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All Publications

  • Modified gefitinib conjugated Fe3O4 NPs for improved delivery of chemo drugs following an image-guided mechanistic study of inner vs. outer tumor uptake for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology Thangudu, S., Tsai, C. Y., Lin, W. C., Su, C. H. 2023; 11: 1272492


    Gefitinib (GEF) is an FDA-approved anti-cancer drug for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the efficacy of anticancer drugs is limited due to their non-specificity, lower accumulation at target sites, and systemic toxicity. Herein, we successfully synthesized a modified GEF (mGEF) drug and conjugated to Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) for the treatment of NSCLC via magnetic resonance (MR) image-guided drug delivery. A traditional EDC coupling pathway uses mGEF to directly conjugate to Fe3O4 NPs to overcom the drug leakage issues. As a result, we found in vitro drug delivery on mGEF- Fe3O4 NPs exhibits excellent anticancer effects towards the PC9 cells selectively, with an estimated IC 50 value of 2.0 μM. Additionally, in vivo MRI and PET results demonstrate that the NPs could accumulate in tumor-specific regions with localized cell growth inhibition. Results also revealed that outer tumor region exhibiting a stronger contrast than the tinner tumor region which may due necrosis in inner tumor region. In vivo biodistribution further confirms Fe3O4 NPs are more biocompatible and are excreated after the treatment. Overall, we believe that this current strategy of drug modification combined with chemical conjugation on magnetic NPs will lead to improved cancer chemotherapy as well as understanding the tumor microenvironments for better therapeutic outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fbioe.2023.1272492

    View details for PubMedID 37877039

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10591449

  • Prussian blue analog with separated active sites to catalyze water driven enhanced catalytic treatments NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Wang, L., Chiou, P., Hsu, Y., Lee, C., Hung, C., Wu, Y., Wang, W., Hsieh, G., Chen, Y., Chang, L., Su, W., Manoharan, D., Liao, M., Thangudu, S., Li, W., Su, C., Tian, H., Yeh, C. 2023; 14 (1): 4709


    Chemodynamic therapy (CDT) uses the Fenton or Fenton-like reaction to yield toxic ‧OH following H2O2 → ‧OH for tumoral therapy. Unfortunately, H2O2 is often taken from the limited endogenous supply of H2O2 in cancer cells. A water oxidation CoFe Prussian blue (CFPB) nanoframes is presented to provide sustained, external energy-free self-supply of ‧OH from H2O to process CDT and/or photothermal therapy (PTT). Unexpectedly, the as-prepared CFPB nanocubes with no near-infrared (NIR) absorption is transformed into CFPB nanoframes with NIR absorption due to the increased Fe3+-N ≡ C-Fe2+ composition through the proposed proton-induced metal replacement reactions. Surprisingly, both the CFPB nanocubes and nanoframes provide for the self-supply of O2, H2O2, and ‧OH from H2O, with the nanoframe outperforming in the production of ‧OH. Simulation analysis indicates separated active sites in catalyzation of water oxidation, oxygen reduction, and Fenton-like reactions from CFPB. The liposome-covered CFPB nanoframes prepared for controllable water-driven CDT for male tumoral mice treatments.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-023-40470-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 001043364000021

    View details for PubMedID 37543632

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10404294

  • Biocompatible Cerium Carbonate-Based Nanozymes for Oxidase Activity, Sensing, Computed Tomography Contrast, and Delivery of Small Molecules ACS APPLIED NANO MATERIALS Thangudu, S., Lee, C., Su, C. 2023; 6 (14): 12922-12932
  • A high-index facet gold 12 tip nanostar for an improved electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation reaction with superior CO tolerance NANOSCALE Rajagopal, S., Thangudu, S., Hwang, K. 2023; 15 (28): 11963-11971


    Direct alcohol fuel cells have a long and promising future, which will require the development of highly active electrocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation reactions. To this end, high-index facet nanomaterial-based electrocatalysts provide significant promise for the successful oxidation of alcohols. However, the fabrication and exploration of high-index facet nanomaterials are seldom reported, especially in electrocatalytic applications. Herein, we successfully synthesized a high index facet {711} Au 12 tip nanostructure for the first time using a single-chain cationic TDPB surfactant. Electrooxidation results demonstrate that a {711} high-index facet Au 12 tip exhibited much higher electrocatalytic activity (∼10-fold higher) than the {111} low-index facet Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) without being poisoned by CO under identical conditions. Besides, Au 12 tip nanostructures offer appreciable stability and durability. The high electrocatalytic activity with excellent CO tolerance is due to the spontaneous adsorption of the negatively charged -OH on the high-index facet Au 12 tip nanostars, as evidenced by the isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis. Our findings suggest that high-index facet Au nanomaterials are ideal candidate electrode materials for the electrooxidation reaction of ethanol in fuel cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d3nr01645e

