Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Barbara and Corbin J. Robertson Jr. Presidential Award for Excellence in Education, Baylor College of Medicine (2015)
  • Distinguished Scientist Award for the Biological Sciences, Microscopy Society of America (2014)
  • Honorary Doctorate of Philosophy, University of Helsinki, Finland (2014)
  • Distinguished Faculty Award, Baylor College of Medicine Alumni Association (2013)
  • Elected Member, The Academy of Medicine, Engineering, and Science of Texas (2013)
  • Elected Member, United States National Academy of Sciences (2012)
  • Achievement Award, Society of Chinese Bioscientists in America Houston Chapter (2011)
  • Distinguished Service Professorship, Baylor College of Medicine (2010)
  • Elected Academician, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (2008)
  • Presidential Award, American Academy of Nanomedicine (2006)
  • Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (1999)
  • Alexander von Humboldt Research Prize, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (1996)
  • Guggenheim Fellow, Guggenheim Foundation (1986)
  • Presidential Scholar, Electron Microscopy Society of America (1974)
  • Award of Merit, Oakland City Council (1972)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Biozentrum, Universität Basel, Basel, Switzerland (2016 - Present)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Division of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (2015 - Present)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, BioXFEL Center, University of Buffalo (2014 - Present)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Institute of Biological Chemistry Institute, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (2011 - Present)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, RCSB Protein Data Bank (2005 - Present)
  • Member, Advisory Committee, world-wide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) (2010 - Present)
  • Member, Panel for SystemsX, Research Council of the Swiss National Science Foundation (2007 - Present)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston (2012 - 2017)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany (2013 - 2017)
  • Chair, Expert Panel for Biomedical Engineering & Life Sciences Cluster, Singapore Ministry of Education (2012 - 2015)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, Biophysics (1975)
  • B.A., University of California, Berkeley, Physics (1969)

Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Accurate model annotation of a near-atomic resolution cryo-EM map PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Hryc, C. F., Chen, D., Afonine, P. V., Jakana, J., Wang, Z., Haase-Pettingell, C., Jiang, W., Adams, P. D., King, J. A., Schmid, M. F., Chiu, W. 2017; 114 (12): 3103-3108

    Abstract

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has been used to determine the atomic coordinates (models) from density maps of biological assemblies. These models can be assessed by their overall fit to the experimental data and stereochemical information. However, these models do not annotate the actual density values of the atoms nor their positional uncertainty. Here, we introduce a computational procedure to derive an atomic model from a cryo-EM map with annotated metadata. The accuracy of such a model is validated by a faithful replication of the experimental cryo-EM map computed using the coordinates and associated metadata. The functional interpretation of any structural features in the model and its utilization for future studies can be made in the context of its measure of uncertainty. We applied this protocol to the 3.3-Å map of the mature P22 bacteriophage capsid, a large and complex macromolecular assembly. With this protocol, we identify and annotate previously undescribed molecular interactions between capsid subunits that are crucial to maintain stability in the absence of cementing proteins or cross-linking, as occur in other bacteriophages.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1621152114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396893600057

    View details for PubMedID 28270620

  • SuRVoS: Super-Region Volume Segmentation workbench JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY Luengo, I., Darrow, M. C., Spink, M. C., Sun, Y., Dai, W., He, C. Y., Chiu, W., Pridmore, T., Ashton, A. W., Duke, E. M., Basham, M., French, A. P. 2017; 198 (1): 43-53

    Abstract

    Segmentation of biological volumes is a crucial step needed to fully analyse their scientific content. Not having access to convenient tools with which to segment or annotate the data means many biological volumes remain under-utilised. Automatic segmentation of biological volumes is still a very challenging research field, and current methods usually require a large amount of manually-produced training data to deliver a high-quality segmentation. However, the complex appearance of cellular features and the high variance from one sample to another, along with the time-consuming work of manually labelling complete volumes, makes the required training data very scarce or non-existent. Thus, fully automatic approaches are often infeasible for many practical applications. With the aim of unifying the segmentation power of automatic approaches with the user expertise and ability to manually annotate biological samples, we present a new workbench named SuRVoS (Super-Region Volume Segmentation). Within this software, a volume to be segmented is first partitioned into hierarchical segmentation layers (named Super-Regions) and is then interactively segmented with the user's knowledge input in the form of training annotations. SuRVoS first learns from and then extends user inputs to the rest of the volume, while using Super-Regions for quicker and easier segmentation than when using a voxel grid. These benefits are especially noticeable on noisy, low-dose, biological datasets.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsb.2017.02.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400318400007

