Virginia D. Winn, MD, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Stanford University, the Director of Reproductive, Stem Cell and Perinatal Biology at Stanford School of Medicine's, and the Program Director for the Women’s Reproductive Health Research (K12) at Stanford Program. Dr. Winn received both her PhD training and medical education from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (in 1994 and 1996 respectively.) She completed her OBGYN residency and MFM fellowship at UCSF. She received research training through the NIH-funded Reproductive Scientist Development Program (RSDP). Dr. Winn was on faculty at University of Colorado and from 2006 to 2014 leading a basic and translational NIH-funded research program. She then moved to Stanford in 2014. She is Board Certified in Obstetrics and Gynecology and Maternal and Fetal Medicine from the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
As a physician scientist, Dr. Winn’s ultimate goal is to examine human placental biology and translate findings to improved clinical care resulting in healthier mothers and babies. Her lab uses a combination of molecular, cellular, tissue and translational studies in their research.
Dr. Winn is a member of the Dunlevie Maternal-Fetal Medicine Center for Discovery, Innovation and Clinical Impact, the Maternal and Child Health Research Institute (MCHRI), the Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, BioX. She is a recipient the MCHRI Arline & Pete Harman Faculty Scholar award, and is currently a H&H Evergreen Scholar.
- Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Associate Professor - University Medical Line, Obstetrics & Gynecology - Reproductive Biology
Member, Cardiovascular Institute
Director of Reproductive, Stem Cell and Perinatal Biology Division, Stanford University School of Medicine (2014 - Present)
Leadership Council, Society of Reproductive Investigation (2020 - 2023)
Basic Science Domain Lead, Dunlevie MFM Center for Discovery, Innovation and Clinical Impact (2021 - Present)
Research Director, NIH K12 Women's Reproductive Health Research (2020 - 2025)
Executive Committee, Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute (MCHRI) (2016 - Present)
Evaluation Committee, Reproductive Scientist Development Program (RSDP) (2018 - Present)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Fellow, American Board of Obstetric and Gynecology (2005 - Present)
Member, American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2000 - Present)
Full Member, Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine (2003 - Present)
Full Member, Society of Reproductive Investigation (SRI, formerly SGI) (1997 - Present)
Member, AIUM (2018 - Present)
Advisory Board, AAP Perinatal Medicine (2011 - 2014)
Board Certification: American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternal and Fetal Medicine (2009)
Board Certification: American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology (2005)
Fellowship: UCSF (2003) CA
Residency: UCSF (2000) CA
Medical Education: University of Rochester School of Medicine (1996) NY
PhD Training: University of Rochester School of Medicine (1994)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
The Winn Laboratory seeks to understand the unique biological mechanisms of human placentation. While the placenta itself is one of the key characteristics for defining mammals, the human placenta is different from most available animal models: it is one of the most invasive placentas, and results in the formation of an organ comprised of cells from both the fetus and the mother. In addition to this fascinating chimerism, fetal cells are deeply involved in the remodeling of the maternal vasculature in order to redirect large volumes of maternal blood to the placenta to support the developing fetus. As such, the investigation of this human organ covers a large array of biological processes, and deals not only with understanding its endocrine function, but the physiologic process of immune tolerance, vascular remodeling, and cellular invasion.
Effect of Preeclampsia on Cardiovascular Health (EPOCH), Standford School of Medicine (September 1, 2018 - Present)
Determining the link between preeclampsia and later cardiovascular disease using a life course approach and multi-omics.
- Mark Hlatky, Professor of Medicine, Stanford University
- David Stevenson, Stanford
- Gary Shaw, Professor of Pediatrics, Stanford
- Marcia Stefanick, Professor (Research) of Medicine (Stanford Prevention Research Center), of Obstetrics and Gynecology and, by courtesy, of Health Research and Policy (Epidemiology), Stanford
- Brice Gaudilliere, Associate Professor, Stanford
- Nima Aghaeepour, Stanford
- Mark Snyder, Professor and Chair Department of Genetics, Stanford
- Seda Tierney, Stanford
Independent Studies (6)
- Directed Reading in Obstetrics and Gynecology
OBGYN 299 (Win, Spr)
- Early Clinical Experience in Obstetrics and Gynecology
OBGYN 280 (Win, Spr)
- Graduate Research in Reproductive Biology
OBGYN 399 (Win, Spr)
- Medical Scholars Research
OBGYN 370 (Win, Spr)
- Research in Human Biology
HUMBIO 193 (Aut, Win)
- Undergraduate Research in Reproductive Biology
OBGYN 199 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Directed Reading in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Shilpi Sehgal, Yanming Wu
Doctoral Dissertation Co-Advisor (NonAC)
Doctoral Dissertation Reader (NonAC)
Alea Delmastro, Erin Soon
Postdoctoral Research Mentor
Shilpi Sehgal, Yanming Wu
Graduate and Fellowship Programs
Siglec-6 Signaling Uses Src Kinase Tyrosine Phosphorylation and SHP-2 Recruitment.
2022; 11 (21)
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder involving placental abnormalities. Elevated placental Sialic acid immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-6 expression has been correlated with preeclampsia. Siglec-6 is a transmembrane receptor, expressed predominantly by the trophoblast cells in the human placenta. It interacts with sialyl glycans such as sialyl-TN glycans as well as binds leptin. Siglec-6 overexpression has been shown to influence proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in the trophoblast (BeWo) cell model. However, there is no direct evidence that Siglec-6 plays a role in preeclampsia pathogenesis and its signaling potential is still largely unexplored. Siglec-6 contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and an ITIM-like motif in its cytoplasmic tail suggesting a signaling function. Site-directed mutagenesis and transfection were employed to create a series of Siglec-6 expressing HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cell lines with mutations in specific functional residues to explore the signaling potential of Siglec-6. Co-immunoprecipitation and inhibitory assays were utilized to investigate the association of Src-kinases and SH-2 domain-containing phosphatases with Siglec-6. In this study, we show that Siglec-6 is phosphorylated at ITIM and ITIM-like domains by Src family kinases. Phosphorylation of both ITIM and ITIM-like motifs is essential for the recruitment of phosphatases like Src homology region 2 containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2), which has downstream signaling capabilities. These findings suggest Siglec-6 as a signaling molecule in human trophoblasts. Further investigation is warranted to determine which signaling pathways are activated downstream to SHP-2 recruitment and how overexpression of Siglec-6 in preeclamptic placentas impacts pathogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.3390/cells11213427
View details for PubMedID 36359823
Sex at the interface: the origin and impact of sex differences in the developing human placenta.
Biology of sex differences
2022; 13 (1): 50
The fetal placenta is a source of hormones and immune factors that play a vital role in maintaining pregnancy and facilitating fetal growth. Cells in this extraembryonic compartment match the chromosomal sex of the embryo itself. Sex differences have been observed in common gestational pathologies, highlighting the importance of maternal immune tolerance to the fetal compartment. Over the past decade, several studies examining placentas from term pregnancies have revealed widespread sex differences in hormone signaling, immune signaling, and metabolic functions. Given the rapid and dynamic development of the human placenta, sex differences that exist at term (37-42weeks gestation) are unlikely to align precisely with those present at earlier stages when the fetal-maternal interface is being formed and the foundations of a healthy or diseased pregnancy are established. While fetal sex as a variable is often left unreported in studies performing transcriptomic profiling of the first-trimester human placenta, four recent studies have specifically examined fetal sex in early human placental development. In this review, we discuss the findings from these publications and consider the evidence for the genetic, hormonal, and immune mechanisms that are theorized to account for sex differences in early human placenta. We also highlight the cellular and molecular processes that are most likely to be impacted by fetal sex and the evolutionary pressures that may have given rise to these differences. With growing recognition of the fetal origins of health and disease, it is important to shed light on sex differences in early prenatal development, as these observations may unlock insight into the foundations of sex-biased pathologies that emerge later in life.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13293-022-00459-7
View details for PubMedID 36114567
HMOX1 Genetic Polymorphisms Display Ancestral Diversity and May Be Linked to Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy.
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
Racial disparity exists for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP), which leads to disparate morbidity and mortality worldwide. The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is encoded by HMOX1, which has genetic polymorphisms in its regulatory region that impact its expression and activity and have been associated with various diseases. However, studies of these genetic variants in HDP have been limited. The objective of this study was to examine HMOX1 as a potential genetic contributor of ancestral disparity seen in HDP. First, the 1000 Genomes Project (1KG) phase 3 was utilized to compare the frequencies of alleles, genotypes, and estimated haplotypes of guanidine thymidine repeats (GTn; containing rs3074372) and A/T SNP (rs2071746) among females from five ancestral populations (Africa, theAmericas, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia, N=1271). Then, using genomic DNA from women with a history of HDP, we explored the possibility of HMOX1 variants predisposing women to HDP (N=178) compared with an equivalent ancestral group from 1KG (N=263). Both HMOX1 variants were distributed differently across ancestries, with African women having a distinct distribution and an overall higher prevalence of the variants previously associated with lower HO-1 expression. The two HMOX1 variants display linkage disequilibrium in all but the African group, and within EUR cohort, LL and AA individuals have a higher prevalence in HDP. HMOX1 variants demonstrate ancestral differences that may contribute to racial disparity in HDP. Understanding maternal genetic contribution to HDP will help improve prediction and facilitate personalized approaches to care for HDP.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s43032-022-01001-1
View details for PubMedID 35697922
Early prediction of preeclampsia in pregnancy with cell-free RNA.
Liquid biopsies that measure circulating cell-free RNA (cfRNA) offer an opportunity to study the development of pregnancy-related complications in a non-invasive manner and to bridge gaps in clinical care1-4. Here we used 404 blood samples from 199 pregnant mothers to identify and validate cfRNA transcriptomic changes that are associated with preeclampsia, a multi-organ syndrome that is the second largest cause of maternal death globally5. We find that changes in cfRNA gene expression between normotensive and preeclamptic mothers are marked and stable early in gestation, well before the onset of symptoms. These changes are enriched for genes specific to neuromuscular, endothelial and immune cell types and tissues that reflect key aspects of preeclampsia physiology6-9, suggest new hypotheses for disease progression and correlate with maternal organ health. This enabled the identification and independent validation of a panel of 18 genes that when measured between 5 and 16 weeks of gestation can form the basis of a liquid biopsy test that would identify mothers at risk of preeclampsia long before clinical symptoms manifest themselves. Tests based on these observations could help predict and manage who is at risk for preeclampsia-an important objective for obstetric care10,11.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-022-04410-z
View details for PubMedID 35140405
Natural vs. programmed cycles for frozen embryo transfer: study protocol for an investigator-initiated, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial.
2021; 22 (1): 660
Randomized trials of assisted reproductive technology (ART) have been designed for outcomes of clinical pregnancy or live birth and have not been powered for obstetric outcomes such as preeclampsia, critical for maternal and fetal health. ART increasingly involves frozen embryo transfer (FET). Although there are advantages of FET, multiple studies have shown that risk of preeclampsia is increased with FET compared with fresh embryo transfer, and the reason for this difference is not clear. NatPro will compare the proportion of preeclampsia between two commonly used protocols for FET,modified natural and programmed cycle.In this two-arm, parallel-group, multi-center randomized trial, NatPro will randomize 788 women to either modified natural or programmed FET and follow them for up to three FET cycles. Primary outcome will be the proportion of preeclampsia in women with a viable pregnancy assigned to a modified natural cycle FET (corpus luteum present) protocol compared to the proportion of preeclampsia in pregnant women assigned to a programmed FET (corpus luteum absent) protocol. Secondary outcomes will compare the proportion of live births and the proportion of preeclampsia with severe features between the protocols.This study has a potential significant impact on millions of women who pursue ART to build their families. NatPro is designed to provide clinically relevant guidance to inform patients and clinicians regarding maternal risk with programmed and modified natural cycle FET protocols. This study will also provide accurate point estimates regarding the likelihood of live birth with programmed and modified natural cycle FET.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04551807 . Registered on September 16, 2020.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s13063-021-05637-3
View details for PubMedID 34579768
Examining Sex Differences in the Human Placental Transcriptome During the First Fetal Androgen Peak.
