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  • Reply: We still need to deal with antibody-mediated rejection in living donor liver transplantation LIVER TRANSPLANTATION Tajima, T., Hata, K., Kusakabe, J., Hatano, E. 2023; 29 (8): E22-E23

    View details for DOI 10.1097/LVT.0000000000000134

    View details for Web of Science ID 001033608800002

    View details for PubMedID 36964639

  • Risk factors for antibody-mediated rejection in ABO blood-type incompatible and donor-specific antibody-positive liver transplantation LIVER TRANSPLANTATION Tajima, T., Hata, K., Haga, H., Kusakabe, J., Kageyama, S., Yurugi, K., Hishida, R., Zhao, X., Nishikori, M., Nagao, M., Takaori-Kondo, A., Uemoto, S., Hatano, E. 2023; 29 (7): 711-723


    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a refractory rejection after ABO blood-type incompatible (ABOi) or donor-specific antibody (DSA)-positive liver transplantation (LT). Pretransplant rituximab desensitization dramatically reduced posttransplant AMR development; however, risk factors for AMR in the rituximab era remain unclear in both ABOi living-donor LT (ABOi-LDLT) and preformed DSA-positive LT (pDSA-LT). Of our 596 adult LDLTs (≥18 y) after rituximab introduction (2004-2019), 136 were ABOi-LDLT (22.8%). After excluding retransplants (9), acute liver failure (7), and protocol deviations (16), 104 ABOi-LDLTs were finally enrolled. Of these, 19 recipients developed AMR, 18 of which occurred within 2 weeks after transplantation (95%). ABOi-AMR significantly worsened graft and recipient survival than those without ( p =0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) ≤13 (OR: 5.15 [1.63-16.3], p =0.005) and pre-rituximab anti-ABO IgM-titer ≥128 (OR: 3.25 [1.05-10.0], p =0.03) were identified as independent risk factors for ABOi-AMR development. Recipients fulfilling both factors showed significantly worse survival rates than those who did not ( p =0.003). Of 352 adult LTs, after introducing the LABScreen Single Ag method (2009-2019), pDSA with mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ≥500 was detected in 50 cases (14.2%). After excluding 10 ABOi-LDLTs, 40 pDSA-LTs were finally analyzed, of which 5 developed AMR. The combination of high-titer (sum-MFI ≥10,000) and multi-loci pDSAs was a significant risk factor for pDSA-AMR development ( p <0.001); however, it did not affect the 5-year recipient survival compared with those without ( p =0.56). In conclusion, preoperative MELD ≤13 and pre-rituximab anti-ABO IgM-titer ≥128 for ABOi-LDLT, and the combination of sum-MFI ≥10,000 and multi-loci pDSAs for pDSA-LT, are risk factors for AMR in the era of rituximab desensitization. Characteristically, ABOi-AMR significantly deteriorated graft and recipient survival, whereas pDSA-AMR did not.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/LVT.0000000000000084

    View details for Web of Science ID 001016385700009

    View details for PubMedID 36749821

  • Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in pediatric transplantation: A prospective multicenter study in the United States Tajima, T., Bernstein, D., Boyd, S. D., Gratzinger, D., Lum, G., Sasaki, K., Tan, B., Twist, C. J., Weinberg, K., Robien, M. A., Brown, M., Armstrong, B., Desai, D., Mazariegos, G., Chin, C., Fishbein, T. M., Tekin, A., Venick, R. S., Martinez, O. M., Krams, S. M., Esquivel, C. O. WILEY. 2023
  • Anti-complement 5 antibody ameliorates antibody-mediated rejection after liver transplantation in rats. Frontiers in immunology Tajima, T., Hata, K., Kusakabe, J., Miyauchi, H., Badshah, J. S., Kageyama, S., Zhao, X., Kim, S., Tsuruyama, T., Kirchner, V. A., Watanabe, T., Uemoto, S., Hatano, E. 2023; 14: 1186653