    View details for PubMedID 28246039

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5405849

  • An allosteric transport mechanism for the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump ELIFE Wang, Z., Fan, G., Hryc, C. F., Blaza, J. N., Serysheva, I. I., Schmid, M. F., Chiu, W., Luisi, B. F., Du, D. 2017; 6

    Abstract

    Bacterial efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance by transporting diverse antibiotics from the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria, some of these pumps form multi-protein assemblies that span the cell envelope. Here, we report the near-atomic resolution cryoEM structures of the Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump in resting and drug transport states, revealing a quaternary structural switch that allosterically couples and synchronizes initial ligand binding with channel opening. Within the transport-activated state, the channel remains open even though the pump cycles through three distinct conformations. Collectively, our data provide a dynamic mechanism for the assembly and operation of the AcrAB-TolC pump.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.24905

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400020000001

    View details for PubMedID 28355133

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5404916

  • Visualizing Adsorption of Cyanophage P-SSP7 onto Marine Prochlorococcus SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Murata, K., Zhang, Q., Galaz-Montoya, J. G., Fu, C., Coleman, M. L., Osburne, M. S., Schmid, M. F., Sullivan, M. B., Chisholm, S. W., Chiu, W. 2017; 7

    Abstract

    Marine cyanobacteria perform roughly a quarter of global carbon fixation, and cyanophages that infect them liberate some of this carbon during infection and cell lysis. Studies of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 and its associated cyanophage P-SSP7 have revealed complex gene expression dynamics once infection has begun, but the initial cyanophage-host interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we used single particle cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to investigate cyanophage-host interactions in this model system, based on 170 cyanophage-to-host adsorption events. Subtomogram classification and averaging revealed three main conformations characterized by different angles between the phage tail and the cell surface. Namely, phage tails were (i) parallel to, (ii) ~45 degrees to, or (iii) perpendicular to the cell surface. Furthermore, different conformations of phage tail fibers correlated with the aforementioned orientations of the tails. We also observed density beyond the tail tip in vertically-oriented phages that had penetrated the cell wall, capturing the final stage of adsorption. Together, our data provide a quantitative characterization of the orientation of phages as they adsorb onto cells, and suggest that cyanophages that abut their cellular targets are only transiently in the "perpendicular" orientation required for successful infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep44176

    View details for Web of Science ID 000395891400001

    View details for PubMedID 28281671

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5345008

  • Control of the structural landscape and neuronal proteotoxicity of mutant Huntingtin by domains flanking the polyQ tract. eLife Shen, K., Calamini, B., Fauerbach, J. A., Ma, B., Shahmoradian, S. H., Serrano Lachapel, I. L., Chiu, W., Lo, D. C., Frydman, J. 2016; 5

    Abstract

    Many neurodegenerative diseases are linked to amyloid aggregation. In Huntington's disease (HD), neurotoxicity correlates with an increased aggregation propensity of a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in exon 1 of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt). Here we establish how the domains flanking the polyQ tract shape the mHtt conformational landscape in vitro and in neurons. In vitro, the flanking domains have opposing effects on the conformation and stabilities of oligomers and amyloid fibrils. The N-terminal N17 promotes amyloid fibril formation, while the C-terminal Proline Rich Domain destabilizes fibrils and enhances oligomer formation. However, in neurons both domains act synergistically to engage protective chaperone and degradation pathways promoting mHtt proteostasis. Surprisingly, when proteotoxicity was assessed in rat corticostriatal brain slices, either flanking region alone sufficed to generate a neurotoxic conformation, while the polyQ tract alone exhibited minimal toxicity. Linking mHtt structural properties to its neuronal proteostasis should inform new strategies for neuroprotection in polyQ-expansion diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.18065

    View details for PubMedID 27751235

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5135392

  • Resolution and Probabilistic Models of Components in CryoEM Maps of Mature P22 Bacteriophage BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL Pintilie, G., Chen, D., Haase-Pettingell, C. A., King, J. A., Chiu, W. 2016; 110 (4): 827-839