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
Sex differences in human placenta exist from early pregnancy to term, however, it is unclear whether these differences are driven solely by sex chromosome complement or are subject to differential sex hormonal regulation. Here, we survey the human chorionic villus (CV) transcriptome for sex-linked signatures from 11 to 16 gestational weeks, corresponding to the first window of increasing testis-derived androgen production in male fetuses. Illumina HiSeq RNA sequencing was performed on Lexogen Quantseq 3' libraries derived from CV biopsies (n=11 females, n=12 males). Differential expression (DE) was performed to identify sex-linked transcriptional signatures, followed by chromosome mapping, pathway analysis, predicted protein interaction, and post-hoc linear regressions to identify transcripts that trend over time. We observe 322 transcripts DE between male and female CV from 11 to 16weeks, with 22 transcripts logFC >1. Contrary to our predictions, the difference between male and female expression of DE autosomal genes was more pronounced at the earlier gestational ages. In females, we found selective upregulation of extracellular matrix components, along with a number of X-linked genes. In males, DE transcripts centered on chromosome 19, with mitochondrial, immune, and pregnancy maintenance-related transcripts upregulated. Among the highest differentially expressed autosomal genes were CCRL2, LGALS13, and LGALS14, which are known to regulate immune cell interactions. Our results provide insight into sex-linked gene expression in late first and early second trimester developing human placentaand lay the groundwork to understand the mechanistic origins of sex differencesin prenataldevelopment.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s43032-020-00355-8
View details for PubMedID 33150487
Early prediction of preeclampsia via machine learning.
American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
2020; 2 (2): 100100
BACKGROUND: Early prediction of preeclampsia is challenging because of poorly understood causes, various risk factors, and likely multiple pathogenic phenotypes of preeclampsia. Statistical learning methods are well-equipped to deal with a large number of variables, such as patients' clinical and laboratory data, and to select the most informative features automatically.OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use statistical learning methods to analyze all available clinical and laboratory data that were obtained during routine prenatal visits in early pregnancy and to use them to develop a prediction model for preeclampsia.STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study that used data from 16,370 births at Lucile Packard Children Hospital at Stanford, CA, from April 2014 to January 2018. Two statistical learning algorithms were used to build a predictive model: (1) elastic net and (2) gradient boosting algorithm. Models for all preeclampsia and early-onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks gestation) were fitted with the use of patient data that were available at <16 weeks gestational age. The 67 variables that were considered in the models included maternal characteristics, medical history, routine prenatal laboratory results, and medication intake. The area under the receiver operator curve, true-positive rate, and false-positive rate were assessed via cross-validation.RESULTS: Using the elastic netalgorithm, we developed a prediction model that contained a subset of the most informative features from all variables. The obtained prediction model for preeclampsia yielded an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.83), sensitivity of 45.2%, and false-positive rate of 8.1%. The prediction model for early-onset preeclampsia achieved an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.95), true-positive rate of 72.3%, and false-positive rate of 8.8%.CONCLUSION: Statistical learning methods in a retrospective cohort study automatically identified a set of significant features for prediction and yielded high prediction performance for preeclampsia risk from routine early pregnancy information.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100100
View details for PubMedID 33345966
Uteroplacental Ischemia Is Associated with Increased PAPP-A2.
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
Residence at high altitude (>2500m) has been associated with an increased frequency of preeclampsia. Pappalysin-2 (PAPP-A2) is an insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) protease that is elevated in preeclampsia, and up-regulated by hypoxia in placental explants. The relationships between PAPP-A2, altitude, and indices of uteroplacental ischemia are unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association of altitude, preeclampsia, and uterine artery flow or vascular resistance with PAPP-A2 levels. PAPP-A2, uterine artery diameter, volumetric blood flow, and pulsatility indices were measured longitudinally in normotensive Andean women residing at low or high altitudes in Bolivia and in a separate Andean high-altitude cohort with or without preeclampsia. PAPP-A2 levels increased with advancing gestation, with the rise tending to be greater at high compared to low altitude, and higher in early-onset preeclamptic compared to normotensive women at high altitude. Uterine artery blood flow was markedly lower and pulsatility index higher in early-onset preeclamptic normotensive women compared to normotensive women. PAPP-A2 was unrelated to uterine artery pulsatility index in normotensive women but positively correlated in the early-onset preeclampsia cases. We concluded that PAPP-A2 is elevated at high altitude and especially in cases of early-onset preeclampsia with Doppler indices of uteroplacental ischemia.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s43032-019-00050-3
View details for PubMedID 31994005
Maternal Height and Risk of Preeclampsia among Race/Ethnic Groups
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY
2019; 36 (8): 864–71
View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0038-1675205
View details for Web of Science ID 000474763600013
Differential Dynamics of the Maternal Immune System in Healthy Pregnancy and Preeclampsia.
Frontiers in immunology
2019; 10: 1305
Preeclampsia is one of the most severe pregnancy complications and a leading cause of maternal death. However, early diagnosis of preeclampsia remains a clinical challenge. Alterations in the normal immune adaptations necessary for the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy are central features of preeclampsia. However, prior analyses primarily focused on the static assessment of select immune cell subsets have provided limited information for the prediction of preeclampsia. Here, we used a high-dimensional mass cytometry immunoassay to characterize the dynamic changes of over 370 immune cell features (including cell distribution and functional responses) in maternal blood during healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. We found a set of eight cell-specific immune features that accurately identified patients well before the clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia (median area under the curve (AUC) 0.91, interquartile range [0.82-0.92]). Several features recapitulated previously known immune dysfunctions in preeclampsia, such as elevated pro-inflammatory innate immune responses early in pregnancy and impaired regulatory T (Treg) cell signaling. The analysis revealed additional novel immune responses that were strongly associated with, and preceded the onset of preeclampsia, notably abnormal STAT5ab signaling dynamics in CD4+T cell subsets (AUC 0.92, p = 8.0E-5). These results provide a global readout of the dynamics of the maternal immune system early in pregnancy and lay the groundwork for identifying clinically-relevant immune dysfunctions for the prediction and prevention of preeclampsia.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01305
View details for PubMedID 31263463
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6584811
Absent or Excessive Corpus Luteum Number Is Associated With Altered Maternal Vascular Health in Early Pregnancy
2019; 73 (3): 680–90
View details for DOI 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12046
View details for Web of Science ID 000458554900024
Increased Preeclampsia Risk and Reduced Aortic Compliance With In Vitro Fertilization Cycles in the Absence of a Corpus Luteum
2019; 73 (3): 640–49
View details for DOI 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12043
View details for Web of Science ID 000458554900020
Murine trophoblast-derived and pregnancy-associated exosome-enriched extracellular vesicle microRNAs: Implications for placenta driven effects on maternal physiology
2019; 14 (2)
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0210675
View details for Web of Science ID 000458026000009
Differential expression of human placental PAPP-A2 over gestation and in preeclampsia.
2016; 37: 19-25
Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A2 (PAPP-A2) is a pregnancy related insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) protease, known to be elevated in preeclampsia. As the insulin-like growth factors are important in human implantation and placentation, we sought to determine the expression pattern of PAPP-A2 over human gestation in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies to evaluate its role in placental development and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.Placental basal plate and chorionic villi samples, maternal and fetal cord blood sera were obtained from preeclamptic and control pregnancies. Formalin-fixed tissue sections from across gestation were stained for cytokeratin-7, HLA-G, and PAPP-A2. PAPP-A2 immunoblot analysis was also performed on protein lysates and sera.PAPP-A2 expression is predominately expressed by differentiated trophoblasts and fetal endothelium. Chorionic villi show strong expression in the first trimester, followed by a progressive decrease in the second trimester, which returns in the third trimester. PAPP-A2 expression is not impacted by labor. PAPP-A2 is increased in the basal plate, chorionic villi and maternal sera in preeclampsia compared to controls, but is not detectable in cord blood.PAPP-A2 is differentially expressed in different trophoblast populations and shows strong down regulation in the mid second trimester in chorionic villous samples. Both maternal sera and placental tissue from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia show increased levels of PAPP-A2. PAPP-A2 levels are not altered by labor. Additionally, PAPP-A2 cannot be detected in cord blood demonstrating that the alterations in maternal and placental PAPP-A2 are not recapitulated in the fetal circulation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.placenta.2015.11.004
View details for PubMedID 26748159
Umbilical Cord Blood Circulating Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Are Decreased in Preeclampsia.
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria. Mothers with PE are known to develop endothelial dysfunction, but its effect on infants has been understudied, as newborns are often asymptomatic. Recent studies indicate that infants born from preeclamptic pregnancies develop endothelial dysfunction including higher blood pressure during childhood and an increased risk of stroke later in life. We hypothesize that PE reduces the number and function of fetal angiogenic progenitor cells and may contribute to this increased risk. We quantified 2 distinct types of angiogenic progenitors, pro-angiogenic circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), from the umbilical cord blood of preeclamptic pregnancies and normotensive controls. Pro-angiogenic and nonangiogenic CPCs were enumerated via flow cytometry and ECFCs by cell culture. Additionally, we studied the growth, migration, and tube formation of ECFCs from PE and gestational age-matched normotensive control pregnancies. We found that PE resulted in decreased cord blood pro-angiogenic CPCs and ECFCs. Nonangiogenic CPCs were also decreased. Preeclamptic ECFCs demonstrated decreased growth and migration but formed tube-like structures in vitro similar to controls. Our results suggest that the preeclamptic environment alters the number and function of angiogenic progenitor cells and may increase the risk of later vascular disease.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1933719116678692
View details for PubMedID 27879452
Siglec-6 expression is increased in placentas from pregnancies complicated by preterm preeclampsia.
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
2013; 20 (6): 646–53
Sialic acid immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-6 is a transmembrane receptor that binds sialyl-TN glycans and leptin. Among eutherian mammals, only human placentas express Siglec-6. Previous work has implicated Siglec-6 in preeclampsia (PE). Preeclampsia, a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, is characterized by placental abnormalities. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of Siglec-6 protein expression during human pregnancy by disease state (PE), biologic compartment (basal plate, chorionic villi, or maternal plasma), gestational age (24-41 weeks), and labor status. Siglec-6 protein was increased in both the basal plate and chorionic villi of preterm PE placentas (P < .05). However, expression did not differ at term by disease state, compartment, or labor status. Siglec-6 was not detectable in maternal serum. Overexpression of Siglec-6 protein in preterm PE placentas may contribute to or represent a response to PE pathogenesis and suggests that preterm PE pathogenesis is distinct from term PE.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1933719112461185
View details for PubMedID 23171684
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3676189
Siglec-6 is expressed in gestational trophoblastic disease and affects proliferation, apoptosis and invasion.
2012; 19 (6): 827–40
Sialic acid immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-6 is a transmembrane receptor that binds leptin. Leptin is an obesity-associated peptide hormone overexpressed in gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). GTD encompasses several placental abnormalities that range from benign to malignant. Among GTD, molar placentas are characterized by excess proliferation, whereas gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTN) have characteristically aggressive invasion. We hypothesized that in GTD, Siglec-6 expression would increase with disease severity and that Siglec-6 and leptin would promote proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and/or promote invasion. Siglec-6 expression patterns were evaluated with particular attention to the diagnostic utility of Siglec-6 in GTD (controls: normal placentas (n=32), hydropic abortus placentas (n=7), non-GTD reproductive tract cancers (n=2); GTD: partial moles (PM; n=11), complete moles (n=24), GTN (n=6)). In normal placentas, Siglec-6 expression dramatically decreased after 8 weeks gestation. Complete molar placentas had significantly higher Siglec-6 expression than controls, but expression was not significantly different from PM. In GTN, Siglec-6 expression was low. These data suggest that Siglec-6 may have diagnostic utility for distinguishing complete moles from normal and hydropic abortus placentas. Functional studies in choriocarcinoma-derived BeWO cells demonstrated a complex interplay between Siglec-6 expression and leptin exposure. In cells lacking Siglec-6, leptin treatment promoted invasion, likely through interaction with LepR leptin receptor, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Siglec-6 expression promoted proliferation in a leptin-dependent manner, but protected cells from apoptosis and promoted invasion in a leptin-independent manner. We propose that Siglec-6 and leptin play a role in the aberrant properties characteristic of GTD, namely excess proliferation and invasion.
