Bio


I am a member of the Stanford Blood and Marrow Transplantation (BMT) faculty, the Stanford Immunology Program and the Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. I have attended on the BMT clinical service since 1997, and I oversee a research laboratory. My current clinical efforts and basic research focus on improving the safety and efficacy of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) which is the most widely practiced and powerful form of cellular therapy. To achieve this goal we address two fundamental issues of HCT – the preparation of the recipient to accept a transplanted hematopoietic graft, and the impact of the graft cellular content on the success of the therapy. We have applied our expertise to develop novel ways to achieve engraftment of blood forming stem cells with the goal to replace chemotherapy and radiation. We have also developed the tools and methods that will allow us to transplant grafts of pure blood forming stem cells with the goal to eliminate potentially harmful passenger cells contained in a blood stem cell graft.

Clinical Focus


  • Cancer > Blood and Marrow Transplant
  • Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • Hematology

Administrative Appointments


  • Member, Stanford Diabetes Research Center (2018 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Postdoctoral Fellowship, Juvenile Diabetes Foundation (1986-1988)
  • Postdoctoral Fellowship, Juvenile Diabetes Foundation (1989-1991)
  • Postdoctoral Fellowship, Juvenile Diabetes Foundation (1991-1993)
  • Excellence in Research in the Field of Hematopoiesis, Cheryl Whitlock Award (1996)
  • Career Award in the Biomedical Sciences, Burroughs Wellcome Fund (1996-2000)
  • Junior Faculty Scholars Award, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (1996-2000)
  • Scholar Award, Amy Strelzer Manasevit (2001)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Shoreline Biosciences (2021 - Present)
  • Director, rBIO (2020 - Present)
  • Chair, Scientific Advisory Board, Jasper Therapeutics, Inc (2019 - Present)
  • Director, Jasper Therapeutics, Inc (2018 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2022)
  • Residency: UCSF Department of Medicine (1994) CA
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Medical Center (1997) CA
  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (1992) CA

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


The research interests are to understand the cellular and molecular basis of resistance to engraftment of transplanted allogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells and to understand the way in which BM grafts modify immune responses. This research complements our interest in clinical BM transplantation and aspects of these studies are aimed at solving some of the major problems of BM transplantation which include graft-vs-host disease and BM engraftment failure. Conventional BM transplantation involves the transfer of heterogeneous populations of cells composed of rare hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and differentiated blood cell types. To study these issues our approach has been to transplant phenotypically purified cells under defined conditions. The specific projects in my laboratory include:

1) Identification of the cells and molecules responsible for resistance to engraftment of purified allogeneic HSCs. We and others have shown that cells with NK determinants constitute a significant barrier to allogeneic HSC engraftment, and that transplanted whole BM contains a population that facilitates engraftment. In these experiments our approach to identify the cell population(s) and mechanism by which HSC engraftment is resisted is to use recipient mice from strains that lack defined immune functions. We are studying the cells in BM and spleen that are bound and/or depleted by a-ASGMI, and in this way identify the candidate barrier populations.

2) Use of transplants of purified HSCs to induce tolerance to allo- and autoantigens, and study of the mechanisms by which such tolerance is induced. We continue to develop preclinical models for organ tolerance induction and treatment of autoimmune disease by using cell specific therapy. One goal is to decrease the morbidity of the recipient preparative regimen and to determine the lowest level of chimerism needed to induce immune tolerance. We propose to test donor/host strain combinations most relevant to human disease, including minor mismatched and haploidentical grafts.

3) Identification of the cells and molecules that confer graft vs leukemia/lymphoma (GVL) effects. We have developed a model of B cell lymphoma relapse after HSC transplant. To date our studies show that while purified allogeneic HSCs have no GVL activity, a population of BM cells that express CD3 and CD8 have significant GVL activity, and do not cause GVHD at the cell doses administered.

Clinical Trials


  • Bone Marrow Grafting for Leukemia and Lymphoma Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to obtain tissue samples for ongoing studies regarding transplant outcomes and complications.

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  • CIBMTR Research Database Recruiting

    The primary purpose of the Research Database is to have a comprehensive source of observational data that can be used to study HSC transplantation and cellular therapies. A secondary purpose of the Research Database is to have a comprehensive source of data to study marrow toxic injuries. Objectives: To learn more about what makes stem cell transplants and cellular therapies work well such as: - Determine how well recipients recover from their transplants or cellular therapy; - Determine how recovery after a transplant or cellular therapy can be improved; - Determine how a donor's or recipient's genetics impact recipient recovery after a transplant or cellular therapy; - Determine how access to transplant or cellular therapy for different groups of patients can be improved; - Determine how well donors recover from the collection procedures.

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  • Combined Blood Stem Cell and Kidney Transplant of One Haplotype Match Living Donor Pairs. Recruiting

    The Stanford Medical Center Program in Multi-Organ Transplantation and the Division of Bone marrow Transplantation are enrolling patients into a research study to determine if donor stem cells given after a living related one Haplotype match kidney transplantation will change the immune system such that immunosuppressive drugs can be completely withdrawn.

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  • Evaluate Safety of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel Reinfusion (Axi-Cel-2) in Patients With Relapsed and/or Refractory Second Line High-Risk Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma After Standard of Care Axi-Cel Recruiting

    This is a phase Ib study to establish safety of Axi-Cel-2 in patients with Large B Cell Lymphoma (LBCL) who are at high risk of relapse.

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  • Inducing Graft Tolerance in HLA Haplotype Matched Related and 3 Ag Matched Unrelated Living Donor Kidney Transplantation Recruiting

    This research study is to determine if donor blood stem cells given after living, related, HLA antigen (Ag) haplotype match or living, unrelated donor kidney transplantation. Minimal HLA antigen matching will include matching of 2 HLA antigens that can be either HLA A, B, and /or DR. This research will change the immune system such that immunosuppressive drugs can be completely withdrawn or reduced to minimal dose without kidney rejection.

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  • MAGE A10ᶜ⁷⁹⁶T for Advanced NSCLC Recruiting

    This first time in human study is intended for men and women at least 18 years of age who have advanced lung cancer which has grown or returned after being treated. In particular, it is a study for subjects who have a blood test positive for HLA-A*02:01 and/or HLA-A*02:06 and a tumor test positive for MAGE A10 protein expression (protein or gene). This trial is a dose escalation trial that will evaluate 3 doses of transduced cells administered after a lymphodepleting chemotherapy regimen using a 3+3 dose escalation design .The study will take the subject's T cells, which are a natural type of immune cell in the blood, and send them to a laboratory to be modified. The changed T cells used in this study will be the subject's own T cells that have been genetically changed with the aim of attacking and destroying cancer cells. When the MAGE A10ᶜ⁷⁹⁶T cells are available, subjects will receive lymphodepleting chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine, followed by the T cell infusion. The purpose of this study is to test the safety of genetically changed T cells and find out what effects, if any, they have in subjects with lung cancer. The study will evaluate three different cell dose levels in order to find out the target cell dose. Once the target cell dose is determined, additional subjects will be enrolled to further test the safety and effects at this cell dose. Subjects will be seen frequently by the Study Physician right after receiving their T cells back and up to first 6 months. After that, subjects will be seen every three months. Subjects will be seen every 6 months by their Study Physician for the first 5 years after the T cell infusion. If the T cells are found in the blood at five years, then the subjects will continue to be seen once a year until the T cells are no longer found in the blood for a maximum of 15 years. If the T cells are no longer found in the blood at 5 years, then the subject will be contacted by the Study Physician for the next 10 years. Subjects who have a confirmed response or clinical benefit ≥4 weeks after the first T-cell infusion and whose tumor continues to express the appropriate antigen target may be eligible for a second infusion. All subjects, completing or withdrawing from the Interventional Phase of the study, will enter a 15-year long-term follow-up phase for observation of delayed adverse events. All subjects will continue to be followed for overall survival during the long-term follow-up phase.

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  • Safety of Myeloablative Conditioning, Orca-T, and Allogeneic, Donor-Derived CD19/CD22-CAR (Chimeric Antigen Receptor) T Cells in Adults With B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Recruiting

    To assess the safety of administering allogenic, donor-derived CD19/CD22-CAR T cells that meet established release specifications in adults with B-cell ALL following a myeloablative conditioning regimen and Orca-T to determine if this will augment graft versus leukemia without increasing acute GVHD or graft failure.

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  • 90Y-IBRITUMOMAB Tiuxetan and AHCI With HD Chemotherapy and Autologous Transplantation for Relapsed or Resistant NHL Not Recruiting

    To test a new way to approach hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Relapsed or Resistant Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Phase 2 Trial of Rituximab and Corticosteroid Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    The addition of rituximab to prednisone for the initial treatment of chronic GVHD will increase the overall response rate, enable a more rapid and effective steroid taper.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Phase 3 Study of Brentuximab Vedotin (SGN-35) in Patients at High Risk of Residual Hodgkin Lymphoma Following Stem Cell Transplant (The AETHERA Trial) Not Recruiting

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) and best supportive care (BSC) compared to placebo and BSC in treatment of residual Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) following autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sarah Robeson, (650) 725 - 1647.

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  • A Pilot Study of Imatinib Mesylate in Steroid Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To determine if subjects with steroid refractory cGVHD can tolerate imatinib mesylate and whether their cGVHD responds to imatinib mesylate.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • A Study of Ruxolitinib in Combination With Corticosteroids for the Treatment of Steroid-Refractory Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease (REACH-1) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of ruxolitinib in combination with corticosteroids in subjects with Grades II to IV steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • A Trial of the FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 (FLT3) Inhibitor Gilteritinib Administered as Maintenance Therapy Following Allogeneic Transplant for Patients With FLT3/Internal Tandem Duplication (ITD) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to compare relapse-free survival between participants with FLT3/ITD AML in first morphologic complete remission (CR1) who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) and are randomized to receive gilteritinib or placebo beginning after the time of engraftment for a two year period.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment (BMT CTN 0802) Not Recruiting

    The study is a Phase III, randomized double blind, placebo controlled, and trial evaluating the addition of Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) vs. placebo to systemic corticosteroids as initial therapy for acute Graft Vs Host Disease (GVHD). The primary endpoint will be GVHD free survival at Day 56 post randomization.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Allo vs Hypomethylating/Best Supportive Care in MDS (BMTCTN1102) Not Recruiting

    This study is designed as a multicenter trial, with biological assignment to one of two study arms; Arm 1: Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (RIC-alloHCT), Arm 2: Non-Transplant Therapy/Best Supportive Care.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Allogeneic Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients With Life-Threatening Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Not Recruiting

    The Stanford Medical Center Division of Immunology and Rheumatology and the Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (BMT) are enrolling patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that is resistant to standard treatment (prednisone and cyclophosphamide [Cytoxan]) into a new study to determine if they can be successfully treated with a blood stem cell transplantation obtained from an appropriate donor. Donors will be human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched healthy brothers or sisters. For patients without sibling HLA-matches, a search for donors will be initiated through the US and International Donor Registries. Eligible patients must be at least 18 years old and have SLE with progressive kidney, lung, heart, or central nervous system disease that has not responded to standard therapy. Patients will be treated for two weeks to prepare them for the infusion of blood stem cells that are obtained from their HLA-matched donor. Patients will initially be treated with immunosuppressive drugs, which will be gradually withdrawn at approximately 6 months after transplantation. The goal of this study is to replace the abnormal immune cells of the SLE affected patient that causes the disease with normal immune cells that are generated from the transplant blood stem cells from the healthy donor.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Judith A. Shizuru, MD, PhD, 650-723-0822.

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  • Allogeneic HCT Using Nonmyeloablative Host Conditioning With TLI & ATG vs SOC in AML Not Recruiting

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the bone marrow that mostly affects older adults. Even with the best chemotherapy, two-year disease-free survival is achieved in a minority of patients. Bone marrow transplantation from a sibling donor may improve cure rates; however, patients over 50 years of age have a high risk of complications and therefore generally are excluded from this treatment option. Recently our group developed a transplantation strategy for older cancer patients that protects against transplant-associated complications, yet does not interfere with the ability of the transplanted donor cells to destroy cancer cells. With this new method, we can now safely evaluate transplantation as a curative therapy for AML patients over the age of 50. We have assembled clinical and scientific researchers throughout the state of California to study and compare bone marrow transplantation using our new approach with the best standard of care chemotherapy in AML patients over the age of 50. The results of this study have the potential to establish a new treatment standard that will improve survival of older AML patients.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, 650-725-1647.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the overall and disease free survival of recipients who have received G-CSF mobilized stem cells from HLA matched sibling donors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation Using Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATG) for Older Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    To measure how frequently and to what degree a complication of transplant cell acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) occurs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Autologous CD22 CAR T Cells in Adults w/ Recurrent or Refractory B Cell Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The primary purpose of this study is to test whether CD22-CAR T cells can be successfully made from immune cells collected from adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancies (leukemia and lymphoma).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Maria Iglesias, 650-723-4247.

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  • Autologous Followed by Non-myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this trial is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with poor risk non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This trial uses a combination of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant using the patient's own cells. This is followed with non-myeloablative transplant using stem cells from a related or unrelated donor to try and generate an anti-lymphoma response from the new immune system.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Axicabtagene Ciloleucel Expanded Access Study Not Recruiting

    A multicenter, open-label expanded access protocol for the treatment of subjects with relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma. Subjects who received an infusion of axicabtagene ciloleucel will complete the remainder of the 15 year follow-up assessments in a separate long-term follow-up study, KT-US-982-5968

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • CD19/CD22 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells With or Without NKTR-255 in Adults With Recurrent or Refractory B Cell Malignancies Not Recruiting

    This phase I trial studies the side effects of CD19/CD22 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells when given together with chemotherapy and NKTR-255, and to see how well they work in treating patients with CD19 positive B acute lymphoblastic leukemia that has come back or does not respond to treatment. A CAR is a genetically-engineered receptor made so that immune cells (T cells) can attack cancer cells by recognizing and responding to the CD19/CD22 proteins. These proteins are commonly found on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide and fludarabine phosphate, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. NKTR-255 is an investigational IL-15 receptor agonist designed to boost the immune system's natural ability to fight cancer. Giving CD19/CD22-CAR T cells and chemotherapy in combination with NKTR-255 may work better in treating patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Matthew Abramian, 650-736-3351.

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  • CD8+ Memory T-Cells as Consolidative Therapy After Donor Non-myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Leukemia or Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This phase 2 trial studies how well cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)+ memory T-cells work as a consolidative therapy following a donor non-myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplant in treating patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Giving total lymphoid irradiation and anti-thymocyte globulin before a donor hematopoietic cell transplant helps stop the growth of cells in the bone marrow, including normal blood-forming cells (stem cells) and cancer cells. When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response against the body's normal cells (called graft-versus-host disease). Giving cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil after the transplant may stop this from happening. Once the donated stem cells begin working, the patient's immune system may see the remaining cancer cells as not belonging in the patient's body and destroy them. Giving an infusion of the donor's white blood cells, such as CD8+ memory T-cells, may boost this effect and may be an effective treatment to kill any cancer cells that may be left in the body (consolidative therapy).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Leah Galvez, 650-725-7951.

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  • Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment (BMT CTN 0801) Not Recruiting

    This study is designed as a combined Phase II/III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective comparative study of sirolimus plus prednisone versus sirolimus/calcineurin-inhibitor plus prednisone for the treatment of chronic GVHD. Patients will be stratified by transplant center and will be randomized to an experimental arm of one of the two pre-specified experimental arms (sirolimus + prednisone or the comparator arm of sirolimus + calcineurin inhibitor + prednisone) in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Cyclosporine Eye Drops in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Eye in Patients Who Have Undergone Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer or Bone Marrow Failure Disorder Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Cyclosporine eye drops may prevent graft-versus-host disease of the eye in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer or bone marrow failure disorder. PURPOSE: This randomized phase I trial is studying how well cyclosporine eye drops work in preventing graft-versus-host disease of the eye in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer or bone marrow failure disorder.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • Delayed Blood Stem Transplantation in HLA Matched Kidney Transplant Recipients to Eliminate Immunosuppressive Drugs. Not Recruiting

    The study will determine whether patients with functioning Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matched kidney transplants for at least one year and who want to discontinue immunosuppressive drugs can be treated with Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) and rabbit Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (rATG) and an HLA matched donor hematopoietic progenitor cell infusion such that their drugs are successfully withdrawn while maintaining normal renal function.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Donor Atorvastatin Treatment for Preventing Severe Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Undergoing Myeloablative Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Not Recruiting

    This phase II trial studies donor atorvastatin treatment for the prevention of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients undergoing myeloablative peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. Giving chemotherapy and total-body irradiation (TBI) before a donor PBSC transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. It may also prevent the patient's immune system reject the donor's stem cells. When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response against the body's normal cells. Giving atorvastatin to the donor before transplant may prevent this from happening.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Leah Galvez, 650-725-7951.

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  • Donor Regulatory T Cells in Treating Patients With Visceral Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease After Stem Cell Transplant Not Recruiting

    This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of donor regulatory T cells in treating patients with graft-versus-host disease affecting the liver or gastrointestinal organs (visceral) within 100 days (acute) after undergoing a stem cell transplant. Graft-versus-host disease occurs when donor immune cells infused in a stem cell transplant attack the gut, skin, liver, or other organ systems of the patient. Regulatory T cells are a type of immune cell that may be able to reduce the attack of the donor's immune cells on the patient's normal cells and help treat graft-vs-host disease.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, 650-721-2372.

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  • Double Cord Versus Haploidentical (BMT CTN 1101) Not Recruiting

    Hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT)are one treatment option for people with leukemia or lymphoma. Family members,unrelated donors or banked umbilical cordblood units with similar tissue type can be used for HCT. This study will compare the effectiveness of two new types of bone marrow transplants in people with leukemia or lymphoma: one that uses bone marrow donated from family members with only partially matched bone marrow; and, one that uses two partially matched cord blood units.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Expanded Access Protocol for Tabelecleucel for Patients With Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Viremia or Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The primary objective of this protocol is to provide expanded access to tabelecleucel to participants with Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases and malignancies for whom there are no other appropriate therapeutic options, and who are not eligible to enroll in clinical studies designed to support the development and registration of tabelecleucel.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Gemcitabine and Hodgkin's Disease Chemotherapy Followed by Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Rescue for Hodgkin's Disease Not Recruiting

    This is a phase 2 study of gemcitabine + high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue for Hodgkin's Disease

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Haploid Allogeneic Transplant Using the CliniMACS System Not Recruiting

    To assess the proportion of patients with donor neutrophil engraftment within 30 days of allogeneic transplant. To assess the incidence of acute GvHD during the first 100 days after transplantation.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • High Dose Chemotherapy and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of NHL.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • High-Dose Sequential Therapy and Single Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    This study uses a sequence of high-dose chemotherapy drugs and a stem cell transplant to treat multiple myeloma. The study is being performed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of treatment. Specifically, the study is designed to reduce the risk of interstitial pneumonitis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Ibrutinib in Combination With Corticosteroids vs Placebo in Combination With Corticosteroids in Participants With New Onset Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease (cGVHD) Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib in combination with prednisone in subjects with newly diagnosed moderate to severe cGVHD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Intravenous Administration of RGI-2001 in Patient Undergoing Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (AHSCT) Not Recruiting

    The clinical trial is a Phase 1/2a, open-label, multi-center, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of RGI-2001 in patients undergoing AHSCT, with radiation or non-radiation myeloablative preparative treatment. The study will be separated into two parts; a dose escalation phase to assess safety, followed by a large expansion phase to further evaluate the pharmacologic effects of either a Maximum Tolerated Dose, Maximum Feasible Dose or optimal pharmacologically active dose of RGI-2001. The initial dose escalation safety portion of the study (Part 1) will include higher risk patients and limit the unrelated donor transplants. After safety is established in part 1 of the study, the second portion of the study will expand the enrollment criteria and allow transplantation by either related or unrelated donors. This study will endeavor to identify the dose range at which RGI-2001 has an acceptable safety profile, at which biologic activity is observed, and to guide possible dose levels to utilize in later phase studies based on biological activity.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Mixed Chimera Allogeneic Transplantation From Matched Unrelated Donors For The Treatment Of Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to determine the toxicity and feasibility of non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants for multiple myeloma from unrelated donors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With ALL or CML Not Recruiting

    This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best way to give nilotinib when given alone or sequentially after imatinib mesylate after donor stem cell transplant in treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Nilotinib and imatinib mesylate may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Novel Approaches for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prevention Compared to Contemporary Controls (BMT CTN 1203) Not Recruiting

    Acute Graft-versus-Host-Disease (GVHD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study aims to determine if any of three new GVHD prophylaxis approaches improves the rate of GVHD and relapse free survival at one year after transplant compared to the current standard prophylaxis regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Obinutuzumab in cGVHD After Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Not Recruiting

    This research study is studying a drug called obinutuzumab as a means of preventing chronic Graft vs. Host Disease (cGVHD).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant vs Bone Marrow Transplant in Individuals With Hematologic Cancers (BMT CTN 0201) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) versus marrow from unrelated donors for transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recipients will be stratified by transplant center and disease risk and will be randomized to either the PBSC or marrow arm in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Ph II of Non-myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation Using TLI & ATG In Patients w/ Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    Non-myeloablative approach for allogeneic transplant is a reasonable option, especially given that the median age at diagnosis is 55-60 years and frequently present compromised skin in these patients, which increases the risk of infection. Therefore, we propose a clinical study with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using a unique non-myeloablative preparative regimen, TLI/ATG, to treat advanced mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome (MF/SS).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Michelle Chin, 650-721-4183.

