, R. F., Pray, C., Qiao, F. B., Rozelle, S. 2003; 29 (1): 55-67
  • Improving estimates of inequality and poverty from urban China's Household Income and Expenditure Survey REVIEW OF INCOME AND WEALTH Gibson, J., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 2003: 53-68
  • Producer benefits from input market and trade liberalization: The case of fertilizer in China Annual Meeting of the American-Agricultural-Economics-Association Qiao, F. B., Lohmar, B., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L. X. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC. 2003: 1223–27
  • Forest exploitation and protection in reform China - Assessing the impacts of policy and economic growth Conference on Policy Reform and Forestry in China Rozelle, S., Huang, J., Benziger, V. RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE INC. 2003: 109–133
  • Continuity and change in China's rural periodic markets CHINA JOURNAL Rozelle, S., Huang, J. K., Benziger, V. 2003; 49: 89-115
  • Hazards of expropriation: Tenure insecurity and investment in rural China AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW Jacoby, H. G., Li, G., Rozelle, S. 2002; 92 (5): 1420-1447
  • The creation and spread of technology and total factor productivity in China's agriculture AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Jin, S. Q., Huang, J. K., Hu, R. F., Rozelle, S. 2002; 84 (4): 916-930
  • Transgenic varieties and productivity of smallholder cotton farmers in China AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS Huang, J. K., Hu, R. F., Rozelle, S., Qiao, F. B., Pray, C. E. 2002; 46 (3): 367-387
  • Enhancing the crops to feed the poor NATURE Huang, J. K., Pray, C., Rozelle, S. 2002; 418 (6898): 678-684

    Abstract

    Solutions to the problem of how the developing world will meet its future food needs are broader than producing more food, although the successes of the 'Green Revolution' demonstrate the importance of technology in generating the growth in food output in the past. Despite these successes, the world still faces continuing vulnerability to food shortages. Given the necessary funding, it seems likely that conventional crop breeding, as well as emerging technologies based on molecular biology, genetic engineering and natural resource management, will continue to improve productivity in the coming decades.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature01015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177305600054

    View details for PubMedID 12167874

  • How elastic is calorie demand? Parametric, nonparametric and semiparametric results for urban Papua New Guinea JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Gibson, J., Rozelle, S. 2002; 38 (6): 23-46
  • Five years of Bt cotton in China - the benefits continue PLANT JOURNAL Pray, C. E., Huang, J. K., Hu, R. F., Rozelle, S. 2002; 31 (4): 423-430

    Abstract

    Bt cotton is spreading very rapidly in China, in response to demand from farmers for technology that will reduce both the cost of pesticide applications and exposure to pesticides, and will free up time for other tasks. Based on surveys of hundreds of farmers in the Yellow River cotton-growing region in northern China in 1999, 2000 and 2001, over 4 million smallholders have been able to increase yield per hectare, and reduce pesticide costs, time spent spraying dangerous pesticides, and illnesses due to pesticide poisoning. The expansion of this cost-saving technology is increasing the supply of cotton and pushing down the price, but prices are still sufficiently high for adopters of Bt cotton to make substantial gains in net income.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177863400003

    View details for PubMedID 12182701

  • The evolution of China's rural labor markets during the reforms Conference on the Transformation of Chinas Rural Economy de Brauw, A., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L. X., Zhang, Y. G. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2002: 329–53
  • Market emergence and transition: Arbitrage, transaction costs, and autarky in China's grain markets AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Park, A., Jin, H. H., Rozelle, S., Huang, J. K. 2002; 84 (1): 67-82
  • Plant biotechnology in China SCIENCE Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S., Pray, C., Wang, Q. F. 2002; 295 (5555): 674-677

    Abstract

    A survey of China's plant biotechnologists shows that China is developing the largest plant biotechnology capacity outside of North America. The list of genetically modified plant technologies in trials, including rice, wheat, potatoes, and peanuts, is impressive and differs from those being worked on in other countries. Poor farmers in China are cultivating more area of genetically modified plants than are small farmers in any other developing country. A survey of agricultural producers in China demonstrates that Bacillus thuringiensis cotton adoption increases production efficiency and improves farmer health.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173560900044