View details for PubMedID 23089140
Gene expression profiling of the human maternal-fetal interface reveals dramatic changes between midgestation and term
2007; 148 (3): 1059-1079
Human placentation entails the remarkable integration of fetal and maternal cells into a single functional unit. In the basal plate region (the maternal-fetal interface) of the placenta, fetal cytotrophoblasts from the placenta invade the uterus and remodel the resident vasculature and avoid maternal immune rejection. Knowing the molecular bases for these unique cell-cell interactions is important for understanding how this specialized region functions during normal pregnancy with implications for tumor biology and transplantation immunology. Therefore, we undertook a global analysis of the gene expression profiles at the maternal-fetal interface. Basal plate biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 placentas (14-40 wk) at the conclusion of normal pregnancies. RNA was isolated, processed, and hybridized to HG-U133A&B Affymetrix GeneChips. Surprisingly, there was little change in gene expression during the 14- to 24-wk interval. In contrast, 418 genes were differentially expressed at term (37-40 wk) as compared with midgestation (14-24 wk). Subsequent analyses using quantitative PCR and immunolocalization approaches validated a portion of these results. Many of the differentially expressed genes are known in other contexts to be involved in differentiation, motility, transcription, immunity, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix dissolution, or lipid metabolism. One sixth were nonannotated or encoded hypothetical proteins. Modeling based on structural homology revealed potential functions for 31 of these proteins. These data provide a reference set for understanding the molecular components of the dialogue taking place between maternal and fetal cells in the basal plate as well as for future comparisons of alterations in this region that occur in obstetric complications.
View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2006-0683
View details for Web of Science ID 000244278100017
View details for PubMedID 17170095
Early prediction and longitudinal modeling of preeclampsia from multiomics.
Patterns (New York, N.Y.)
2022; 3 (12): 100655
Preeclampsia is a complex disease of pregnancy whose physiopathology remains unclear. We developed machine-learning models for early prediction of preeclampsia (first 16weeks of pregnancy) and over gestation by analyzing six omics datasets from a longitudinal cohort of pregnant women. For early pregnancy, a prediction model using nine urine metabolites had the highest accuracy and was validated on an independent cohort (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC]= 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.76, 0.99] cross-validated; AUC= 0.83, 95% CI [0.62,1] validated). Univariate analysis demonstrated statistical significance of identified metabolites. An integrated multiomics model further improved accuracy (AUC= 0.94). Several biological pathways were identified including tryptophan, caffeine, and arachidonic acid metabolisms. Integration with immune cytometry data suggested novel associations between immune and proteomic dynamics. While further validation in a larger population is necessary, these encouraging results can serve as a basis for a simple, early diagnostic test for preeclampsia.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.patter.2022.100655
View details for PubMedID 36569558
Implementation of a comprehensive fertility biobanking initiative.
2022; 3 (3): 228-236
OBJECTIVE: To present the framework of Stanford Fertility and Reproductive Health's comprehensive reproductive biobanking initiatives and the results of the first year of recruitment.DESIGN: Technical description article.SETTING: Academic fertility center.PATIENT(S): Fertility patients >18 years of age.INTERVENTION(S): Enroll the patients interested in research in biobanking protocols.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Patient recruitment and sample inventory from September 2020 to September2021.RESULT(S): A total of 253 patients have enrolled in the Stanford Fertility and Reproductive Health biobanking initiatives since September 2020. The current inventory consists of 1,176 samples, including serums, plasmas, buffy coats, endometria, maternal deciduae, miscarriage chorionic villi, and human embryos (zygote, cleavage, and blastocyst stages).CONCLUSION(S): This biobanking initiative addresses a critical, unmet need in reproductive health research to make it possible for patients to donate excess embryos and gametes and preserves, for future research, valuable somatic and reproductive tissues that would otherwise be discarded. We present the framework of this biobanking initiative in order to support future efforts of establishing similar biorepositories.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xfss.2022.01.001
View details for PubMedID 35977803
Extracellular Vesicles in Preeclampsia: Can Small Packages Carry a Big Punch?
Anesthesia and analgesia
2022; 134 (4): 710-712
View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005898
View details for PubMedID 35299211
Coronary blood vessels from distinct origins converge to equivalent states during mouse and human development.
Most cell fate trajectories during development follow a diverging, tree-like branching pattern, but the opposite can occur when distinct progenitors contribute to the same cell type. During this convergent differentiation, it is unknown if cells 'remember' their origins transcriptionally or whether this influences cell behavior. Most coronary blood vessels of the heart develop from two different progenitor sources-the endocardium (Endo) and sinus venosus (SV)-but whether transcriptional or functional differences related to origin are retained is unknown. We addressed this by combining lineage tracing with single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) in embryonic and adult mouse hearts. Shortly after coronary development begins, capillary endothelial cells (ECs) transcriptionally segregated into two states that retained progenitor-specific gene expression. Later in development, when the coronary vasculature is well established but still remodeling, capillary ECs again segregated into two populations, but transcriptional differences were primarily related to tissue localization rather than lineage. Specifically, ECs in the heart septum expressed genes indicative of increased local hypoxia and decreased blood flow. Adult capillary ECs were more homogeneous with respect to both lineage and location. In agreement, SV- and Endo-derived ECs in adult hearts displayed similar responses to injury. Finally, scRNAseq of developing human coronary vessels indicated that the human heart followed similar principles. Thus, over the course of development, transcriptional heterogeneity in coronary ECs is first influenced by lineage, then by location, until heterogeneity declines in the homeostatic adult heart. These results highlight the plasticity of ECs during development, and the validity of the mouse as a model for human coronary development.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.70246
View details for PubMedID 34910626
Coronary blood vessels from distinct origins converge to equivalent states during mouse and human development
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.70246.sa2
View details for Web of Science ID 000730934300001
Endocardial/endothelial angiocrines regulate cardiomyocyte development and maturation and induce features of ventricular non-compaction.
European heart journal
AIMS: Non-compaction cardiomyopathy is a devastating genetic disease caused by insufficient consolidation of ventricular wall muscle that can result in inadequate cardiac performance. Despite being the third most common cardiomyopathy, the mechanisms underlying the disease, including the cell types involved, are poorly understood. We have previously shown that endothelial cell-specific deletion of the chromatin remodeller gene Ino80 results in defective coronary vessel development that leads to ventricular non-compaction in embryonic mouse hearts. We aimed to identify candidate angiocrines expressed by endocardial and ECs inwildtype and LVNC conditions in Tie2Cre;Ino80fl/fl transgenic embryonic mouse hearts, and test the effect of these candidates on cardiomyocyte proliferation and maturation.METHODS AND RESULTS: We used single-cell RNA-sequencing to characterize endothelial and endocardial defects in Ino80-deficient hearts. We observed a pathological endocardial cell population in the non-compacted hearts and identified multiple dysregulated angiocrine factors that dramatically affected cardiomyocyte behaviour. We identified Col15A1 as a coronary vessel-secreted angiocrine factor, downregulated by Ino80-deficiency, that functioned to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation. Furthermore, mutant endocardial and endothelial cells (ECs) up-regulated expression of secreted factors, such as Tgfbi, Igfbp3, Isg15, and Adm, which decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation and increased maturation.CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a model where coronary ECs normally promote myocardial compaction through secreted factors, but that endocardial and ECs can secrete factors that contribute to non-compaction under pathological conditions.
View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab298
View details for PubMedID 34279605
Noninvasive Prediction of Preeclampsia in Pregnancy with Circulating RNA.
SPRINGER HEIDELBERG. 2021: 75A
View details for Web of Science ID 000675441000068
Multi-Omic, Longitudinal Profile of Third-Trimester Pregnancies Identifies a Molecular Switch That Predicts the Onset of Labor.
SPRINGER HEIDELBERG. 2021: 233A-234A
View details for Web of Science ID 000675441000486
Integrated trajectories of the maternal metabolome, proteome, and immunome predict labor onset.
Science translational medicine
2021; 13 (592)
Estimating the time of delivery is of high clinical importance because pre- and postterm deviations are associated with complications for the mother and her offspring. However, current estimations are inaccurate. As pregnancy progresses toward labor, major transitions occur in fetomaternal immune, metabolic, and endocrine systems that culminate in birth. The comprehensive characterization of maternal biology that precedes labor is key to understanding these physiological transitions and identifying predictive biomarkers of delivery. Here, a longitudinal study was conducted in 63 women who went into labor spontaneously. More than 7000 plasma analytes and peripheral immune cell responses were analyzed using untargeted mass spectrometry, aptamer-based proteomic technology, and single-cell mass cytometry in serial blood samples collected during the last 100 days of pregnancy. The high-dimensional dataset was integrated into a multiomic model that predicted the time to spontaneous labor [R = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.79 to 0.89], P = 1.2 * 10-40, N = 53, training set; R = 0.81, 95% CI [0.61 to 0.91], P = 3.9 * 10-7, N = 10, independent test set]. Coordinated alterations in maternal metabolome, proteome, and immunome marked a molecular shift from pregnancy maintenance to prelabor biology 2 to 4 weeks before delivery. A surge in steroid hormone metabolites and interleukin-1 receptor type 4 that preceded labor coincided with a switch from immune activation to regulation of inflammatory responses. Our study lays the groundwork for developing blood-based methods for predicting the day of labor, anchored in mechanisms shared in preterm and term pregnancies.
View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd9898
View details for PubMedID 33952678
Association of Preconception Paternal Health and Adverse Maternal Outcomes among Healthy Mothers.
American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of preconception paternal health and risk of adverse maternal outcomes among healthy mothers.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of live births from 2009-2016 among healthy women 20-45 years of age in the IBM Marketscan research database. Infants were linked to paired mothers and fathers using family ID. Preconception paternal health was assessed using the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and the most common individual chronic disease diagnoses (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, COPD, cancer, and depression). Women with MetS components were excluded to avoid potential confounding of maternal and paternal factors. Adverse maternal outcomes assessed included: 1) abnormal placentation including placenta accreta spectrum, placenta previa and placental abruption 2) pre-eclampsia with and without severe features including eclampsia, and 3) severe maternal morbidity (SMM), identified as any indicator from the CDC Index of life-threatening complications at the time of delivery through 6 weeks postpartum. The trend between preconception paternal health and each maternal outcome was determined using the Cochran-Armitage Trend test. The independent association of paternal health and maternal outcomes was also determined using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models accounting for some mothers contributing multiple births and adjusting for maternal age, paternal age, region of birth, year of birth, maternal smoking, and average number of outpatient visits per year.RESULTS: Among 669,256 births to healthy mothers, there was a significant trend of all adverse maternal outcomes with worsening preconception paternal health defined either as number of MetS components or number of chronic diseases (p<0.001, Cochran-Armitage Trend test). In the GEE model, the odds of pre-eclampsia without severe features increased in a dose-dependent fashion and were 21% higher (95% CI 1.17-1.26) among women whose partners had ≥2 MetS than for women whose partners had 0 MetS. The odds of pre-eclampsia with severe features and eclampsia increased in a dose-dependent fashion and were 19% higher (95% CI 1.09-1.30) for women whose partners had ≥2 MetS than for women whose partners had 0 MetS. The odds of SMM were 9% higher (95% CI 1.002-1.19) for women whose partners had ≥2 MetS components than for women whose partners had 0 MetS. The odds of abnormal placentation was similar between groups (aOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89-1.03).CONCLUSIONS: Among healthy mothers, we report preconception paternal health is significantly associated with increased odds of pre-eclampsia with and without severe features and weakly associated with odds of SMM. These findings suggest that paternally derived factors may play significant roles in the development of adverse maternal outcomes in healthy women with a low a priori risk of obstetric complications.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100384
View details for PubMedID 33895399
A Letter to President Biden and Secretary Designate of HHS Xavier Becerra: Remove Barriers to Federal Funding of Human Embryo and Fetal Tissue Research.