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  • Phase 1 Infused Donor T Regulatory Cells in Steroid Dependent/Refractory Chronic GVHD Not Recruiting

    Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplant from another person (allogeneic transplant). This study will determine if subjects with steroid dependent/refractory cGVHD can tolerate infusion of donor regulatory T cells and whether their cGVHD responds to the infusion.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, 650-721-2372.

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  • Phase 1-2 MAHCT w/ TCell Depleted Graft w/ Simultaneous Infusion Conventional and Regulatory T Cell Not Recruiting

    For patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic myeloablative (MA) HCT with a T cell depleted graft, the infusion of naturally occurring regulatory T cells with conventional T cells (T cell add back) in pre-defined doses and ratios will reduce the incidence of acute graft vs host disease while augmenting the graft vs leukemia effect and improving immune reconstitution.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Phase 2 Poor Risk DLBCL of TLI and ATG Followed by Matched Allogeneic HT as Consolidation to Autologous HCT Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine if double autologous then allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant may offer an improved treatment option for patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are not likely to be cured by the conventional transplantation regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase 2 Study of Autologous Followed by Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation Using TLI & ATG Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the toxicity and tolerability of this tandem autologous/allogeneic transplant approach for patients with advanced stage multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase 2 Trial of Prophylactic Rituximab Therapy for Prevention of CGVHD Not Recruiting

    To determine if rituximab administered after allogeneic transplantation decreases the incidence of chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGvHD)

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Post T-plant Infusion of Allogeneic Cytokine Induced Killer (CIK) Cells as Consolidative Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes/Myeloproliferative Disorders Not Recruiting

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (transplant of blood cells from another individual) is a treatment option for patients with myelodysplasia or myeloproliferative Disorders. During the course of this study, it will be evaluated whether a particular type of blood cell, called a cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell, may add benefit to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. CIK cells are present in small quantities in the bloodstream but their numbers can be expanded after a brief period of nurturing in a laboratory.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Post-transplant Autologous Cytokine-induced Killer (CIK) Cells for Treatment of High Risk Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to conduct a phase I study of adoptive immunotherapy with autologous, ex-vivo expanded cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells to reduce the relapse rate in autologous stem cell transplant patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sherry Moore, (650) 725 - 7951.

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  • Prophylactic Use of Maribavir for the Prevention of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Disease in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this research study is to investigate whether or not maribavir is safe and effective for preventing CMV disease when taken by mouth for up to 12 weeks in patients who have had a stem cell transplant.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Janice Brown, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus & Mycophenolate Mofetil as GvHD Prophylaxis in Myeloablative, Matched Related Donor HCT Not Recruiting

    A continuation study of sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis for patients undergoing matched related allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute and chronic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), high risk non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus & Mycophenolate Mofetil as GVHD Prophylaxis in Myeloablative, Matched Related Donor HCT Not Recruiting

    GVHD prophylaxis of sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for patients undergoing matched related allogeneic transplant for acute and chronic leukemia, MDS, high risk NHL and HL

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus as Treatment of Steroid-Refractory or Steroid-Dependent Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To study the effectiveness of an immunosuppressive drug sirolimus, in the treatment of chronic graft versus host disease in combination with prednisone.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus/Tacrolimus Versus Tacrolimus/Methotrexate for Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) (BMT CTN 0402) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of sirolimus and tacrolimus versus tacrolimus and methotrexate as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, related, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in individuals with hematologic cancer. Participants will be stratified by transplant center and will be randomly assigned to the sirolimus/tacrolimus or tacrolimus/methotrexate arms at a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Stem Cell Transplant From Matched Unrelated or Partially Matched Related Donors Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the use of unrelated donors for hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of hematologic and lymphoid malignancies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Stem Cell Transplant With Lenalidomide Maintenance in Patients With Multiple Myeloma (BMT CTN 0702) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, multicenter trial of tandem autologous transplants plus maintenance therapy versus the strategy of single autologous transplant plus consolidation therapy with lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD) followed by maintenance therapy or single autologous transplant plus maintenance therapy as part of upfront treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Lenalidomide will be used as maintenance therapy for three years in all arms.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Study of Safety and Efficacy of KTE-C19 in Combination With Atezolizumab in Adults With Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Not Recruiting

    The primary objective of phase 1 is to evaluate the safety of KTE-C19 and atezolizumab combination regimens. The primary objective of phase 2 is to evaluate the efficacy of KTE-C19 and atezolizumab, as measured by complete response rate in participants with refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Participants who received an infusion of KTE-C19 will complete the remainder of the 15 year follow-up assessments in a separate long-term follow-up study, KT-US-982-5968 (NCT05041309).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Tabelecleucel in Combination With Pembrolizumab in Subjects With Epstein-Barr Virus-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (EBV+ NPC) Not Recruiting

    This is a multicenter, open-label, single-arm Phase 1B/2 study to assess the safety and efficacy of tabelecleucel in combination with pembrolizumab for the treatment of subjects with platinum-pretreated, recurrent/metastatic Epstein-Barr Virus-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (EBV+ NPC).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Targeted Therapy of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome Not Recruiting

    This phase II trial studies how well giving fluticasone propionate, azithromycin, and montelukast sodium (FAM) together works in treating patients with bronchiolitis obliterans who previously underwent stem cell transplant. FAM may be an effective treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • TLI & ATG for Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for MDS and MPD Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of TLI/ATG conditioning for allogeneic HCT for elderly patients with advanced stage MDS and MPD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Transplantation for Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of high dose therapy and autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Trial to Evaluate Palifermin in the Reduction of Acute Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Allogeneic Marrow/Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cell (PBPC) Transplantation Not Recruiting

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of palifermin versus placebo in the reduction of severe acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) and severe oral mucositis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Vaccine Therapy for Multiple Myeloma Utilizing Idiotype-Pulsed Allogeneic Dendritic Cells Not Recruiting

    Patients with Multiple myeloma who have undergone non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplant will receive 6 vaccinations of donor derived dendritic cells combined with specific protein produced by multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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2023-24 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Management of post-autologous transplant relapse in patients with T-cell lymphomas. American journal of hematology Veilleux, O., Socola, F., Arai, S., Frank, M. J., Johnston, L., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J., Meyer, E., Muffly, L., Rezvani, A. R., Shiraz, P., Sidana, S., Dahiya, S., Miklos, D. B., Negrin, R. S., Weng, W. K. 2024

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is often used as a consolidation for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) due to the poor prognosis associated with this heterogenous group of disorders. However, a significant number of patients will experience post-AHCT disease relapse. Here, we report a retrospective study of consecutive 124 patients with PTCLs who underwent AHCT from 2008 to 2020. With a median follow-up of 6.01 years following AHCT, 49 patients (40%) experienced disease relapse. As expected, more patients who were not in first complete remission experienced post-AHCT relapse. Following relapse, majority of the patients (70%) receiving systemic therapies intended as bridging to curative allogeneic HCT. However, only 18 (53%) patients eventually underwent allogeneic HCT. The estimated 3-year OS among patients proceeding to allogeneic HCT was 72% (95% CI 46%-87%). Our report details the pattern of post-AHCT relapse and the management of relapsed disease using different therapeutic modalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.27345

    View details for PubMedID 38661220

  • CAR19 monitoring by peripheral blood immunophenotyping reveals histology-specific expansion and toxicity. Blood advances Hamilton, M. P., Craig, E., Gentille Sanchez, C., Mina, A., Tamaresis, J., Kirmani, N., Ehlinger, Z., Syal, S., Good, Z., Sworder, B., Schroers-Martin, J., Lu, Y., Muffly, L., Negrin, R. S., Arai, S., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W. K., Shiraz, P., Sidana, S., Bharadwaj, S., Smith, M., Dahiya, S., Sahaf, B., Kurtz, D. M., Mackall, C. L., Tibshirani, R., Alizadeh, A. A., Frank, M. J., Miklos, D. B. 2024

    Abstract

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against CD19 (CAR19) are a revolutionary treatment for B-cell lymphomas. CAR19 cell expansion is necessary for CAR19 function but is also associated with toxicity. To define the impact of CAR19 expansion on patient outcomes, we prospectively followed a cohort of 236 patients treated with CAR19 (brexucabtagene autoleucel or axicabtagene ciloleucel) for mantle cell (MCL), follicular (FL), and large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) over the course of five years and obtained CAR19 expansion data using peripheral blood immunophenotyping for 188 of these patients. CAR19 expansion was higher in patients with MCL compared to other lymphoma histologic subtypes. Notably, patients with MCL had increased toxicity and required four-fold higher cumulative steroid doses than patients with LBCL. CAR19 expansion was associated with the development of cytokine release syndrome (CRS), immune effector cell associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), and the requirement for granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) after day 14 post-infusion. Younger patients and those with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) had significantly higher CAR19 expansion. In general, no association between CAR19 expansion and LBCL treatment response was observed. However, when controlling for tumor burden, we found that lower CAR19 expansion in conjunction with low LDH was associated with improved outcomes in LBCL. In sum, this study finds CAR19 expansion principally associates with CAR-related toxicity. Additionally, CAR19 expansion as measured by peripheral blood immunophenotyping may be dispensable to favorable outcomes in LBCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2024012637

    View details for PubMedID 38498731

  • Single Center Randomized Trial of T-reg graft alone versus T-reg graft Plus Tacrolimus for the Prevention of Acute GVHD. Blood advances Bader, C. S., Pavlova, A., Lowsky, R., Muffly, L., Shiraz, P., Arai, S., Johnston, L. J., Rezvani, A. R., Weng, W. K., Miklos, D. B., Frank, M. J., Tamaresis, J. S., Agrawal, V., Bharadwaj, S., Sidana, S., Shizuru, J. A., Fernhoff, N. B., Putnam, A., Killian, S., Xie, B. J., Negrin, R. S., Meyer, E. 2023

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative therapy for hematological malignancies for which graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major complication. The use of donor T regulatory cells (Tregs) to prevent GVHD appears promising, including in our previous evaluation of an engineered graft product (T-reg graft) consisting of the timed, sequential infusion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and high-purity Tregs followed by conventional T cells. However, whether immunosuppressive prophylaxis can be removed from this protocol remains unclear. We report the results of the first stage of an open-label single-center phase 2 study (NCT01660607) investigating T-reg graft in myeloablative HCT of HLA-matched and 9/10 matched recipients. Twenty-four patients were randomized to receive T-reg graft alone (n=12) or T-reg graft plus single-agent GVHD prophylaxis (n=12) to determine if T-reg graft alone was non-inferior in preventing acute GVHD. All patients developed full donor myeloid chimerism. Patients with T-reg graft alone versus with prophylaxis had an incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD of 58% versus 8% (p=0.005) and grade III-IV of 17% versus 0% (p=0.149), respectively. The incidence of moderate to severe chronic GVHD was 28% in the T-reg graft alone arm versus 0% with prophylaxis (p=0.056). Among patients with T-reg graft and prophylaxis, CD4+ T cell:Treg ratios were reduced after transplantation, gene-expression profiles showed reduced CD4+ proliferation, and the achievement of full donor T cell chimerism was delayed. This study indicates that T-reg graft with single-agent tacrolimus is preferred to T-reg graft alone for the prevention of acute GVHD. Clinical Trial #: NCT01660607.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2023011625

    View details for PubMedID 38091578

  • CAR19 Therapy Drives Expansion of Clonal Hematopoiesis and Associated Cytopenias Hamilton, M. P., Sworder, B. J., Alig, S. K., Good, Z., Boegeholz, J., Schroers-Martin, J., Tamaresis, J., Esfahani, M., Lu, Y., Olsen, M., Liu, C., Ehlinger, Z., Desai, M., Liu-Fei, F., Muffly, L. S., Negrin, R. S., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E. H., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J., Weng, W., Shiraz, P., Sidana, S., Bharadwaj, S., Smith, M., Dahiya, S., Sahaf, B., Diehn, M., Frank, M. J., Mackall, C. L., Kurtz, D. M., Miklos, D. B., Alizadeh, A. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2023
  • Final Results from Phase 1 Study of Briquilimab, an Anti-CD117 Monoclonal Antibody, in Combination with Low Dose Irradiation and Fludarabine Conditioning, Shows Durable Remissions in Older Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Complete Remission and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Gandhi, A., Artz, A., Lee, C. J., Varma, A., Scott, B. L., Kwon, H., Youn, M., Yanagiba, C., Arulprakasam, J., Le, A., Shizuru, J., Pang, W. W., Muffly, L. S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2023
  • Phase 1 Trial Results for Patients with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Reduced Intensity Allogeneic HCT with Orca-T Donor Cell Therapy Product and Single Agent Tacrolimus Villar-Prados, A., Meyer, E. H., Sutherland, K., Negrin, R. S., Arai, S., Frank, M. J., Johnston, L., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Muffly, L. S., Dahiya, S., Rezvani, A. R., Sidana, S., Shiraz, P., Shizuru, J., Weng, W., Smith, M., Bharadwaj, S., Tamaresis, J., Pavlova, A., McClellan, S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2023
  • Targeting of CD25+Activated T Cells in Gvhd-Associated Marrow Suppression and Cytopenias John, T. D., Valine, L., Barbarito, G., Kwon, H., Arai, S., Martin-Kool, B., Kumari, R., Shizuru, J., Oak, J. S., Parkman, R., Bertaina, A., Weinberg, K. I. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2023
  • Radiation and Busulfan-Free Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using Briquilimab (JSP191) Anti-CD117 Antibody-Conditioning, Transient Immunosuppression and TCR α β + T-Cell/CD19+B-Cell Depleted Haploidentical Grafts in Patients with Fanconi Anemia Agarwal, R., Bertaina, A., Soco, C., Saini, G., Kunte, N., Hiroshima, L., Chan, Y., Willner, H., Krampf, M. L., Nofal, R., Barbarito, G., Sen, S., Felber, M., Van Hentenryck, M., Walck, E., Scheck, A., Thongthip, S., Logan, A. C., Dougall, K., Bouge, A., Boelens, J., Long-Boyle, J. R., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J., Pang, W. W., Weinberg, K. I., Parkman, R., Roncarolo, M., Porteus, M., Czechowicz, A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2023
  • GVHD ASSESSMENT IN PHASE 1 STUDY OF BRIQUILIMAB (JSP191), LOW DOSE IRRADIATION AND FLUDARABINE CONDITIONING IN OLDER ADULTS WITH MDS/AML UNDERGOING ALLOGENEIC HCT Youn, M., Muffly, L., Artz, A., Lee, C., Gandhi, A., Varma, A., Scott, B., Yanagiba, C., Tiwari, R., Arulprakasam, J., Le, A., Shizuru, J., Kwon, H., Pang, W. SPRINGERNATURE. 2023: 306-307
  • Anti-CD117 CAR T cells incorporating a safety switch eradicate human acute myeloid leukemia and hematopoietic stem cells. Molecular therapy oncolytics Magnani, C. F., Myburgh, R., Brunn, S., Chambovey, M., Ponzo, M., Volta, L., Manfredi, F., Pellegrino, C., Pascolo, S., Miskey, C., Ivics, Z., Shizuru, J. A., Neri, D., Manz, M. G. 2023; 30: 56-71

    Abstract

    Discrimination between hematopoietic stem cells and leukemic stem cells remains a major challenge for acute myeloid leukemia immunotherapy. CAR T cells specific for the CD117 antigen can deplete malignant and healthy hematopoietic stem cells before consolidation with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in absence of cytotoxic conditioning. Here we exploit non-viral technology to achieve early termination of CAR T cell activity to prevent incoming graft rejection. Transient expression of an anti-CD117 CAR by mRNA conferred T cells the ability to eliminate CD117+ targets in vitro and in vivo. As an alternative approach, we used a Sleeping Beauty transposon vector for the generation of CAR T cells incorporating an inducible Caspase 9 safety switch. Stable CAR expression was associated with high proportion of T memory stem cells, low levels of exhaustion markers, and potent cellular cytotoxicity. Anti-CD117 CAR T cells mediated depletion of leukemic cells and healthy hematopoietic stem cells in NSG mice reconstituted with human leukemia or CD34+ cord blood cells, respectively, and could be terminated in vivo. The use of a non-viral technology to control CAR T cell pharmacokinetic properties is attractive for a first-in-human study in patients with acute myeloid leukemia prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.omto.2023.07.003

    View details for PubMedID 37583386

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10424000

  • Safety-Switch Engineered Anti-CD117 CAR T Cells Eradicate Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Hematopoietic Stem Cells Magnani, C. F., Myburgh, R., Brunn, S., Chambovey, M., Ponzo, M., Volta, L., Pellegrino, C., Pascolo, S., Miskey, C., Ivics, Z., Shizuru, J., Neri, D., Manz, M. G. CELL PRESS. 2023: 302
  • Multi-Omics Profiling of Skin Biopsies of Patients with Sclerodermatous Graft-vs-Host Disease Suggests Therapeutic Potential of Targeting Don't Eat Me Signals Wadsworth, P., De Souza, C., Cui, L., Yiu, C., Poyser, J., Rieger, K., Brown, R., Arai, S., Shizuru, J., Muller, A., Wernig, G. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2023: S1252-S1253
  • Improved outcomes for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma after autologous transplantation in the era of novel agents. Blood Spinner, M. A., Sica, R. A., Tamaresis, J. S., Lu, Y., Chang, C., Lowsky, R., Frank, M. J., Johnston, L. J., Miklos, D. B., Muffly, L., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Shiraz, P., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W. K., Binkley, M. S., Hoppe, R. T., Advani, R. H., Arai, S. 2023

    Abstract

    The treatment landscape of relapsed/refractory (R/R) classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has evolved significantly over the past decade following the approval of brentuximab vedotin (BV) and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors. We evaluated how outcomes and practice patterns have changed for R/R cHL patients who underwent autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) at our institution from 2011-2020 (N=183) compared to 2001-2010 (N=159) and evaluated prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in both eras. OS was superior in the modern era (4-year estimates 89.1% vs 79.0%, HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.85, p=0.011) with a trend towards lower non-relapse mortality beyond 2 years post-transplant. Among patients who progressed after AHCT, 4-year post-progression survival increased from 43.3% to 71.4% in the modern era, reflecting increasing use of BV and the PD-1 inhibitors. In multivariable analysis for patients transplanted in the modern era, age ³45 years, primary refractory disease, and lack of complete remission pre-AHCT were associated with inferior PFS, while receipt of a PD-1 inhibitor-based regimen pre-AHCT was associated with superior PFS (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.80, p=0.030). Extranodal disease at relapse was associated with inferior OS (HR 3.12, 95% CI 1.25-7.77, p=0.014). Our study demonstrates improved survival for R/R cHL after AHCT in the modern era attributed to more effective salvage regimens allowing for better disease control pre-AHCT and improved outcomes for patients who progressed after AHCT. Excellent outcomes were observed with PD-1 inhibitor-based salvage regimens pre-AHCT and support a randomized trial evaluating immunotherapy in the second line setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood.2022018827