    View details for Web of Science ID 001018167600001

    View details for PubMedID 37395374

  • Synthesis of high yield, crystalline and thermally stable rare earth (Sm, Eu, Gd) oxide square nanoplates for near-infrared light activatable photocatalysis CATALYSIS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Rajagopal, S., Thangudu, S., Hwang, K. 2023; 13 (12): 3701-3708

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d3cy00184a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000998541600001

  • Ligand free FeSn2 alloy nanoparticles for safe T-2-weighted MR imaging of in vivo lung tumors BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE Thangudu, S., Lin, W., Lee, C., Liao, M., Yu, C., Wang, Y., Su, C. 2023; 11 (6): 2177-2185


    Biosafety is a critical issue for the successful translocation of nanomaterial-based therapeutic/diagnostic agents from bench to bedside. For instance, after the withdrawal of clinically approved magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agents (CAs) due to their biosafety issues, there is a massive demand for alternative, efficient, and biocompatible MR contrast agents for future MRI clinical applications. To this end, here we successfully demonstrate the in vivo MR contrast abilities and biocompatibilities of ligand-free FeSn2 alloy NPs for tracking in vivo lung tumors. In vitro and in vivo results reveal the FeSn2 alloy NPs acting as appreciable T2 weighted MR contrast agents to locate tumors. The construction of iron (Fe) on biocompatible tin (Sn) greatly facilitates the reduction of the intrinsic toxicities of Fe in vivo resulting in no significant abnormalities in liver and kidney functions. Therefore, we envision that constructing ligand-free alloy NPs will be a promising candidate for tracking in vivo tumors in future clinical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d2bm01517j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000928619700001

    View details for PubMedID 36740962

  • 1550 nm light activatable photothermal therapy on multifunctional CuBi2O4 bimetallic particles for treating drug resistance bacteria-infected skin in the NIR-III biological window JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE Thangudu, S., Chiang, C., Hwang, K. 2023; 631: 1-16


    Nanomaterial mediated phototherapies are believed to be promising candidates to overcome the bacterial drug resistance crisis. However, due to the lack of nanomaterials able to absorb long NIR light, especially in the NIR-III (1500-1850 nm) and -IV (2100-2300 nm) regimes, it was never investigated the utilization of NIR-III and NIR-IV light for in vivo treatments of cancer or bacterial infections. To this end, plasmonic metal-doped transition metal oxides (TMO) are attracting a great attention due to their tunable surface plasmon resonance absorption to the NIR region. Unique features with extendable NIR light absorption of plasmonic metal-doped transition metal oxides make their applications very attractive in several fields, but their utilization for bacterial infection treatments was not yet reported. Moreover, up-to-date bacterial eradication was limited to phototherapies in the NIR-I (700-950 nm) and NIR-II (1000-1350 nm) biological windows (BWs) and has not yet been studied in the NIR-III (1500-1870 nm) BW. To overcome these literature limitations, we engineered NIR-III (1550 nm) light activatable multifunctional plasmonic CuBi2O4 bimetallic particles (i.e., CBO bMPs) with very high molar extinction coefficients (2.75 × 1011 M-1cm-1 @ 808 nm, 2.75 × 1011 M-1cm-1 @ 980 nm, and 3.5 × 1011 M-1cm-1 @1550 nm), able to absorb and convert long NIR (980 and 1550 nm) light energy to thermal heat and generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) for in vivo treatment of drug resistant bacterial infections. Our in vitro and in vivo results reveal that NIR-III (1550 nm) light irradiation of CBO bMPs exerts a remarkable in vivo antibacterial activity via NIR-III photothermal therapy (NIR-III PTT), which is superior than its corresponding NIR-I (808 nm) PTT and NIR-II photodynamic therapy (NIR-II PDT, 980 nm). We observed that hyperthermia-based photothermal therapy is more effective than ROS-based photodynamic therapy in killing multi-drug resistant bacteria. We also show that CBO bMPs also show an enzyme oxidase and peroxidase like activity, which is an additional asset to enhance the therapeutic efficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcis.2022.10.143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000907658900001

