I am a Postdoctoral Scholar in Orthopaedic Surgery at Stanford University. I completed my Ph.D. in Sports Science (biomechanics) from Yonsei University, Korea. After graduation, I worked as a Research Engineer at the Descente Shoes R&D Center (DISC Busan), Asia's largest shoe R&D center, and developed a spikeless golf shoe called 'Descente Golf R90'. The shoe has been patented in Korea and has gained immense success in the industry since its launch in 2020. Soon after, I came back to Yonsei University and was awarded a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea as a Principal Investigator to investigate the risk factors of knee injuries in golf swing. I played golf competitively in NCAA Division 1 at the University of Florida and am a member of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA, Daytona Beach, FL) Class A professionals.

Honors & Awards

  • Principal Investigator, National Research Foundation of Korea (2021-2022)
  • Internal Scholarships, Yonsei University (2017-2018)
  • Dean’s List, Warrington College of Business, University of Florida (2006)
  • Full Athletic Scholarships, University of Florida Athletic Association (2004-2008)
  • SEC Academic Honor Roll, Southeastern Conference (2004-2008)

Stanford Advisors


  • Sung Eun Kim, Jae-Ik Lee. "South Korea Patent 10-2344447 Golf footwear prevented rotary and horizontal slippage", Descente Korea, Dec 23, 2021
  • Sung Eun Kim, Seung-Cheol Hyun, Ji-Sun Bang. "South Korea Patent 10-2300002 Balancing golf apparel", Descente Korea, Sep 2, 2021

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Develop biomechanics models that prescribe personalized movement modification to prevent musculoskeletal injuries and maximize individual capability performance. Then, I combine the models with advanced technologies, such as computer vision, sonification, and artificial intelligence, to make them accessible to the public.

All Publications

  • Validation of Inertial Measurement Units for Analyzing Golf Swing Rotational Biomechanics. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Kim, S. E., Burket Koltsov, J. C., Richards, A. W., Zhou, J., Schadl, K., Ladd, A. L., Rose, J. 2023; 23 (20)


    Training devices to enhance golf swing technique are increasingly in demand. Golf swing biomechanics are typically assessed in a laboratory setting and not readily accessible. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) offer improved access as they are wearable, cost-effective, and user-friendly. This study investigates the accuracy of IMU-based golf swing kinematics of upper torso and pelvic rotation compared to lab-based 3D motion capture. Thirty-six male and female professional and amateur golfers participated in the study, nine in each sub-group. Golf swing rotational kinematics, including upper torso and pelvic rotation, pelvic rotational velocity, S-factor (shoulder obliquity), O-factor (pelvic obliquity), and X-factor were compared. Strong positive correlations between IMU and 3D motion capture were found for all parameters; Intraclass Correlations ranged from 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89, 0.93) for O-factor to 1.00 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.00) for upper torso rotation; Pearson coefficients ranged from 0.92 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.93) for O-factor to 1.00 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.00) for upper torso rotation (p < 0.001 for all). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated good agreement between the two methods; absolute mean differences ranged from 0.61 to 1.67 degrees. Results suggest that IMUs provide a practical and viable alternative for golf swing analysis, offering golfers accessible and wearable biomechanical feedback to enhance performance. Furthermore, integrating IMUs into golf coaching can advance swing analysis and personalized training protocols. In conclusion, IMUs show significant promise as cost-effective and practical devices for golf swing analysis, benefiting golfers across all skill levels and providing benchmarks for training.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/s23208433

    View details for PubMedID 37896527

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10611231

  • Potential biomechanical risk factors on developing lead knee osteoarthritis in the golf swing. Scientific reports Kim, S. E., Pham, N. S., Park, J. H., Ladd, A., Lee, J. 2022; 12 (1): 22653