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
Human fetal tissue (HFT) has been used in biomedical research for nearly a century and has led to extraordinarily valuable discoveries that have benefitted humankind. Politicization of the use of HFT over recent years has led to the creation of numerous obstacles to scientific progress in this field. In July 2019, the imposition of redundant ethics policies was supplemented with the creation of the Human Fetal Tissue Ethics Advisory Board, which withheld funding of 13 out of 14 NIH grants that were favorably peer reviewed in the Summer of 2020. We believe that these new sets of restrictions are harmful to the goals of scientific progress and call upon the new administration of our government to allow peer review, not politics, to determine scientific merit and to reinstitute the previously existing ethics policies that were more than adequate to assure the appropriateness of human fetal tissue research.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s43032-021-00491-9
View details for PubMedID 33638133
Proteomic signatures predict preeclampsia in individual cohorts but not across cohorts - implications for clinical biomarker studies.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
Early identification of pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia (PE) is important, as it will enable targeted interventions ahead of clinical manifestations. The quantitative analyses of plasma proteins feature prominently among molecular approaches used for risk prediction. However, derivation of protein signatures of sufficient predictive power has been challenging. The recent availability of platforms simultaneously assessing over 1000 plasma proteins offers broad examinations of the plasma proteome, which may enable the extraction of proteomic signatures with improved prognostic performance in prenatal care.The primary aim of this study was to examine the generalizability of proteomic signatures predictive of PE in two cohorts of pregnant women whose plasma proteome was interrogated with the same highly multiplexed platform. Establishing generalizability, or lack thereof, is critical to devise strategies facilitating the development of clinically useful predictive tests. A second aim was to examine the generalizability of protein signatures predictive of gestational age (GA) in uncomplicated pregnancies in the same cohorts to contrast physiological and pathological pregnancy outcomes.Serial blood samples were collected during the first, second, and third trimesters in 18 women who developed PE and 18 women with uncomplicated pregnancies (Stanford cohort). The second cohort (Detroit), used for comparative analysis, consisted of 76 women with PE and 90 women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Multivariate analyses were applied to infer predictive and cohort-specific proteomic models, which were then tested in the alternate cohort. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed to identify biological processes that were over-represented among top-ranked proteins associated with PE.The model derived in the Stanford cohort was highly significant (p = 3.9E-15) and predictive (AUC = 0.96), but failed validation in the Detroit cohort (p = 9.7E-01, AUC = 0.50). Similarly, the model derived in the Detroit cohort was highly significant (p = 1.0E-21, AUC = 0.73), but failed validation in the Stanford cohort (p = 7.3E-02, AUC = 0.60). By contrast, proteomic models predicting GA were readily validated across the Stanford (p = 1.1E-454, R = 0.92) and Detroit cohorts (p = 1.1.E-92, R = 0.92) indicating that the proteomic assay performed well enough to infer a generalizable model across studied cohorts, which makes it less likely that technical aspects of the assay, including batch effects, accounted for observed differences.Results point to a broader issue relevant for proteomic and other omic discovery studies in patient cohorts suffering from a clinical syndrome, such as PE, driven by heterogeneous pathophysiologies. While novel technologies including highly multiplex proteomic arrays and adapted computational algorithms allow for novel discoveries for a particular study cohort, they may not readily generalize across cohorts. A likely reason is that the prevalence of pathophysiologic processes leading up to the "same" clinical syndrome can be distributed differently in different and smaller-sized cohorts. Signatures derived in individual cohorts may simply capture different facets of the spectrum of pathophysiologic processes driving a syndrome. Our findings have important implications for the design of omic studies of a syndrome like PE. They highlight the need for performing such studies in diverse and well-phenotyped patient populations that are large enough to characterize subsets of patients with shared pathophysiologies to then derive subset-specific signatures of sufficient predictive power.
View details for DOI 10.1080/14767058.2021.1888915
View details for PubMedID 33653202
Inflammatory cytokines, placental pathology, and neurological outcomes in infants born to preterm preeclamptic mothers.
2021; 16 (11): e0260094
Preeclampsia is both a vascular and inflammatory disorder. Since the placenta is a conduit for fetal development, preeclampsia should be a presumed cause of adverse infant outcomes. Yet, the relationship of placental pathology, inflammation and neurological outcomes after preeclampsia are understudied. We prospectively examined a cohort of maternal-infant dyads with preeclampsia for maternal inflammatory cytokines at time of preeclampsia diagnosis and delivery, and fetal cord blood cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α). Placentas were analyzed for inflammatory and vascular pathologies. Neurodevelopmental assessment of infants utilizing the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) was conducted at 6-month corrected gestational age. Eighty-one maternal-newborn dyads were examined. Worse neurological outcomes were not associated with elevated maternal / fetal cytokines. Early preterm birth (gestational age ≤ 32 weeks) was associated with worse neurological outcomes at 6-months regardless of maternal/ fetal cytokine levels, placental pathology, or cranial ultrasound findings (OR 1.70, [1.16-2.48], p = 0.006). When correcting for gestational age, elevated IL-6 approached significance as a predictor for worse developmental outcome (OR 1.025 [0.985-1.066], p = 0.221). Pathological evidence of maternal malperfusion and worse outcomes were noted in early preterm, although our sample size was small. Our study did not demonstrate an obvious association of inflammation and placental pathology in preeclampsia and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 6-month corrected age but does suggest maternal malperfusion at earlier gestational age may be a risk factor for worse outcome.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0260094
View details for PubMedID 34780565
Single-Cell Analysis of the Neonatal Immune System Across the Gestational Age Continuum.
Frontiers in immunology
2021; 12: 714090
Although most causes of death and morbidity in premature infants are related to immune maladaptation, the premature immune system remains poorly understood. We provide a comprehensive single-cell depiction of the neonatal immune system at birth across the spectrum of viable gestational age (GA), ranging from 25 weeks to term. A mass cytometry immunoassay interrogated all major immune cell subsets, including signaling activity and responsiveness to stimulation. An elastic net model described the relationship between GA and immunome (R=0.85, p=8.75e-14), and unsupervised clustering highlighted previously unrecognized GA-dependent immune dynamics, including decreasing basal MAP-kinase/NFκB signaling in antigen presenting cells; increasing responsiveness of cytotoxic lymphocytes to interferon-α; and decreasing frequency of regulatory and invariant T cells, including NKT-like cells and CD8+CD161+ T cells. Knowledge gained from the analysis of the neonatal immune landscape across GA provides a mechanistic framework to understand the unique susceptibility of preterm infants to both hyper-inflammatory diseases and infections.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2021.714090
View details for PubMedID 34497610
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8420969
Changes in pregnancy-related serum biomarkers early in gestation are associated with later development of preeclampsia.
2020; 15 (3): e0230000
Placental protein expression plays a crucial role during pregnancy. We hypothesized that: (1) circulating levels of pregnancy-associated, placenta-related proteins throughout gestation reflect the temporal progression of the uncomplicated, full-term pregnancy, and can effectively estimate gestational ages (GAs); and (2) preeclampsia (PE) is associated with disruptions in these protein levels early in gestation; and can identify impending PE. We also compared gestational profiles of proteins in the human and mouse, using pregnant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) heterozygote (Het) mice, a mouse model reflecting PE-like symptoms.Serum levels of placenta-related proteins-leptin (LEP), chorionic somatomammotropin hormone like 1 (CSHL1), elabela (ELA), activin A, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), and placental growth factor (PlGF)-were quantified by ELISA in blood serially collected throughout human pregnancies (20 normal subjects with 66 samples, and 20 subjects who developed PE with 61 samples). Multivariate analysis was performed to estimate the GA in normal pregnancy. Mean-squared errors of GA estimations were used to identify impending PE. The human protein profiles were then compared with those in the pregnant HO-1 Het mice.An elastic net-based gestational dating model was developed (R2 = 0.76) and validated (R2 = 0.61) using serum levels of the 6 proteins measured at various GAs from women with normal uncomplicated pregnancies. In women who developed PE, the model was not (R2 = -0.17) associated with GA. Deviations from the model estimations were observed in women who developed PE (P = 0.01). The model developed with 5 proteins (ELA excluded) performed similarly from sera from normal human (R2 = 0.68) and WT mouse (R2 = 0.85) pregnancies. Disruptions of this model were observed in both human PE-associated (R2 = 0.27) and mouse HO-1 Het (R2 = 0.30) pregnancies. LEP outperformed sFlt-1 and PlGF in differentiating impending PE at early human and late mouse GAs.Serum placenta-related protein profiles are temporally regulated throughout normal pregnancies and significantly disrupted in women who develop PE. LEP changes earlier than the well-established biomarkers (sFlt-1 and PlGF). There may be evidence of a causative action of HO-1 deficiency in LEP upregulation in a PE-like murine model.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0230000
View details for PubMedID 32126118
Multiomic immune clockworks of pregnancy.
Seminars in immunopathology
Preterm birth is the leading cause of mortality in children under the age of five worldwide. Despite major efforts, we still lack the ability to accurately predict and effectively prevent preterm birth. While multiple factors contribute to preterm labor, dysregulations of immunological adaptations required for the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy is at its pathophysiological core. Consequently, a precise understanding of these chronologically paced immune adaptations and of the biological pacemakers that synchronize the pregnancy "immune clock" is a critical first step towards identifying deviations that are hallmarks of peterm birth. Here, we will review key elements of the fetal, placental, and maternal pacemakers that program the immune clock of pregnancy. We will then emphasize multiomic studies that enable a more integrated view of pregnancy-related immune adaptations. Such multiomic assessments can strengthen the biological plausibility of immunological findings and increase the power of biological signatures predictive of preterm birth.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00281-019-00772-1
View details for PubMedID 32020337
Multiomics Characterization of Preterm Birth in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
JAMA network open
2020; 3 (12): e2029655
Worldwide, preterm birth (PTB) is the single largest cause of deaths in the perinatal and neonatal period and is associated with increased morbidity in young children. The cause of PTB is multifactorial, and the development of generalizable biological models may enable early detection and guide therapeutic studies.To investigate the ability of transcriptomics and proteomics profiling of plasma and metabolomics analysis of urine to identify early biological measurements associated with PTB.This diagnostic/prognostic study analyzed plasma and urine samples collected from May 2014 to June 2017 from pregnant women in 5 biorepository cohorts in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; ie, Matlab, Bangladesh; Lusaka, Zambia; Sylhet, Bangladesh; Karachi, Pakistan; and Pemba, Tanzania). These cohorts were established to study maternal and fetal outcomes and were supported by the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement and the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth biorepositories. Data were analyzed from December 2018 to July 2019.Blood and urine specimens that were collected early during pregnancy (median sampling time of 13.6 weeks of gestation, according to ultrasonography) were processed, stored, and shipped to the laboratories under uniform protocols. Plasma samples were assayed for targeted measurement of proteins and untargeted cell-free ribonucleic acid profiling; urine samples were assayed for metabolites.The PTB phenotype was defined as the delivery of a live infant before completing 37 weeks of gestation.Of the 81 pregnant women included in this study, 39 had PTBs (48.1%) and 42 had term pregnancies (51.9%) (mean [SD] age of 24.8 [5.3] years). Univariate analysis demonstrated functional biological differences across the 5 cohorts. A cohort-adjusted machine learning algorithm was applied to each biological data set, and then a higher-level machine learning modeling combined the results into a final integrative model. The integrated model was more accurate, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72-0.91) compared with the models derived for each independent biological modality (transcriptomics AUROC, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.61-0.83]; metabolomics AUROC, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.47-0.72]; and proteomics AUROC, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.64-0.85]). Primary features associated with PTB included an inflammatory module as well as a metabolomic module measured in urine associated with the glutamine and glutamate metabolism and valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways.This study found that, in LMICs and high PTB settings, major biological adaptations during term pregnancy follow a generalizable model and the predictive accuracy for PTB was augmented by combining various omics data sets, suggesting that PTB is a condition that manifests within multiple biological systems. These data sets, with machine learning partnerships, may be a key step in developing valuable predictive tests and intervention candidates for preventing PTB.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.29655
View details for PubMedID 33337494
Multiomics modeling of the immunome, transcriptome, microbiome, proteome and metabolome adaptations during human pregnancy.
Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)
2019; 35 (1): 95–103
Motivation: Multiple biological clocks govern a healthy pregnancy. These biological mechanisms produce immunologic, metabolomic, proteomic, genomic and microbiomic adaptations during the course of pregnancy. Modeling the chronology of these adaptations during full-term pregnancy provides the frameworks for future studies examining deviations implicated in pregnancy-related pathologies including preterm birth and preeclampsia.Results: We performed a multiomics analysis of 51 samples from 17 pregnant women, delivering at term. The datasets included measurements from the immunome, transcriptome, microbiome, proteome and metabolome of samples obtained simultaneously from the same patients. Multivariate predictive modeling using the Elastic Net (EN) algorithm was used to measure the ability of each dataset to predict gestational age. Using stacked generalization, these datasets were combined into a single model. This model not only significantly increased predictive power by combining all datasets, but also revealed novel interactions between different biological modalities. Future work includes expansion of the cohort to preterm-enriched populations and in vivo analysis of immune-modulating interventions based on the mechanisms identified.Availability and implementation: Datasets and scripts for reproduction of results are available through: https://nalab.stanford.edu/multiomics-pregnancy/.Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
View details for PubMedID 30561547
Data-driven queries between medications and spontaneous preterm birth among 2.5 million pregnancies.
Birth defects research
Our goal was to develop an approach that can systematically identify potential associations between medication prescribed in pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) by mining large administrative "claims" databases containing hundreds of medications. One such association that we illustrate emerged with antiviral medications used for herpes treatment.IBM MarketScan® databases (2007-2016) were used. A pregnancy cohort was established using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9/10) codes. Multiple hypothesis testing and the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure that limited false discovery rate at 5% revealed, among 863 medications, five that showed odds ratios (ORs) <1. The statistically strongest was an association between antivirals and sPTB that we illustrate as a real example of our approach, specifically for treatment of genital herpes (GH). Three groups of women were identified based on diagnosis of GH and treatment during the first 36 weeks of pregnancy: (a) GH without treatment; (b) GH treated with antivirals; (c) no GH or treatment.We identified 2,538,255 deliveries. 0.98% women had a diagnosis of GH. Among them, 60.0% received antiviral treatment. Women with treated GH had OR < 1, (OR [95% CI] = 0.91 [0.85, 0.98]). In contrast, women with untreated GH had a small increased risk of sPTB (OR [95% CI] =1.22 [1.14, 1.32]).Data-driven approaches can effectively generate new hypotheses on associations between medications and sPTB. This analysis led us to examine the association with GH treatment. While unknown confounders may impact these findings, our results indicate that women with untreated GH have a modest increased risk of sPTB.
View details for DOI 10.1002/bdr2.1580
View details for PubMedID 31433567
Placental lipoprotein lipase activity is positively associated with newborn adiposity
2018; 64: 53–60
Recent data suggest that in addition to glucose, fetal growth is related to maternal triglycerides (TG). To reach the fetus, TG must be hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFA) and transported across the placenta, but regulation is uncertain. Placental lipoprotein lipase (pLPL) hydrolyzes TG, both dietary chylomicron TG (CM-TG) and very-low density lipoprotein TG (VLDL-TG), to FFA. This may promote fetal fat accretion by increasing the available FFA pool for placental uptake. We tested the novel hypothesis that pLPL activity, but not maternal adipose tissue LPL activity, is associated with newborn adiposity and higher maternal TG.Twenty mothers (n = 13 normal-weight; n = 7 obese) were prospectively recruited. Maternal glucose, insulin, TG (total, CM-TG, VLDL-TG), and FFA were measured at 14-16, 26-28, and 36-37 weeks, and adipose tissue LPL was measured at 26-28 weeks. At term delivery, placental villous biopsies were immediately analyzed for pLPL enzymatic activity. Newborn percent body fat (newborn %fat) was assessed by skinfolds.Placental LPL activity was positively correlated with birthweight (r = 0.48;P = 0.03) and newborn %fat (r = 0.59;P = 0.006), further strengthened by correcting for gestational age at delivery (r = 0.75;P = 0.0001), but adipose tissue LPL was not. Maternal TG and BMI were not correlated with pLPL activity. Additionally, pLPL gene expression, while modestly correlated with enzymatic activity (r = 0.53;P < 0.05), was not correlated with newborn adiposity.This is the first study to show a positive correlation between pLPL activity and newborn %fat. Placental lipase regulation and the role of pLPL in pregnancies characterized by nutrient excess and fetal overgrowth warrant further investigation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.placenta.2018.03.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000429556800007
View details for PubMedID 29626981
Occurrence of Selected Structural Birth Defects Among Women With Preeclampsia and Other Hypertensive Disorders
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
2018; 187 (4): 668–76
To explore a potential association between preeclampsia and selected birth defects, we examined the prevalence of certain birth defects among women with hypertensive disorders including preeclampsia. We analyzed data from 2,499,536 singleton live births in California from 2007 to 2011, including maternal and infant demographics from birth certificates as well as clinical details from delivery hospitalization records. We examined defect groups that were recognizable at birth (e.g., spina bifida and cleft lip). Hypertensive disorders included preexisting hypertension, gestational hypertension, mild preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on preexisting hypertension. Relative risk values with 95% confidence intervals for each birth defect were calculated by hypertensive group, as well as independent and joint associations of hypertensive and diabetic disorders. Risks of each type of birth defect were higher among offspring of women with hypertensive disorders compared with those without. The risks of birth defects among offspring of women with only a hypertensive disorder were significantly higher than that among women with neither hypertensive nor diabetic disorders (relative risks ranged from 1.37 to 2.77). Risks of birth defects were highest among those born to women with both hypertensive and diabetic disorders compared with those with neither (relative risks ranged from 1.80 to 6.22). These findings support the existence of an association between preeclampsia and certain birth defects and suggest that diabetes may be a contributing factor.
View details for PubMedID 29020134
An immune clock of human pregnancy
2017; 2 (15)
View details for DOI 10.1126/sciimmunol.aan2946
View details for Web of Science ID 000434327200004
An immune clock of human pregnancy.
2017; 2 (15)
The maintenance of pregnancy relies on finely tuned immune adaptations. We demonstrate that these adaptations are precisely timed, reflecting an immune clock of pregnancy in women delivering at term. Using mass cytometry, the abundance and functional responses of all major immune cell subsets were quantified in serial blood samples collected throughout pregnancy. Cell signaling-based Elastic Net, a regularized regression method adapted from the elastic net algorithm, was developed to infer and prospectively validate a predictive model of interrelated immune events that accurately captures the chronology of pregnancy. Model components highlighted existing knowledge and revealed previously unreported biology, including a critical role for the interleukin-2-dependent STAT5ab signaling pathway in modulating T cell function during pregnancy. These findings unravel the precise timing of immunological events occurring during a term pregnancy and provide the analytical framework to identify immunological deviations implicated in pregnancy-related pathologies.
View details for PubMedID 28864494
A Proteomic Clock of Human Pregnancy.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
Early detection of maladaptive processes underlying pregnancy-related pathologies is desirable, as it will enable targeted interventions ahead of clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis of plasma proteins features prominently among molecular approaches used to detect deviations from normal pregnancy. However, derivation of proteomic signatures sufficiently predictive of pregnancy-related outcomes has been challenging. An important obstacle hindering such efforts were limitations in assay technology, which prevented the broad examination of the plasma proteome.The recent availability of a highly-multiplexed platform affording the simultaneous measurement of 1,310 plasma proteins opens the door for a more explorative approach. The major aim of this study was to examine whether analysis of plasma collected during gestation of term pregnancy would allow identifying a set of proteins that tightly track gestational age. Establishing precisely-timed plasma proteomic changes during term pregnancy is a critical step in identifying deviations from regular patterns due to fetal and maternal maladaptations. A second aim was to gain insight into functional attributes of identified proteins, and link such attributes to relevant immunological changes.Pregnant women participated in this longitudinal study. In two subsequent subsets of 21 (training cohort) and 10 (validation cohort) women, specific blood specimens were collected during the first (7-14 wks), second (15-20 wks), and third (24-32 wks) trimesters, and 6 wks post-partum for analysis with a highly-multiplexed aptamer-based platform. An elastic net algorithm was applied to infer a proteomic model predicting gestational age. A bootstrapping procedure and piece-wise regression analysis was used to extract the minimum number of proteins required for predicting gestational age without compromising predictive power. Gene ontology analysis was applied to infer enrichment of molecular functions among proteins included in the proteomic model. Changes in abundance of proteins with such functions were linked to immune features predictive of gestational age at the time of sampling in pregnancies delivering at term.An independently validated model consisting of 74 proteins strongly predicted gestational age (p = 3.8x10-14, R = 0.97). The model could be reduced to eight proteins without losing its predictive power (p = 1.7x10-3, R = 0.91). The three top ranked proteins were glypican 3, chorionic somatomammotropin hormone, and granulins. Proteins activating the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway were enriched in the proteomic model, chorionic somatomammotropin hormone being the top ranked protein. Abundance of chorionic somatomammotropin hormone strongly correlated with STAT5 signaling activity in CD4 T cells, the endogenous cell-signaling event most predictive of gestational age.Results indicate that precisely timed changes in the plasma proteome during term pregnancy mirror a "proteomic clock". Importantly, the combined use of several plasma proteins was required for accurate prediction. The exciting promise of such a "clock" is that deviations from its regular chronological profile may assist in the early diagnoses of pregnancy-relate pathologies and point to underlying pathophysiology. Functional analysis of the proteomic model generated the novel hypothesis that somatomammotropin hormone may critically regulate T-cell function during pregnancy.
View details for PubMedID 29277631
A novel quantitative microarray antibody capture (Q-MAC) assay identifies an extremely high HDV prevalence amongst HBV infected Mongolians.
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. HDV requires a hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection to provide HDV with HBV surface antigen envelope proteins. The net effect of HDV is to make the underlying HBV disease worse, including higher rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accurate assessments of current HDV prevalence have been hampered by the lack of readily available and reliable quantitative assays, combined with the absence of an FDA-approved therapy. We sought to develop a convenient assay for accurately screening populations and to use this assay to determine HDV prevalence in a population with abnormally high rates of HCC. We developed a high throughput quantitative microarray antibody capture (Q-MAC) assay for anti-HDV IgG wherein recombinant HDV delta antigen is printed by microarray on slides coated with a noncontinuous, nanostructured plasmonic gold film, enabling quantitative fluorescent detection of anti-HDV antibody in small aliquots of patient serum. This assay was then used to screen all HBV-infected patients identified in a large randomly selected cohort designed to represent the Mongolian population. We identified two quantitative thresholds of captured antibody that were 100% predictive of the sample either being positive on standard western blot, or harboring HDV RNA detectable by qPCR, respectively. Subsequent screening of the HBV-positive cohort revealed that a remarkable 57% were RNA positive and an additional 4% were positive on western blot alone.The Q-MAC assay's unique performance characteristics make it ideal for population screening. Its application to the Mongolian HBsAg+ population reveals an apparent ∼60% prevalence of HDV co-infection amongst these HBV-infected Mongolian subjects, which may help explain the extraordinarily high rate of HCC in Mongolia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.28957
View details for PubMedID 27880976
Mapping the Fetomaternal Peripheral Immune System at Term Pregnancy.
Journal of immunology
Preterm labor and infections are the leading causes of neonatal deaths worldwide. During pregnancy, immunological cross talk between the mother and her fetus is critical for the maintenance of pregnancy and the delivery of an immunocompetent neonate. A precise understanding of healthy fetomaternal immunity is the important first step to identifying dysregulated immune mechanisms driving adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. This study combined single-cell mass cytometry of paired peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples from mothers and their neonates with a graphical approach developed for the visualization of high-dimensional data to provide a high-resolution reference map of the cellular composition and functional organization of the healthy fetal and maternal immune systems at birth. The approach enabled mapping of known phenotypical and functional characteristics of fetal immunity (including the functional hyperresponsiveness of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and the global blunting of innate immune responses). It also allowed discovery of new properties that distinguish the fetal and maternal immune systems. For example, examination of paired samples revealed differences in endogenous signaling tone that are unique to a mother and her offspring, including increased ERK1/2, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, rpS6, and CREB phosphorylation in fetal Tbet(+)CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, B cells, and CD56(lo)CD16(+) NK cells and decreased ERK1/2, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, and STAT1 phosphorylation in fetal intermediate and nonclassical monocytes. This highly interactive functional map of healthy fetomaternal immunity builds the core reference for a growing data repository that will allow inferring deviations from normal associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.