    View details for PubMedID 36368211

  • Engineering H2O2 and O-2 Self-Supplying Nanoreactor to Conduct Synergistic Chemiexcited Photodynamic and Calcium-Overloaded Therapy in Orthotopic Hepatic Tumors ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS Chen, Y., Liu, Y., Lee, C., Pham, K., Manoharan, D., Thangudu, S., Su, C., Yeh, C. 2022; 11 (20): e2201613


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is traditionally ineffective for deeply embedded tumors due to the poor penetration depth of the excitation light. Chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) has emerged as a promising mode of PDT without external light. To date, related research has frequently used endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and oxygen (O2 ) inside the solid tumor microenvironment to trigger CRET-mediated PDT. Unfortunately, this significantly restricts treatment efficacy and the development of further biomedical applications because of the limited amounts of endogenous H2 O2 and O2 . Herein, a nanohybrid (mSiO2 /CaO2 /CPPO/Ce6: mSCCC) nanoparticle (NP) is designed to achieve synergistic CRET-mediated PDT and calcium (Ca2+ )-overload-mediated therapy. The calcium peroxide (CaO2 ) formed inside mesoporous SiO2 (mSC) with the inclusion of the chemiluminescent agent (CPPO) and photosensitizer (Ce6) self-supplies H2 O2 , O2 , and Ca2+ allowing for the subsequent treatments. The Ce6 in mSCCC NPs is excited by chemical energy in situ following the supply of H2 O2 and O2 to produce singlet oxygen (1 O2 ). The nanohybrid NPs are coated with stearic acid to avoid decomposition during blood circulation through contact with aqueous environment. This nanohybrid shows promising performance in the generation of 1 O2 for external light-free PDT and the release of Ca2+ ions for Ca2+ -overloaded therapy against orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adhm.202201613

    View details for Web of Science ID 000839358500001

    View details for PubMedID 35879269

  • Hotspots in action: near-infrared light mediated photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution on high index faceted plasmonic gold nanoarchitectures NANOSCALE Rajagopal, S., Thangudu, S., Feng, J., Sriram, P., Yen, T., Hwang, K. 2022; 14 (31): 11323-11334


    Photo-induced electrochemical water splitting is a fascinating approach to overcome the present energy demands as well as environmental issues. To this end, near-infrared (NIR) photocatalysts stand out as promising candidates (where 53% of the solar light is NIR light) to solve the present energy crisis but the lack of NIR-activated photocatalysts has remained a great challenge for decades. Herein, for the first time, we report the synthesis of high-index faceted plasmonic Au nano-branched 12 tip nanostars, which can absorb the whole spectral region of electromagnetic radiation (UV-vis-NIR), for efficient water splitting. Moreover, the plasmonic hot spots on the Au 12 tip nanostars significantly promote the photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under NIR light (915 nm) with long-term stability. Remarkably, the Au 12 tip nanostars exhibit 250-fold enhancement of activity under 915 nm laser irradiation and 6.5-fold enhancement of activity under 532 nm laser irradiation, as compared to the Au NPs. Furthermore, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) study confirmed that the significant photoelectrochemical (PEC) enhancement in the NIR light region could be attributed to the hot-electron injection/plasmonic hot spot mechanism upon localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) excitation. Overall, we anticipate that the present work would help to develop new NIR photoelectrocatalysts for meeting future energy demands.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d2nr02741k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000830578600001

    View details for PubMedID 35894176

  • Safe magnetic resonance imaging on biocompatible nanoformulations BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE Thangudu, S., Huang, E., Su, C. 2022; 10 (18): 5032-5053


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) holds promise for the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases, but most clinical MR techniques require the use of a contrast medium. Several nanomaterial (NM) mediated contrast agents (CAs) are widely used as T1- and T2-based MR contrast agents for clinical and non-clinical applications. Unfortunately, most NM-based CAs are toxic or non-biocompatible, restricting their practical/clinical applications. Therefore, the development of nontoxic and biocompatible CAs for clinical MRI diagnosis is highly desired. To this end, several biocompatible and biomimetic strategies have been developed to offer long blood circulation time, significant biocompatibility, in vivo biodistribution and high contrast ability for efficient imaging. However, detailed review reports on biocompatible NMs, specifically for MR imaging have not yet been summarized. Thus, in the present review we summarize  various surface coating strategies (such as polymers, proteins, cell membranes, etc.) to achieve biocompatible NPs, providing a detailed discussion of advances and future prospects for safe MRI imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d2bm00692h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000827806400001