    View details for PubMedID 36857637

  • Multi-Omics Profiling of Skin Biopsies of Patients with Sclerodermatous Graft-Vs-Host Disease Suggests Therapeutic Potential of Targeting Don't Eat Me Signals Cui, L., De Souza, C., Lerbs, T., Poyser, J., Yu, C., Rieger, K., Arai, S., Brown, R., Shizuru, J. A., Mueller, A., Wernig, G. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022
  • Higher Rates of Severe Infection and Persistent Cytopenias in Long-Term CAR19 Responders Than after Autologous HCT: A Single Institution Study of 139 Subjects Hamilton, M. P., Liu-Fei, F. C., Alig, S. K., Tamaresis, J., Esfahani, M., Good, Z., Sworder, B., Schroers-Martin, J., Liu, C., Severinsen, F., Hanson, P. J., Lu, Y., Lowsky, R., Negrin, R. S., Meyer, E. H., Smith, M., Bharadwaj, S., Shizuru, J. A., Sidana, S., Shiraz, P., Rezvani, A. R., Johnston, L. J., Weng, W., Arai, S., Muffly, L., Dahiya, S., Diehn, M., Kurtz, D. M., Sahaf, B., Mackall, C. L., Frank, M. J., Miklos, D. B., Alizadeh, A. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 7545-7547
  • The Development of Carhlh after Axicabtagene Ciloleucel Is Associated with Poor Outcomes Philip, S., Srinagesh, H. K., Hamilton, M. P., Gentille, C., Mina, A., Arai, S., Johnston, L. J., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E. H., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Shiraz, P., Shizuru, J. A., Sidana, S., Weng, W., Bharadwaj, S., Dahiya, S., Muffly, L., Smith, M., Miklos, D. B., Frank, M. J. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 12775-12777
  • Analysis of Bendamustine Lymphodepletion, CD19 CART Expansion, Safety and Efficacy in Patients with Rel/Ref NonHodgkin Lymphoma Bharadwaj, S., Hamilton, M. P., Sahaf, B., Tamaresis, J., Patil, S., Hanson, P. J., Latchford, T., Arai, S., Johnston, L. J., Lowsky, R., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J. A., Meyer, E. H., Shiraz, P., Sidana, S., Smith, M., Weng, W., Muffly, L., Mackall, C. L., Frank, M. J., Miklos, D. B., Dahiya, S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 10371-10373
  • Belumosudil Combination Therapy in Refractory Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Chin, M., Shizuru, J. A., Muffly, L., Shiraz, P., Johnston, L. J., Lowsky, R., Rezvani, A. R., Frank, M. J., Bharadwaj, S., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B., Arai, S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 4788-4789
  • Outcomes for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Remain Poor in the Modern Era Philip, S., Lowsky, R., Johnston, L. J., Arai, S., Meyer, E. H., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Shiraz, P., Shizuru, J. A., Sidana, S., Weng, W., Bharadwaj, S., Frank, M. J., Miklos, D. B., Smith, M., Muffly, L., Agrawal, V. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2022: 4825-4827
  • Curative islet and hematopoietic cell transplantation in diabetic mice without toxic bone marrow conditioning. Cell reports Chang, C. A., Bhagchandani, P., Poyser, J., Velasco, B. J., Zhao, W., Kwon, H., Meyer, E., Shizuru, J. A., Kim, S. K. 2022; 41 (6): 111615

    Abstract

    Mixed hematopoietic chimerism can promote immune tolerance of donor-matched transplanted tissues, like pancreatic islets. However, adoption of this strategy is limited by the toxicity of standard treatments that enable donor hematopoietic cell engraftment. Here, we address these concerns with a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen that enables hematopoietic chimerism and allograft tolerance across fully mismatched major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers. Treatment with an alphaCD117 antibody, targeting c-Kit, administered with Tcell-depleting antibodies and low-dose radiation permits durable multi-lineage chimerism in immunocompetent mice following hematopoietic cell transplant. In diabetic mice, co-transplantation of donor-matched islets and hematopoietic cells durably corrects diabetes without chronic immunosuppression and no appreciable evidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Donor-derived thymic antigen-presenting cells and host-derived peripheral regulatory Tcells are likely mediators of allotolerance. These findings provide the foundation for safer bone marrow conditioning and cell transplantation regimens to establish hematopoietic chimerism and isletallograft tolerance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111615

    View details for PubMedID 36351397

  • Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in the Modern Era. Transplantation and cellular therapy Liang, E. C., Craig, J., Torelli, S., Cunanan, K., Iglesias, M., Arai, S., Frank, M. J., Johnston, L., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E. H., Miklos, D. B., Negrin, R., Rezvani, A., Shiraz, P., Shizuru, J., Sidana, S., Weng, W. K., Bharadwaj, S., Muffly, L. 2022

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains an important treatment for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We hypothesized that advances in ALL and transplantation have resulted in improved HCT outcomes in recent years.To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of adult ALL patients undergoing allogeneic HCT over the last decade.Patients with ALL aged ≥18 years old who underwent allogeneic HCT at Stanford University between 2008 and 2019 were included in this study. Patients were divided into two Eras based on year of HCT: 2008-2013 (Earlier Era) and 2014-2019 (Later Era).A total of 285 patients were included: 119 patients underwent HCT in the Earlier Era and 166 in the Later Era. Patients transplanted in the Later Era were more likely to be Hispanic (38% vs. 21%) and to have HCT-Comorbidity Index of ≥ 3 (31% vs. 18%). Donor source for HCT also differed with an increase in the use of HLA-mismatched donor sources (38% vs. 24%), notably umbilical cord blood (UCB) in the Later Era (16% vs. 0%). Patients in the Later Era were less likely to undergo transplant with active disease (4% vs.16%); pre-HCT rates of measurable residual disease (MRD) were similar across the Eras (38% vs. 40%). In unadjusted analyses, overall survival (OS) improved across Eras, with 2-year estimates for the Later and Earlier Eras of 73% (95% CI, 66%-80%) vs. 55% (95% CI, 46%-64%), respectively. Multivariable analysis confirmed the association between Later Era and OS (HR = 0.52, 95% CI, 0.34-0.78). Finally, among patients relapsing after HCT (25% in Later Era and 33% in Earlier Era), the utilization of novel immunotherapies increased in the Later Era (44% vs. 3%), as did the median OS following post-HCT relapse (16 months vs. 8 months, p < 0.001).OS following HCT for adult ALL has improved in recent years. This is due, in part, to a significant improvement in the ability to effectively salvage adults with ALL relapsing after HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtct.2022.05.010

    View details for PubMedID 35584783

  • Exploring Potential Innate Immune Targets to Treat Fibrosis and Chronic Inflammation in Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Paulson, N., De Souza, C., Cui, L., Lerbs, T., Poyser, J., Kooshesh, M., Saleem, A., Rieger, K., Brown', R., Kwong, B., Fernandez-Po, S., Arai, S., Shizuru, J., Mueller, A., Wernig, G. SPRINGERNATURE. 2022: 557
  • Real-world Experience of Cryopreserved Allogeneic Hematopoietic Grafts in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Single Center Report. Transplantation and cellular therapy Bankova, A. K., Caveney, J., Yao, B., Ramos, T. L., Bogeholz, J., Heydari, K., Diaz, N., Jackson, M. L., Lowsky, R., Brown, J. W., Johnston, L., Rezvani, A. R., Frank, M. J., Muffly, L., Weng, W., Sidana, S., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B., Shiraz, P., Meyer, E. H., Shizuru, J. A., Arai, S. 1800

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: As a result of the COVID-19 widespread pandemic, cryopreservation of allogeneic donor apheresis products was implemented to mitigate the challenges of donor availability and product transport. Although logistically beneficial, the impact of cryopreservation on clinical outcomes and graft composition remains unclear.OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes and graft composition with cryopreserved versus fresh allografts in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT).STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of 30 consecutive patients who received cryopreserved allografts between March and August 2020 as compared to 60 consecutive patients who received fresh allografts prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Primary endpoints were hematopoietic engraftment, graft failure (GF) and secondary outcomes were overall survival (OS), relapse free survival (RFS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM). In addition, extended immunophenotype analysis was performed on cryopreserved versus prospectively collected fresh apheresis samples.RESULTS: Compared to fresh allografts, both neutrophil and platelet recovery were delayed in recipients of cryopreserved reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allo-HCT with median times to engraftment of 24 days vs 18 days (P = .01) and 27 days vs 18 days (P = .069), respectively. We observed primary GF in 4 of 30 patients in the cryopreserved cohort (13.3%) vs only one of 60 patients (1.7 %) in the fresh cohort (P = .03). Cryopreserved RIC allo-HCT was associated with significantly lower median total, myeloid and T-cell donor chimerism at 1 month. OS and RFS were inferior for cryograft recipients with hazard ratio [HR (95%Cl)]: 2.16 (1.00, 4.67) and 1.90 (0.95, 3.79), respectively. Using an extended immunophenotype analysis we compared 14 samples from the cryopreserved cohort to 6 prospectively collected fresh apheresis donor samples. These analyses showed both decrease in total cell viability and significantly reduced absolute numbers of NK cells (CD3-CD56+) in the cryopreserved apheresis samples.CONCLUSION: In this single institution study we note delayed engraftment and a trend toward clinical inferiority of cryopreserved vs fresh allografts. Further evaluation of the use of cryopreserved allografts and their impact on clinical and laboratory outcomes is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtct.2022.01.010

    View details for PubMedID 35042013

  • Mgta-145+Plerixafor Provides GCSFFree Rapid and Reliable Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization for Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Phase 2 Study Sidana, S., Bankova, A. K., Hosoya, H., Kumar, S., Tamaresis, J., Le, A., Muffly, L., Johnston, L. J., Arai, S., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E. H., Rezvani, A. R., Weng, W., Frank, M. J., Shiraz, P., Girgenti, D., Goncalves, K. A., Schmelmer, V., Davis, J. C., Lu, Y., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D. B. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2021
  • Anti-CD117 CAR T Cells Incorporating a Safety Switch Eradicate Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Deplete Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells Magnani, C. F., Myburgh, R., Russkamp, N. F., Pascolo, S., Shizuru, J. A., Neri, D., Manz, M. G. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2021
  • Selective Targeting of Immune Modulatory Proteins to Mitigate Fibrosis and Inflammation in Sclerodermatous Graft-Vs-Host Disease Cui, L., De Souza, C., Lerbs, T., Poyser, J., Kooshesh, M., Saleem, A., Rieger, K., Brown, B., Kwong, B., Fernandez-Pol, S., Arai, S., Shizuru, J. A., Mueller, A. S., Wernig, G. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2021
  • JSP191 As a Single-Agent Conditioning Regimen Results in Successful Engraftment, Donor Myeloid Chimerism, and Production of Donor Derived Naive Lymphocytes in Patients with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) Agarwa, R., Dvorak, C. C., Prockop, S., Kwon, H., Long-Boyle, J. R., Le, A., Brown, J. W., Merkel, E., Truong, K., Velasco, B., Arulprakasam, K., Harada, N., Dougall, K. A., Prohaska, S. S., Pang, W. W., Heller, K. N., Weissman, I. L., Cowan, M. J., Logan, A. C., O'Reilly, R. J., Parkman, R., Weinberg, K. I., Roncarolo, M., Shizuru, J. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2021
  • Incidence and risk factors associated with bleeding and thrombosis following chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy BLOOD ADVANCES Johnsrud, A., Craig, J., Baird, J., Spiegel, J., Muffly, L., Zehnder, J., Tamaresis, J., Negrin, R., Johnston, L., Arai, S., Shizuru, J., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E., Weng, W., Shiraz, P., Rezvani, A., Latchford, T., Mackall, C., Miklos, D., Frank, M., Sidana, S. 2021; 5 (21): 4465-4475
  • 5-Azacytidine depletes hematopoietic stem cells and synergizes with an anti-CD117 antibody to augment donor engraftment in immunocompetent mice. Blood advances Bankova, A. K., Pang, W., Velasco, B. J., Long-Boyle, J. R., Shizuru, J. A. 2021

    Abstract

    Depletion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is used therapeutically in many malignant and non-malignant blood disorders in the setting of a hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to eradicate diseased HSC allowing donor HSC to engraft. Current treatments to achieve HSC elimination rely on modalities that cause DNA strand breakage (i.e., alkylators, radiation) resulting in multiple short-term and long-term toxicities, and sometimes even death. These risks have severely limited HCT utilization to patients with few to no co-morbidities, and excluded many others with diseases curable by HCT. 5-Azacytidine (AZA) is a widely used hypomethylating agent that is thought to preferentially target leukemic cells in myeloid malignancies. Here, we reveal a previously unknown effect of AZA on HSC. We show that AZA induces early HSC proliferation in vivo and exerts a direct cytotoxic effect on proliferating HSC in vitro. When used to pretreat recipient mice for transplant, AZA permitted low level donor HSC engraftment. Moreover, by combining AZA with a monoclonal antibody (mAb), targeting CD117 (c-Kit), a molecule expressed on HSC, more robust HSC-depletion and substantially higher levels of multilineage donor cell engraftment was achieved in immunocompetent mice. The enhanced effectiveness of this combined regimen correlated with increased apoptotic cell death in HSPC. Together, these findings highlight a previously unknown therapeutic mechanism for AZA which may broaden its utilization in clinical practice. Moreover, the synergy we show between AZA and anti-CD117 mAb is a novel strategy to eradicate abnormal HSC which can be rapidly tested in the clinical setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003841

    View details for PubMedID 34448832

  • Development of immunosuppressive myeloid cells to induce tolerance in solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Blood advances Jensen, K. P., Hongo, D., Ji, X., Zheng, P., Pawar, R. D., Wu, H., Busque, S., Scandling, J. D., Shizuru, J. A., Lowsky, R., Shori, A., Dutt, S., Waters, J., Saraswathula, A., Baker, J., Tamaresis, J. S., Lavori, P., Negrin, R. S., Maecker, H. T., Engleman, E. G., Meyer, E., Strober, S. 2021

    Abstract

    Replacement of failed organs followed by safe withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs have long been the goals of organ transplantation. We studied changes in the balance of T and myeloid cells in blood of HLA-matched and -mismatched patients given living donor kidney transplants (KTx) followed by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) conditioning, and donor hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) to induce mixed chimerism and immune tolerance. The clinical trials were based on a conditioning regimen used to establish mixed chimerism and tolerance in mice. In pre-clinical murine studies, there was a profound depletion of T cells and an increase in immunosuppressive, polymorphonuclear (pmn), myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the spleen and blood following transplant. Selective depletion of the pmn-MDSCs in mice abrogated mixed chimerism and tolerance. In our clinical trials, patients given an analogous tolerance conditioning regimen developed similar changes including profound depletion of T cells and a marked increase in MDSCs in blood post-transplant. Post-transplant pmn-MDSCs transiently increased expression of lectin-type, oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), a marker of immunosuppression, and production of the T cell inhibitor, arginase-1. These post-transplant pmn-MDSCs suppressed the activation, proliferation, and inflammatory cytokine secretion of autologous, TCR microbead-stimulated, pre-transplant T cells when co-cultured in vitro. In conclusion, we elucidated changes in receptors, and function of immunosuppressive myeloid cells in patients enrolled in the tolerance protocol that were nearly identical to the that of MDSCs required for tolerance in mice. The clinical trials are registered in Clinicaltrials.gov under NCT #s 00319657 and 01165762.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003669

    View details for PubMedID 34432869

  • Concordance of peripheral blood and bone marrow measurable residual disease in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood advances Muffly, L., Sundaram, V., Chen, C., Yurkiewicz, I., Kuo, E., Burnash, S., Spiegel, J. Y., Arai, S., Frank, M. J., Johnston, L. J., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E. H., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Sidana, S., Shiraz, P., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Liedtke, M., Vempaty, H. T., Miklos, D. B. 2021; 5 (16): 3147-3151

    Abstract

    Monitoring of measurable residual disease (MRD) is essential to the management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is typically performed through repeated bone marrow (BM) assessments. Using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) MRD platform, we performed a prospective observational study evaluating the correlation between peripheral blood (PB) and BM MRD in adults with ALL receiving cellular therapies (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT] and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell [CAR-T] therapies). Among the study cohort (N = 69 patients; 126 paired PB/BM samples), we found strong correlation between PB and BM MRD (r = 0.87; P < .001), with a sensitivity and specificity of MRD detection in the PB of 87% and 90%, respectively, relative to MRD in the BM. MRD became detectable in the PB in 100% of patients who subsequently relapsed following HCT, with median time from MRD+ to clinical relapse of 90 days, and in 85% of patients who relapsed following CAR T, with median time from MRD+ to clinical relapse of 60 days. In adult patients with ALL undergoing cellular therapies, we demonstrate strong concordance between NGS-based MRD detected in the PB and BM. Monitoring of ALL MRD in the PB appears to be an adequate alternative to frequent invasive BM evaluations in this clinical setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004234

    View details for PubMedID 34424318

  • CAR T cells with dual targeting of CD19 and CD22 in adult patients with recurrent or refractory B cell malignancies: a phase 1 trial. Nature medicine Spiegel, J. Y., Patel, S., Muffly, L., Hossain, N. M., Oak, J., Baird, J. H., Frank, M. J., Shiraz, P., Sahaf, B., Craig, J., Iglesias, M., Younes, S., Natkunam, Y., Ozawa, M. G., Yang, E., Tamaresis, J., Chinnasamy, H., Ehlinger, Z., Reynolds, W., Lynn, R., Rotiroti, M. C., Gkitsas, N., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Lowsky, R., Majzner, R. G., Meyer, E., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Sidana, S., Shizuru, J., Weng, W., Mullins, C., Jacob, A., Kirsch, I., Bazzano, M., Zhou, J., Mackay, S., Bornheimer, S. J., Schultz, L., Ramakrishna, S., Davis, K. L., Kong, K. A., Shah, N. N., Qin, H., Fry, T., Feldman, S., Mackall, C. L., Miklos, D. B. 2021

    Abstract

    Despite impressive progress, more than 50% of patients treated with CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR19) experience progressive disease. Ten of 16 patients with large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) with progressive disease after CAR19 treatment had absent or low CD19. Lower surface CD19 density pretreatment was associated with progressive disease. To prevent relapse with CD19- or CD19lo disease, we tested a bispecific CAR targeting CD19 and/or CD22 (CD19-22.BB.z-CAR) in a phase I clinical trial ( NCT03233854 ) of adults with relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and LBCL. The primary end points were manufacturing feasibility and safety with a secondary efficacy end point. Primary end points were met; 97% of products met protocol-specified dose and no dose-limiting toxicities occurred during dose escalation. In B-ALL (n=17), 100% of patients responded with 88% minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (CR); in LBCL (n=21), 62% of patients responded with 29% CR. Relapses were CD19-/lo in 50% (5 out of 10) of patients with B-ALL and 29% (4 out of 14) of patients with LBCL but were not associated with CD22-/lo disease. CD19/22-CAR products demonstrated reduced cytokine production when stimulated with CD22 versus CD19. Our results further implicate antigen loss as a major cause of CAR T cell resistance, highlight the challenge of engineering multi-specific CAR T cells with equivalent potency across targets and identify cytokine production as an important quality indicator for CAR T cell potency.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41591-021-01436-0

    View details for PubMedID 34312556

  • Outcomes after delayed and second autologous stem cell transplant in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. Bone marrow transplantation Lemieux, C., Muffly, L. S., Iberri, D. J., Craig, J. K., Johnston, L. J., Lowsky, R., Shiraz, P., Rezvani, A. R., Frank, M. J., Weng, W., Meyer, E., Shizuru, J. A., Arai, S., Liedtke, M., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B., Sidana, S. 2021

    Abstract

    We evaluated the outcomes of 168 patients undergoing delayed or second autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) for relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) from 2010 to 2019. Overall, 21% (n=35) patients had received a prior transplant and 69% (n=116) underwent transplant at first relapse. Overall, 27% patients had high-risk cytogenetics and 15% had ISS stage III disease. Stem cell collection was performed after relapse in 72% and 35% of patients received maintenance therapy. Median PFS from salvage treatment and transplant were 28 and 19 months, respectively. Median OS from salvage treatment and transplant was 69 and 55 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that ASCT in first relapse was associated with superior PFS (HR 0.63, p=0.03) and OS (HR 0.59, p=0.04) compared to later lines of therapy. In addition, PFS of ≥36 months with prior therapy was associated with improved PFS (HR 0.62, p=0.04) and OS (HR 0.41, p=0.01). Ninety-five patients underwent delayed transplant at first relapse, median PFS and OS from start of therapy was 30 and 69 months, and median OS from diagnosis was 106 months. These data may serve as a guide when counseling patients undergoing ASCT for relapsed MM and provide a benchmark in designing clinical trials of transplantation/comparative treatments for relapsed MM.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41409-021-01371-1

