NOVEL DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES TO ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 1A HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN A CAPTIVE JUVENILE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)
JOURNAL OF ZOO AND WILDLIFE MEDICINE
2022; 53 (1): 232-240
Novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods were utilized in the successful management of severe elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) in a 1.9-yr-old captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). High levels of EEHV1A viremia were detected for 12 d. In addition to established EEHV treatments, therapies included famciclovir-fortified elephant whole blood and plasma, mesenchymal stem cells harvested from elephant umbilical tissue, and aminocaproic acid. Testing conducted to examine the effects of EEHV infection on hemostasis suggested marked intravascular coagulation with decreased plasminogen activity and increased D-dimer concentrations. Thromboelastography was used to assess the efficacy of aminocaproic acid and demonstrated hypofibrinolysis on samples taken after drug administration, as compared with samples from healthy adult Asian elephants. A serological assay for a novel EEHV1A-specific antibody marker (E52) was developed due to lack of seroconversion to a previously established EEHV1A-specific antibody marker (ORFQ) and showed a sustained increase after EEHV-HD illness.
View details for DOI 10.1638/2021-0096
View details for Web of Science ID 000771731400027
View details for PubMedID 35339171
Modified vaccinia Ankara expressing EEHV1A glycoprotein B elicits humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice
2022; 17 (3): e0265424
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) in Asian elephants and is the largest cause of death in captive juvenile Asian elephants in North America and Europe. EEHV-HD also has been documented in captive and wild elephants in their natural range countries. A safe and effective vaccine to prevent lethal EEHV infection would significantly improve conservation efforts for this endangered species. Recent studies from our laboratory suggest that EEHV morbidity and mortality are often associated with primary infection. Therefore, we aim to generate a vaccine, particularly for EEHV1 naïve animals, with the goal of preventing lethal EEHV-HD. To address this goal, we generated a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) recombinant virus expressing a truncated form of glycoprotein B (gBΔfur731) from EEHV1A, the strain associated with the majority of lethal EEHV cases. Vaccination of CD-1 mice with this recombinant virus induced robust antibody and polyfunctional T cell responses significantly above mice inoculated with wild-type MVA. Although the vaccine-induced T cell response was mainly observed in CD8+ T cell populations, the CD4+ T cell response was also polyfunctional. No adverse responses to vaccination were observed. Overall, our data demonstrates that MVA-gBΔfur731 stimulates robust humoral and cell-mediated responses, supporting its potential translation for use in elephants.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0265424
View details for Web of Science ID 000803647900049
View details for PubMedID 35312707
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8936464