    Abstract

    CryoEM continues to produce density maps of larger and more complex assemblies with multiple protein components of mixed symmetries. Resolution is not always uniform throughout a cryoEM map, and it can be useful to estimate the resolution in specific molecular components of a large assembly. In this study, we present procedures to 1) estimate the resolution in subcomponents by gold-standard Fourier shell correlation (FSC); 2) validate modeling procedures, particularly at medium resolutions, which can include loop modeling and flexible fitting; and 3) build probabilistic models that combine high-accuracy priors (such as crystallographic structures) with medium-resolution cryoEM densities. As an example, we apply these methods to new cryoEM maps of the mature bacteriophage P22, reconstructed without imposing icosahedral symmetry. Resolution estimates based on gold-standard FSC show the highest resolution in the coat region (7.6 Å), whereas other components are at slightly lower resolutions: portal (9.2 Å), hub (8.5 Å), tailspike (10.9 Å), and needle (10.5 Å). These differences are indicative of inherent structural heterogeneity and/or reconstruction accuracy in different subcomponents of the map. Probabilistic models for these subcomponents provide new insights, to our knowledge, and structural information when taking into account uncertainty given the limitations of the observed density.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpj.2015.11.3522

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370763800011

    View details for PubMedID 26743049

  • Improved Peak Detection and Deconvolution of Native Electrospray Mass Spectra from Large Protein Complexes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY Lu, J., Trnka, M. J., Roh, S., Robinson, P. J., Shiau, C., Fujimori, D. G., Chiu, W., Burlingame, A. L., Guan, S. 2015; 26 (12): 2141-2151

    Abstract

    Native electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (native MS) measures biomolecules under conditions that preserve most aspects of protein tertiary and quaternary structure, enabling direct characterization of large intact protein assemblies. However, native spectra derived from these assemblies are often partially obscured by low signal-to-noise as well as broad peak shapes because of residual solvation and adduction after the electrospray process. The wide peak widths together with the fact that sequential charge state series from highly charged ions are closely spaced means that native spectra containing multiple species often suffer from high degrees of peak overlap or else contain highly interleaved charge envelopes. This situation presents a challenge for peak detection, correct charge state and charge envelope assignment, and ultimately extraction of the relevant underlying mass values of the noncovalent assemblages being investigated. In this report, we describe a comprehensive algorithm developed for addressing peak detection, peak overlap, and charge state assignment in native mass spectra, called PeakSeeker. Overlapped peaks are detected by examination of the second derivative of the raw mass spectrum. Charge state distributions of the molecular species are determined by fitting linear combinations of charge envelopes to the overall experimental mass spectrum. This software is capable of deconvoluting heterogeneous, complex, and noisy native mass spectra of large protein assemblies as demonstrated by analysis of (1) synthetic mononucleosomes containing severely overlapping peaks, (2) an RNA polymerase II/α-amanitin complex with many closely interleaved ion signals, and (3) human TriC complex containing high levels of background noise. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13361-015-1235-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365116500020

    View details for PubMedID 26323614

  • Gating machinery of InsP(3)R channels revealed by electron cryomicroscopy NATURE Fan, G., Baker, M. L., Wang, Z., Baker, M. R., Sinyagovskiy, P. A., Chiu, W., Ludtke, S. J., Serysheva, I. I. 2015; 527 (7578): 336-?

    Abstract

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) are ubiquitous ion channels responsible for cytosolic Ca(2+) signalling and essential for a broad array of cellular processes ranging from contraction to secretion, and from proliferation to cell death. Despite decades of research on InsP3Rs, a mechanistic understanding of their structure-function relationship is lacking. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, near-atomic (4.7 Å) resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of the tetrameric mammalian type 1 InsP3R channel in its apo-state. At this resolution, we are able to trace unambiguously ∼85% of the protein backbone, allowing us to identify the structural elements involved in gating and modulation of this 1.3-megadalton channel. Although the central Ca(2+)-conduction pathway is similar to other ion channels, including the closely related ryanodine receptor, the cytosolic carboxy termini are uniquely arranged in a left-handed α-helical bundle, directly interacting with the amino-terminal domains of adjacent subunits. This configuration suggests a molecular mechanism for allosteric regulation of channel gating by intracellular signals.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature15249