    View details for PubMedID 34163014

  • Inferior Clinical Outcomes in Recipients of Cryopreserved Grafts Following Reduced Intensity Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Single Center Report Bankova, A., Caveney, J., Ramos, T., Bogeholz, J., Heydari, K., Diaz, N., Jackson, M., Lowsky, R., Brown, J., Johnston, L., Rezvani, A., Frank, M., Muffly, L., Weng, W., Sidana, S., Negrin, R., Miklos, D., Shiraz, P., Meyer, E., Shizuru, J., Arai, S. SPRINGERNATURE. 2021: 181
  • Phase 2 study of MGTA-145+plerixafor for rapid and reliable hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization for autologous transplant in multiple myeloma. Sidana, S., Bankova, A., Hosoya, H., Muffly, L. S., Kumar, S., Johnston, L. J., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E., Rezvani, A., Weng, W., Arai, S., Frank, M., Shiraz, P., Howell, H., Goncalves, K. A., Schmelmer, V., Davis, J., Shizuru, J., Miklos, D. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2021
  • Stem Cell Mobilization in Multiple Myeloma: Comparing Safety and Efficacy of Cyclophosphamide +/- Plerixafor vs. G-CSF +/- Plerixafor in the Lenalidomide Era. Transplantation and cellular therapy Johnsrud, A., Ladha, A., Muffly, L., Shiraz, P., Goldstein, G., Osgood, V., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L., Arai, S., Weng, W., Lowsky, R., Rezvani, A. R., Meyer, E. H., Frank, M. J., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B., Sidana, S. 2021

    Abstract

    Growth factor and chemotherapy-based stem cell mobilization strategies are commonly used for patients with multiple myeloma. We retrospectively compared 398 patients mobilized between 2017-2020 using either cyclophosphamide (4g/m2) plus granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) or G-CSF alone, with on demand plerixafor (PXF) in both groups. While total CD34+yield was higher after chemo-mobilization compared to GCSF+/-PXF (median 13.6 vs. 4.4 * 106/kg,P< .01), achievement of≥2 * 106CD34+ cells (95% vs 93.7%,P= .61), and rates of mobilization failure (5% vs. 6.3%,P= .61) were similar. Fewer patients required PXF with chemo-mobilization (12.3% vs 49.5%,P< .01), and apheresis sessions were fewer (median: 1, range 1-4 vs. 2, range 1-5). Complications were higher after chemo-mobilization (30% vs. 7.4%,P< .01), including neutropenic fever, ED visits, and hospitalizations. Prior lenalidomide≤6 cycles did not impair cell yield in either group.Median cost of mobilization was 17.4% lower in the GCSF +/- PXF group (P= .01).Differences in time to engraftment were not clinically significant. Given similar rates mobilization success, engraftment time, and less toxicity and lower costs compared to chemo-mobilization, G-CSF with on-demand PXF may be preferable in myeloma patients with adequate disease control and limited lenalidomide exposure.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.016

    View details for PubMedID 33915323

  • Use of Backup Stem Cells for Stem Cell Boost and Second Transplant in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation and cellular therapy Liang, E. C., Muffly, L. S., Shiraz, P., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L., Arai, S., Frank, M. J., Weng, W., Lowsky, R., Rezvani, A., Meyer, E. H., Negrin, R., Miklos, D. B., Sidana, S. 2021

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Consensus guidelines recommend collecting sufficient stem cells in case there is a need for stem cell boost for delayed/poor engraftment or for future second ASCT. However, collecting and storing backup stem cells in all patients requires significant resources and cost, and the rates of backup stem cell utilization are not well studied. We sought to examine the utilization of backup stem cells (BSCs) in patients with MM undergoing ASCT. Patients with MM aged ≥18 years old who underwent first ASCT at our institution from January 2010 through December 2015 and collected sufficient stem cells for at least 2 transplants were included in this single-center retrospective study. This timeframe was selected to allow for adequate follow-up. A total of 393 patients were included. The median age was 58 years (range, 25-73). After a median follow-up of 6 years, the median progression-free survival (PFS) of the cohort was 3 years. Sixty-one percent (n=240) of patients progressed or relapsed. Chemotherapy-based mobilization was used in almost all patients (98%). The median total CD34+ cells collected was 18.2*106/kg (range, 3.4-112.4). A median of 5.7*106 CD34+ cells/kg (range, 1.8-41.9) was infused during the first ASCT, and a median of 10.1*106 CD34+ cells/kg (range, 1.5-104.5) was cryopreserved for future use. Of the patients, 6.9% (n=27) used backup stem cells, with 2.3% (n=10) using them for stem cell boost, 4.6% (n=18) for a second salvage ASCT, including 1 patient for both stem cell boost and second ASCT. Rates of backup stem cell use among patients aged <60, 60-69, and ≥70 years were 7.8%, 5.7%, and 5.9%, respectively. There was a trend toward higher rates of backup stem cell use for second ASCT in patients who were younger, had suboptimal disease control at time of first ASCT, and longer PFS. The median dose of stem cell boost given was 5.6*106 CD34+ cells/kg (range, 1.9-20). The median time from stem cell boost to neutrophil, hemoglobin, and platelet engraftment was 4 (range, 2-11), 15 (range, 4-34), and 12 (range, 0-34) days, respectively. Lower CD34+ dose and older age at time of ASCT predicted need for stem cell boost. With new salvage therapies for relapsed MM, the rates of second ASCT are very low. The low rates of use suggest that institutional policies regarding universal BSC collection and long-term storage should be reassessed and individualized. However, need for stem cell boost in 2.3% of patients may present a challenge to that.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.026

    View details for PubMedID 33775587

  • Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Bleeding and Thrombosis Following Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy. Blood advances Johnsrud, A. J., Craig, J., Baird, J. H., Spiegel, J. Y., Muffly, L., Zehnder, J. L., Tamaresis, J. S., Negrin, R. S., Johnston, L., Arai, S., Shizuru, J. A., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E., Weng, W. K., Shiraz, P., Rezvani, A. R., Latchford, T., Mackall, C. L., Miklos, D. B., Frank, M. J., Sidana, S. 2021

    Abstract

    Bleeding and thrombotic events are an emerging toxicity associated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapies. To determine their incidence, we retrospectively analyzed consecutive adult patients (n=127) with large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) or B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) treated between 2017-2020 with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) (N=89) or a bispecific CD19/CD22 CAR (N=38). 12 (9.4%) and 8 (6.3%) patients developed bleeding and thrombosis within first 3 months, respectively. In the axi-cel subgroup, these occurred in 11.2% and 6.7%, respectively. Bleeding occurred between days 8-30 (median 17.5), and thrombosis between days 2-91 (median 29). Bleeding sites included genitourinary (N=6), soft tissue (N=2), intracranial (N=2), gastrointestinal (N=1), pulmonary (N=1), and were associated with features of consumptive coagulopathy. On univariate analysis, patients with bleeding were older (median 72 vs. 60 yrs, P<0.01), had lower baseline platelets (86 vs. 178 K/uL, P<0.01), lower platelet nadir after CAR-T (median 17.5 vs. 48 K/uL; P<0.01), lower fibrinogen nadir (median 122 vs. 340 ug/mL; P<0.01) and elevated LDH (P=0.01). ICANS grade ≥3 was associated with increased bleeding (50% vs. 15%; P=0.01), thrombosis (50% vs. 16%; P=0.04), PT prolongation, hypofibrinogenemia and elevated D-dimer. A paucity of events limited multivariate analysis, however low pre-treatment platelets were associated with bleeding in a multivariate logistic regression model. Patients with thrombocytopenia or severe ICANS are at increased risk of bleeding complications and should be closely monitored particularly within the first month after CAR therapy. Future studies in larger cohorts should assess risk factors for systemic coagulopathies in CAR-T therapy, including their association with neurotoxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004716

    View details for PubMedID 34521106

  • Jun Activation in Dermal Fibroblasts Promotes Fibrosis and Inflammation in Sclerodermatous Graft-vs-host Disease in Mice and Humans Mueller, A., Cui, L., Lerbs, T., King, M., Muscat, C., Shibata, T., Lee, J., Brown, R., Fernandez-Pol, S., Arai, S., Shizuru, J., Wernig, G. SPRINGERNATURE. 2020: 13–14
  • Outcomes with Autologous or Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Plasma Cell Leukemia in the Era of Novel Agents. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Lemieux, C., Johnston, L. J., Lowsky, R., Muffly, L. S., Craig, J. K., Shiraz, P., Rezvani, A., Frank, M. J., Weng, W., Meyer, E., Shizuru, J., Arai, S., Negrin, R., Miklos, D. B., Sidana, S. 2020

    Abstract

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and very aggressive plasma cell disorder. The optimal treatment approach, including whether to pursue an autologous (autoSCT) or allogeneic (alloSCT) transplant is not clear as there is lack of clinical trial based evidence. This single center retrospective study describes the outcomes of 16 patients with PCL (N=14 primary PCL) who underwent either autoSCT (N=9) or alloSCT (N=7) for PCL in the era of novel agents, between 2007 and 2019. Median age of the cohort was 58 years. High-risk cytogenetics were seen in 50% of patients. All patients received a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and/or immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) based regimen before transplant. At transplant, 10 (62%) patients obtained at least a very good partial response. Response after autoSCT (3 month) was at least VGPR in 6 (67%, CR=5) patients. All patients undergoing alloSCT achieved CR at 3 months. Maintenance was used in 5 patients (56%) after autoSCT. Median PFS from transplant in the autoSCT vs. alloSCT group was 6 vs. 18 months, p=0.09, while median OS from transplant was 19 vs. 40 months (p=0.41), respectively. The median OS from diagnosis was 27 vs. 49 months, p=0.50, respectively. Of all the deaths, 10 (91%) patients died of relapsed disease. In conclusion, alloSCT was not observed to offer any significant survival advantage over autoSCT in PCL, which is comparable to other recent reports and relapse remains the primary cause of death.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.035

    View details for PubMedID 32961371

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with non-myeloablative conditioning for patients with hematologic malignancies: Improved outcomes over two decades. Haematologica Cooper, J. P., Storer, B. E., Granot, N., Gyurkocza, B., Sorror, M. L., Chauncey, T. R., Shizuru, J., Franke, G., Maris, M. B., Boyer, M., Bruno, B., Sahebi, F., Langston, A. A., Hari, P., Agura, E. D., Petersen, S. L., Maziarz, R. T., Bethge, W., Asch, J., Gutman, J. A., Olesen, G., Yeager, A. M., Hubel, K., Hogan, W. J., Maloney, D. G., Mielcarek, M., Martin, P. J., Flowers, M. E., Georges, G. E., Woolfrey, A. E., Deeg, H. J., Scott, B. L., McDonald, G. B., Storb, R., Sandmaier, B. M. 2020

    Abstract

    We have used a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the past twenty years. During that period, changes in clinical practice have been aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality from infections, organ toxicity, and graft-versus-host disease. We hypothesized that improvements in clinical practice led to better transplantation outcomes over time. From 1997-2017, 1,720 patients with hematologic malignancies received low-dose total body irradiation +/- fludarabine or clofarabine before transplantation from HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donors, followed by mycophenolate mofetil and a calcineurin inhibitor ± sirolimus. We compared outcomes in three cohorts by year of transplantation: 1997 +/- 2003 (n=562), 2004 +/- 2009 (n=594), and 2010 +/- 2017 (n=564). The proportion of patients ≥60 years old increased from 27% in 1997 +/- 2003 to 56% in 2010-2017, and with scores from the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comborbidity Index of ≥3 increased from 25% in 1997 +/- 2003 to 45% in 2010 +/- 2017. Use of unrelated donors increased from 34% in 1997 +/- 2003 to 65% in 2010-2017. When outcomes from 2004 +/- 2009 and 2010-2017 were compared to 1997 +/- 2003, improvements were noted in overall survival (P=.0001 for 2004-2009 and P <.0001 for 2010-2017), profression-free survival (P=.002 for 2004-2009 and P <.0001 for 2010 +/- 2017), non-relapse mortality (P<.0001 for 2004 +/- 2009 and P <.0001 for 2010 +/- 2017), and in rates of grades 2 +/- 4 acute and chronic graft-vs.-host disease. For patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent transplantation with non-myeloablative conditioning, outcomes have improved during the past two decades. Trials reported are registered under ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00003145, NCT00003196, NCT00003954, NCT00005799, NCT00005801, NCT00005803, NCT00006251, NCT00014235, NCT00027820, NCT00031655, NCT00036738, NCT00045435, NCT00052546, NCT00060424, NCT00075478, NCT00078858, NCT00089011, NCT00104858, NCT00105001, NCT00110058, NCT00397813, NCT00793572, NCT01231412, NCT01252667, NCT01527045.

    View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2020.248187

    View details for PubMedID 32499241

  • Autologous stem cell transplantation versus no transplant in patients above 70 with multiple myeloma. Lemieux, C., Muffly, L. S., Iberri, D., Rezvani, A., Lowsky, R., Frank, M., Craig, J. K., Liedtke, M., Negrin, R., Weng, W., Meyer, E., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J., Shiraz, P., Arai, S., Miklos, D., Sidana, S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020
  • Impact of proteasome inhibitor vs. IMiD maintenance therapy on outcomes of patients with high-risk multiple myeloma (HRMM). Tam, E., Iberri, D., Liedtke, M., Muffly, L. S., Shiraz, P., Frank, M., Lowsky, R., Rezvani, A., Negrin, R., Meyer, E., Arai, S., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J., Weng, W., Miklos, D., Sidana, S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020
  • Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Significant Increase in Survival in the Post-Targeted Immunotherapy Era Muffly, L., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E. H., Miklos, D. B., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A., Shiraz, P., Shizuru, J. A., Sidana, S., Weng, W., Cunanan, K. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S106
  • Mixed chimerism and acceptance of kidney transplants after immunosuppressive drug withdrawal. Science translational medicine Busque, S. n., Scandling, J. D., Lowsky, R. n., Shizuru, J. n., Jensen, K. n., Waters, J. n., Wu, H. H., Sheehan, K. n., Shori, A. n., Choi, O. n., Pham, T. n., Fernandez Vina, M. A., Hoppe, R. n., Tamaresis, J. n., Lavori, P. n., Engleman, E. G., Meyer, E. n., Strober, S. n. 2020; 12 (528)

    Abstract

    Preclinical studies have shown that persistent mixed chimerism is linked to acceptance of organ allografts without immunosuppressive (IS) drugs. Mixed chimerism refers to continued mixing of donor and recipient hematopoietic cells in recipient tissues after transplantation of donor cells. To determine whether persistent mixed chimerism and tolerance can be established in patients undergoing living donor kidney transplantation, we infused allograft recipients with donor T cells and hematopoietic progenitors after posttransplant lymphoid irradiation. In 24 of 29 fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched patients who had persistent mixed chimerism for at least 6 months, complete IS drug withdrawal was achieved without subsequent evidence of rejection for at least 2 years. In 10 of 22 HLA haplotype-matched patients with persistent mixed chimerism for at least 12 months, reduction of IS drugs to tacrolimus monotherapy was achieved. Withdrawal of tacrolimus during the second year resulted in loss of detectable chimerism and subsequent rejection episodes, unless tacrolimus therapy was reinstituted. Posttransplant immune reconstitution of naïve B cells and B cell precursors was more rapid than the reconstitution of naïve T cells and thymic T cell precursors. Robust chimerism was observed only among naïve T and B cells but not among memory T cells. No evidence of rejection was observed in all surveillance graft biopsies obtained from mixed chimeric patients withdrawn from IS drugs, and none developed graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, persistent mixed chimerism established in fully HLA- or haplotype-matched patients allowed for complete or partial IS drug withdrawal without rejection.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aax8863

    View details for PubMedID 31996467

  • Nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation achieves clinical and molecular remission in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood advances Weng, W. K., Arai, S. n., Rezvani, A. n., Johnston, L. n., Lowsky, R. n., Miklos, D. n., Shizuru, J. n., Muffly, L. n., Meyer, E. n., Negrin, R. S., Wang, E. n., Almazan, T. n., Million, L. n., Khodadoust, M. n., Li, S. n., Hoppe, R. T., Kim, Y. H. 2020; 4 (18): 4474–82

    Abstract

    The majority of patients with refractory, advanced-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) or Sézary syndrome (SS) have a life expectancy of <5 years. Here, we report a phase 2 study of a novel nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation strategy tailored for this patient population. This study has completed the enrollment, and 35 patients (13 MF, 22 SS) have undergone transplant as planned. The majority (80%) of the patients had stage IV disease and received multiple previous systemic therapies. All patients had active disease at the time of conditioning using total skin electron beam therapy, total lymphoid irradiation, and antithymocyte globulin, and received allograft infusion as outpatients. Cyclosporine or tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Patients tolerated the transplant well, with 1- and 2-year nonrelapse mortality of 3% and 14%, respectively. The day +180 cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD was 16%, and the 2-year incidence of moderate/severe chronic GVHD was 32%. With a median posttransplant follow-up of 5.4 years, the 2-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 68%, 62%, and 56%. Using high-throughput sequencing of the T-cell receptor for minimal residual disease monitoring, we observed that 43% achieved molecular remission, which was associated with a lower incidence of disease progression or relapse (9% vs 87%; P = .02). Our study also showed that patients who were aged ≥65 years at the time of allotransplant had similar clinical outcomes compared with younger patients. Thus, we have developed an alternative and potentially curative nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplant regimen for patients with advanced stage MF/SS. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00896493.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001627

    View details for PubMedID 32941647

  • Outcomes with autologous stem cell transplant vs. non-transplant therapy in patients 70 years and older with multiple myeloma. Bone marrow transplantation Lemieux, C. n., Muffly, L. S., Rezvani, A. n., Lowsky, R. n., Iberri, D. J., Craig, J. K., Frank, M. J., Johnston, L. J., Liedtke, M. n., Negrin, R. n., Weng, W. K., Meyer, E. n., Shizuru, J. n., Shiraz, P. n., Arai, S. n., Miklos, D. B., Sidana, S. n. 2020

    Abstract

    We evaluated 79 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) ≥70 years referred to our blood and marrow transplant clinic, within 1 year of diagnosis from 2010 to 2019, for consideration of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Thirty-eight (48%) of 79 patients underwent ASCT. ASCT was not pursued in 41 (52%) patients due to: patient or physician preference in 80% (n = 33) or ineligibility in 20% (n = 8). Baseline characteristics of patients in the two groups were similar. Median PFS from treatment start amongst patients undergoing ASCT (n = 38) vs. not (n = 41) was 41 months vs. 33 months, p = 0.03. There was no difference in OS, with estimated 5-year OS of 73% vs. 83%, respectively (p = 0.86). Day +100 transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 0%. ASCT was an independent favorable prognostic factor for PFS in multivariate analysis, after accounting for HCT-CI score, performance status, hematologic response, and maintenance. Finally, patients ≥70 years undergoing ASCT had similar PFS compared to a contemporaneous institutional cohort of patients <70 years (n = 631) (median PFS from transplant: 36 vs. 47 months, p = 0.25). In this retrospective analysis, ASCT was associated with low TRM and better PFS in fit older adults with MM compared to non-transplant therapy, with comparable benefits as seen in younger patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41409-020-01026-7

    View details for PubMedID 32782351

  • Antibody Conditioning Enables MHC-Mismatched Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants and Organ Graft Tolerance. Cell stem cell George, B. M., Kao, K. S., Kwon, H., Velasco, B. J., Poyser, J., Chen, A., Le, A. C., Chhabra, A., Burnett, C. E., Cajuste, D., Hoover, M., Loh, K. M., Shizuru, J. A., Weissman, I. L. 2019

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation can correct hematological and immunological disorders by replacing a diseased blood system with a healthy one, but this currently requires depleting a patient's existing hematopoietic system with toxic and non-specific chemotherapy, radiation, or both. Here we report an antibody-based conditioning protocol with reduced toxicity and enhanced specificity for robust hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation and engraftment in recipient mice. Host pre-treatment with six monoclonal antibodies targeting CD47, Tcells, NK cells, and HSCs followed by donor HSC transplantation enabled stable hematopoietic system reconstitution in recipients with mismatches at half (haploidentical) or all major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. This approach allowed tolerance to heart tissue from HSC donor strains in haploidentical recipients, showing potential applications for solid organ transplantation without immune suppression. Fully mismatched chimeric mice developed antibody responses to nominal antigens, showing preserved functional immunity. These findings suggest approaches for transplanting immunologically mismatched HSCs and solid organs with limited toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2019.05.018

    View details for PubMedID 31204177

  • Transplantation of donor grafts with defined ratio of conventional and regulatory T cells in HLA-matched recipients JCI INSIGHT Meyer, E. H., Laport, G., Xie, B. J., MacDonald, K., Heydari, K., Sahaf, B., Tang, S., Baker, J., Armstrong, R., Tate, K., Tadisco, C., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Lowsky, R., Muffly, L., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J., Weng, W., Sheehan, K., Miklos, D., Negrin, R. S. 2019; 4 (10)
  • Anti-CD117 antibody depletes normal and myelodysplastic syndrome human hematopoietic stem cells in xenografted mice BLOOD Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Logan, A. C., Bhardwaj, R., Poyser, J., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2019; 133 (19): 2069–78
  • Anti-human CD117 antibody-mediated bone marrow niche clearance in nonhuman primates and humanized NSG mice BLOOD Kwon, H., Logan, A. C., Chhabra, A., Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Tate, K., Le, A., Poyser, J., Hollis, R., Kelly, B. V., Kohn, D. B., Weissman, I. L., Prohaska, S. S., Shizuru, J. A. 2019; 133 (19): 2104–8
  • Anti-CD117 antibody depletes normal and myelodysplastic syndrome human hematopoietic stem cells in xenografted mice. Blood Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Logan, A. C., Bhardwaj, R., Poyser, J., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2019

    Abstract

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a group of clonal disorders that result in ineffective hematopoiesis and are associated with an increased risk of transformation into acute leukemia. MDS arises from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); therefore, successful elimination of MDS HSCs is an important part of any curative therapy. However, current treatment options, including allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), often fail to ablate disease-initiating MDS HSCs, and thus have low curative potential and high relapse rates. Here, we demonstrate that human HSCs can be targeted and eliminated by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind cell surface CD117 (c-Kit). We show that an anti-human CD117 mAb, SR-1, inhibits normal cord blood and bone marrow HSCs in vitro. Further, SR-1 and clinical-grade humanized anti-human CD117 mAb, AMG 191, deplete normal and MDS HSCs in vivo in xenograft mouse models. Anti-CD117 mAbs also facilitate the engraftment of normal donor human HSCs in MDS xenograft mouse models, restoring normal human hematopoiesis and eradicating aggressive pathologic MDS cells. This study is the first to demonstrate that anti-human CD117 mAbs have potential as novel therapeutics to eradicate MDS HSCs and augment the curative effect of allogeneic HCT for this disease. Moreover, we establish the foundation for use of these antibody agents not only in the treatment of MDS but for the multitude of other HSC-driven blood and immune disorders for which transplant can be disease-altering.