    View details for PubMedID 11809972

  • Employment, emerging labor markets, and the role of education in rural China International Conference on Has China Become a Market Economy Zhang, L. X., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2002: 313–28
  • Land rights in rural China: Facts, fictions and issues CHINA JOURNAL Brandt, L., Huang, J. K., Li, G., Rozelle, S. 2002; 47: 67-97
  • Emerging markets, evolving institutions, and the new opportunities for growth in China's rural economy CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Rozelle, S., Huang, J. K., Zhang, L. X. 2002; 13 (4): 345-353
  • Off-farm jobs and on-farm work in periods of boom and bust in rural China JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS Zhang, L. X., Rozelle, S., Huang, J. K. 2001; 29 (3): 505-526
  • Why is income inequality so low in China compared to other countries? The effect of household survey methods ECONOMICS LETTERS Gibson, J., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 2001; 71 (3): 329-333
  • Transition, development and the supply of wheat in China AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS Rozelle, S., Huang, J. K. 2000; 44 (4): 543-571
  • Responsiveness, flexibility, and market liberalization in China's agriculture Annual Meeting of the Agricultural-Economics-Association de Brauw, A., Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING. 2000: 1133–39
  • Saving or stripping rural industry: an analysis of privatization and efficiency in China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Li, H. B., Rozelle, S. 2000; 23 (3): 241-252
  • Elections and power: The locus of decision-making in Chinese villages CHINA QUARTERLY OI, J. C., Rozelle, S. 2000: 513-539
  • Bureaucrat to entrepreneur: The changing role of the state in China's grain economy ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Rozelle, S., Park, A., Huang, J. K., Jin, H. H. 2000; 48 (2): 227-252
  • WTO and agriculture: radical reforms or the continuation of gradual transition CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S., Zhang, L. X. 2000; 11 (4): 397-401
  • Aging, wellbeing, and social security in rural northern China POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW Benjamin, D., Brandt, L., Rozelle, S. 2000; 26: 89-116
  • Leaders, managers, and the organization of township and village enterprises in China JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Chen, H. Y., Rozelle, S. 1999; 60 (2): 529-557
  • China's food economy to the twenty-first century: Supply, demand, and trade ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S., Rosegrant, M. W. 1999; 47 (4): 737-766
  • Leaving China's farms: Survey results of new paths and remaining hurdles to rural migration CHINA QUARTERLY Rozelle, S., Guo, L., Shen, M. G., Hughart, A., Giles, J. 1999: 367-393
  • Migration, remittances, and agricultural productivity in China 111th Annual Meeting of the American-Economic-Association Rozelle, S., Taylor, J. E., deBrauw, A. AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC. 1999: 287–91
  • Wheat in China: Supply, demand and trade in the 21st century Symposium on The Economics of World Wheat Markets - Implications for North America ROZELLE, S. D., Huang, J. CABI PUBLISHING. 1999: 145–173
  • Targeted poverty investments and economic growth in China WORLD DEVELOPMENT Rozelle, S., Park, A., Benziger, V., Ren, C. Q. 1998; 26 (12): 2137-2151
  • Reforming state-market relations in rural China ECONOMICS OF TRANSITION Park, A., Rozelle, S. 1998; 6 (2): 461-480
  • Tenure, land rights, and farmer investment incentives in China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Li, G., Rozelle, S., Brandt, L. 1998; 19 (1-2): 63-71
  • Pesticide productivity, host-plant resistance and productivity in China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Widawsky, D., Rozelle, S., Jin, S. Q., Huang, J. K. 1998; 19 (1-2): 203-217
  • The emergence of a future market: Mungbeans on the China Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange JOURNAL OF FUTURES MARKETS Williams, J., Peck, A., Park, A., Rozelle, S. 1998; 18 (4): 427-448
  • Village leaders and land-rights formation in China 110th Annual Meeting of the American-Economic-Association Rozelle, S., Li, G. AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC. 1998: 433–38
  • Market development and food demand in rural China CHINA ECONOMIC REVIEW Huang, J., Rozelle, S. 1998; 9 (1): 25-45
  • China's forests under economic reform: Timber supplies, environmental protection, and rural resource access 71st Annual Conference of the Western-Economic-Association-International ALBERS, H. J., ROZELLE, S. D., Guo, L. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC. 1998: 22–33
  • Wheat in China: Supply trends in the reform era Symposium on World Agricultural Trade, at the Conference on Economics Rozelle, S., Huang, J. K. WESTVIEW PRESS. 1998: 73–100
  • Varietal diversity and yield variability in Chinese rice production Conference on Building a Basis for the Economic Analysis of Genetic Resources and Diversity in Crop Plants Widawsky, D., Rozelle, S. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS. 1998: 159–172
  • Marketing reforms, market development and agricultural production in China AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Weersink, A., Rozelle, S. 1997; 17 (2-3): 95-114
  • China's past, present, and future food economy: Can China continue to meet the challenges? FOOD POLICY Rozelle, S., Rosegrant, M. W. 1997; 22 (3): 191-200
  • Poverty, population and environmental degradation in China FOOD POLICY Rozelle, S., Huang, J. K., Zhang, L. X. 1997; 22 (3): 229-251