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365356800047

    View details for PubMedID 26458101

  • Outcome of the First wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop STRUCTURE Sali, A., Berman, H. M., Schwede, T., Trewhella, J., Kleywegt, G., Burley, S. K., Markley, J., Nakamura, H., Adams, P., Bonvin, A. M., Chiu, W., Dal Peraro, M., Di Maio, F., Ferrin, T. E., Gruenewald, K., Gutmanas, A., Henderson, R., Hummer, G., Iwasaki, K., Johnson, G., Lawson, C. L., Meiler, J., Marti-Renom, M. A., Montelione, G. T., Nilges, M., Nussinov, R., Patwardhan, A., Rappsilber, J., Read, R. J., Saibil, H., Schroeder, G. F., Schwieters, C. D., Seidel, C. A., Svergun, D., Topf, M., Ulrich, E. L., Velankar, S., Westbrook, J. D. 2015; 23 (7): 1156-1167

    Abstract

    Structures of biomolecular systems are increasingly computed by integrative modeling that relies on varied types of experimental data and theoretical information. We describe here the proceedings and conclusions from the first wwPDB Hybrid/Integrative Methods Task Force Workshop held at the European Bioinformatics Institute in Hinxton, UK, on October 6 and 7, 2014. At the workshop, experts in various experimental fields of structural biology, experts in integrative modeling and visualization, and experts in data archiving addressed a series of questions central to the future of structural biology. How should integrative models be represented? How should the data and integrative models be validated? What data should be archived? How should the data and models be archived? What information should accompany the publication of integrative models?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.str.2015.05.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000360312200004

    View details for PubMedID 26095030

  • Modulation of STAT3 folding and function by TRiC/CCT chaperonin. PLoS biology Kasembeli, M., Lau, W. C., Roh, S., Eckols, T. K., Frydman, J., Chiu, W., Tweardy, D. J. 2014; 12 (4)

    Abstract

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) transduces signals of many peptide hormones from the cell surface to the nucleus and functions as an oncoprotein in many types of cancers, yet little is known about how it achieves its native folded state within the cell. Here we show that Stat3 is a novel substrate of the ring-shaped hetero-oligomeric eukaryotic chaperonin, TRiC/CCT, which contributes to its biosynthesis and activity in vitro and in vivo. TRiC binding to Stat3 was mediated, at least in part, by TRiC subunit CCT3. Stat3 binding to TRiC mapped predominantly to the β-strand rich, DNA-binding domain of Stat3. Notably, enhancing Stat3 binding to TRiC by engineering an additional TRiC-binding domain from the von Hippel-Lindau protein (vTBD), at the N-terminus of Stat3, further increased its affinity for TRiC as well as its function, as determined by Stat3's ability to bind to its phosphotyrosyl-peptide ligand, an interaction critical for Stat3 activation. Thus, Stat3 levels and function are regulated by TRiC and can be modulated by manipulating its interaction with TRiC.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001844

    View details for PubMedID 24756126

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3995649

  • TRiC's tricks inhibit huntingtin aggregation ELIFE Shahmoradian, S. H., Galaz-Montoya, J. G., Schmid, M. F., Cong, Y., Ma, B., Spiess, C., Frydman, J., Ludtke, S. J., Chiu, W. 2013; 2

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.00710

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328620500004

    View details for PubMedID 23853712

  • Cryo-EM model validation using independent map reconstructions. Protein science DiMaio, F., Zhang, J., Chiu, W., Baker, D. 2013; 22 (6): 865-868

    Abstract

    An increasing number of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps are being generated with suitable resolution to trace the protein backbone and guide sidechain placement. Generating and evaluating atomic models based on such maps would be greatly facilitated by independent validation metrics for assessing the fit of the models to the data. We describe such a metric based on the fit of atomic models with independent test maps from single particle reconstructions not used in model refinement. The metric provides a means to determine the proper balance between the fit to the density and model energy and stereochemistry during refinement, and is likely to be useful in determining values of model building and refinement metaparameters quite generally.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pro.2267

    View details for PubMedID 23592445

  • The Molecular Architecture of the Eukaryotic Chaperonin TRiC/CCT STRUCTURE Leitner, A., Joachimiak, L. A., Bracher, A., Moenkemeyer, L., Walzthoeni, T., Chen, B., Pechmann, S., Holmes, S., Cong, Y., Ma, B., Ludtke, S., Chiu, W., Hartl, F. U., Aebersold, R., Frydman, J. 2012; 20 (5): 814-825