    View details for PubMedID 30745302

  • Selective hematopoietic stem cell ablation using CD117-antibody-drug-conjugates enables safe and effective transplantation with immunity preservation. Nature communications Czechowicz, A., Palchaudhuri, R., Scheck, A., Hu, Y., Hoggatt, J., Saez, B., Pang, W. W., Mansour, M. K., Tate, T. A., Chan, Y. Y., Walck, E., Wernig, G., Shizuru, J. A., Winau, F., Scadden, D. T., Rossi, D. J. 2019; 10 (1): 617

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative therapy for blood and immune diseases with potential for many settings beyond current standard-of-care. Broad HSCT application is currently precluded largely due to morbidity and mortality associated with genotoxic irradiation or chemotherapy conditioning. Here we show that a single dose of a CD117-antibody-drug-conjugate (CD117-ADC) to saporin leads to>99% depletion of host HSCs, enabling rapid and efficient donor hematopoietic cell engraftment. Importantly, CD117-ADC selectively targets hematopoietic stem cells yet does not cause clinically significant side-effects. Blood counts and immune cell function are preserved following CD117-ADC treatment, with effective responses by recipients to both viral and fungal challenges. These results suggest that CD117-ADC-mediated HSCT pre-treatment could serve as a non-myeloablative conditioning strategy for the treatment of a wide range of non-malignant and malignant diseases, and might be especially suited to gene therapy and gene editing settings in which preservation of immunity is desired.

    View details for PubMedID 30728354

  • Anti-human CD117 antibody-mediated bone marrow niche clearance in non-human primates and humanized NSG mice. Blood Kwon, H., Logan, A. C., Chhabra, A., Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Tate, K., Le, A., Poyser, J., Hollis, R., Kelly, B. V., Kohn, D. B., Weissman, I. L., Prohaska, S. S., Shizuru, J. A. 2019

    View details for PubMedID 30617195

  • Conditioning Perspectives for Primary Immunodeficiency Stem Cell Transplants. Frontiers in pediatrics Shaw, P. n., Shizuru, J. n., Hoenig, M. n., Veys, P. n. 2019; 7: 434

    Abstract

    The majority of children undergoing Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation (HSCT) require conditioning therapy to make space and prevent rejection of the donor stem cells. The exception is certain children with Severe Combined immune deficiency, who have limited or no ability to reject the donor graft. Transplant conditioning is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from both direct toxic effects of chemotherapy as well as opportunistic infections associated with profound immunosuppression. The ultimate goal of transplant practice is to achieve sufficient engraftment of donor cells to correct the underlying disease with minimal short- and long-term toxicity to the recipient. Traditional combinations, such as busulfan and cyclophosphamide, achieve a high rate of full donor engraftment, but are associated with significant acute transplant-related-mortality and late effects such as infertility. Less "intensive" approaches, such as combinations of treosulfan or melphalan with fludarabine, are less toxic, but may be associated with rejection or low level chimerism requiring the need for re-transplantation. The major benefit of these novel approaches, however, which we hope will be realized in the decades to come, may be the preservation of fertility. Future approaches look to replace chemotherapy with non-toxic antibody conditioning. The lessons learnt in refining conditioning for HSCT are likely to be equally applicable to gene therapy protocols for the same diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fped.2019.00434

    View details for PubMedID 31781522

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6851055

  • Rituximab-based allogeneic transplant for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with comparison to historical experience. Bone marrow transplantation Shadman, M. n., Maloney, D. G., Storer, B. n., Sandmaier, B. M., Chauncey, T. R., Smedegaard Andersen, N. n., Niederwieser, D. n., Shizuru, J. n., Bruno, B. n., Pulsipher, M. A., Maziarz, R. T., Agura, E. D., Hari, P. n., Langston, A. A., Maris, M. B., McSweeney, P. A., Storb, R. n., Sorror, M. L. 2019

    Abstract

    Relapse of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains a clinical challenge. We studied in a phase II trial whether the addition of peri-transplant rituximab would reduce the relapse risk compared with historical controls (n = 157). Patients (n = 55) received fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation combined with rituximab on days -3, + 10, + 24, + 36. Relapse rate at 3 years was significantly lower among rituximab-treated patients versus controls (17% versus 31%; P = 0.04). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were statistically similar: (53% versus 50%; P = 0.8), (44% versus 42%; P = 0.63), and (38% versus 28%; P = 0.2), respectively. In multivariate analysis, rituximab treatment was associated with lower relapse rates both in the overall cohort [hazard ratio (HR): 0.34, P = 0.006] and in patients with high-risk cytogenetics (HR: 0.21, P = 0.0003). Patients with no comorbidities who received rituximab conditioning had an OS rate of 100% and 75% at 1 and 3 years, respectively, with no NRM. Peri-transplant rituximab reduced relapse rates regardless of high-risk cytogenetics. HCT is associated with minimal NRM in patients without comorbidities and is a viable option for patients with high-risk CLL. Clinical trial information: NCT00867529.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41409-019-0660-8

    View details for PubMedID 31481800

  • Modeling chronic Graft-vs-Host disease in MHC-matched mouse strains: genetics, graft composition and tissue targets. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Müller, A. M., Min, D. n., Wernig, G. n., Levy, R. B., Perez, V. L., Herretes, S. n., Florek, M. n., Burnett, C. n., Weinberg, K. n., Shizuru, J. A. 2019

    Abstract

    Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Acute GVHD results from direct damage by donor T cells, while the biology of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) with its autoimmune-like manifestations remains poorly understood - mainly due to the paucity of representative preclinical models. We examined over an extended time period seven MHC-matched, minor antigen mismatched mouse models for development of cGVHD. Development and manifestations of cGVHD were determined by a combination of MHC-allele type and recipient strain, with BALB recipients being the most susceptible. The C57BL/6 into BALB.B combination most closely modeled the human syndrome. In this strain combination moderate acute GVHD was observed and BALB.B survivors developed overt cGVHD at 6-12 months affecting eyes, skin and liver. Naïve CD4+ cells caused this syndrome as no significant pathology was induced by grafts composed of purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) or HSC plus memory CD4+ or CD8+ cells. Furthermore, co-transferred naïve and memory CD4+ T cells demonstrated differential homing patterns and locations of persistence. No clear association with donor TH17 cells and the phenotype of acute or chronic GVHD was observed in this model. Donor CD4+ cells caused injury to medullary thymic epithelial cells, a key population responsible for negative T-cell selection, suggesting that impaired thymic selection was an underlying cause of the cGVHD syndrome. In conclusion, we report for the first time that the C57BL/6 into BALB.B combination is a representative model of cGVHD that evolves from immunological events during the early post-transplant period.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.08.001

    View details for PubMedID 31415899

  • Nonmyeloablative TLI-ATG conditioning for allogeneic transplantation: mature follow-up from a large single-center cohort. Blood advances Spinner, M. A., Kennedy, V. E., Tamaresis, J. S., Lavori, P. W., Arai, S. n., Johnston, L. J., Meyer, E. H., Miklos, D. B., Muffly, L. S., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W. K., Hoppe, R. T., Strober, S. n., Lowsky, R. n. 2019; 3 (16): 2454–64

    Abstract

    Nonmyeloablative total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin (TLI-ATG) conditioning is protective against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), while retaining graft-versus-tumor activity across various hematologic malignancies. We report our comprehensive experience using TLI-ATG conditioning in 612 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent allogeneic transplantation at Stanford University from 2001 to 2016. All patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood grafts and cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil for GVHD prophylaxis. The median age was 60 years (range, 21-78), with a median follow-up of 6.0 years (range, 1.0-16.4). Common diagnoses included acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 193), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 94), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; n = 80), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; n = 175), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL; n = 35). Thirty-four percent of patients had a comorbidity index ≥3, 30% had a high to very high disease risk index, and 56% received unrelated donor grafts, including 15% with HLA-mismatched donors. Ninety-eight percent underwent transplant in the outpatient setting, and 57% were never hospitalized from days 0 through 100. The 1-year rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM), grade II-IV acute GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD were 9%, 14%, and 22%, respectively. The 4-year estimates for overall and progression-free survival were 42% and 32% for AML, 30% and 21% for MDS, 67% and 43% for CLL, 68% and 45% for NHL, and 78% and 49% for HL. Mixed chimerism correlated with the risk of relapse. TLI-ATG conditioning was well tolerated, with low rates of GVHD and NRM. Durable remissions were observed across hematologic malignancies, with particularly favorable outcomes for heavily pretreated lymphomas. Several efforts are underway to augment donor chimerism and reduce relapse rates while maintaining the favorable safety and tolerability profile of this regimen.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000297

    View details for PubMedID 31427277

  • Transplantation of donor grafts with defined ratio of conventional and regulatory T cells in HLA-matched recipients. JCI insight Meyer, E. H., Laport, G. n., Xie, B. J., MacDonald, K. n., Heydari, K. n., Sahaf, B. n., Tang, S. W., Baker, J. n., Armstrong, R. n., Tate, K. n., Tadisco, C. n., Arai, S. n., Johnston, L. n., Lowsky, R. n., Muffly, L. n., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J. n., Weng, W. K., Sheehan, K. n., Miklos, D. n., Negrin, R. S. 2019; 4 (10)

    Abstract

    BACKGROUNDIn preclinical murine and early clinical studies of hematopoietic cell transplantation, engineering of donor grafts with defined ratios of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs to conventional T cells (Tcons) results in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease and improved immune reconstitution. The use of highly purified primary graft Tregs for direct cell infusion has potential advantages over impure immunomagnetic selection or culture expansion, but has not been tested clinically. We performed a phase I study of the timed addition of CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cells and Tregs, followed by Tcons for the treatment of patients with high-risk hematological malignancies.METHODSWe present interim evaluation of a single-center open phase I/II study of administration of human leukocyte-matched Tregs and CD34-selected hematopoietic cells, followed by infusion of an equal ratio of Tcons in adult patients undergoing myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) for high-risk or active hematological malignancies. Tregs were purified by immunomagnetic selection and high-speed cell sorting.RESULTSHere we report results for the first 12 patients who received Tregs of between 91% and 96% purity. Greater than grade II GVHD was noted in 2 patients in the first cohort of 5 patients, who received cryopreserved Tregs, but neither acute nor chronic GVHD was noted in the second cohort of 7 patients, who received fresh Tregs and single-agent GVHD prophylaxis. Patients in the second cohort appeared to have normal immune reconstitution compared with patients who underwent transplantation and did not develop GVHD.CONCLUSIONOur study shows that the use of highly purified fresh Tregs is clinically feasible and supports continued investigation of the strategy.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT01660607.FUNDINGNIH NHBLI R01 HL114591 and K08HL119590.

    View details for PubMedID 31092732

  • Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation Using TLI-ATG Conditioning for Lymphoid and Myeloid Malignancies: Mature Follow-up from a Large, Single Institution Cohort Spinner, M. A., Kennedy, V. E., Tamaresis, J. S., Lavori, P. W., Elder, L. V., Arai, S., Johnston, L. J., Meyer, E. H., Miklos, D. B., Muffly, L. S., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Hoppe, R. T., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2018
  • Elevated Axicabtagene Ciloleucel (CAR-19) Expansion By Immunophenotyping Is Associated with Toxicity in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Spiegel, J. Y., Sahaf, B., Hossain, N., Frank, M. J., Claire, G., Abramian, M., Latchford, T., Villa, B., Cancilla, J., Oak, J., Natkunam, Y., Long, S. R., Arai, S., Johnston, L. J., Lowsky, R., Meyer, E. H., Muffly, L. S., Negrin, R. S., Rezvani, A. R., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Kong, K. A., Mackall, C. L., Miklos, D. B. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2018
  • Long term follow-up of tandem autologous-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Haematologica Maffini, E., Storer, B. E., Sandmaier, B. M., Bruno, B., Sahebi, F., Shizuru, J. A., Chauncey, T. R., Hari, P., Lange, T., Pulsipher, M. A., McSweeney, P. A., Holmberg, L., Becker, P. S., Green, D. J., Mielcarek, M., Maloney, D. G., Storb, R. 2018

    Abstract

    We previously reported initial results in 102 multiple myeloma patients treated with sequential high-dose melphalan and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation followed by 200 cGy total body irradiation with or without fludarabine 90 mg/m2 and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we present long-term clinical outcomes among the 102 initial patients and among 142 additional patients, with a median follow-up of 8.3 (range 1.0-8.1) years. Donors included human leucocyte antigen identical siblings (n= 179) and HLA-matched unrelated donors (n= 65). A total of 209 patients (86%) received tandem autologous-allogeneic upfront, while thirty-five patients (14%) failed a previous autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation before the planned autologous-allogeneic transplantation. Thirty-one patients received maintenance treatment at a median of 86 days (range, 61-150) days after allogeneic transplantation. Five-year rates of overall survival and progression-free survival were 54% and 31%, respectively. Ten-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 41% and 19%, respectively. Overall non-relapse mortality was 2% at 100 days and 14% at 5 years. Patients with induction-refractory disease and those with high-risk biological features experienced shorter overall survival and progression-free survival. A total of 152 patients experienced disease relapse and 117 of those received salvage treatment. Eighty-three of the 117 patients achieved a clinical response, and for those, the median duration of survival after relapse was 7.8 years. Moreover, a subset of patients who became negative for minimal residual disease by flow cytometry experienced a significantly lower relapse rate as compared with minimal residual disease-positive patients (P = 0.03). Our study showed that the graft-vs-myeloma effect after non-myeloablative allografting allowed long-term disease control in standard and high-risk patient subsets. Ultra-high-risk patients did not appear to benefit from tandem autologous/allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation because of early disease relapse. Incorporation of newer anti-MM agents into the initial induction treatments before tandem hematopoietic cell transplantation and during maintenance might improve outcomes of ultra-high-risk patients. Clinical trials included in this study are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov and include NCT00075478, NCT00005799, NCT01251575, NCT00078858, NCT00105001, NCT00027820, NCT00089011, NCT00003196, NCT00006251, NCT00793572, NCT00054353, NCT00014235, NCT00003954, NCT00003954.

    View details for PubMedID 30262560

  • Relationship Between Mixed Chimerism and Acceptance of HLA-matched and -Mismatched Kidney Transplants after Withdrawal of Immunosuppressive Drugs Busque, S., Scandling, J., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J., Jensen, K., Shori, A., Hoppe, R., Engleman, E., Meyer, E., Strober, S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2018: S393
  • Selective HSC-Ablation Using CD117 Antibody-Drug-Conjugates Enables Safe and Effective Murine and Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Czechowicz, A., Palchaudhuri, R., Scheck, A., Hu, Y., Hoggatt, J., Saez, B., Pang, W. W., Mansour, M. K., Shizuru, J. A., Winau, F., Scadden, D. T., Rossi, D. J. CELL PRESS. 2018: 23–24
  • Infusion of donor-derived CD8(+) memory T cells for relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation BLOOD ADVANCES Muffly, L., Sheehan, K., Armstrong, R., Jensen, K., Tate, K., Rezvani, A. R., Miklos, D., Arai, S., Shizuru, J., Johnston, L., Meyer, E., Weng, W., Laport, G. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2018; 2 (6): 681–90

    Abstract

    Murine models showed that CD8+CD44hi memory T (TM) cells could eradicate malignant cells without inducing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We evaluated the feasibility and safety of infusing freshly isolated and purified donor-derived phenotypic CD8+ TM cells into adults with disease relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Phenotypic CD8 TM cells were isolated after unmobilized donor apheresis using a tandem immunomagnetic selection strategy of CD45RA depletion followed by CD8+ enrichment. Fifteen patients received CD8+ TM cells at escalating doses (1 × 106, 5 × 106, or 10 × 106 cells per kg). Thirteen received cytoreduction before CD8+ TM cell infusion, and 9 had active disease at the time of infusion. Mean yield and purity of the CD8+ TM infusion were 38.1% and 92.8%, respectively; >90% had CD8+ T effector memory phenotype, cytokine expression, and secretion profile. No adverse infusional events or dose-limiting toxicities occurred; GVHD developed in 1 patient (grade 2 liver). Ten patients (67%) maintained or achieved response (7 complete response, 1 partial response, 2 stable disease) for at least 3 months after infusion; 4 of the responders had active disease at the time of infusion. With a median follow-up from infusion of 328 days (range, 118-1328 days), median event-free survival and overall survival were 4.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1-19.3 months) and 19.6 months (95% CI, 5.6 months to not reached), respectively. Collection and enrichment of phenotypic CD8+ TM cells is feasible, well tolerated, and associated with a low incidence of GVHD when administered as a manipulated infusion of donor lymphocytes in patients who have relapsed after HCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01523223.

    View details for PubMedID 29572391

  • Selective targeting of engineered T cells using orthogonal IL-2 cytokine-receptor complexes SCIENCE Sockolosky, J. T., Trotta, E., Parisi, G., Picton, L., Su, L. L., Le, A. C., Chhabra, A., Silveria, S. L., George, B. M., King, I. C., Tiffany, M. R., Jude, K., Sibener, L. V., Baker, D., Shizuru, J. A., Ribas, A., Bluestone, J. A., Garcia, K. 2018; 359 (6379): 1037-+

    Abstract

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine required for effector T cell expansion, survival, and function, especially for engineered T cells in adoptive cell immunotherapy, but its pleiotropy leads to simultaneous stimulation and suppression of immune responses as well as systemic toxicity, limiting its therapeutic use. We engineered IL-2 cytokine-receptor orthogonal (ortho) pairs that interact with one another, transmitting native IL-2 signals, but do not interact with their natural cytokine and receptor counterparts. Introduction of orthoIL-2Rβ into T cells enabled the selective cellular targeting of orthoIL-2 to engineered CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro and in vivo, with limited off-target effects and negligible toxicity. OrthoIL-2 pairs were efficacious in a preclinical mouse cancer model of adoptive cell therapy and may therefore represent a synthetic approach to achieving selective potentiation of engineered cells.