    View details for PubMedID 35858468

  • Magnetic, biocompatible FeCO3 nanoparticles for T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of in vivo lung tumors JOURNAL OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY Thangudu, S., Yu, C., Lee, C., Liao, M., Su, C. 2022; 20 (1): 157


    Late diagnosis of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of higher mortality in lung cancer patients worldwide. Significant research attention has focused on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based nano contrast agents to efficiently locate cancer tumors for surgical removal or disease diagnostics. Although contrast agents offer significant advantages, further clinical applications require improvements in biocompatibility, biosafety and efficacy.To address these challenges, we fabricated ultra-fine Iron Carbonate Nanoparticles (FeCO3 NPs) for the first time via modified literature method. Synthesized NPs exhibit ultra-fine size (~ 17 nm), good dispersibility and excellent stability in both aqueous and biological media. We evaluated the MR contrast abilities of FeCO3 NPs and observed remarkable T2 weighted MRI contrast in a concentration dependent manner, with a transverse relaxivity (r2) value of 730.9 ± 4.8 mM-1 S-1at 9.4 T. Moreover, the r2 values of present FeCO3 NPs are respectively 1.95 and 2.3 times higher than the clinically approved contrast agents Resovist® and Friedx at same 9.4 T MR scanner. FeCO3 NPs demonstrate an enhanced T2 weighted contrast for in vivo lung tumors within 5 h of post intravenous administration with no apparent systemic toxicity or induction of inflammation observed in in vivo mice models.The excellent biocompatibility and T2 weighted contrast abilities of FeCO3 NPs suggest potential for future clinical use in early diagnosis of lung tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12951-022-01355-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000773253500001

    View details for PubMedID 35337331

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8952886

  • Chemical Structure and Shape Enhance MR Imaging-Guided X-ray Therapy Following Marginative Delivery ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Wang, L., Chang, L., Su, G., Chang, P., Hsu, H., Lee, C., Li, J., Liao, M., Thangudu, S., Treekoon, J., Yu, C., Sheu, H., Tu, T., Su, W., Su, C., Yeh, C. 2022; 14 (11): 13056-13069


    Ineffective site-specific delivery has seriously impeded the efficacy of nanoparticle-based drugs to a disease site. Here, we report the preparation of three different shapes (sphere, scroll, and oblate) to systematically evaluate the impact of the marginative delivery on the efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided X-ray irradiation at a low dose of 1 Gy. In addition to the shape effect, the therapeutic efficacy is investigated for the first time to be strongly related to the structure effect that is associated with the chemical activity. The enhanced particle-vessel wall interaction of both the flat scroll and oblate following margination dynamics leads to greater accumulation in the lungs, resulting in superior performance over the sphere against lung tumor growth and suppression of lung metastasis. Furthermore, the impact of the structural discrepancy in nanoparticles on therapeutic efficacy is considered. The tetragonal oblate reveals that the feasibility of the charge-transfer process outperforms the orthorhombic scroll and cubic sphere to suppress tumors. Finally, surface area is also a crucial factor affecting the efficacy of X-ray treatments from the as-prepared particles.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsami.1c24991

    View details for Web of Science ID 000787373300009

    View details for PubMedID 35253424

  • Near-Infrared Light Activatable Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Theranostic Applications: A Comprehensive Review ACS APPLIED NANO MATERIALS Hiremath, N., Kumar, R., Hwang, K., Banerjee, I., Thangudu, S., Vankayala, R. 2022; 5 (2)
  • Peroxidase Mimetic Nanozymes in Cancer Phototherapy: Progress and Perspectives BIOMOLECULES Thangudu, S., Su, C. 2021; 11 (7)


    Nanomaterial-mediated cancer therapeutics is a fast developing field and has been utilized in potential clinical applications. However, most effective therapies, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radio therapy (RT), are strongly oxygen-dependent, which hinders their practical applications. Later on, several strategies were developed to overcome tumor hypoxia, such as oxygen carrier nanomaterials and oxygen generated nanomaterials. Among these, oxygen species generation on nanozymes, especially catalase (CAT) mimetic nanozymes, convert endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to oxygen (O2) and peroxidase (POD) mimetic nanozymes converts endogenous H2O2 to water (H2O) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment is a fascinating approach. The present review provides a detailed examination of past, present and future perspectives of POD mimetic nanozymes for effective oxygen-dependent cancer phototherapeutics.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/biom11071015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000676270200001