View details for PubMedID 27793998
Characterization of choline transporters in the human placenta over gestation
2015; 36 (12): 1362-1369
The developing fetus relies on the maternal blood supply to provide the choline it requires for making membrane lipids, synthesizing acetylcholine, and performing important methylation reactions. It is vital, therefore, that the placenta is efficient at transporting choline from the maternal to the fetal circulation. Although choline transporters have been found in term placenta samples, little is known about what cell types express specific choline transporters and how expression of the transporters may change over gestation. The objective of this study was to characterize choline transporter expression levels and localization in the human placenta throughout placental development.We analyzed CTL1 and -2 expression over gestation in human placental biopsies from 6 to 40 weeks gestation (n = 6-10 per gestational window) by immunoblot analysis. To determine the cellular expression pattern of the choline transporters throughout gestation, immunofluorescence analysis was then performed.Both CTL1 and CTL2 were expressed in the chorionic villi from 6 weeks gestation to term. Labor did not alter expression levels of either transporter. CTL1 localized to the syncytial trophoblasts and the endothelium of the fetal vasculature within the chorionic villous structure. CTL2 localized mainly to the stroma early in gestation and by the second trimester co-localized with CTL1 at the fetal vasculature.The differential expression pattern of CTL1 and CTL2 suggests that CTL1 is the key transporter involved in choline transport from maternal circulation and both transporters are likely involved in stromal and endothelial cell choline transport.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.placenta.2015.10.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000366950500004
View details for PubMedID 26601765
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4801320
Hepatitis C Virus Sensing by Human Trophoblasts Induces Innate Immune Responses and Recruitment of Maternal NK Cells: Potential Implications for Limiting Vertical Transmission.
Journal of immunology
2015; 195 (8): 3737-3747
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the world's most common blood-borne viral infection for which there is no vaccine. The rates of vertical transmission range between 3 and 6% with odds 90% higher in the presence of HIV coinfection. Prevention of vertical transmission is not possible because of lack of an approved therapy for use in pregnancy or an effective vaccine. Recently, HCV has been identified as an independent risk factor for preterm delivery, perinatal mortality, and other complications. In this study, we characterized the immune responses that contribute to the control of viral infection at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI) in the early gestational stages. In this study, we show that primary human trophoblast cells and an extravillous trophoblast cell line (HTR8), from first and second trimester of pregnancy, express receptors relevant for HCV binding/entry and are permissive for HCV uptake. We found that HCV-RNA sensing by human trophoblast cells induces robust upregulation of type I/III IFNs and secretion of multiple chemokines that elicit recruitment and activation of decidual NK cells. Furthermore, we observed that HCV-RNA transfection induces a proapoptotic response within HTR8 that could affect the morphology of the placenta. To our knowledge, for the first time, we demonstrate that HCV-RNA sensing by human trophoblast cells elicits a strong antiviral response that alters the recruitment and activation of innate immune cells at the MFI. This work provides a paradigm shift in our understanding of HCV-specific immunity at the MFI as well as novel insights into mechanisms that limit vertical transmission but may paradoxically lead to virus-related pregnancy complications.
View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1500409
View details for PubMedID 26342030
Baseline placental growth factor levels for the prediction of benefit from early aspirin prophylaxis for preeclampsia prevention
PREGNANCY HYPERTENSION-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMENS CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH
2015; 5 (4): 280-286
Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels early in pregnancy are lower in women who ultimately develop preeclampsia. Early initiation of low-dose aspirin reduces preeclampsia risk in some high risk women. We hypothesized that low PlGF levels may identify women at increased risk for preeclampsia who would benefit from aspirin.Secondary analysis of the MFMU High-Risk Aspirin study including singleton pregnancies randomized to aspirin 60mg/d (n=102) or placebo (n=72), with PlGF collected at 13w 0d-16w 6d. Within the placebo group, we estimated the probability of preeclampsia by PlGF level using logistic regression analysis, then determined a potential PlGF threshold for preeclampsia prediction using ROC analysis. We performed logistic regression modeling for potential confounders.ROC analysis indicated 87.71pg/ml as the threshold between high and low PlGF for preeclampsia-prediction. Within the placebo group high PlGF weakly predicted preeclampsia (AUC 0.653, sensitivity/specificity 63%/66%). We noted a 2.6-fold reduction in preeclampsia with aspirin in the high-PlGF group (12.15% aspirin vs 32.14% placebo, p=0.057), but no significant differences in preeclampsia in the low PlGF group (21.74% vs 15.91%, p=0.445).Unlike other studies, we found that high rather than low PlGF levels were associated with an increased preeclampsia risk. Low PlGF neither identified women at increased risk of preeclampsia nor women who benefitted from aspirin. Further research is needed to determine whether aspirin is beneficial in women with high PlGF, and whether the paradigm linking low PlGF and preeclampsia needs to be reevaluated.High-risk women with low baseline PlGF, a risk factor for preeclampsia, did not benefit from early initiation of low-dose aspirin.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.preghy.2015.06.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000366078600005
View details for PubMedID 26597741
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4841270
A Hertzian contact mechanics based formulation to improve ultrasound elastography assessment of uterine cervical tissue stiffness
JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS
2015; 48 (9): 1524-1532
Clinical practice requires improved techniques to assess human cervical tissue properties, especially at the internal os, or orifice, of the uterine cervix. Ultrasound elastography (UE) holds promise for non-invasively monitoring cervical stiffness throughout pregnancy. However, this technique provides qualitative strain images that cannot be linked to a material property (e.g., Young's modulus) without knowledge of the contact pressure under a rounded transvaginal transducer probe and correction for the resulting non-uniform strain dissipation. One technique to standardize elastogram images incorporates a material of known properties and uses one-dimensional, uniaxial Hooke's law to calculate Young's modulus within the compressed material half-space. However, this method does not account for strain dissipation and the strains that evolve in three-dimensional space. We demonstrate that an analytical approach based on 3D Hertzian contact mechanics provides a reasonable first approximation to correct for UE strain dissipation underneath a round transvaginal transducer probe and thus improves UE-derived estimates of tissue modulus. We validate the proposed analytical solution and evaluate sources of error using a finite element model. As compared to 1D uniaxial Hooke's law, the Hertzian contact-based solution yields significantly improved Young's modulus predictions in three homogeneous gelatin tissue phantoms possessing different moduli. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique to image human cervical tissue, where UE-derived moduli estimations for the uterine cervix anterior lip agreed well with published, experimentally obtained values. Overall, UE with an attached reference standard and a Hertzian contact-based correction holds promise for improving quantitative estimates of cervical tissue modulus.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.03.032
View details for PubMedID 26003483
Inflammatory predictors of neurologic disability after preterm premature rupture of membranes.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
2015; 212 (2): 212.e1–9
The maternal-fetal inflammatory response contributes to both preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse neurological outcomes. Additionally, cytokines associated with fetal placental inflammation can be detrimental to brain development regardless of inciting infection. We investigated whether differential patterns of cytokine markers in maternal and fetal plasma samples reflect subtypes of placental inflammation and neurological outcomes at 6 months in infants born to mothers with PPROM.Within a prospective cohort study of 25 women with PPROM, plasma cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from maternal blood samples at rupture and delivery, and from fetal umbilical cord blood samples. Patterns of cytokine expression were correlated with specific placenta pathologies. Infants underwent cranial ultrasound after birth and standardized neurological examinations at 6 months' corrected gestational age. Predictors of inflammation and adverse neurological outcome were assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for gestational age at birth.Inflammation of the fetal side of the placenta was associated with elevated maternal IL-6 and IL-8 at delivery and fetal IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Worse neurological outcome at 6 months was associated with inflammation of the fetal side of the placenta and shorter duration from rupture of membrane to delivery, independent of gestational age at birth or cranial ultrasound results.Our findings support the connection between fetal inflammation with adverse neurological outcome with PPROM, regardless of cranial ultrasound results. Further longitudinal studies are needed to adequately examine these patterns, and will aid in risk assessment and intervention strategies.
View details for PubMedID 25223243
Maternal and fetal alternative complement pathway activation in early severe preeclampsia.
American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989)
2014; 71 (1): 55–60
We sought to determine whether alternative complement activation fragment Bb (Bb) levels are elevated in the maternal, fetal, and placental blood in cases of severe preeclampsia (PE) compared with normotensive controls.This was a cross-sectional study of women admitted at ≥24 weeks gestation with or without severe PE. Maternal plasma was collected at the time of enrollment. Umbilical venous cord and intervillous space blood were collected at delivery. Plasma Bb levels were assessed using ELISA. Bb levels were compared between cases and controls.Median Bb levels were higher in the maternal plasma of severe PE subjects (n = 24) than in controls (n = 20), 1.45 ± 1.03 versus 0.65 ± 0.23 μg/mL, P < 0.001. In umbilical venous plasma, Bb levels were higher in severe PE subjects (n = 15) compared with controls (n = 15), 2.48 ± 1.40 versus 1.01 ± 0.57 μg/mL, P = 0.01.Activation fragment Bb is increased in the maternal and umbilical venous blood of cases of severe PE when compared with normotensive controls. These data provide support for alternative complement pathway involvement in the pathogenesis of severe PE and demonstrate that alternative complement activation occurs not only in the maternal but also in the fetal compartment.
View details for PubMedID 24128411
Patterns of placental pathology in preterm premature rupture of membranes
JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGINS OF HEALTH AND DISEASE
2013; 4 (3): 249-255
Inflammation is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and adverse neonatal outcomes. Subchorionic thrombi, with or without inflammation, may also be a significant pathological finding in PPROM. Patterns of inflammation and thrombosis may give insight into mechanisms of adverse neonatal outcomes associated with PPROM. To characterize histologic findings of placentas from pregnancies complicated by PPROM at altitude, 44 placentas were evaluated for gross and histological indicators of inflammation and thrombosis. Student's t-test (or Mann-Whitney U-test), χ 2 analysis (or Fisher's exact test), mean square contingency and logistic regression were used when appropriate. The prevalence of histologic acute chorioamnionitis (HCA) was 59%. Fetal-derived inflammation (funisitis and chorionic plate vasculitis) was seen at lower frequency (30% and 45%, respectively) and not always in association with HCA. There was a trend for Hispanic women to have higher odds of funisitis (OR = 5.9; P = 0.05). Subchorionic thrombi were seen in 34% of all placentas. The odds of subchorionic thrombi without HCA was 6.3 times greater that the odds of subchorionic thrombi with HCA (P = 0.02). There was no difference in gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval, with the presence or absence of inflammatory or thrombotic lesions. These findings suggest that PPROM is caused by or can result in fetal inflammation, placental malperfusion, or both, independent of gestational age or rupture-to-delivery interval; maternal ethnicity and altitude may contribute to these findings. Future studies focused on this constellation of PPROM placental findings, genetic polymorphisms and neonatal outcomes are needed.
View details for DOI 10.1017/S2040174413000056
View details for Web of Science ID 000318435100006
View details for PubMedID 23828732
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3698858
The discovery of a reciprocal relationship between tyrosine-kinase signaling and cullin neddylation.
2013; 8 (10): e75200
While neddylation is known to activate cullin (CUL)-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), its role in regulating T cell signaling is poorly understood. Using the investigational NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, MLN4924, we found that neddylation negatively regulates T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, as its inhibition increases IL-2 production, T cell proliferation and Treg development in vitro. We also discovered that loss of CUL neddylation occurs upon TCR signaling, and CRLs negatively regulate IL-2 production. Additionally, we found that tyrosine kinase signaling leads to CUL deneddylation in multiple cell types. These studies indicate that CUL neddylation is a global regulatory mechanism for tyrosine kinase signaling.
View details for PubMedID 24124476
Prenatal diagnosis and identification of heterozygous frameshift mutation in PRRX1 in an infant with agnathia-otocephaly
2012; 32 (9): 903-905
View details for DOI 10.1002/pd.3910
View details for Web of Science ID 000308297100016
View details for PubMedID 22674740
Pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 infection versus vaccination: a cohort study comparing immune responses in pregnancy.