    View details for PubMedID 29496879

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5947856

  • Anti-Human CD117 Antibodies Mediate Clearance of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Facilitate Establishment of Normal Hematopoiesis in Transplantation Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Poyser, J., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: S230–S231
  • SDF 1-alpha Attenuates Myocardial Injury Without Altering the Direct Contribution of Circulating Cells. Journal of cardiovascular translational research Goldstone, A. B., Burnett, C. E., Cohen, J. E., Paulsen, M. J., Eskandari, A., Edwards, B. E., Ingason, A. B., Steele, A. N., Patel, J. B., MacArthur, J. W., Shizuru, J. A., Woo, Y. J. 2018

    Abstract

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha (SDF) is a potent bone marrow chemokine capable of recruiting circulating progenitor populations to injured tissue. SDF has known angiogenic capabilities, but bone marrow-derived cellular contributions to tissue regeneration remain controversial. Bone marrow from DsRed-transgenic donors was transplanted into recipients to lineage-trace circulating cells after myocardial infarction (MI). SDF was delivered post-MI, and hearts were evaluated for recruitment and plasticity of bone marrow-derived populations. SDF treatment improved ventricular function, border zone vessel density, and CD31+ cell frequency post-MI. Bone marrow-derived endothelial cells were observed; these cells arose through both cell fusion and transdifferentiation. Circulating cells also adopted cardiomyocyte fates, but such events were exceedingly rare and almost exclusively resulted from cell fusion. SDF did not significantly alter the proportion of circulating cells that adopted non-hematopoietic fates. Mechanistic insight into the governance of circulating cells is essential to realizing the full potential of cytokine therapies.

    View details for PubMedID 29468554

  • Macrochimerism and clinical transplant tolerance. Human immunology Scandling, J. D., Busque, S., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J., Shori, A., Engleman, E., Jensen, K., Strober, S. 2018

    Abstract

    Current theory holds that macrochimerism is essential to the development of transplant tolerance. Hematopoietic cell transplantation from the solid organ donor is necessary to achieve macrochimerism. Over the last 10-20 years, trials of tolerance induction with combined kidney and hematopoietic cell transplantation have moved from the preclinical to the clinical arena. The achievement of macrochimerism in the clinical setting is challenging, and potentially toxic due to the conditioning regimen necessary to hematopoietic cell transplantation and due to the risk of graft-versus-host disease. There are differences in chimerism goals and methods of the three major clinical stage tolerance induction strategies in both HLA-matched and HLA-mismatched living donor kidney transplantation, with consequent differences in efficacy and safety. The Stanford protocol has proven efficacious in the induction of tolerance in HLA-matched kidney transplantation, allowing cessation of immunosuppressive drug therapy in 80% of study participants, with the safety profile of conventional transplantation. In HLA-mismatched transplantation, multi-lineage macrochimerism of over a year's duration can now be consistently achieved with the Stanford protocol, with complete withdrawal of immunosuppressive drug therapy during the second post-transplant year as the next experimental step and test of tolerance.

    View details for PubMedID 29330112

  • Validation of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index in Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Veeraputhiran, M., Yang, L., Sundaram, V., Arai, S., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Meyer, E., Muffly, L., Negrin, R., Rezvani, A., Shizuru, J., Weng, W., Johnston, L. 2017; 23 (10): 1744–48

    Abstract

    The Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT)-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) has been extensively studied in myeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, with less data available regarding the validity of HCT-CI in nonmyeloablative (NMA) allogeneic transplantation. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the association between HCT-CI and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in patients receiving the total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin (TLI/ATG) NMA transplantation preparative regimen. We abstracted demographic and clinical data from consecutive patients, who received allogeneic HCT with the TLI/ATG regimen between January 2008 and September 2014, from the Stanford blood and marrow transplantation database. We conducted univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate the association between HCT-CI and NRM and ACM. In all, 287 patients were included for analysis. The median age of the patients was 61 (range, 22 to 77) years. The median overall survival was 844 (range, 374 to 1484) days. Most patients had Karnofsky performance score of 90 or above (85%). Fifty-two (18%) patients relapsed within 3 months and 108 (38%) patients relapsed within 1 year, with a median time to relapse of 163 (range, 83 to 366) days. Among the comorbidities in the HCT-CI identified at the time of HCT, reduced pulmonary function was the most common (n = 89), followed by prior history of malignancy (n = 39), psychiatric condition (n = 38), and diabetes (n = 31). Patients with higher HCT-CI scores had higher mortality risks for ACM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 3.14 for HCT-CI score 1 or 2 and HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.08 for HCT-CI score ≥ 3, compared with 0, respectively). Among individual HCT-CI variables, diabetes (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.79 to 2.89; P = .003) and prior solid tumors (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.02 to 3.00; P = .043) were associated with a higher risk of ACM. Higher HCT-CI scores were significantly associated with higher risk of death. HCT-CI is a valid tool for predicting ACM in NMA TLI/ATG allogeneic HCT.

    View details for PubMedID 28668491

  • Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells maintain the bone marrow microenvironment for B cell lymphopoiesis NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Pierini, A., Nishikii, H., Baker, J., Kimura, T., Kwon, H., Pan, Y., Chen, Y., Alvarez, M., Strober, W., Velardi, A., Shizuru, J. A., Wu, J. Y., Chiba, S., Negrin, R. S. 2017; 8

    Abstract

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) modulate the immune system and maintain self-tolerance, but whether they affect haematopoiesis or haematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-mediated reconstitution after transplantation is unclear. Here we show that B-cell lymphopoiesis is impaired in Treg-depleted mice, yet this reduced B-cell lymphopoiesis is rescued by adoptive transfer of affected HSCs or bone marrow cells into Treg-competent recipients. B-cell reconstitution is abrogated in both syngeneic and allogeneic transplantation using Treg-depleted mice as recipients. Treg cells can control physiological IL-7 production that is indispensable for normal B-cell lymphopoiesis and is mainly sustained by a subpopulation of ICAM1(+) perivascular stromal cells. Our study demonstrates that Treg cells are important for B-cell differentiation from HSCs by maintaining immunological homoeostasis in the bone marrow microenvironment, both in physiological conditions and after bone marrow transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms15068

    View details for PubMedID 28485401

  • Decoupling the Functional Pleiotropy of Stem Cell Factor by Tuning c-Kit Signaling CELL Ho, C. C., Chhabra, A., Starkl, P., Schnorr, P., Wilmes, S., Moraga, I., Kwon, H., Gaudenzio, N., Sibilano, R., Wehrman, T. S., Gakovic, M., Sockolosky, J. T., Tiffany, M. R., Ring, A. M., Piehler, J., Weissman, I. L., Galli, S. J., Shizuru, J. A., Garcia, K. C. 2017; 168 (6): 1041-?

    Abstract

    Most secreted growth factors and cytokines are functionally pleiotropic because their receptors are expressed on diverse cell types. While important for normal mammalian physiology, pleiotropy limits the efficacy of cytokines and growth factors as therapeutics. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor that acts through the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase to elicit hematopoietic progenitor expansion but can be toxic when administered in vivo because it concurrently activates mast cells. We engineered a mechanism-based SCF partial agonist that impaired c-Kit dimerization, truncating downstream signaling amplitude. This SCF variant elicited biased activation of hematopoietic progenitors over mast cells in vitro and in vivo. Mouse models of SCF-mediated anaphylaxis, radioprotection, and hematopoietic expansion revealed that this SCF partial agonist retained therapeutic efficacy while exhibiting virtually no anaphylactic off-target effects. The approach of biasing cell activation by tuning signaling thresholds and outputs has applications to many dimeric receptor-ligand systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2017.02.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396287900012

    View details for PubMedID 28283060

  • HLA-mismatched unrelated donor transplantation using TLI-ATG conditioning has a low risk of GVHD and potent antitumor activity. Blood advances Spinner, M. A., Fernández-Viña, M. n., Creary, L. E., Quinn, O. n., Elder, L. n., Arai, S. n., Johnston, L. J., Meyer, E. H., Miklos, D. B., Muffly, L. S., Negrin, R. S., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W. K., Laport, G. G., Strober, S. n., Lowsky, R. n., Rezvani, A. R. 2017; 1 (17): 1347–57

    Abstract

    Many patients lack a fully HLA-matched donor for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and HLA mismatch is typically associated with inferior outcomes. Total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin (TLI-ATG) is a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen that is protective against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and we hypothesized that the protective effect would extend beyond HLA-matched donors. We report outcomes for all consecutively transplanted patients at Stanford University from December 2001 through May 2015 who received TLI-ATG conditioning and HCTs from 8 to 9 out of 10 HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMUDs, N = 72) compared with 10 out of 10 HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUDs, N = 193). The median age of the patients was 60 years with a median follow-up of 2 years, and there was a similar distribution of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between MMUD and MUD cohorts in overall survival (46% vs 46% at 5 years, P = .86), disease-free survival (38% vs 28% at 5 years, P = .25), nonrelapse mortality (17% vs 12% at 2 years, P = .34), acute GVHD grades III-IV (6% vs 3% at day +100, P = .61), or chronic GVHD (39% vs 35% at 5 years, P = .49). There was a trend toward less relapse in the MMUD cohort (45% vs 60% at 5 years, hazard ratio: 0.71, P = .094), which was significant for patients with lymphoid malignancies (29% vs 57% at 5 years, hazard ratio: 0.55, P = .044). Achieving full donor chimerism was strongly associated with lower relapse rates. TLI-ATG conditioning may overcome the traditionally poorer outcome associated with HLA-mismatched donors and may be particularly well suited for patients with lymphoid malignancies who lack HLA-matched donors.

    View details for PubMedID 29296777

  • An innovative biologic system for photon-powered myocardium in the ischemic heart. Science advances Cohen, J. E., Goldstone, A. B., Paulsen, M. J., Shudo, Y. n., Steele, A. N., Edwards, B. B., Patel, J. B., MacArthur, J. W., Hopkins, M. S., Burnett, C. E., Jaatinen, K. J., Thakore, A. D., Farry, J. M., Truong, V. N., Bourdillon, A. T., Stapleton, L. M., Eskandari, A. n., Fairman, A. S., Hiesinger, W. n., Esipova, T. V., Patrick, W. L., Ji, K. n., Shizuru, J. A., Woo, Y. J. 2017; 3 (6): e1603078

    Abstract

    Coronary artery disease is one of the most common causes of death and disability, afflicting more than 15 million Americans. Although pharmacological advances and revascularization techniques have decreased mortality, many survivors will eventually succumb to heart failure secondary to the residual microvascular perfusion deficit that remains after revascularization. We present a novel system that rescues the myocardium from acute ischemia, using photosynthesis through intramyocardial delivery of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. By using light rather than blood flow as a source of energy, photosynthetic therapy increases tissue oxygenation, maintains myocardial metabolism, and yields durable improvements in cardiac function during and after induction of ischemia. By circumventing blood flow entirely to provide tissue with oxygen and nutrients, this system has the potential to create a paradigm shift in the way ischemic heart disease is treated.

    View details for PubMedID 28630913

  • Blood Stem Cell Activity Is Arrested by Th1-Mediated Injury Preventing Engraftment following Nonmyeloablative Conditioning. Journal of immunology Müller, A. M., Florek, M., Kohrt, H. E., Küpper, N. J., Filatenkov, A., Linderman, J. A., Hadeiba, H., Negrin, R. S., Shizuru, J. A. 2016; 197 (10): 4151-4162

    Abstract

    T cells are widely used to promote engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Their role in overcoming barriers to HSC engraftment is thought to be particularly critical when patients receive reduced doses of preparative chemotherapy and/or radiation compared with standard transplantations. In this study, we sought to delineate the effects CD4(+) cells on engraftment and blood formation in a model that simulates clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation by transplanting MHC-matched, minor histocompatibility-mismatched grafts composed of purified HSCs, HSCs plus bulk T cells, or HSCs plus T cell subsets into mice conditioned with low-dose irradiation. Grafts containing conventional CD4(+) T cells caused marrow inflammation and inhibited HSC engraftment and blood formation. Posttransplantation, the marrows of HSCs plus CD4(+) cell recipients contained IL-12-secreting CD11c(+) cells and IFN-γ-expressing donor Th1 cells. In this setting, host HSCs arrested at the short-term stem cell stage and remained in the marrow in a quiescent cell cycling state (G0). As a consequence, donor HSCs failed to engraft and hematopoiesis was suppressed. Our data show that Th1 cells included in a hematopoietic allograft can negatively impact HSC activity, blood reconstitution, and engraftment of donor HSCs. This potential negative effect of donor T cells is not considered in clinical transplantation in which bulk T cells are transplanted. Our findings shed new light on the effects of CD4(+) T cells on HSC biology and are applicable to other pathogenic states in which immune activation in the bone marrow occurs such as aplastic anemia and certain infectious conditions.

    View details for PubMedID 27815446

  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in immunocompetent hosts without radiation or chemotherapy. Science translational medicine Chhabra, A., Ring, A. M., Weiskopf, K., Schnorr, P. J., Gordon, S., Le, A. C., Kwon, H., Ring, N. G., Volkmer, J., Ho, P. Y., Tseng, S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2016; 8 (351): 351ra105-?

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation can cure diverse diseases of the blood system, including hematologic malignancies, anemias, and autoimmune disorders. However, patients must undergo toxic conditioning regimens that use chemotherapy and/or radiation to eliminate host HSCs and enable donor HSC engraftment. Previous studies have shown that anti-c-Kit monoclonal antibodies deplete HSCs from bone marrow niches, allowing donor HSC engraftment in immunodeficient mice. We show that host HSC clearance is dependent on Fc-mediated antibody effector functions, and enhancing effector activity through blockade of CD47, a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint, extends anti-c-Kit conditioning to fully immunocompetent mice. The combined treatment leads to elimination of >99% of host HSCs and robust multilineage blood reconstitution after HSC transplantation. This targeted conditioning regimen that uses only biologic agents has the potential to transform the practice of HSC transplantation and enable its use in a wider spectrum of patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aae0501

    View details for PubMedID 27510901

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after failed autologous transplant for lymphoma using TLI and anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Rezvani, A. R., Kanate, A. S., Efron, B., Chhabra, S., Kohrt, H. E., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Benjamin, J. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Arai, S., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2015; 50 (10): 1286-1292

    Abstract

    We describe 47 patients with lymphoma and failed prior autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who received TLI-ATG (anti-thymocyte globulin) conditioning followed by allogeneic HCT. Thirty-two patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=19), T-cell NHL (n=6), mantle cell lymphoma (n=4) or other B-cell subtypes (n=3)), and 15 had Hodgkin lymphoma. The median follow-up was 4.9 (range, 2.1-11.9) years. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GvHD at day +100 was 12%, and the cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GvHD at 1 year was 36%. The 3-year cumulative incidences of overall survival (OS), PFS and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 81%, 44% and 7%, respectively. Fifteen patients died (relapse, n=10; NRM, n=5). Among the 25 patients with relapse after allogeneic HCT, 11 (44%) achieved durable (>1 year) CRs following donor lymphocyte infusion or chemoradiotherapy. The majority of surviving patients (75%; n=24) were able to discontinue all immunosuppression. For patients with relapsed lymphoma after autologous HCT, allogeneic HCT using TLI-ATG conditioning is a well-tolerated, predominantly outpatient therapy with low NRM (7% at 3 years), a low incidence of GvHD, durable disease control and excellent OS (81% at 3 years).

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2015.149

    View details for PubMedID 26146806

  • Ablative Tumor Radiation Can Change the Tumor Immune Cell Microenvironment to Induce Durable Complete Remissions. Clinical cancer research Filatenkov, A., Baker, J., Mueller, A. M., Kenkel, J., Ahn, G., Dutt, S., Zhang, N., Kohrt, H., Jensen, K., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. N., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2015; 21 (16): 3727-3739

    Abstract

    The goals of the study were to elucidate the immune mechanisms that contribute to desirable complete remissions of murine colon tumors treated with single radiation dose of 30 Gy. This dose is at the upper end of the ablative range used clinically to treat advanced or metastatic colorectal, liver, and non-small cell lung tumors.Changes in the tumor immune microenvironment of single tumor nodules exposed to radiation were studied using 21-day (>1 cm in diameter) CT26 and MC38 colon tumors. These are well-characterized weakly immunogenic tumors.We found that the high-dose radiation transformed the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment resulting in an intense CD8(+) T-cell tumor infiltrate, and a loss of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). The change was dependent on antigen cross-presenting CD8(+) dendritic cells, secretion of IFNγ, and CD4(+)T cells expressing CD40L. Antitumor CD8(+) T cells entered tumors shortly after radiotherapy, reversed MDSC infiltration, and mediated durable remissions in an IFNγ-dependent manner. Interestingly, extended fractionated radiation regimen did not result in robust CD8(+) T-cell infiltration.For immunologically sensitive tumors, these results indicate that remissions induced by a short course of high-dose radiotherapy depend on the development of antitumor immunity that is reflected by the nature and kinetics of changes induced in the tumor cell microenvironment. These results suggest that systematic examination of the tumor immune microenvironment may help in optimizing the radiation regimen used to treat tumors by adding a robust immune response. Clin Cancer Res; 21(16); 3727-39. ©2015 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2824

    View details for PubMedID 25869387

  • Chimerism, Graft Survival, and Withdrawal of Immunosuppressive Drugs in HLA Matched and Mismatched Patients After Living Donor Kidney and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. American journal of transplantation Scandling, J. D., Busque, S., Shizuru, J. A., Lowsky, R., Hoppe, R., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Jensen, K., Shori, A., Strober, J. A., Lavori, P., Turnbull, B. B., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2015; 15 (3): 695-704

    Abstract

    Thirty-eight HLA matched and mismatched patients given combined living donor kidney and enriched CD34(+) hematopoietic cell transplants were enrolled in tolerance protocols using posttransplant conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and anti-thymocyte globulin. Persistent chimerism for at least 6 months was associated with successful complete withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs in 16 of 22 matched patients without rejection episodes or kidney disease recurrence with up to 5 years follow up thereafter. One patient is in the midst of withdrawal and five are on maintenance drugs. Persistent mixed chimerism was achieved in some haplotype matched patients for at least 12 months by increasing the dose of T cells and CD34(+) cells infused as compared to matched recipients in a dose escalation study. Success of drug withdrawal in chimeric mismatched patients remains to be determined. None of the 38 patients had kidney graft loss or graft versus host disease with up to 14 years of observation. In conclusion, complete immunosuppressive drug withdrawal could be achieved thus far with the tolerance induction regimen in HLA matched patients with uniform long-term graft survival in all patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.13091

    View details for PubMedID 25693475

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for normal karyotype AML: indirect evidence of selection for adverse molecular profile. Bone marrow transplantation Percival, M. M., Medeiros, B. C., Tian, L. n., Robeson, S. n., Laport, G. G., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D. B., Arai, S. n., Weng, W. K., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. n. 2015

    View details for PubMedID 25893457

  • A trial of plerixafor adjunctive therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with minimal conditioning for severe combined immunodeficiency PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Dvorak, C. C., Horn, B. N., Puck, J. M., Czechowicz, A., Shizuru, J. A., Ko, R. M., Cowan, M. J. 2014; 18 (6): 602-608

    Abstract

    For infants with SCID, the ideal conditioning regimen before allogeneic HCT would omit cytotoxic chemotherapy to minimize short- and long-term complications. We performed a prospective pilot trial with G-CSF plus plerixafor given to the host to mobilize HSC from their niches. We enrolled six patients who received CD34-selected haploidentical cells and one who received T-replete matched unrelated BM. All patients receiving G-CSF and plerixafor had generally poor CD34(+) cell and Lin(-) CD34(+) CD38(-) CD90(+) CD45RA(-) HSC mobilization, and developed donor T cells, but no donor myeloid or B-cell engraftment. Although well tolerated, G-CSF plus plerixafor alone failed to overcome physical barriers to donor engraftment.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12309

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340530800017

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5413354

  • Treatment of 4T1 Metastatic Breast Cancer with Combined Hypofractionated Irradiation and Autologous T-Cell Infusion. Radiation research Filatenkov, A., Baker, J., Müller, A. M., Ahn, G., Kohrt, H., Dutt, S., Jensen, K., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Negrin, R. S., Shizuru, J. A., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2014; 182 (2): 163-169

