All Publications

  • Author Correction: High-speed and large-scale intrinsically stretchable integrated circuits. Nature Zhong, D., Wu, C., Jiang, Y., Yuan, Y., Kim, M. G., Nishio, Y., Shih, C. C., Wang, W., Lai, J. C., Ji, X., Gao, T. Z., Wang, Y. X., Xu, C., Zheng, Y., Yu, Z., Gong, H., Matsuhisa, N., Zhao, C., Lei, Y., Liu, D., Zhang, S., Ochiai, Y., Liu, S., Wei, S., Tok, J. B., Bao, Z. 2024

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-024-07416-x

    View details for PubMedID 38839971

  • Strain-Induced Performance Variation in Stretchable Carbon-Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors and the Solution Through a Circular Channel Design IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Wu, C., Zhong, D., Wang, W., Jiang, Y., Nishio, Y., Yuan, Y., Liu, Q., Tok, J., Bao, Z. 2024
  • High-speed and large-scale intrinsically stretchable integrated circuits. Nature Zhong, D., Wu, C., Jiang, Y., Yuan, Y., Kim, M., Nishio, Y., Shih, C., Wang, W., Lai, J., Ji, X., Gao, T. Z., Wang, Y., Xu, C., Zheng, Y., Yu, Z., Gong, H., Matsuhisa, N., Zhao, C., Lei, Y., Liu, D., Zhang, S., Ochiai, Y., Liu, S., Wei, S., Tok, J. B., Bao, Z. 2024; 627 (8003): 313-320


    Intrinsically stretchable electronics with skin-like mechanical properties have been identified as a promising platform for emerging applications ranging from continuous physiological monitoring to real-time analysis of health conditions, to closed-loop delivery of autonomous medical treatment1-7. However, current technologies could only reach electrical performance at amorphous-silicon level (that is, charge-carrier mobility of about 1cm2V-1s-1), low integration scale (for example, 54 transistors per circuit) and limited functionalities8-11. Here we report high-density, intrinsically stretchable transistors and integrated circuits with high driving ability, high operation speed and large-scale integration. They were enabled by a combination of innovations in materials, fabrication process design, device engineering and circuit design. Our intrinsically stretchable transistors exhibit an average field-effect mobility of more than 20cm2V-1s-1 under 100% strain, a device density of 100,000 transistors per cm2, including interconnects and a high drive current of around 2muAmum-1 at a supply voltage of 5V. Notably, these achieved parameters are on par with state-of-the-art flexible transistors based on metal-oxide, carbon nanotube and polycrystalline silicon materials on plastic substrates12-14. Furthermore, we realize a large-scale integrated circuit with more than 1,000 transistors and a stage-switching frequency greater than 1MHz, for the first time, to our knowledge, in intrinsically stretchable electronics. Moreover, we demonstrate a high-throughput braille recognition system that surpasses human skin sensing ability, enabled by an active-matrix tactile sensor array with a record-high density of 2,500 units per cm2, and a light-emitting diode display with a high refreshing speed of 60Hz and excellent mechanical robustness. The above advancements in device performance have substantially enhanced the abilities of skin-like electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-024-07096-7

    View details for PubMedID 38480964

  • Sequence-dependent self-assembly of supramolecular nanofibers in periodic dynamic block copolymers JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Phong, J. K., Cooper, C. B., Michalek, L., Lin, Y., Nishio, Y., Shi, Y., Gong, H., Vigil, J. A., Ilavsky, J., Kuzmenko, I., Bao, Z. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d3ta06695a

    View details for Web of Science ID 001125326700001

  • Spiral NeuroString: High-Density Soft Bioelectronic Fibers for Multimodal Sensing and Stimulation. bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology Khatib, M., Zhao, E. T., Wei, S., Abramson, A., Bishop, E. S., Chen, C., Thomas, A., Xu, C., Park, J., Lee, Y., Hamnett, R., Yu, W., Root, S. E., Yuan, L., Chakhtoura, D., Kim, K. K., Zhong, D., Nishio, Y., Zhao, C., Wu, C., Jiang, Y., Zhang, A., Li, J., Wang, W., Salimi-Jazi, F., Rafeeqi, T. A., Hemed, N. M., Tok, J. B., Chen, X., Kaltschmidt, J. A., Dunn, J. C., Bao, Z. 2023


    Bioelectronic fibers hold promise for both research and clinical applications due to their compactness, ease of implantation, and ability to incorporate various functionalities such as sensing and stimulation. However, existing devices suffer from bulkiness, rigidity, limited functionality, and low density of active components. These limitations stem from the difficulty to incorporate many components on one-dimensional (1D) fiber devices due to the incompatibility of conventional microfabrication methods (e.g., photolithography) with curved, thin and long fiber structures. Herein, we introduce a fabrication approach, ‶spiral transformation, to convert two-dimensional (2D) films containing microfabricated devices into 1D soft fibers. This approach allows for the creation of high density multimodal soft bioelectronic fibers, termed Spiral NeuroString (S-NeuroString), while enabling precise control over the longitudinal, angular, and radial positioning and distribution of the functional components. We show the utility of S-NeuroString for motility mapping, serotonin sensing, and tissue stimulation within the dynamic and soft gastrointestinal (GI) system, as well as for single-unit recordings in the brain. The described bioelectronic fibers hold great promises for next-generation multifunctional implantable electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/2023.10.02.560482

    View details for PubMedID 37873341

  • Neuromorphic sensorimotor loop embodied by monolithically integrated, low-voltage, soft e-skin. Science (New York, N.Y.) Wang, W., Jiang, Y., Zhong, D., Zhang, Z., Choudhury, S., Lai, J. C., Gong, H., Niu, S., Yan, X., Zheng, Y., Shih, C. C., Ning, R., Lin, Q., Li, D., Kim, Y. H., Kim, J., Wang, Y. X., Zhao, C., Xu, C., Ji, X., Nishio, Y., Lyu, H., Tok, J. B., Bao, Z. 2023; 380 (6646): 735-742


    Artificial skin that simultaneously mimics sensory feedback and mechanical properties of natural skin holds substantial promise for next-generation robotic and medical devices. However, achieving such a biomimetic system that can seamlessly integrate with the human body remains a challenge. Through rational design and engineering of material properties, device structures, and system architectures, we realized a monolithic soft prosthetic electronic skin (e-skin). It is capable of multimodal perception, neuromorphic pulse-train signal generation, and closed-loop actuation. With a trilayer, high-permittivity elastomeric dielectric, we achieved a low subthreshold swing comparable to that of polycrystalline silicon transistors, a low operation voltage, low power consumption, and medium-scale circuit integration complexity for stretchable organic devices. Our e-skin mimics the biological sensorimotor loop, whereby a solid-state synaptic transistor elicits stronger actuation when a stimulus of increasing pressure is applied.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.ade0086

    View details for PubMedID 37200416

  • A substrate-less nanomesh receptor with meta-learning for rapid hand task recognition NATURE ELECTRONICS Kim, K., Kim, M., Pyun, K., Kim, J., Min, J., Koh, S., Root, S. E., Kim, J., Nguyen, B. T., Nishio, Y., Han, S., Choi, J., Kim, C., Tok, J., Jo, S., Ko, S., Bao, Z. 2022