    Abstract

    TRiC/CCT is a highly conserved and essential chaperonin that uses ATP cycling to facilitate folding of approximately 10% of the eukaryotic proteome. This 1 MDa hetero-oligomeric complex consists of two stacked rings of eight paralogous subunits each. Previously proposed TRiC models differ substantially in their subunit arrangements and ring register. Here, we integrate chemical crosslinking, mass spectrometry, and combinatorial modeling to reveal the definitive subunit arrangement of TRiC. In vivo disulfide mapping provided additional validation for the crosslinking-derived arrangement as the definitive TRiC topology. This subunit arrangement allowed the refinement of a structural model using existing X-ray diffraction data. The structure described here explains all available crosslink experiments, provides a rationale for previously unexplained structural features, and reveals a surprising asymmetry of charges within the chaperonin folding chamber.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.str.2012.03.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304214400008

    View details for PubMedID 22503819

  • Symmetry-free cryo-EM structures of the chaperonin TRiC along its ATPase-driven conformational cycle EMBO JOURNAL Cong, Y., Schroeder, G. F., Meyer, A. S., Jakana, J., Ma, B., Dougherty, M. T., Schmid, M. F., Reissmann, S., Levitt, M., Ludtke, S. L., Frydman, J., Chiu, W. 2012; 31 (3): 720-730

    Abstract

    The eukaryotic group II chaperonin TRiC/CCT is a 16-subunit complex with eight distinct but similar subunits arranged in two stacked rings. Substrate folding inside the central chamber is triggered by ATP hydrolysis. We present five cryo-EM structures of TRiC in apo and nucleotide-induced states without imposing symmetry during the 3D reconstruction. These structures reveal the intra- and inter-ring subunit interaction pattern changes during the ATPase cycle. In the apo state, the subunit arrangement in each ring is highly asymmetric, whereas all nucleotide-containing states tend to be more symmetrical. We identify and structurally characterize an one-ring closed intermediate induced by ATP hydrolysis wherein the closed TRiC ring exhibits an observable chamber expansion. This likely represents the physiological substrate folding state. Our structural results suggest mechanisms for inter-ring-negative cooperativity, intra-ring-positive cooperativity, and protein-folding chamber closure of TRiC. Intriguingly, these mechanisms are different from other group I and II chaperonins despite their similar architecture.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/emboj.2011.366

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300871700019

    View details for PubMedID 22045336

  • Cryo-EM Structure of a Group II Chaperonin in the Prehydrolysis ATP-Bound State Leading to Lid Closure STRUCTURE Zhang, J., Ma, B., DiMaio, F., Douglas, N. R., Joachimiak, L. A., Baker, D., Frydman, J., Levitt, M., Chiu, W. 2011; 19 (5): 633-639

    Abstract

    Chaperonins are large ATP-driven molecular machines that mediate cellular protein folding. Group II chaperonins use their "built-in lid" to close their central folding chamber. Here we report the structure of an archaeal group II chaperonin in its prehydrolysis ATP-bound state at subnanometer resolution using single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Structural comparison of Mm-cpn in ATP-free, ATP-bound, and ATP-hydrolysis states reveals that ATP binding alone causes the chaperonin to close slightly with a ∼45° counterclockwise rotation of the apical domain. The subsequent ATP hydrolysis drives each subunit to rock toward the folding chamber and to close the lid completely. These motions are attributable to the local interactions of specific active site residues with the nucleotide, the tight couplings between the apical and intermediate domains within the subunit, and the aligned interactions between two subunits across the rings. This mechanism of structural changes in response to ATP is entirely different from those found in group I chaperonins.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.str.2011.03.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290815500006

    View details for PubMedID 21565698

  • Dual Action of ATP Hydrolysis Couples Lid Closure to Substrate Release into the Group II Chaperonin Chamber CELL Douglas, N. R., Reissmann, S., Zhang, J., Chen, B., Jakana, J., Kumar, R., Chiu, W., Frydman, J. 2011; 144 (2): 240-252

    Abstract

    Group II chaperonins are ATP-dependent ring-shaped complexes that bind nonnative polypeptides and facilitate protein folding in archaea and eukaryotes. A built-in lid encapsulates substrate proteins within the central chaperonin chamber. Here, we describe the fate of the substrate during the nucleotide cycle of group II chaperonins. The chaperonin substrate-binding sites are exposed, and the lid is open in both the ATP-free and ATP-bound prehydrolysis states. ATP hydrolysis has a dual function in the folding cycle, triggering both lid closure and substrate release into the central chamber. Notably, substrate release can occur in the absence of a lid, and lid closure can occur without substrate release. However, productive folding requires both events, so that the polypeptide is released into the confined space of the closed chamber where it folds. Our results show that ATP hydrolysis coordinates the structural and functional determinants that trigger productive folding.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2010.12.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286459900009