    Abstract

    The goal of this study was to determine whether a combination of local tumor irradiation and autologous T-cell transplantation can effectively treat metastatic 4T1 breast cancer in mice. BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with luciferase-labeled 4T1 breast tumor cells and allowed to grow for 21 days, at which time metastases appeared in the lungs. Primary tumors were treated at that time with 3 daily fractions of 20 Gy of radiation each. Although this approach could eradicate primary tumors, tumors in the lungs grew progressively. We attempted to improve efficacy of the radiation by adding autologous T-cell infusions. Accordingly, T cells were purified from the spleens of tumor-bearing mice after completion of irradiation and cryopreserved. Cyclophosphamide was administered thereafter to induce lymphodepletion, followed by T-cell infusion. Although the addition of cyclophosphamide to irradiation did not improve survival or reduce tumor progression, the combination of radiation, cyclophosphamide and autologous T-cell infusion induced durable remissions and markedly improved survival. We conclude that the combination of radiation and autologous T-cell infusion is an effective treatment for metastatic 4T1 breast cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1667/RR13471.1

    View details for PubMedID 24992165

  • Total lymphoid irradiation-antithymocyte globulin conditioning and allogeneic transplantation for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation Benjamin, J., Chhabra, S., Kohrt, H. E., Lavori, P., Laport, G. G., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2014; 20 (6): 837-843

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) is the only curative therapy for the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), but treatment toxicity has been a barrier to its more widespread use. The nonmyeloablative regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) permits the establishment of donor hematopoiesis necessary for the graft-versus-malignancy effect and is protective against acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), but it has minimal direct cytotoxicity against myeloid diseases. We explored the use of TLI-ATG conditioning to treat 61 patients with allo HCT for MDS (n = 32), therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (n = 15), MPN (n = 9), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 5). The median age of all patients was 63 years (range, 50 to 73). The cumulative incidence of aGVHD grades II to IV was 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4% to 23%) and for grades III to IV, 4% (95% CI, 0 to 9%), and it did not differ between patients who received allografts from related or unrelated donors. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days, 12 months, and 36 months was 0%, 7%, and 11%. Overall survival and progression-free survival were 41% (95% CI, 29% to 53%) and 35% (95% CI, 23% to 48%), respectively. The safety and tolerability of TLI-ATG, as exemplified by its low NRM, provides a foundation for further risk-adapted or prophylactic interventions to prevent disease progression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.02.023

    View details for PubMedID 24607552

  • Donor hematopoiesis in mice following total lymphoid irradiation requires host T-regulatory cells for durable engraftment. Blood Müller, A. M., Poyser, J., Küpper, N. J., Burnett, C., Ko, R. M., Kohrt, H. E., Florek, M., Zhang, P., Negrin, R. S., Shizuru, J. A. 2014; 123 (18): 2882-2892

    Abstract

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is a unique regimen that prepares recipients for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation by targeting lymph nodes, while sparing large areas of the bone marrow. TLI is reported to increase the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T-regulatory cells (Treg) relative to conventional T cells. In this study, barriers to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment following this nonmyeloablative conditioning were evaluated. TLI/ATG resulted in profound lymphoablation but endogenous host HSC remained. Initial donor HSC engraftment occurred only in radiation exposed marrow sites, but gradually distributed to bone marrow outside the radiation field. Sustained donor engraftment required host lymphoid cells insofar as lymphocyte deficient Rag2γc(-/-) recipients had unstable engraftment compared with wild-type. TLI/ATG treated wild-type recipients had increased proportions of Treg that were associated with increased HSC frequency and proliferation. In contrast, Rag2γc(-/-) recipients who lacked Treg did not. Adoptive transfer of Treg into Rag2γc(-/-) recipients resulted in increased cell cycling of endogenous HSC. Thus, we hypothesize that Treg influence donor engraftment post-TLI/ATG by increasing HSC cell cycling, thereby promoting the exit of host HSC from the marrow niche. Our study highlights the unique dynamics of donor hematopoiesis following TLI/ATG, and the effect of Treg on HSC activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-10-530212

    View details for PubMedID 24591203

  • Donor hematopoiesis in mice following total lymphoid irradiation requires host T-regulatory cells for durable engraftment. Blood Müller, A. M., Poyser, J., Küpper, N. J., Burnett, C., Ko, R. M., Kohrt, H. E., Florek, M., Zhang, P., Negrin, R. S., Shizuru, J. A. 2014; 123 (18): 2882-2892

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-10-530212

    View details for PubMedID 24591203

  • European LeukemiaNet classification intermediate risk-1 cohort is associated with poor outcomes in adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation BLOOD CANCER JOURNAL Medeiros, B. C., Tian, L., Robenson, S., Laport, G. G., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D. B., Arai, S., Benjamin, J. E., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2014; 4

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bcj.2014.35

    View details for PubMedID 24879117

  • B6.g7 mice reconstituted with BDC2·5 non-obese diabetic (BDC2·5NOD) stem cells do not develop autoimmune diabetes. Clinical and experimental immunology Rajasekaran, N., Wang, N., Hang, Y., Macaubas, C., Rinderknecht, C., Beilhack, G. F., Shizuru, J. A., Mellins, E. D. 2013; 174 (1): 27-37

    Abstract

    In BDC2.5NOD mice, a spontaneous model of Type 1 diabetes, CD4(+) T cells express a transgene-encoded T-cell receptor (TCR) with reactivity against a pancreatic antigen, chromogranin. This leads to massive infiltration and destruction of the pancreatic islets and subsequent diabetes. When we reconstituted lethally irradiated, lymphocyte-deficient B6.g7 (I-A(g7+) ) Rag(-/-) mice with BDC2.5NOD (ckit(+) Lin(-) Sca-1(hi) ) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), the recipients exhibited hyperglycemia and succumbed to diabetes. Surprisingly, lymphocyte-sufficient B6.g7 mice reconstituted with BDC2.5NOD HSPCs were protected from diabetes. In this study, we investigated the factors responsible for attenuation of diabetes in the B6.g7 recipients. Analysis of chimerism in the B6.g7 recipients showed that, although B cells and myeloid cells were 98% donor-derived, the CD4(+) T cell compartment contained ∼50% host-derived cells. These host-derived CD4(+) T cells were enriched for conventional Tregs (CD25(+) Foxp3(+) ) and also for host-derived CD25(-) Foxp3(-) CD4(+) T cells that express markers of suppressive function, CD73, FR4 and CD39. Though negative selection did not eliminate donor-derived CD4(+) T cells in the B6.g7 recipients, these cells were functionally suppressed. Thus, host-derived CD4(+) T cells that emerge in mice following myeloablation exhibit a regulatory phenoytpe and likely attenuate autoimmune diabetes. These cells may provide new therapeutic strategies to suppress autoimmunity.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cei.12163

    View details for PubMedID 23795893

  • B6.g7 mice reconstituted with BDC2 center dot 5 non-obese diabetic (BDC2 center dot 5NOD) stem cells do not develop autoimmune diabetes CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY Rajasekaran, N., Wang, N., Hang, Y., Macaubas, C., Rinderknecht, C., Beilhack, G. F., Shizuru, J. A., Mellins, E. D. 2013; 174 (1): 27-37

    Abstract

    In BDC2.5NOD mice, a spontaneous model of Type 1 diabetes, CD4(+) T cells express a transgene-encoded T-cell receptor (TCR) with reactivity against a pancreatic antigen, chromogranin. This leads to massive infiltration and destruction of the pancreatic islets and subsequent diabetes. When we reconstituted lethally irradiated, lymphocyte-deficient B6.g7 (I-A(g7+) ) Rag(-/-) mice with BDC2.5NOD (ckit(+) Lin(-) Sca-1(hi) ) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), the recipients exhibited hyperglycemia and succumbed to diabetes. Surprisingly, lymphocyte-sufficient B6.g7 mice reconstituted with BDC2.5NOD HSPCs were protected from diabetes. In this study, we investigated the factors responsible for attenuation of diabetes in the B6.g7 recipients. Analysis of chimerism in the B6.g7 recipients showed that, although B cells and myeloid cells were 98% donor-derived, the CD4(+) T cell compartment contained ∼50% host-derived cells. These host-derived CD4(+) T cells were enriched for conventional Tregs (CD25(+) Foxp3(+) ) and also for host-derived CD25(-) Foxp3(-) CD4(+) T cells that express markers of suppressive function, CD73, FR4 and CD39. Though negative selection did not eliminate donor-derived CD4(+) T cells in the B6.g7 recipients, these cells were functionally suppressed. Thus, host-derived CD4(+) T cells that emerge in mice following myeloablation exhibit a regulatory phenoytpe and likely attenuate autoimmune diabetes. These cells may provide new therapeutic strategies to suppress autoimmunity.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cei.12163

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324045900004

  • Fine mapping of the Bmgr5 quantitative trait locus for allogeneic bone marrow engraftment in mice IMMUNOGENETICS Wang, Y., Chen, X., Tsai, S., Thomas, A., Shizuru, J. A., Cao, T. M. 2013; 65 (8): 585-596

    Abstract

    To identify novel mechanisms regulating allogeneic hematopoietic cell engraftment, we used forward genetics and previously described identification, in mice, of a bone marrow (BM) engraftment quantitative trait locus (QTL), termed Bmgr5. This QTL confers dominant and large allele effects for engraftment susceptibility. It was localized to chromosome 16 by quantitative genetic techniques in a segregating backcross bred from susceptible BALB.K and resistant B10.BR mice. We now report verification of the Bmgr5 QTL using reciprocal chromosome 16 consomic strains. The BM engraftment phenotype in these consomic mice shows that Bmgr5 susceptibility alleles are not only sufficient but also indispensable for conferring permissiveness for allogeneic BM engraftment. Using panels of congenic mice, we resolved the Bmgr5 QTL into two separate subloci, termed Bmgr5a (Chr16:14.6-15.8 Mb) and Bmgr5b (Chr16:15.8-17.6 Mb), each conferring permissiveness for the engraftment phenotype and both fine mapped to an interval amenable to positional cloning. Candidate Bmgr5 genes were then prioritized using whole exome DNA sequencing and microarray gene expression data. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the genetic interaction between the Bmgr5a and Bmgr5b QTL and identify causative genes and underlying gene variants. This may lead to new approaches for overcoming the problem of graft rejection in clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00251-013-0709-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321779300003

    View details for PubMedID 23666360

  • Pathways analysis of differential gene expression induced by engrafting doses of total body irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice IMMUNOGENETICS Chen, X., Wang, Y., Li, Q., Tsai, S., Thomas, A., Shizuru, J. A., Cao, T. M. 2013; 65 (8): 597-607

    Abstract

    A major challenge in allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation is overcoming engraftment resistance to avoid the clinical problem of graft rejection. Identifying gene pathways that regulate BM engraftment may reveal molecular targets for overcoming engraftment barriers. Previously, we developed a mouse model of BM transplantation that utilizes recipient conditioning with non-myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI). We defined TBI doses that lead to graft rejection, that conversely are permissive for engraftment, and mouse strain variation with regards to the permissive TBI dose. We now report gene expression analysis, using Agilent Mouse 8x60K microarrays, in spleens of mice conditioned with varied TBI doses for correlation to the expected engraftment phenotype. The spleens of mice given engrafting doses of TBI, compared with non-engrafting TBI doses, demonstrated substantially broader gene expression changes, significant at the multiple testing-corrected P <0.05 level and with fold change ≥2. Functional analysis revealed significant enrichment for a down-regulated canonical pathway involving B-cell development. Genes enriched in this pathway suggest that suppressing donor antigen processing and presentation may be pivotal effects conferred by TBI to enable engraftment. Regardless of TBI dose and recipient mouse strain, pervasive genomic changes related to inflammation was observed and reflected by significant enrichment for canonical pathways and association with upstream regulators. These gene expression changes suggest that macrophage and complement pathways may be targeted to overcome engraftment barriers. These exploratory results highlight gene pathways that may be important in mediating BM engraftment resistance.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00251-013-0710-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321779300004

    View details for PubMedID 23703256

  • Host-derived CD4+T cells attenuate stem cellmediated transfer of autoimmune arthritis in lethally irradiated C57BL/6.g7 mice ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Rajasekaran, N., Wang, N., Phi Truong, P., Rinderknecht, C., Macaubas, C., Beilhack, G. F., Shizuru, J. A., Mellins, E. D. 2013; 65 (3): 681-692

    Abstract

    In the K/BxN mouse model of inflammatory arthritis, T cells carrying a transgenic T cell receptor initiate disease by helping B cells to produce arthritogenic anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (anti-GPI) autoantibodies. We found that lethally- irradiated lymphocyte-deficient C57BL/6 (B6).g7 (I-A(g7) +) recombinase-activating gene-deficient (Rag(-/-)) mice reconstituted with K/BxN hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells exhibit arthritis by week 4. In contrast, healthy B6.g7 recipients of K/BxN hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells show only mild arthritis, with limited extent and duration. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors responsible for the attenuation of arthritis in B6.g7 recipients.Antibody responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses were performed for testing chimerism, expression of markers of activation and suppression, tetramer binding, and intracellular cytokines in CD4+ T cells. Suppressive activity of CD4+ T cells was studied by adoptive transfer.Titers of anti-GPI antibodies in reconstituted B6.g7 mice were ∼60-fold lower than in reconstituted B6.g7 Rag(-/-) mice. Examination of chimerism in the reconstituted B6.g7 mice showed that B cells and myeloid cells in these mice were donor derived, but CD4+ T cells were primarily host derived and enriched for cells expressing the conventional regulatory markers CD25 and FoxP3. Notably, CD4+CD25-FoxP3- T cells expressed markers of suppressive function (CD73 and folate receptor 4), and delayed disease after adoptive transfer. Activation of donor-derived CD4+ T cells was reduced, and thymic deletion of these cells appeared increased.Despite myeloablation, host CD4+ T cells having a regulatory phenotype emerge in these mice and attenuate autoimmunity.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/art.37800

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315452400017

    View details for PubMedID 23233229

  • The road to purified hematopoietic stem cell transplants is paved with antibodies. Current opinion in immunology Logan, A. C., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 24 (5): 640-648

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic progenitor cell replacement therapy remains a surprisingly unrefined process. In general, unmanipulated bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) grafts which carry potentially harmful passenger cells are administered after treating recipients with high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to eradicate malignant disease, eliminate immunologic barriers to allogeneic cell engraftment, and to 'make space' for rare donor stem cells within the stem cell niche. The sequalae of such treatments are substantial, including direct organ toxicity and nonspecific inflammation that contribute to the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and poor immune reconstitution. Passenger tumor cells that contaminate autologous hematopoietic grafts may contribute to relapse post-transplant. Use of antibodies to rid grafts of unwanted cell populations, and to eliminate or minimize the need for nonspecifically cytotoxic therapies used to condition transplant recipients, will dramatically improve the safety profile of allogeneic and gene-modified autologous hematopoietic stem cell therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coi.2012.08.002

    View details for PubMedID 22939368

  • Prophylactic rituximab after allogeneic transplantation decreases B-cell alloimmunity with low chronic GVHD incidence BLOOD Arai, S., Sahaf, B., Narasimhan, B., Chen, G. L., Jones, C. D., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Weng, W., Benjamin, J. E., Schaenman, J., Brown, J., Ramirez, J., Zehnder, J. L., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B. 2012; 119 (25): 6145-6154

    Abstract

    B cells are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD (cGVHD). We hypothesized that prophylactic anti-B-cell therapy delivered 2 months after transplantation would decrease allogeneic donor B-cell immunity and possibly the incidence of cGVHD. Therefore, in the present study, patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 22) and mantle-cell lymphoma (n = 13) received a total lymphoid irradiation of 80 cGy for 10 days and antithymocyte globulin 1.5 mg/kg/d for 5 days. Rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) was infused weekly on days 56, 63, 70, and 77 after transplantation. The incidence of acute GVHD was 6%. The cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality was 3%. Rituximab treatment after allogeneic transplantation significantly reduced B-cell allogeneic immunity, with complete prevention of alloreactive H-Y Ab development in male patients with female donors (P = .01). Overall survival and freedom from progression at 4 years for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were 73% and 47%, respectively; for mantle-cell lymphoma patients, they were 69% and 53%, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-12-395970

    View details for PubMedID 22563089

  • Tolerance and Withdrawal of Immunosuppressive Drugs in Patients Given Kidney and Hematopoietic Cell Transplants AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Scandling, J. D., Busque, S., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Benike, C., Sarwal, M., Millan, M. T., Shizuru, J. A., Lowsky, R., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2012; 12 (5): 1133-1145

    Abstract

    Sixteen patients conditioned with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) were given kidney transplants and an injection of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and T cells from HLA-matched donors in a tolerance induction protocol. Blood cell monitoring included changes in chimerism, balance of T-cell subsets and responses to donor alloantigens. Fifteen patients developed multilineage chimerism without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and eight with chimerism for at least 6 months were withdrawn from antirejection medications for 1-3 years (mean, 28 months) without subsequent rejection episodes. Four chimeric patients have just completed or are in the midst of drug withdrawal, and four patients were not withdrawn due to return of underlying disease or rejection episodes. Blood cells from all patients showed early high ratios of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and NKT cells versus conventional naive CD4+ T cells, and those off drugs showed specific unresponsiveness to donor alloantigens. In conclusion, TLI and ATG promoted the development of persistent chimerism and tolerance in a cohort of patients given kidney transplants and hematopoietic donor cell infusions. All 16 patients had excellent graft function at the last observation point with or without maintenance drugs.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.03992.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303235100012

    View details for PubMedID 22405058

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3338901

  • Co-transplantation of pure blood stem cells with antigen-specific but not bulk T cells augments functional immunity PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Mueller, A. M., Shashidhar, S., Kuepper, N. J., Kohrt, H. E., Florek, M., Negrin, R. S., Brown, J. M., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 109 (15): 5820-5825

    Abstract

    Impaired immunity is a fundamental obstacle to successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Mature graft T cells are thought to provide protection from infections early after transplantation, but can cause life-threatening graft-vs.-host disease. Human CMV is a major pathogen after transplantation. We studied reactivity against the mouse homologue, murine CMV (MCMV), in lethally irradiated mice given allogeneic purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or HSCs supplemented with T cells or T-cell subsets. Unexpectedly, recipients of purified HSCs mounted superior antiviral responses compared with recipients of HSC plus unselected bulk T cells. Furthermore, supplementation of purified HSC grafts with CD8(+) memory or MCMV-specific T cells resulted in enhanced antiviral reactivity. Posttransplantation lymphopenia promoted massive expansion of MCMV-specific T cells when no competing donor T cells were present. In recipients of pure HSCs, naive and memory T cells and innate lymphoid cell populations developed. In contrast, the lymphoid pool in recipients of bulk T cells was dominated by effector memory cells. These studies show that pure HSC transplantations allow superior protective immunity against a viral pathogen compared with unselected mature T cells. This reductionist transplant model reveals the impact of graft composition on regeneration of host, newly generated, and mature transferred T cells, and underscores the deleterious effects of bulk donor T cells. Our findings lead us to conclude that grafts composed of purified HSCs provide an optimal platform for in vivo expansion of selected antigen-specific cells while allowing the reconstitution of a naive T-cell pool.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1120237109

    View details for PubMedID 22440752

  • Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil as GVHD prophylaxis in myeloablative, matched-related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Johnston, L., Florek, M., Armstrong, R., McCune, J. S., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Sheehan, K., Lavori, P., Negrin, R. 2012; 47 (4): 581-588

    Abstract

    We investigated sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as GVHD prophylaxis in patients with advanced hematological malignancies receiving myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-identical sibling donors. On the basis of pre-study stopping rules, the trial was closed to accrual after enrollment of 11 adult patients. In all, 7 of the 11 patients received BU-containing preparative regimens. Sirolimus was discontinued in three patients because of the toxicity-related events of severe sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, portal vein thrombosis, altered mental status and in one patient because of the risk of poor wound healing. In all, 6 of the 11 patients developed grade II-IV acute GVHD (AGVHD) a median of 15.5 days post HCT. Two of three patients with grade IV AGVHD had sirolimus discontinued by 9 days post HCT. All patients responded to AGVHD therapy without GVHD-related deaths. There were two non-relapse- and two relapse-related deaths. At a median follow-up of 38 months (2-47 months), 7 of 11 patients were alive without disease. MMF and sirolimus GVHD prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of AGVHD, however, there were no GVHD-related deaths. The severe toxicities in the patients receiving the BU-containing preparative regimens limited the continued use of sirolimus and MMF for the prevention of AGVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302576700018

