- Reply: We still need to deal with antibody-mediated rejection in living donor liver transplantation LIVER TRANSPLANTATION 2023; 29 (8): E22-E23
Risk factors for antibody-mediated rejection in ABO blood-type incompatible and donor-specific antibody-positive liver transplantation
2023; 29 (7): 711-723
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a refractory rejection after ABO blood-type incompatible (ABOi) or donor-specific antibody (DSA)-positive liver transplantation (LT). Pretransplant rituximab desensitization dramatically reduced posttransplant AMR development; however, risk factors for AMR in the rituximab era remain unclear in both ABOi living-donor LT (ABOi-LDLT) and preformed DSA-positive LT (pDSA-LT). Of our 596 adult LDLTs (≥18 y) after rituximab introduction (2004-2019), 136 were ABOi-LDLT (22.8%). After excluding retransplants (9), acute liver failure (7), and protocol deviations (16), 104 ABOi-LDLTs were finally enrolled. Of these, 19 recipients developed AMR, 18 of which occurred within 2 weeks after transplantation (95%). ABOi-AMR significantly worsened graft and recipient survival than those without ( p =0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) ≤13 (OR: 5.15 [1.63-16.3], p =0.005) and pre-rituximab anti-ABO IgM-titer ≥128 (OR: 3.25 [1.05-10.0], p =0.03) were identified as independent risk factors for ABOi-AMR development. Recipients fulfilling both factors showed significantly worse survival rates than those who did not ( p =0.003). Of 352 adult LTs, after introducing the LABScreen Single Ag method (2009-2019), pDSA with mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ≥500 was detected in 50 cases (14.2%). After excluding 10 ABOi-LDLTs, 40 pDSA-LTs were finally analyzed, of which 5 developed AMR. The combination of high-titer (sum-MFI ≥10,000) and multi-loci pDSAs was a significant risk factor for pDSA-AMR development ( p <0.001); however, it did not affect the 5-year recipient survival compared with those without ( p =0.56). In conclusion, preoperative MELD ≤13 and pre-rituximab anti-ABO IgM-titer ≥128 for ABOi-LDLT, and the combination of sum-MFI ≥10,000 and multi-loci pDSAs for pDSA-LT, are risk factors for AMR in the era of rituximab desensitization. Characteristically, ABOi-AMR significantly deteriorated graft and recipient survival, whereas pDSA-AMR did not.
View details for DOI 10.1097/LVT.0000000000000084
View details for Web of Science ID 001016385700009
View details for PubMedID 36749821
Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in pediatric transplantation: A prospective multicenter study in the United States
View details for Web of Science ID 001002465500078
Anti-complement 5 antibody ameliorates antibody-mediated rejection after liver transplantation in rats.
Frontiers in immunology
2023; 14: 1186653
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) remains a refractory rejection after donor-specific antibody (DSA)-positive or blood-type incompatible liver transplantation (LT), even in the era of pre-transplant rituximab desensitization. This is due to the lack of not only effective post-transplant treatments but also robust animal models to develop/validate new interventions. Orthotopic LT from male Dark Agouti (DA) to male Lewis (LEW) rats was used to develop a rat LT-AMR model. LEW were pre-sensitized by a preceding skin transplantation from DA 4-6 weeks before LT (Group-PS), while sham procedure was performed in non-sensitized controls (Group-NS). Tacrolimus was daily administered until post-transplant day (PTD)-7 or sacrifice to suppress cellular rejections. Using this model, we validated the efficacy of anti-C5 antibody (Anti-C5) for LT-AMR. Group-PS+Anti-C5 received Anti-C5 intravenously on PTD-0 and -3. Group-PS showed increased anti-donor (DA) antibody-titers (P <0.001) and more C4d deposition in transplanted livers than in Group-NS (P <0.001). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bile acid (TBA), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) were all significantly higher in Group-PS than in Group-NS (all P <0.01). Thrombocytopenia (P <0.01), coagulopathies (PT-INR, P =0.04), and histopathological deterioration (C4d+h-score, P <0.001) were also confirmed in Group-PS. Anti-C5 administration significantly lowered anti-DA IgG (P <0.05), resulting in decreased ALP, TBA, and T-Bil on PTD-7 than in Group-PS (all P <0.01). Histopathological improvement was also confirmed on PTD-1, -3, and -7 (all P <0.001). Of the 9,543 genes analyzed by RNA sequencing, 575 genes were upregulated in LT-AMR (Group-PS vs. Group-NS). Of these, 6 were directly associated with the complement cascades. In particular, Ptx3, Tfpi2, and C1qtnf6 were specific to the classical pathway. Volcano plot analysis identified 22 genes that were downregulated by Anti-C5 treatment (Group-PS+Anti-C5 vs. Group-PS). Of these, Anti-C5 significantly down-regulated Nfkb2, Ripk2, Birc3, and Map3k1, the key genes that were amplified in LT-AMR. Notably, just two doses of Anti-C5 only on PTD-0 and -3 significantly improved biliary injury and liver fibrosis up to PTD-100, leading to better long-term animal survival (P =0.02). We newly developed a rat model of LT-AMR that meets all the Banff diagnostic criteria and demonstrated the efficacy of Anti-C5 antibody for LT-AMR.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1186653
View details for PubMedID 37398677
Impact of the donor hepatectomy time on short-term outcomes in liver transplantation using donation after circulatory death: A review of the US national registry.
BACKGROUND: During the donor hepatectomy time (dHT), defined as the time from the start of cold perfusion to the end of the hepatectomy, liver grafts have a suboptimal temperature. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of prolonged dHT on outcomes in donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation (LT).METHODS: Using the US national registry data between 2012 and 2020, DCD LT patients were separated into 2 groups based on their dHT: standard dHT (<42 min) and prolonged dHT (≥42 min).RESULTS: There were 3810 DCD LTs during the study period. Median dHT was 32 min (IQR 25-41 min). Kaplan- Meier graft survival curves demonstrated inferior outcomes in the prolonged dHT group at 1-year after DCD LT compared to those in the standard dHT group (85.3% vs 89.9%; p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models for 1-year graft survival identified that prolonged dHT [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19 - 1.79], recipient age ≥ 64 years (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.72), and MELD score ≥ 24 (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.16 - 1.76) were significant predictors of 1-year graft loss. Spline analysis shows that the dHT effects on the risk for 1-year graft loss with an increase in the slope after median dHT of 32 min.CONCLUSION: Prolonged dHTs significantly reduced graft and patient survival after DCD LT. Because dHT is a modifiable factor, donor surgeons should take on cases with caution by setting the dHT target of < 32 min. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/ctr.14778
View details for PubMedID 35866342