    View details for PubMedID 21241893

  • MOTIF-EM: an automated computational tool for identifying conserved regions in CryoEM structures BIOINFORMATICS Saha, M., Levitt, M., Chiu, W. 2010; 26 (12): i301-i309

    Abstract

    We present a new, first-of-its-kind, fully automated computational tool MOTIF-EM for identifying regions or domains or motifs in cryoEM maps of large macromolecular assemblies (such as chaperonins, viruses, etc.) that remain conformationally conserved. As a by-product, regions in structures that are not conserved are revealed: this can indicate local molecular flexibility related to biological activity. MOTIF-EM takes cryoEM volumetric maps as inputs. The technique used by MOTIF-EM to detect conserved sub-structures is inspired by a recent breakthrough in 2D object recognition. The technique works by constructing rotationally invariant, low-dimensional representations of local regions in the input cryoEM maps. Correspondences are established between the reduced representations (by comparing them using a simple metric) across the input maps. The correspondences are clustered using hash tables and graph theory is used to retrieve conserved structural domains or motifs. MOTIF-EM has been used to extract conserved domains occurring in large macromolecular assembly maps, including as those of viruses P22 and epsilon 15, Ribosome 70S, GroEL, that remain structurally conserved in different functional states. Our method can also been used to build atomic models for some maps. We also used MOTIF-EM to identify the conserved folds shared among dsDNA bacteriophages HK97, Epsilon 15, and ô29, though they have low-sequence similarity. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/bioinformatics/btq195

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278689000037

    View details for PubMedID 20529921

  • 4.0-angstrom resolution cryo-EM structure of the mammalian chaperonin TRiC/CCT reveals its unique subunit arrangement PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Cong, Y., Baker, M. L., Jakana, J., Woolford, D., Miller, E. J., Reissmann, S., Kumar, R. N., Redding-Johanson, A. M., Batth, T. S., Mukhopadhyay, A., Ludtke, S. J., Frydman, J., Chiu, W. 2010; 107 (11): 4967-4972

    Abstract

    The essential double-ring eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC/CCT (TCP1-ring complex or chaperonin containing TCP1) assists the folding of approximately 5-10% of the cellular proteome. Many TRiC substrates cannot be folded by other chaperonins from prokaryotes or archaea. These unique folding properties are likely linked to TRiC's unique heterooligomeric subunit organization, whereby each ring consists of eight different paralogous subunits in an arrangement that remains uncertain. Using single particle cryo-EM without imposing symmetry, we determined the mammalian TRiC structure at 4.7-A resolution. This revealed the existence of a 2-fold axis between its two rings resulting in two homotypic subunit interactions across the rings. A subsequent 2-fold symmetrized map yielded a 4.0-A resolution structure that evinces the densities of a large fraction of side chains, loops, and insertions. These features permitted unambiguous identification of all eight individual subunits, despite their sequence similarity. Independent biochemical near-neighbor analysis supports our cryo-EM derived TRiC subunit arrangement. We obtained a Calpha backbone model for each subunit from an initial homology model refined against the cryo-EM density. A subsequently optimized atomic model for a subunit showed approximately 95% of the main chain dihedral angles in the allowable regions of the Ramachandran plot. The determination of the TRiC subunit arrangement opens the way to understand its unique function and mechanism. In particular, an unevenly distributed positively charged wall lining the closed folding chamber of TRiC differs strikingly from that of prokaryotic and archaeal chaperonins. These interior surface chemical properties likely play an important role in TRiC's cellular substrate specificity.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0913774107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275714300032

    View details for PubMedID 20194787

  • Mechanism of folding chamber closure in a group II chaperonin NATURE Zhang, J., Baker, M. L., Schroeder, G. F., Douglas, N. R., Reissmann, S., Jakana, J., Dougherty, M., Fu, C. J., Levitt, M., Ludtke, S. J., Frydman, J., Chiu, W. 2010; 463 (7279): 379-U130