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  • Liberalization and rural market integration in China ASSA Winter Meeting Rozelle, S., Park, A., Huang, J. K., Jin, H. H. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC. 1997: 635–42
  • The impact of environmental degradation on grain production in China, 1975-1990 ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Rozelle, S., Veeck, G., Huang, J. K. 1997; 73 (1): 44-66
  • Distributional consequences of reforming local public finance in China CHINA QUARTERLY Park, A., Rozelle, S., Wong, C., Ren, C. Q. 1996: 751-778
  • Technological change: Rediscovering the engine of productivity growth in China's rural economy JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 1996; 49 (2): 337-369
  • Stagnation without equity: Patterns of growth and inequality in China's rural economy CHINA JOURNAL Rozelle, S. 1996; 35: 63-92
  • ENVIRONMENTAL-STRESS AND GRAIN YIELDS IN CHINA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Huang, J. K., Rozelle, S. 1995; 77 (4): 853-864
  • CONTROL IN A DYNAMIC VILLAGE ECONOMY - THE REFORMS AND UNBALANCED DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA RURAL ECONOMY JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Rozelle, S., Boisvert, R. N. 1995; 46 (2): 233-252
  • RURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION AND INCREASING INEQUALITY - EMERGING PATTERNS IN CHINA REFORMING ECONOMY JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS Rozelle, S. 1994; 19 (3): 362-391
  • FERTILIZER DEMAND IN CHINA REFORMING ECONOMY CANADIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS-REVUE CANADIENNE D ECONOMIE RURALE Ye, Q. L., Rozelle, S. 1994; 42 (2): 191-207
  • DECISION-MAKING IN CHINA RURAL ECONOMY - THE LINKAGES BETWEEN VILLAGE LEADERS AND FARM HOUSEHOLDS CHINA QUARTERLY Rozelle, S. 1994: 99-124
  • QUANTIFYING CHINESE VILLAGE LEADERS MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS Rozelle, S., Boisvert, R. N. 1994; 18 (1): 25-45
  • GRAIN POLICY IN CHINESE VILLAGES - YIELD RESPONSE TO PRICING, PROCUREMENT, AND LOAN POLICIES AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Rozelle, S., Boisvert, R. N. 1993; 75 (2): 339-349
  • A RISK ANALYSIS OF THE ONTARIO WHITE BEAN SECTOR CANADIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS-REVUE CANADIENNE D ECONOMIE RURALE Weersink, A., VONMASSOW, M., Rozelle, S. 1991; 39 (2): 271-281
  • ALTERNATIVES TO CENTRAL WATER-TREATMENT JOURNAL AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION Burke, ROZELLE, CIROLIA, McGuire, GUERRERA, MCCLELLAND, Cook, FIE 1986; 78 (12): 12-?