    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) remains a refractory rejection after donor-specific antibody (DSA)-positive or blood-type incompatible liver transplantation (LT), even in the era of pre-transplant rituximab desensitization. This is due to the lack of not only effective post-transplant treatments but also robust animal models to develop/validate new interventions. Orthotopic LT from male Dark Agouti (DA) to male Lewis (LEW) rats was used to develop a rat LT-AMR model. LEW were pre-sensitized by a preceding skin transplantation from DA 4-6 weeks before LT (Group-PS), while sham procedure was performed in non-sensitized controls (Group-NS). Tacrolimus was daily administered until post-transplant day (PTD)-7 or sacrifice to suppress cellular rejections. Using this model, we validated the efficacy of anti-C5 antibody (Anti-C5) for LT-AMR. Group-PS+Anti-C5 received Anti-C5 intravenously on PTD-0 and -3. Group-PS showed increased anti-donor (DA) antibody-titers (P <0.001) and more C4d deposition in transplanted livers than in Group-NS (P <0.001). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bile acid (TBA), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) were all significantly higher in Group-PS than in Group-NS (all P <0.01). Thrombocytopenia (P <0.01), coagulopathies (PT-INR, P =0.04), and histopathological deterioration (C4d+h-score, P <0.001) were also confirmed in Group-PS. Anti-C5 administration significantly lowered anti-DA IgG (P <0.05), resulting in decreased ALP, TBA, and T-Bil on PTD-7 than in Group-PS (all P <0.01). Histopathological improvement was also confirmed on PTD-1, -3, and -7 (all P <0.001). Of the 9,543 genes analyzed by RNA sequencing, 575 genes were upregulated in LT-AMR (Group-PS vs. Group-NS). Of these, 6 were directly associated with the complement cascades. In particular, Ptx3, Tfpi2, and C1qtnf6 were specific to the classical pathway. Volcano plot analysis identified 22 genes that were downregulated by Anti-C5 treatment (Group-PS+Anti-C5 vs. Group-PS). Of these, Anti-C5 significantly down-regulated Nfkb2, Ripk2, Birc3, and Map3k1, the key genes that were amplified in LT-AMR. Notably, just two doses of Anti-C5 only on PTD-0 and -3 significantly improved biliary injury and liver fibrosis up to PTD-100, leading to better long-term animal survival (P =0.02). We newly developed a rat model of LT-AMR that meets all the Banff diagnostic criteria and demonstrated the efficacy of Anti-C5 antibody for LT-AMR.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1186653

    View details for PubMedID 37398677

  • Impact of the donor hepatectomy time on short-term outcomes in liver transplantation using donation after circulatory death: A review of the US national registry. Clinical transplantation Bekki, Y., Kozato, A., Kusakabe, J., Tajima, T., Fujiki, M., Gallo, A., Melcher, M. L., Bonham, C. A., Sasaki, K. 2022: e14778


    BACKGROUND: During the donor hepatectomy time (dHT), defined as the time from the start of cold perfusion to the end of the hepatectomy, liver grafts have a suboptimal temperature. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of prolonged dHT on outcomes in donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation (LT).METHODS: Using the US national registry data between 2012 and 2020, DCD LT patients were separated into 2 groups based on their dHT: standard dHT (<42 min) and prolonged dHT (≥42 min).RESULTS: There were 3810 DCD LTs during the study period. Median dHT was 32 min (IQR 25-41 min). Kaplan- Meier graft survival curves demonstrated inferior outcomes in the prolonged dHT group at 1-year after DCD LT compared to those in the standard dHT group (85.3% vs 89.9%; p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models for 1-year graft survival identified that prolonged dHT [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19 - 1.79], recipient age ≥ 64 years (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.72), and MELD score ≥ 24 (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.16 - 1.76) were significant predictors of 1-year graft loss. Spline analysis shows that the dHT effects on the risk for 1-year graft loss with an increase in the slope after median dHT of 32 min.CONCLUSION: Prolonged dHTs significantly reduced graft and patient survival after DCD LT. Because dHT is a modifiable factor, donor surgeons should take on cases with caution by setting the dHT target of < 32 min. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ctr.14778

    View details for PubMedID 35866342