    Abstract

    Group II chaperonins are essential mediators of cellular protein folding in eukaryotes and archaea. These oligomeric protein machines, approximately 1 megadalton, consist of two back-to-back rings encompassing a central cavity that accommodates polypeptide substrates. Chaperonin-mediated protein folding is critically dependent on the closure of a built-in lid, which is triggered by ATP hydrolysis. The structural rearrangements and molecular events leading to lid closure are still unknown. Here we report four single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of Mm-cpn, an archaeal group II chaperonin, in the nucleotide-free (open) and nucleotide-induced (closed) states. The 4.3 A resolution of the closed conformation allowed building of the first ever atomic model directly from the single particle cryo-EM density map, in which we were able to visualize the nucleotide and more than 70% of the side chains. The model of the open conformation was obtained by using the deformable elastic network modelling with the 8 A resolution open-state cryo-EM density restraints. Together, the open and closed structures show how local conformational changes triggered by ATP hydrolysis lead to an alteration of intersubunit contacts within and across the rings, ultimately causing a rocking motion that closes the ring. Our analyses show that there is an intricate and unforeseen set of interactions controlling allosteric communication and inter-ring signalling, driving the conformational cycle of group II chaperonins. Beyond this, we anticipate that our methodology of combining single particle cryo-EM and computational modelling will become a powerful tool in the determination of atomic details involved in the dynamic processes of macromolecular machines in solution.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature08701

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273748100049

    View details for PubMedID 20090755

  • Mechanism of lid closure in the eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC/CCT NATURE STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Booth, C. R., Meyer, A. S., Cong, Y., Topf, M., Sali, A., Ludtke, S. J., Chiu, W., Frydman, J. 2008; 15 (7): 746-753

    Abstract

    All chaperonins mediate ATP-dependent polypeptide folding by confining substrates within a central chamber. Intriguingly, the eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC (also called CCT) uses a built-in lid to close the chamber, whereas prokaryotic chaperonins use a detachable lid. Here we determine the mechanism of lid closure in TRiC using single-particle cryo-EM and comparative protein modeling. Comparison of TRiC in its open, nucleotide-free, and closed, nucleotide-induced states reveals that the interdomain motions leading to lid closure in TRiC are radically different from those of prokaryotic chaperonins, despite their overall structural similarity. We propose that domain movements in TRiC are coordinated through unique interdomain contacts within each subunit and, further, these contacts are absent in prokaryotic chaperonins. Our findings show how different mechanical switches can evolve from a common structural framework through modification of allosteric networks.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nsmb.1436

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257412500018

    View details for PubMedID 18536725

  • Essential function of the built-in lid in the allosteric regulation of eukaryotic and archaeal chaperonins NATURE STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Reissmann, S., Parnot, C., Booth, C. R., Chiu, W., Frydman, J. 2007; 14 (5): 432-440

    Abstract

    Chaperonins are allosteric double-ring ATPases that mediate cellular protein folding. ATP binding and hydrolysis control opening and closing of the central chaperonin chamber, which transiently provides a protected environment for protein folding. During evolution, two strategies to close the chaperonin chamber have emerged. Archaeal and eukaryotic group II chaperonins contain a built-in lid, whereas bacterial chaperonins use a ring-shaped cofactor as a detachable lid. Here we show that the built-in lid is an allosteric regulator of group II chaperonins, which helps synchronize the subunits within one ring and, to our surprise, also influences inter-ring communication. The lid is dispensable for substrate binding and ATP hydrolysis, but is required for productive substrate folding. These regulatory functions of the lid may serve to allow the symmetrical chaperonins to function as 'two-stroke' motors and may also provide a timer for substrate encapsulation within the closed chamber.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nsmb1236

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246187400017

    View details for PubMedID 17460696

  • Scaling structure factor amplitudes in electron cryomicroscopy using X-ray solution scattering JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY Schmid, M. F., Sherman, M. B., Matsudaira, P., Tsuruta, H., Chiu, W. 1999; 128 (1): 51-57

    Abstract

    The structure factors derived from electron cryomicroscopic images are modified by the contrast transfer function of the microscope's objective lens and other influences. The phases of the structure factors can be corrected in a straightforward way when the positions of the contrast transfer function rings are determined. However, corrected amplitudes are also essential to yield an accurate distribution of mass in the reconstruction. The correct scale factors for the amplitudes are difficult to evaluate for data that are merged from many different micrographs. We opt to use X-ray solution scattering intensity from a concentrated suspension of the specimen to correct the amplitudes of the spherically averaged structure factors. When this approach is applied to the three-dimensional image data of ice-embedded acrosomal bundles, the core of a filament in a three-dimensional reconstruction of the acrosomal bundle becomes denser and matches more closely the outer density ascribed to scruin.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084451600008

    View details for PubMedID 10600558