2012; 7 (3): e33048
With the emergence of H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) influenza, the CDC recommended that pregnant women be one of five initial target groups to receive the 2009 monovalent H1N1 vaccine, regardless of prior infection with this influenza strain. We sought to compare the immune response of pregnant women to H1N1 infection versus vaccination and to determine the extent of passive immunity conferred to the newborn.During the 2009-2010 influenza season, we enrolled a cohort of women who either had confirmed pH1N1 infection during pregnancy, did not have pH1N1 during pregnancy but were vaccinated against pH1N1, or did not have illness or vaccination. Maternal and umbilical cord venous blood samples were collected at delivery. Hemagglutination inhibition assays (HAI) for pH1N1 were performed. Data were analyzed using linear regression analyses. HAIs were performed for matched maternal/cord blood pairs for 16 women with confirmed pH1N1 infection, 14 women vaccinated against pH1N1, and 10 women without infection or vaccination. We found that pH1N1 vaccination and wild-type infection during pregnancy did not differ with respect to (1) HAI titers at delivery, (2) HAI antibody decay slopes over time, and (3) HAI titers in the cord blood.Vaccination against pH1N1 confers a similar HAI antibody response as compared to pH1N1 infection during pregnancy, both in quantity and quality. Illness or vaccination during pregnancy confers passive immunity to the newborn.
View details for PubMedID 22457731
Pre-eclampsia is associated with elevated CXCL12 levels in placental syncytiotrophoblasts and maternal blood
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY
2011; 157 (1): 32–37
Placental derived vasculogenic/angiogenic substances in maternal blood are dysregulated in pre-eclampsia. We hypothesized that CXCL12, a chemokine with vasculogenic actions, is amongst such molecules.CXCL12, CXCL16, CXCR4, and CXCR6 immunolocalization in placental tissue was analyzed in pre-eclampsia (n=8) in comparison to controls (n=8). CXCL12, measured by ELISA in blood, in women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia (n=14) and prior to the development of pre-eclampsia (at 20 weeks' gestation, n=20) was compared with CXCL12 concentrations in gestation-matched, healthy control subjects (n=34).In placental tissue, syncytiotrophoblast staining for CXCL12 was increased in pre-eclampsia. Maternal serum CXCL12 was increased in pre-eclampsia [2000 (SD 402) vs 1484 (SD 261)pg/ml, P=0.01] but not in plasma obtained at 20 weeks of gestation prior to the onset of pre-eclampsia [1183 (SD 336) vs 1036 (SD 144)pg/ml, P=0.09].Our data suggest that the syncytiotrophoblast contributes to a pre-eclampsia-associated increase in CXCL12 levels in maternal blood. These findings support the hypothesis that an imbalance of angiogenic factors contributes to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.02.023
View details for Web of Science ID 000292948100007
View details for PubMedID 21450389
Behaviors and perceptions regarding seasonal and H1N1 influenza vaccination during pregnancy
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
2011; 204 (6): S107-S111
We examined vaccination rates during pregnancy against both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza and reasons for nonadherence to recommended guidelines during the 2009 through 2010 influenza season. Demographic and vaccination data were collected using a cross-sectional approach. Among 813 postpartum women, 520 (64%) reported receiving the seasonal influenza vaccination and 439 (54%) reported receiving the H1N1 influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Most received vaccinations at their obstetrician's office. Major reasons for not receiving vaccination were: not knowledgeable about the vaccine importance (25%), concerns for effects on fetal and maternal health (18% and 9%, respectively), and not knowledgeable about where to obtain vaccination (9%). Reported H1N1 influenza vaccination rates were significantly lower in blacks (37%) compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asian/other (57%, 59%, and 58%, respectively; P < .0001). Subsequent campaigns for improving vaccination rates in pregnancy should focus on educating patients about vaccine importance and safety.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.02.041
View details for Web of Science ID 000291201100018
View details for PubMedID 21419386
The Impact of Preeclampsia on Gene Expression at the Maternal-Fetal Interface.
2011; 1 (1): 100–108
Preeclampsia (PE) impacts 8 million mother-infant pairs worldwide each year. This human pregnancy-specific disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria accounts for significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The current theory of the pathogenesis of PE as reviewed by Drs. Christopher Redman and Ian Sargent is thought to occur as a 2-stage process with poor placentation in the first half of pregnancy resulting in the maternal response in the second half of pregnancy. Our studies have focused on understanding the placental contribution to this serious disease by examining the gene expression profile of the deciduas basalis or basal plate, the region of the placenta involved in the "poor placentation". In this review we present summaries of our microarray datasets both of normal placentation and those gene expression changes resulting in the context of PE. Additionally, we have taken this opportunity to combine the data sets to provide a more comprehensive view of this region of the placenta. As defects in the basal plate are, in part, at the root of the disease process, we believe that understanding the pathobiology that occurs in this region will increase our ability to alter the development and/or course of PE.
View details for PubMedID 21743843
Uterine Torsion in Delayed Diagnosis of Abnormal Anterior Placentation A Report of 2 Cases
JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE
2009; 54 (5): 322-324
Uterine torsion has been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes ranging from fetal distress to maternal death. Uterine torsion has also been reported in otherwise uncomplicated pregnancies.We report 2 cases of uterine torsion with abnormal anterior placentation identified at cesarean section, which had previously been disguised as posterior placenta previas.Given the increased risk of placenta accreta with an anterior placenta and prior cesarean scar, uterine position should be considered in the evaluation of a presumed posterior placenta, particularly with ultrasound findings suggestive of accreta such as placental lakes.
View details for Web of Science ID 000266340500013
View details for PubMedID 19517699
Severe Preeclampsia-Related Changes in Gene Expression at the Maternal-Fetal Interface Include Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin-6 and Pappalysin-2
2009; 150 (1): 452–62
Preeclampsia (PE), which affects 4-8% of human pregnancies, causes significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Within the basal plate, placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) of fetal origin invade the uterus and extensively remodel the maternal vasculature. In PE, CTB invasion is often shallow, and vascular remodeling is rudimentary. To better understand possible causes, we conducted a global analysis of gene expression at the maternal-fetal interface in placental samples from women with PE (n = 12; 24-36 wk) vs. samples from women who delivered due to preterm labor with no evidence of infection (n = 11; 24-36 wk), a condition that our previous work showed is associated with normal CTB invasion. Using the HG-U133A&B Affymetrix GeneChip platform, and statistical significance set at log odds-ratio of B >0, 55 genes were differentially expressed in PE. They encoded proteins previously associated with PE [e.g. Flt-1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1), leptin, CRH, and inhibin] and novel molecules [e.g. sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 6 (Siglec-6), a potential leptin receptor, and pappalysin-2 (PAPP-A2), a protease that cleaves IGF-binding proteins]. We used quantitative PCR to validate the expression patterns of a subset of the genes. At the protein level, we confirmed PE-related changes in the expression of Siglec-6 and PAPP-A2, which localized to invasive CTBs and syncytiotrophoblasts. Notably, Siglec-6 placental expression is uniquely human, as is spontaneous PE. The functional significance of these novel observations may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PE, and assaying the circulating levels of these proteins could have clinical utility for predicting and/or diagnosing PE.
View details for DOI 10.1210/en.2008-0990
View details for Web of Science ID 000262052300050
View details for PubMedID 18818296
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2630905
Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the IUGR placenta
SEMINARS IN PERINATOLOGY
2008; 32 (3): 172-177
Placenta vascular formation is important for fetal growth and development. Proper development of the placenta ensures the exchange of oxygen/nutrients and blood flow necessary for fetal growth. In this chapter, we will discuss the processes of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and pseudovasculogenesis during placental development and in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Some of the factors controlling these processes include oxygen, the VEGF family of growth factors, and their receptors. Disruption in the balance of these controlling factors may explain the vascular malformations seen in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semperi.2008.02.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000256197600007
View details for PubMedID 18482617
Overexpression of carcinoma and embryonic cytotrophoblast cell-specific Mig-7 induces invasion and vessel-like structure formation
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY
2007; 170 (5): 1763-1780
Molecular requirements for carcinoma cell interactions with the microenvironment are critical for disease progression but are poorly understood. Integrin alpha v beta 5, which senses the extracellular matrix, is important for carcinoma cell dissemination in vivo. alpha v beta 5 signaling induces Mig-7, a novel human gene product that is apparently carcinoma-specific. We hypothesized that Mig-7 expression facilitates tumor cell dissemination by increasing invasion and vasculogenic mimicry. Results show that embryonic cytotrophoblasts up-regulated Mig-7 expression before they acquired an invasive phenotype capable of pseudovasculogenesis. Mig-7 protein primarily co-localized with vasculogenic mimicry markers factor VIII-associated antigen, vascular endothelial-cadherin, and laminin 5 gamma 2 chain domain III fragment in lymph node metastases. Overexpression of Mig-7 increased gamma 2 chain domain III fragments known to contain epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats that can activate EGF receptor. Interestingly, EGF also induced Mig-7 expression. Carcinoma cell adhesion to laminins was significantly reduced by Mig-7 expression. Remarkably, in two-dimensional and three-dimensional Matrigel cultures, Mig-7 expression caused invasion and vessel-like structures. Melanoma cells, which were previously characterized to invade aggressively and to undergo vasculogenic mimicry, expressed Mig-7. Taken together, these data suggest that Mig-7 expression allows cells to sense their environment, to invade, and to form vessel-like structures through a novel relationship with laminin 5 gamma 2 chain domain III fragments.
View details for DOI 10.2353/ajpath.2007.060969
View details for Web of Science ID 000246050400031
View details for PubMedID 17456780
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1854969
Cytotrophoblast induction of arterial apoptosis and lymphangiogenesis in an in vivo model of human placentation
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
2006; 116 (10): 2643–52
We studied the vascular effects of invasive human cytotrophoblasts in vivo by transplanting placental villi to the fifth mammary fat pads or beneath the kidney capsules of Scid mice. Over 3 weeks, robust cytotrophoblast invasion was observed in both locations. The architecture of the mammary fat pad allowed for detailed analysis of the cells' interactions with resident murine blood vessels, which revealed specific induction of apoptosis in the endothelial cells and smooth muscle walls of the arterioles. This finding, and confirmation of the results in an in vitro coculture model, suggests that a parallel process is important for enabling cytotrophoblast endovascular invasion during human pregnancy. Cytotrophoblast invasion of the kidney parenchyma was accompanied by a robust lymphangiogenic response, while in vitro, the cells stimulated lymphatic endothelial cell migration via the actions of VEGF family members, FGF, and TNF-alpha. Immunolocalization analyses revealed that human pregnancy is associated with lymphangiogenesis in the decidua since lymphatic vessels were not a prominent feature of the nonpregnant endometrium. Thus, the placenta triggers the development of a decidual lymphatic circulation, which we theorize plays an important role in maintaining fluid balance during pregnancy, with possible implications for maternal-fetal immune cell trafficking.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JC127306
View details for Web of Science ID 000240965700014
View details for PubMedID 16998586
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1570373
Modification of the standard trizol-based technique improves the integrity of RNA isolated from RNase-rich placental tissue
2006; 52 (1): 159-160
View details for DOI 10.1373/clinchem.2005.059758
View details for Web of Science ID 000234338800030
View details for PubMedID 16391340
Echogenic intracardiac focus - Potential for misdiagnosis
JOURNAL OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE
2003; 22 (11): 1207–14
To assess the potential rate of specular reflectors within the fetal heart producing reflections of sufficient amplitude to be mistaken for echogenic intracardiac foci.Between July 1999 and December 2000, 200 patients were randomly selected from the University of California, San Francisco, perinatal database who met the following criteria: (1) had singleton pregnancy, (2) delivered at University of California, San Francisco, and (3) had obstetric sonography at University of California, San Francisco, between 18 and 22 weeks' gestation. Bright focal reflections within the heart were judged to be either "true" or "false" echogenic intracardiac foci.In this population of patients who underwent routine obstetric sonography at a tertiary care hospital, the rate of true echogenic intracardiac focus cases was 11 per 200 (5.5%). The rate of false echogenic intracardiac focus cases was 34 per 200 (17%). The most common locations for identification of a spurious echogenic intracardiac focus were the endocardial cushion, the moderator band, and the tricuspid valve annulus.A specular reflection from the moderator band was judged the false echogenic intracardiac focus most likely to fool examiners. The rate of specular reflection from the moderator band was 11 per 200 (5.5%). Because it is possible to generate a specular reflection from an interface in the fetal heart in virtually any patient, it is important to exercise caution before diagnosing an echogenic intracardiac focus.