    The load on the lead knee joint during a golf swing is greater than that observed during gait. However, current evidence regarding golf swing biomechanics for risks associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. Therefore, this study investigated golf swing styles associated with knee adduction and abduction moments, which are considered to be crucial loading regions of the medial and lateral compartments of knee OA, respectively. Thirteen professional male golfers performed five shots using a 5-iron club, and their swings were recorded using a motion capture system with two force platforms for the feet. A regression analysis was performed to calculate the correlation coefficients between the peak knee adduction and abduction moments of the lead leg and varus/valgus angle, toe-out angle, stance width, weight transfer, and shoulder sway. Swinging with a narrower stance width at address (r =  - 0.62, p = 0.02) with more weight shift (r = 0.66, p = 0.014) and shoulder sway (r = 0.79, p = 0.001) towards the target during the downswing were associated with a higher peak knee adduction of the lead leg, whereas a greater valgus angle at address (r = 0.60, p = 0.03) was associated with a higher peak knee abduction of the lead leg. Based on these findings, we anticipate future research to support postural changes, particularly a wider stance width and restricted shoulder sway for golfers who are classified to be at high risk of developing medial compartment knee OA, as well as a lower valgus (tibial medial tilt) angle at address for those classified to be at high risk of developing lateral compartment knee OA.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-27160-4

    View details for PubMedID 36587045

  • Golf swing in response to anteroposterior ball position INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE & COACHING Kim, S., Lee, J., Lee, S., Lee, H., Lee, S., Shim, J. 2022
  • Reducing Knee Joint Load during a Golf Swing: The Effects of Ball Position Modification at Address JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE Kim, S. 2022; 21 (3): 394-401
  • Small changes in ball position at address cause a chain effect in golf swing SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Kim, S., Lee, J., Lee, S., Lee, H., Shim, J., Lee, S. 2021; 11 (1): 2694


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ball position along the mediolateral (M-L) direction of a golfer causes a chain effect in the ground reaction force, body segment and joint angles, and whole-body centre of mass during the golf swing. Twenty professional golfers were asked to complete five straight shots for each 5 different ball positions along M-L: 4.27 cm (ball diameter), 2.14 cm (ball radius), 0 cm (reference position at preferred ball position), - 2.14 cm, and - 4.27 cm, while their ground reaction force and body segment motions were captured. The dependant variables were calculated at 14 swing events from address to impact, and the differences between the ball positions were evaluated using Statistical Parametric Mapping. The left-sided ball positions at address showed a greater weight distribution on the left foot with a more open shoulder angle compared to the reference ball position, whereas the trend was reversed for the right-sided ball positions. These trends disappeared during the backswing and reappeared during the downswing. The whole-body centre of mass was also located towards the target for the left-sided ball positions throughout the golf swing compared to the reference ball position, whereas the trend was reversed for the right-sided ball positions. We have concluded that initial ball position at address can cause a series of chain effects throughout the golf swing.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-79091-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000616811600001

    View details for PubMedID 33514759

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7846748

  • Biomechanical Effects of Ball Position on Address Position Variables of Elite Golfers JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE Kim, S., Koh, Y., Cho, J., Lee, S., Lee, H., Lee, S. 2018; 17 (4): 589-598


    The purpose of this study was to investigate address position variables in response to changes in ball position in golfers. Eleven male professional golfers were instructed to perform their golf swing. A three-dimensional motion analysis system, with eight infrared cameras and two force platforms, was used to capture the address positions. A golf ball has a diameter of 4.27 cm, and a radius of 2.14 cm. Even small movements of ball position in the mediolateral (M-L) and anteroposterior (A-P) directions significantly changed the address position. When the ball was moved to the left, the shoulder rotation and club-face aim rotated toward the left of the target, and the left vertical ground reaction force increased. When the ball was moved to the right, the opposite findings were observed. When the ball was moved closer, the trunk, hip, knee, ankle, and absolute arm angle extended; the lie angle of the golf club increased; and the center of pressure moved toward the posterior direction. These changes were reversed when the ball was moved further away. The M-L ball position critically changed the address positions of the upper extremities in the horizontal plane, and the A-P ball position critically changed the angles of whole body parts in the sagittal plane. Furthermore, club-head kinematics at impact such as club-face aim, club path, and angle of attack were significantly changed in the M-L ball position; and club-head speed and angle of attack were significantly changed in the A-P ball position. This in-depth understanding of the address position in association with the ball position could provide valuable data for swing coaches when finding a golfer's optimal address position.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000450645700010

    View details for PubMedID 30479527

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6243633