    View details for PubMedID 34356639

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8301984

  • Recent advances in near infrared light responsive multi-functional nanostructures for phototheranostic applications BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE Thangudu, S., Kaur, N., Korupalli, C., Sharma, V., Kalluru, P., Vankayala, R. 2021; 9 (16): 5432-5443


    Light-based theranostics have become indispensable tools in the field of cancer nanomedicine. Specifically, near infrared (NIR) light mediated imaging and therapy of deeply seated tumors using a single multi-functional nanoplatform have gained significant attention. To this end, several multi-functional nanomaterials have been utilized to tackle cancer and thereby achieve significant outcomes. The present review mainly focuses on the recent advances in the development of NIR light activatable multi-functional materials such as small molecules, quantum dots, and metallic nanostructures for the diagnosis and treatment of deeply seated tumors. The need for improved disease detection and enhanced treatment options, together with realistic considerations for clinically translatable nanomaterials will be the key driving factors for theranostic agent research in the near future. NIR-light mediated cancer imaging and therapeutic approaches offer several advantages in terms of minimal invasiveness, deeper tissue penetration, spatiotemporal resolution, and molecular specificities. Herein, we have reviewed the recent developments in NIR light responsive multi-functional nanostructures for phototheranostic applications in cancer therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d1bm00631b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000674038100001

    View details for PubMedID 34269365

  • Enhanced Photofixation of Dinitrogen to Ammonia over a Biomimetic Metal (Fe,Mo)-Doped Mesoporous MCM-41 Zeolite Catalyst under Ambient Conditions ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING Thangudu, S., Wu, C., Lee, C., Hwang, K. 2021; 9 (26): 8748-8758
  • Application of multiparametric MR imaging to predict the diversification of renal function in miR29a-mediated diabetic nephropathy SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Su, C., Hsu, Y., Thangudu, S., Chen, W., Huang, Y., Yu, C., Shih, Y., Wang, C., Lin, C. 2021; 11 (1): 1909


    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major leading cause of kidney failure. To identify the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal function/fibrosis is playing a crucial role. Unfortunately, lack of sensitivities/specificities of available clinical biomarkers are key major issues for practical healthcare applications to identify the renal functions/fibrosis in the early stage of DN. Thus, there is an emerging approach such as therapeutic or diagnostic are highly desired to conquer the CKD at earlier stages. Herein, we applied and examined the application of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to identify the progression of fibrosis between wild type (WT) and miR29a transgenic (Tg) mice during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Further, we also validate the potential renoprotective role of miR29a to maintain the renal perfusion, volume, and function. In addition, Ktrans values of DCE-MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of DWI could significantly reflect the level of fibrosis between WT and Tg mice at identical conditions. As a result, we strongly believed that the present non-invasive MR imaging platforms have potential to serveas an important tool in research and clinical imaging for renal fibrosis in diabetes, and that microenvironmental changes could be identified by MR imaging acquisition prior to histological biopsy and diabetic podocyte dysfunction.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-81519-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000612982200052

    View details for PubMedID 33479331

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7820287

  • Advancements in the Blood-Brain Barrier Penetrating Nanoplatforms for Brain Related Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutic Applications POLYMERS Thangudu, S., Cheng, F., Su, C. 2020; 12 (12)


    Noninvasive treatments to treat the brain-related disorders have been paying more significant attention and it is an emerging topic. However, overcoming the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a key obstacle to most of the therapeutic drugs to enter into the brain tissue, which significantly results in lower accumulation of therapeutic drugs in the brain. Thus, administering the large quantity/doses of drugs raises more concerns of adverse side effects. Nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery systems are seen as potential means of enhancing drug transport across the BBB and to targeted brain tissue. These systems offer more accumulation of therapeutic drugs at the tumor site and prolong circulation time in the blood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and advancements on various nanoplatforms (NF) and discusses the use of nanoparticles for successful cross of BBB to treat the brain-related disorders such as brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/polym12123055

    View details for Web of Science ID 000602335500001

    View details for PubMedID 33419339

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7766280

  • Design, synthesis, molecular docking and cytotoxic activity of novel urea derivatives of 2-amino-3-carbomethoxythiophene JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL SCIENCES Vikram, V., Penumutchu, S. R., Vankayala, R., Thangudu, S., Amperayani, K., Parimi, U. 2020; 132 (1)
  • Tandem Synthesis of High Yield MoS2 Nanosheets and Enzyme Peroxidase Mimicking Properties CATALYSTS Thangudu, S., Lee, M., Rtimi, S. 2020; 10 (9)
  • Recent Advances of Polyaniline-Based Biomaterials for Phototherapeutic Treatments of Tumors and Bacterial Infections BIOENGINEERING-BASEL Korupalli, C., Kalluru, P., Nuthalapati, K., Kuthala, N., Thangudu, S., Vankayala, R. 2020; 7 (3)