View details for DOI 10.7863/jum.2003.22.11.1207
View details for Web of Science ID 000186284000010
View details for PubMedID 14620892
When is seeing believing? The use of color Doppler ultrasound to diagnose placenta accreta in the first trimester of pregnancy
ULTRASOUND IN OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
2002; 19 (6): 540-542
View details for DOI 10.1046/j.1469-0705.2002.00745.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000175885300002
View details for PubMedID 12047530
Leukoregulin induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2 in human orbital fibroblasts - An in vitro model for connective tissue inflammation
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
1996; 271 (37): 22718-22728
Several proinflammatory cytokines can increase prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in a variety of cell types, constituting an important component of the inflammatory response. We demonstrate here that leukoregulin, a 50-kDa product of activated T lymphocytes, dramatically increases PGE2 synthesis in cultured human orbital fibroblasts. This up-regulation is mediated through an induction of prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2 (PGHS-2), the inflammatory cyclooxygenase. Steady-state levels of PGHS-2 mRNA are increased within 1.5 h of leukoregulin addition and are near maximal by 6 h, when they are 50-fold or higher above basal levels. The increase in PGHS-2 mRNA levels is partially blocked by cycloheximide, suggesting de novo synthesis of an intermediate protein may be required for a maximal leukoregulin response. Nuclear run-on studies indicate PGHS-2 gene transcription is up-regulated by leukoregulin 2-fold after 2 and 6 h. PGHS-2 protein, as assessed by Western blotting and two-dimensional protein gel analysis, is increased dramatically in orbital fibroblasts. This lymphokine-dependent expression of PGHS-2 is blocked by dexamethasone, and the increase in PGE2 and cAMP levels following leukoregulin treatment is also blocked by indomethacin and by SC 58125, a newly developed PGHS-2-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor. The dramatic increase in cAMP levels causes marked alteration in orbital fibroblast morphology. PGHS-2 expression in dermal fibroblasts is also increased by leukoregulin; however, the response is considerably less robust, and these cells do not undergo a change in morphology. Both orbital and dermal fibroblasts express high levels of PGHS-1 mRNA and protein, the other abundant form of cyclooxygenase. In contrast to its effects on PGHS-2 expression, leukoregulin fails to alter PGHS-1 levels in either orbital or dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that PGHS-1 is not involved in cytokine-dependent prostanoid production in human fibroblasts. The increased PGHS-2 expression elicited by leukoregulin in orbital fibroblasts may be a consequence of both transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects. These observations help clarify the pathogenic mechanism relevant to the intense inflammation associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Lymphocytes trafficked to orbital tissues have a putative role, through the cytokines they release, in the activation of fibroblasts in this autoimmune disease.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.271.37.22718
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VG67200065
View details for PubMedID 8798446
Relative activities of retrovirally expressed murine prostaglandin synthase-1 and -2 depend on source of arachidonic acid
ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
1996; 330 (2): 301-313
We have developed derivatives of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (10T1/2) and Chinese hamster ovary (AS52) cells that stably express high levels of murine prostaglandin synthase-1 or -2 (PGHS-1 or -2). The cDNAs were transferred using retroviral vectors and the resulting G418-resistant clones were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Specific expression was confirmed by Western and Northern analyses. Enzyme activities, protein, and message levels peaked 1 (10T1/2) or 2 (AS52) days after seeding but decreased as cells became density arrested. Upon subculturing, enzyme activities returned to their initial high levels. With 10 microM exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) as the substrate, PGHS-1 activities were approximately 3- to 5-fold higher than PGHS-2 activities. Conversely, when exogenous AA was left out of the medium and only endogenous AA was available as substrate, enzyme activities were lower; but PGHS-2 activities were 5-fold (10T1/2) or 1.5-fold (AS52) higher than PGHS-1 activities. Following phorbol ester treatment to stimulate endogenous AA release, PGHS-2 activities increased over time and by 6 hours, were 4-fold (10T1/2) or 2-fold (AS52) higher than PGHS-1 activities. However, when calcium ionophore A23187 was used to stimulate endogenous AA release, maximum PGHS activities occurred within 30 min of treatment; PGHS-1 activities were equal to (10T1/2) or 2-fold higher (AS52) than PGHS-2 activities. Because these cell lines allow us to measure specific PGHS activity in intact cells, we were able to demonstrate that the relative activities of the two PGHS isozymes depend on the source of AA (exogenous versus endogenous) or biochemical stimulus used to mobilize endogenous AA (A23187 versus phorbol ester). These data suggest that PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 preferentially utilize different pools of AA and may be modulated through different stimulus-initiated pathways.
View details for DOI 10.1006/abbi.1996.0257
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UV56600011
View details for PubMedID 8660660
GENETIC DEFINITION OF A NEW BOVINE PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-1 OPEN READING FRAME, E5B, THAT ENCODES A HYDROPHOBIC PROTEIN INVOLVED IN ALTERING HOST-CELL PROTEIN PROCESSING
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
1993; 67 (6): 3427-3434
We have previously observed that bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) induces the appearance of five cellular proteins in C127 mouse fibroblasts, four of which appear to arise by altered processing of resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. Studies of various cell lines revealed that expression of the 3' end of the BPV early region was sufficient for induction of these changes. To identify the BPV gene responsible, we have utilized the simian virus 40 (SV40)/BPV-1 recombinant virus Pava-1, which expresses the 3' end of the BPV early region behind an SV40 early promoter. C127 cells infected with Pava-1 for 48 h show the expected BPV-associated alterations, as do cells infected with Pava constructs mutated in the E5 or E2 genes. However, a mutation in the start codon of a previously ignored open reading frame extending from nucleotides 4013 to 4170 (E5B) eliminated the BPV-associated changes. Similar results were obtained with COS cells infected with the Pava mutants and C127 cells transformed by full-length mutated BPV. Despite its influence on the processing of cellular endoplasmic reticulum proteins, this mutation in E5B did not alter BPV-transforming efficiency or the ability of transformants to form colonies in soft agar. The E5B open reading frame encodes a hydrophobic 52-amino-acid polypeptide that shares structural similarities with HPV6 E5A and HPV16 E5. Speculations on a role for E5B in the viral life cycle are discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.67.6.3427-3434.1993
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LB79400056
View details for PubMedID 8388507
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC237687
CDNA CLONING AND FUNCTIONAL-ACTIVITY OF A GLUCOCORTICOID-REGULATED INFLAMMATORY CYCLOOXYGENASE
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
1992; 89 (11): 4888-4892
The antiinflammatory glucocorticoids are potent inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, a key regulator of prostaglandin synthesis; yet, the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is not fully understood. We have cloned a 4.1-kilobase (kb) cDNA, distinct from the previously cloned cyclooxygenase (2.8 kb), that confers cyclooxygenase activity to transfected cells. The mRNA for this newly discovered cyclooxygenase is unique for its long 3' untranslated region containing many AUUUA repeats. Levels of the 4.1-kb cyclooxygenase mRNA are rapidly increased by serum or interleukin 1 beta in mouse fibroblasts and human monocytes, respectively, and decreased by glucocorticoids, whereas levels of the 2.8-kb cyclooxygenase mRNA do not change. Similar effects are seen in the presence of cycloheximide where the 4.1-kb, but not the 2.8-kb, mRNA is greatly superinduced. Thus, there are both constitutive (2.8 kb) and regulated (4.1 kb) cyclooxygenase species, the latter most likely being a major mediator of inflammation.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.89.11.4888
View details for Web of Science ID A1992HX16800023
View details for PubMedID 1594589
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC49193
A SERUM-REGULATED AND GLUCOCORTICOID-REGULATED 4-KILOBASE MESSENGER-RNA ENCODES A CYCLOOXYGENASE-RELATED PROTEIN
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
1991; 266 (34): 23261-23267
The profound influence of glucocorticoid hormones on the inflammatory response includes a rapid and significant reduction in the synthesis of cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin G/H synthase, PGHS), the key enzyme for prostaglandin biosynthesis. In analyzing the glucocorticoid effects on PGHS synthesis in C127 mouse fibroblasts, we detected a novel 4-kilobase (kb) mRNA that is related to a PGHS cDNA cloned from an ovine seminal vesicle library. This RNA is much more prevalent in cycloheximide-treated cells and, based on stringency analysis and preliminary sequence data, arises from a gene distinct from that transcribed into the previously cloned 2.8-kb PGHS cDNA. Furthermore, the 4-kb mRNA encodes a 70-kDa protein that is specifically immunoprecipitated by anti-PGHS serum. The abundance of the 4-kb mRNA is strongly decreased by dexamethasone and increased by serum within 2 h whereas the 2.8-kb PGHS mRNA, which is also seen in these cells, does not consistently change. These changes in the level of the 4-kb mRNA with serum and dexamethasone treatment parallel changes in the level of synthesized PGHS protein detected in both metabolically labeled cells and in in vitro translated mRNAs. This discovery of a cyclooxygenase-related gene that is transcriptionally regulated by serum and glucocorticoid hormones in a manner identical to that reported for cyclooxygenase activity may help clarify issues regarding cyclooxygenase regulation and suggests that two distinct and differentially regulated cyclooxygenase species exist.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GT48300074
View details for PubMedID 1744122
INCREASE IN OVARIAN KALLIKREIN ACTIVITY DURING OVULATION IN THE GONADOTROPHIN-PRIMED IMMATURE RAT
JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTION AND FERTILITY
1989; 87 (2): 503-508
The ovulatory process was initiated in 25-day-old rats by injecting them with hCG (10 i.u., s.c.) 2 days after the animals had been primed with PMSG (10 i.u., s.c.). At 2-h intervals after hCG, the ovaries were extracted and assayed for glandular kallikrein activity by using a chromogenic substrate (H-D-Val-Leu-Arg-p-nitroanilide) which exhibits optical density (at 405 nm) upon hydrolysis. In 0-h control ovaries the activity was 12.5 x 10(-3) kallikrein units (KU)/mg protein and it increased to a peak of 56.6 x 10(-3) KU/mg at 12 h after hCG, when the follicles first began to rupture. The kallikrein activity was distinguishable from ovarian plasminogen activator activity on the basis of pH optima and response to trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). The activity was inhibited by a s.c. dose of indomethacin of 0.3 mg/rat, or higher, and this dosage inhibited ovulation. The results suggest that kallikrein activity contributes to the degradation of Graafian follicles during ovulation in mammals.
View details for Web of Science ID A1989AZ45900013
View details for PubMedID 2600906
THE EAGLE EFFECT REVISITED - EFFICACY OF CLINDAMYCIN, ERYTHROMYCIN, AND PENICILLIN IN THE TREATMENT OF STREPTOCOCCAL MYOSITIS
JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
1988; 158 (1): 23-28
We investigated the relative efficacies of penicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin in a mouse model of myositis due to Streptococcus pyogenes. Penicillin was ineffective unless given at the time of bacterial injection, and treatment delays of 2 h reduced its efficacy such that survival was no better than that of untreated control animals (P less than .05). Survival of erythromycin-treated mice was greater than that of both penicillin-treated mice and untreated controls, but only if treatment was begun within 2 h. Mice receiving clindamycin, however, had survival rates of 100%, 100%, 80%, and 70% even if treatment was delayed 0, 2, 6, and 16.5 h, respectively. Thus, clindamycin demonstrated superior efficacy to penicillin among all the various treatment groups (P less than .05). Our results corroborate the failure of penicillin in this model of streptococcal infection and suggest that, unlike penicillin, the efficacy of clindamycin is not adversely altered by the "Eagle effect."
View details for DOI 10.1093/infdis/158.1.23
View details for Web of Science ID A1988P126900004
View details for PubMedID 3292661