I am a Postdoctoral Scholar in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Stanford University College of Medicine. Research during this Postdoctoral Scholar consists of golf swing biomechanics (inertial measurement unit and machine learning), cerebral palsy (3-dimensional motion analysis), and thumb osteoarthritis (MRI, etc). I completed my Ph.D. in Sports Science (biomechanics) from Yonsei University, one of the highest-ranked universities in Korea, in February 2018. After graduation, I started working for the Descente, a global sports brand that originated in Japan, the Shoes R&D Center. I was an athlete who played for the University of Florida Women’s Golf team and is a member of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA, Daytona Beach, FL) Class A professionals.

Stanford Advisors


  • Sung Eun Kim, Jae-Ik Lee. "South Korea Patent 10-2344447 Golf footwear prevented rotary and horizontal slippage", Descente Korea, Dec 23, 2021
  • Sung Eun Kim, Seung-Cheol Hyun, Ji-Sun Bang. "South Korea Patent 10-2300002 Balancing golf apparel", Descente Korea, Sep 2, 2021

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

My research focuses on improving performance and rehabilitation for sports and clinical care. In particular, my study investigates the patterns of movement behaviors, human-ground interaction, and risk factors of sports-related injuries, develops novel assistive gear and rehabilitation strategies, and evaluates these techniques, quantitatively. My research goal is to expand 3-dimensional motion analysis into precise diagnosis and simulation via utilizing inertial measurement units and machine learning techniques.

All Publications

  • Potential biomechanical risk factors on developing lead knee osteoarthritis in the golf swing. Scientific reports Kim, S. E., Pham, N. S., Park, J. H., Ladd, A., Lee, J. 2022; 12 (1): 22653


    The load on the lead knee joint during a golf swing is greater than that observed during gait. However, current evidence regarding golf swing biomechanics for risks associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. Therefore, this study investigated golf swing styles associated with knee adduction and abduction moments, which are considered to be crucial loading regions of the medial and lateral compartments of knee OA, respectively. Thirteen professional male golfers performed five shots using a 5-iron club, and their swings were recorded using a motion capture system with two force platforms for the feet. A regression analysis was performed to calculate the correlation coefficients between the peak knee adduction and abduction moments of the lead leg and varus/valgus angle, toe-out angle, stance width, weight transfer, and shoulder sway. Swinging with a narrower stance width at address (r =  - 0.62, p = 0.02) with more weight shift (r = 0.66, p = 0.014) and shoulder sway (r = 0.79, p = 0.001) towards the target during the downswing were associated with a higher peak knee adduction of the lead leg, whereas a greater valgus angle at address (r = 0.60, p = 0.03) was associated with a higher peak knee abduction of the lead leg. Based on these findings, we anticipate future research to support postural changes, particularly a wider stance width and restricted shoulder sway for golfers who are classified to be at high risk of developing medial compartment knee OA, as well as a lower valgus (tibial medial tilt) angle at address for those classified to be at high risk of developing lateral compartment knee OA.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-27160-4

    View details for PubMedID 36587045

  • Golf swing in response to anteroposterior ball position INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & COACHING Kim, S., Lee, J., Lee, S., Lee, H., Lee, S., Shim, J. 2022
  • Reducing Knee Joint Load during a Golf Swing: The Effects of Ball Position Modification at Address JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE Kim, S. 2022; 21 (3): 394-401
  • Small changes in ball position at address cause a chain effect in golf swing SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Kim, S., Lee, J., Lee, S., Lee, H., Shim, J., Lee, S. 2021; 11 (1): 2694


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ball position along the mediolateral (M-L) direction of a golfer causes a chain effect in the ground reaction force, body segment and joint angles, and whole-body centre of mass during the golf swing. Twenty professional golfers were asked to complete five straight shots for each 5 different ball positions along M-L: 4.27 cm (ball diameter), 2.14 cm (ball radius), 0 cm (reference position at preferred ball position), - 2.14 cm, and - 4.27 cm, while their ground reaction force and body segment motions were captured. The dependant variables were calculated at 14 swing events from address to impact, and the differences between the ball positions were evaluated using Statistical Parametric Mapping. The left-sided ball positions at address showed a greater weight distribution on the left foot with a more open shoulder angle compared to the reference ball position, whereas the trend was reversed for the right-sided ball positions. These trends disappeared during the backswing and reappeared during the downswing. The whole-body centre of mass was also located towards the target for the left-sided ball positions throughout the golf swing compared to the reference ball position, whereas the trend was reversed for the right-sided ball positions. We have concluded that initial ball position at address can cause a series of chain effects throughout the golf swing.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-79091-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000616811600001

    View details for PubMedID 33514759

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7846748

  • Biomechanical Effects of Ball Position on Address Position Variables of Elite Golfers JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE Kim, S., Koh, Y., Cho, J., Lee, S., Lee, H., Lee, S. 2018; 17 (4): 589-598


    The purpose of this study was to investigate address position variables in response to changes in ball position in golfers. Eleven male professional golfers were instructed to perform their golf swing. A three-dimensional motion analysis system, with eight infrared cameras and two force platforms, was used to capture the address positions. A golf ball has a diameter of 4.27 cm, and a radius of 2.14 cm. Even small movements of ball position in the mediolateral (M-L) and anteroposterior (A-P) directions significantly changed the address position. When the ball was moved to the left, the shoulder rotation and club-face aim rotated toward the left of the target, and the left vertical ground reaction force increased. When the ball was moved to the right, the opposite findings were observed. When the ball was moved closer, the trunk, hip, knee, ankle, and absolute arm angle extended; the lie angle of the golf club increased; and the center of pressure moved toward the posterior direction. These changes were reversed when the ball was moved further away. The M-L ball position critically changed the address positions of the upper extremities in the horizontal plane, and the A-P ball position critically changed the angles of whole body parts in the sagittal plane. Furthermore, club-head kinematics at impact such as club-face aim, club path, and angle of attack were significantly changed in the M-L ball position; and club-head speed and angle of attack were significantly changed in the A-P ball position. This in-depth understanding of the address position in association with the ball position could provide valuable data for swing coaches when finding a golfer's optimal address position.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000450645700010

    View details for PubMedID 30479527

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6243633