    Conventional treatments fail to completely eradicate tumor or bacterial infections due to their inherent shortcomings. In recent years, photothermal therapy (PTT) has emerged as an attractive treatment modality that relies on the absorption of photothermal agents (PTAs) at a specific wavelength, thereby transforming the excitation light energy into heat. The advantages of PTT are its high efficacy, specificity, and minimal damage to normal tissues. To this end, various inorganic nanomaterials such as gold nanostructures, carbon nanostructures, and transition metal dichalcogenides have been extensively explored for PTT applications. Subsequently, the focus has shifted to the development of polymeric PTAs, owing to their unique properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, and low toxicity when compared to inorganic PTAs. Among various organic PTAs, polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best-known and earliest-reported organic PTAs. Hence, in this review, we cover the recent advances and progress of PANI-based biomaterials for PTT application in tumors and bacterial infections. The future prospects in this exciting area are also addressed.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/bioengineering7030094

    View details for Web of Science ID 000580039100001

    View details for PubMedID 32823566

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7552745

  • Photosensitized reactive chlorine species-mediated therapeutic destruction of drug-resistant bacteria using plasmonic core-shell Ag@AgCl nanocubes as an external nanomedicine NANOSCALE Thangudu, S., Kulkarni, S., Vankayala, R., Chiang, C., Hwang, K. 2020; 12 (24): 12970-12984


    Due to the rapid growth of drug-resistant bacterial infections, there is an urgent need to develop innovative antimicrobial strategies to conquer the bacterial antibiotic resistance problems. Although a few nanomaterial-based antimicrobial strategies have been developed, the sensitized formation of cytotoxic reactive chlorine species (RCS), including chlorine gas and chlorine free radicals, by photo-activatable plasmonic nanoparticles for evading drug-resistant bacterial infections has not yet been reported. To address this challenge, herein, we report the synthesis of an unprecedented plasmonic core-shell Ag@AgCl nanocrystal through an in situ oxidation route for the photo-induced generation of highly cytotoxic RCS. We present the detailed in vitro and in vivo investigations of visible light activated Ag@AgCl nanostructure-mediated evasion of drug-resistant bacteria. In particular, the in vivo results demonstrate the complete reepithelialization of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infected wounds on skin upon phototherapeutic treatment mediated Ag@AgCl NCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first unique example of using Ag@AgCl NCs as an external nanomedicine for photo-induced generation of RCS to mediate effective killing of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative drug resistance bacteria and healing of the subcutaneous abscesses in an in vivo mouse model.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d0nr01300e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000545599900027

    View details for PubMedID 32525500

  • Preparation, Cytotoxicity, and In Vitro Bioimaging of Water Soluble and Highly Fluorescent Palladium Nanoclusters BIOENGINEERING-BASEL Thangudu, S., Kalluru, P., Vankayala, R. 2020; 7 (1)


    Fluorescent probes offer great potential to identify and treat surgical tumors by clinicians. To this end, several molecular probes were examined as in vitro and in vivo bioimaging probes. However, due to their ultra-low extinction coefficients as well as photobleaching problems, conventional molecular probes limit its practical utility. To address the above mentioned challenges, metal nanoclusters (MNCs) can serve as an excellent alternative with many unique features such as higher molar extinction coefficients/light absorbing capabilities, good photostability and appreciable fluorescence quantum yields. Herein, we reported a green synthesis of water soluble palladium nanoclusters (Pd NCs) and characterized them by using various spectroscopic and microscopic characterization techniques. These nanoclusters showed excellent photophysical properties with the characteristic emission peak centered at 500 nm under 420 nm photoexcitation wavelength. In vitro cytotoxicity studies in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) cells reveal that Pd NCs exhibited good biocompatibility with an IC50 value of >100 µg/mL and also showed excellent co-localization and distribution throughout the cytoplasm region with a significant fraction translocating into cell nucleus. We foresee that Pd NCs will carry huge potential to serve as a new generation bioimaging nanoprobe owing to its smaller size, minimal cytotoxicity, nucleus translocation capability and good cell labelling properties.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/bioengineering7010020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000523493300020

    View details for PubMedID 32098070

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7175340