    View details for PubMedID 21552302

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3163055

  • Tandem chemo-mobilization followed by high-dose melphalan and carmustine with single autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Chen, A. I., Negrin, R. S., McMillan, A., Shizuru, J. A., JOHNSTON, L. J., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Arai, S., Weng, W., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. 2012; 47 (4): 516-521

    Abstract

    Single autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) with high-dose melphalan prolongs survival in patients with multiple myeloma but is not curative. We conducted a study of intensive single AHCT using tandem chemo-mobilization with CY and etoposide followed by high-dose conditioning with melphalan 200 mg/m(2) plus carmustine 15 mg/kg. One hundred and eighteen patients in first consolidation (CON1) and 58 patients in relapse (REL) were transplanted using this intensified approach. Disease response improved from 32% very good PR (VGPR)+CR pre-mobilization to 76% VGPR+CR post transplant in CON1. With a median follow-up of 4.7 years, the median EFS was 2.8 years, and the median OS was 5.1 years in CON1. OS from time of transplant was significantly shorter for REL (3.4 years) compared with CON1 (5.1 years; P=0.02). However, OS from time of diagnosis was similar in REL (6.1 years) and CON1 (6.0 years; P=0.80). The 100-day non-relapse mortality in the CON1 and REL groups was 0% and 7%, respectively. In summary, intensified single AHCT with tandem chemo-mobilization and augmented high-dose therapy is feasible in multiple myeloma and leads to high-quality response rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.106

    View details for PubMedID 21602899

  • Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer Treated with High-Dose Chemotherapy and Transplantation of Purified Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Mueller, A. M., Kohrt, H. E., Cha, S., Laport, G., Klein, J., Guardino, A. E., Johnston, L. J., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 18 (1): 125-133

    Abstract

    Metastatic breast cancer remains a major treatment challenge. The use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with rescue by autologous mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) is controversial, in part because of contamination of MPB by circulating tumor cells. CD34(+)Thy-1(+) selected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) represent a graft source with a greater than 250,000-fold reduction in cancer cells. Here, we present the long-term outcome of a pilot study to determine feasibility and engraftment using HDCT and purified HSC in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-two patients who had been treated with standard chemotherapy were enrolled into a phase I/II trial between December 1996 and February 1998, and underwent HDCT followed by rescue with CD34(+)Thy-1(+) HSC isolated from autologous MPB. More than 12 years after the end of the study, 23% (5 of 22) of HSC recipients are alive, and 18% (4 of 22) are free of recurrence with normal hematopoietic function. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16 months, and median overall survival (OS) was 60 months. Retrospective comparison with 74 patients transplanted between February 1995 and June 1999 with the identical HDCT regimen but rescue with unmanipulated MPB indicated that 9% of patients are alive, and 7% are without disease. Median PFS was 10 months, and median OS was 28 months. In conclusion, cancer-depleted HSC following HDCT resulted in better than expected 12- to 14-year PFS and OS in a cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients. These data prompt us to look once again at purified HSC transplantation in a protocol powered to test for efficacy in advanced-stage breast cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.07.009

    View details for PubMedID 21767515

  • Adoptive Immunotherapy with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for Patients with Relapsed Hematologic Malignancies after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G., Sheehan, K., Baker, J., Armstrong, R., Wong, R. M., Lowsky, R., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D., Arai, S., Benjamin, J. E., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S. 2011; 17 (11): 1679-1687

    Abstract

    Donor leukocyte infusions induce remissions in some patients with hematologic malignancies who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); however, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major complication of this strategy. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a unique population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express the CD3(+)CD56(+) phenotype and show marked up-regulation of the natural killer cell receptor NKG2D (CD314). CIK cells are non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted and NKG2D-dependent in target recognition and cytotoxicity. We explored the feasibility of ex vivo expansion of allogeneic CIK cells in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic HCT. Eighteen patients (median age, 53 years; range, 20-69 years) received CIK cell infusions at escalating doses of 1 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 4), 5 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 6), and 1 × 10(8) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 8). The median expansion of CD3(+) cells was 12-fold (range, 4- to 91-fold). CD3(+)CD56(+) cells represented a median of 11% (range, 4%-44%) of the harvested cells, with a median 31-fold (range, 7- to 515-fold) expansion. Median CD3(+)CD314(+) cell expression was 53% (range, 32%-78%) of harvested cells. Significant cytotoxicity was demonstrated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. Acute GVHD grade I-II was seen in 2 patients, and 1 patient had limited chronic GVHD. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 1-69 months) from CIK infusion, the median overall survival was 28 months, and the median event-free survival was 4 months. All deaths were due to relapsed disease; however, 5 patients had longer remissions after infusion of CIK cells than from allogeneic HCT to relapse. Our findings indicate that this form of adoptive immunotherapy is well tolerated and induces a low incidence of GVHD, supporting further investigation as an upfront modality to enhance graft-versus-tumor responses in high-risk patient populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.05.012

    View details for PubMedID 21664472

  • A phase 1 study of imatinib for corticosteroid-dependent/refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease: response does not correlate with anti-PDGFRA antibodies BLOOD Chen, G. L., Arai, S., Flowers, M. E., Otani, J. M., Qiu, J., Cheng, E. C., McMillan, A., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D. B. 2011; 118 (15): 4070-4078

    Abstract

    Stimulatory antiplatelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) antibodies have been associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed a phase 1 dose escalation trial of imatinib in corticosteroid-dependent/refractory cGVHD to assess the safety of imatinib and test the hypothesis that abrogation of PDGFRA signaling can ameliorate the manifestations of cGVHD. Fifteen patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 56.6 weeks (range, 18-82.4 weeks). Imatinib 400 mg daily was associated with more frequent moderate to life-threatening adverse events than 200 mg daily. The main adverse events were nausea, edema, confusion, diarrhea, liver function test elevation, fatigue, and myalgia. The overall response rate was 40% (6 of 15). The treatment failure rate was 40% (6 of 15). Twenty percent (3 of 15) of subjects had stable disease. Of 4 subjects with phospho-PDGFRA and phospho-PDGFRB immunohistochemistry studies before and after treatment, inhibition of phosphorylation was observed in 3 but correlated with response in one. Anti-PDGFRA antibodies were observed in 7 of 11 evaluable subjects but correlated with clinical activity in 4. We conclude that cGVHD responds to imatinib through multiple pathways that may include PDGFRA signal transduction. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00760981.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-03-341693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296282200013

    View details for PubMedID 21828142

  • Rapid Reconstitution of Antibody Responses Following Transplantation of Purified Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cells JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Linderman, J. A., Shizuru, J. A. 2011; 186 (7): 4191-4199

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has broad clinical applications extending from the treatment of malignancies to induction of immunologic tolerance. However, adaptive cellular and humoral immunity frequently remain impaired posttransplantation. Here, recovery of T-dependent and T-independent Ab responses was evaluated in mice transplanted with purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) devoid of the mature immune cells believed to hasten immune recovery. Mixed and full donor chimeras were created by conditioning recipients with sublethal or lethal irradiation, respectively, across different donor/host genetic disparities. By 6 wk posttransplantation, all animals demonstrated robust T-independent Ab responses, and all mixed chimeras and recipients of MHC-matched or haploidentical HSCs with a shared MHC haplotype had T-dependent Ab responses equivalent to those of untransplanted controls. Full chimeras that received fully MHC-disparate HSCs showed delayed T-dependent Ab responses that recovered by 12 wk. This delay occurred despite early reconstitution and proper migration to germinal centers of donor-derived T(follicular helper) (T(FH)) cells. Congenic transplants into T(FH)-deficient CD4(-/-) mice revealed restoration of T-dependent Ab responses by 6 wk, leading us to conclude that MHC disparity caused delay in humoral recovery. These findings, together with our previous studies, show that, contrary to the view that depletion of graft lymphocytes results in poor posttransplant immunity, elimination of immune-suppressing graft-versus-host reactions permits superior immune reconstitution. This study also provides insight into the regeneration of T(FH) cells and humoral immunity after allogeneic HSC transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1003674

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288751200044

    View details for PubMedID 21357265

  • Long-term outcomes in patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies following matched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning of BU, etoposide and CY BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Naik, S., Wong, R., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Blume, K., Negrin, R., Johnston, L. 2011; 46 (2): 192-199

    Abstract

    Patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies have limited effective treatment options. These include high-dose therapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report a single-institution, long-term follow-up of 96 patients, median age 50 (range, 20-60) years, who received HLA-matched related HCT between 1992 and 2007. All patients were treated with a uniform preparatory regimen intended to enhance the widely used regimen of BU and CY that included: BU 16.0 mg/kg (days -8 to -5), etoposide 60 mg/kg (day -4), CY 60 mg/kg (day -2) with GVHD prophylaxis of CsA or FK506 and prednisone. Disease status at transplantation was high-risk AML (n=41), CML in second chronic phase or blast crisis (n=8), myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative disorders (n=8), and myelodysplasia (n=39). Thirty-six percent (n=35) of patients received BM whereas 64% (n=61) received G-CSF-mobilized PBPC. With a median follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 1.6-14.6 years) actuarial 5-year OS was 32% (95% CI 22-42) and 5-year EFS was 31% (95% CI 21-41). Relapse rate was 24% (95% CI 15-33) at 2 and 5 years. Nonrelapse mortality was 29% (95% CI 20-38) at day 100 and 38% (95% CI 29-47) at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of acute (grade II-IV) and extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI 18-36) and 29% (95% CI 18-40), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (31 vs 32%, P=0.89) or relapse rates (17 vs 28%, P=0.22) for recipients of BM vs PBPC, respectively. These results confirm that patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies can achieve long-term survival following myeloablative allogeneic HCT with aggressive conditioning.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2010.114

    View details for PubMedID 20498648

  • Allogeneic T cells impair engraftment and hematopoiesis after stem cell transplantation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Müller, A. M., Linderman, J. A., Florek, M., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J. A. 2010; 107 (33): 14721-14726

    Abstract

    Because of the perception that depleting hematopoietic grafts of T cells will result in poorer immune recovery and in increased risk of graft rejection, pure hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which avoid the potentially lethal complication of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), have not been used for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in humans. Ideal grafts should contain HSC plus mature cells that confer only the benefits of protection from pathogens and suppression of malignancies. This goal requires better understanding of the effects of each blood cell type and its interactions during engraftment and immune regeneration. Here, we studied hematopoietic reconstitution post-HCT, comparing grafts of purified HSC with grafts supplemented with T cells in a minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA)-mismatched mouse model. Cell counts, composition, and chimerism of blood and lymphoid organs were evaluated and followed intensively through the first month, and then subsequently for up to 1 yr. Throughout this period, recipients of pure HSC demonstrated superior total cell recovery and lymphoid reconstitution compared with recipients of T cell-containing grafts. In the latter, rapid expansion of T cells occurred, and suppression of hematopoiesis derived from donor HSC was observed. Our findings demonstrate that even early post-HCT, T cells retard donor HSC engraftment and immune recovery. These observations contradict the postulation that mature donor T cells provide important transient immunity and facilitate HSC engraftment.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1009220107

    View details for PubMedID 20679222

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2930440

  • Allogeneic T cells impair engraftment and hematopoiesis after stem cell transplantation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Mueller, A. M., Linderman, J. A., Florek, M., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J. A. 2010; 107 (33): 14721-14726

    Abstract

    Because of the perception that depleting hematopoietic grafts of T cells will result in poorer immune recovery and in increased risk of graft rejection, pure hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which avoid the potentially lethal complication of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), have not been used for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in humans. Ideal grafts should contain HSC plus mature cells that confer only the benefits of protection from pathogens and suppression of malignancies. This goal requires better understanding of the effects of each blood cell type and its interactions during engraftment and immune regeneration. Here, we studied hematopoietic reconstitution post-HCT, comparing grafts of purified HSC with grafts supplemented with T cells in a minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA)-mismatched mouse model. Cell counts, composition, and chimerism of blood and lymphoid organs were evaluated and followed intensively through the first month, and then subsequently for up to 1 yr. Throughout this period, recipients of pure HSC demonstrated superior total cell recovery and lymphoid reconstitution compared with recipients of T cell-containing grafts. In the latter, rapid expansion of T cells occurred, and suppression of hematopoiesis derived from donor HSC was observed. Our findings demonstrate that even early post-HCT, T cells retard donor HSC engraftment and immune recovery. These observations contradict the postulation that mature donor T cells provide important transient immunity and facilitate HSC engraftment.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1009220107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281287600038

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2930440

  • Phase I/II Trial of GN-BVC, a Gemcitabine and Vinorelbine-Containing Conditioning Regimen for Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Recurrent and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Arai, S., Letsinger, R., Wong, R. M., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Horning, S. J. 2010; 16 (8): 1145-1154

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation with augmented BCNU regimens is effective treatment for recurrent or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL); however, BCNU-related toxicity and disease recurrence remain challenges. We designed a conditioning regimen with gemcitabine in combination with vinorelbine in an effort to reduce the BCNU dose and toxicity without compromising efficacy. In this phase I/II dose escalation study, the gemcitabine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined at 1250 mg/m(2), and a total of 92 patients were treated at this dose to establish safety and efficacy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of BCNU-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints included 2-year freedom from progression (FFP), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Sixty-eight patients (74%) had 1 or more previously defined adverse risk factors for transplant (stage IV at relapse, B symptoms at relapse, greater than minimal disease pretransplant). The incidence of BCNU-related toxicity was 15% (95% confidence interval, 9%-24%). Only 2% of patients had a documented reduction in diffusing capacity of 20% or greater. With a median follow-up of 29 months, the FFP at 2 years was 71% and the OS at 2 years was 83%. Two-year FFP was 96%, 72%, 67%, and 14% for patients with 0 (n = 24), 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 23), or 3 (n = 8) risk factors, respectively. Regression analysis identified PET status pretransplant and B symptoms at relapse as significant prognostic factors for FFP. This new transplant regimen for HL resulted in decreased BCNU toxicity with encouraging FFP and OS. A prospective, risk-modeled comparison of this new combination with other conditioning regimens is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.02.022

    View details for PubMedID 20197102

  • Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with T-cell and natural killer-cell lymphomas BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Shustov, A. R., Gooley, T. A., Sandmaier, B. M., Shizuru, J., Sorror, M. L., Sahebi, F., McSweeney, P., Niederwieser, D., Bruno, B., Storb, R., Maloney, D. G. 2010; 150 (2): 170-178

    Abstract

    Patients with T-cell and natural killer-cell lymphomas have poor outcomes. This study examined the role of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) after nonmyeloablative conditioning in this setting. Seventeen patients with T-cell lymphoma or NK-cell lymphoma, including three patients in first complete remission, received allo-HCT after 2 Gy total-body irradiation and fludarabine. The median age was 57 (range, 18-73) years. The median number of prior therapies was 3 (range, 1-7), six patients (35%) had failed prior autologous HCT, and five patients (29%) had refractory disease at the time of allograft. Postgrafting immunosuppression was provided with mycophenolate mofetil with ciclosporin or tacrolimus. After a median follow-up of 3.3 (range, 0.3-8.0) years among surviving patients, the estimated probabilities of 3-year overall and progression-free survival were 59% and 53%, respectively, while the estimated probabilities of non-relapse mortality and relapse at 3 years were 19% and 26%, respectively. Sixty-five percent of patients developed grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease and 53% of patients developed chronic graft-versus-host disease. Allo-HCT after nonmyeloablative conditioning is a promising salvage option for selected patients with T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas. These results suggest that graft-versus-T-cell lymphoma activity is responsible for long-term disease control.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08210.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279438600005

    View details for PubMedID 20507311

  • Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Gyurkocza, B., Storb, R., Storer, B. E., Chauncey, T. R., Lange, T., Shizuru, J. A., Langston, A. A., Pulsipher, M. A., Bredeson, C. N., Maziarz, R. T., Bruno, B., Petersen, F. B., Maris, M. B., Agura, E., Yeager, A., Bethge, W., Sahebi, F., Appelbaum, F. R., Maloney, D. G., Sandmaier, B. M. 2010; 28 (17): 2859-2867

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after high-dose conditioning regimens imposes prohibitively high risks of morbidity and mortality for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are older or have comorbid conditions. Here, we examined outcomes after nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT in such patients.Two hundred seventy-four patients (median age, 60 years) with de novo or secondary AML underwent allogeneic HCT from related (n = 118) or unrelated donors (n = 156) after conditioning with 2 Gy of total-body irradiation (TBI) with or without fludarabine. A calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil were used for postgrafting immunosuppression.With a median follow-up of 38 months in surviving patients, the estimated overall survival at 5 years was 33%. The estimated 5-year relapse/progression and nonrelapse mortality rates were 42% and 26%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grades 2, 3, and 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 38%, 9%, and 5%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 5 years was 44%. Patients in first and second complete remission had better survival rates than patients with more advanced disease (37% and 34% v 18%, respectively). Patients with HLA-matched related or unrelated donors had similar survivals. Unfavorable cytogenetic risk status was associated with increased relapse and subsequent mortality. Chronic GVHD was associated with lower relapse risk.Allogeneic HCT from related or unrelated donors after conditioning with low-dose TBI and fludarabine, relying almost exclusively on graft-versus-leukemia effects, can result in long-term remissions in older or medically infirm patients with AML.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.1460

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278548000009

    View details for PubMedID 20439626

  • Long-term follow-up of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving purged autografts after induction failure BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Benjamin, J. E., Chen, G. L., Cao, T. M., Cao, P. D., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Shizuru, J. A., JOHNSTON, L. J., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R., Laport, G. G. 2010; 45 (2): 303-309

    Abstract

    Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who do not achieve a complete response to front-line combination chemotherapy are often offered high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). However, the efficacy of this therapy in this patient population has been addressed in only a few published reports. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with a diagnosis of de novo DLBCL who underwent AHCT at our center between 1988 and 2002, and identified 43 consecutive patients who had not achieved a CR before AHCT, although most showed at least a partial response (PR) to either induction or subsequent salvage chemotherapy. A total of 15 patients received a conditioning regimen that included high-dose chemotherapy with fractionated TBI (FTBI), whereas 28 patients received high-dose chemotherapy only. All autografts were treated ex vivo with MoAbs and complement in an effort to remove any residual malignant B cells. A total of 33 (77%) patients achieved a CR after AHCT. With a median follow-up of 7.3 years, the 5-year OS was 69% and EFS was 59%. Four patients died from non-relapse mortality. By univariate analyses, the following characteristics did not significantly impact OS: disease stage at diagnosis, age-adjusted IPI (International Prognostic Index) score, age > or =40 years, earlier radiotherapy and the use of FTBI in the conditioning regimen. These results confirm the long-term efficacy of AHCT for patients with DLBCL after induction failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2009.152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274397400013

    View details for PubMedID 19597427

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2886804

  • The biology of allogeneic hematopoietic cell resistance. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation Shizuru, J. A., Bhattacharya, D., Cavazzana-Calvo, M. 2010; 16 (1): S2-7

    Abstract

    At the most basic level, success of an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) procedure relies upon the engraftment of recipients with donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that will generate blood formation for the life of that individual. The formula to achieve durable HSC engraftment involves multiple factors including the recipient conditioning regimen, the nature of the genetic disparity between donor and recipient, and the content of the hematopoietic graft. Animal and clinical studies have shown that the biology of host resistance is complex, involving both immune and nonimmune elements. In this article, we review the factors that contribute to host resistance, describe emerging concepts on the basic biology of resistance, and discuss hematopoietic resistance as it relates specifically to patients with severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID)- disorders that bring unique insights into the dynamics of cell replacement by allogeneic HSCs and progenitor cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.11.005

    View details for PubMedID 19913629

  • Ineffective Vaccination against Solid Tumors Can Be Enhanced by Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Filatenkov, A., Mueller, A. M., Tseng, W. W., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Winer, D., Luong, R., Shizuru, J. A., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2009; 183 (11): 7196-7203

    Abstract

    Vaccination with tumor Ags has not been an effective treatment for solid tumors. The goal of the current study was to determine whether a combination of vaccination and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can effectively treat primary, disseminated, or metastatic CT26 and MC38 murine colon tumors. Vaccination of tumor-bearing mice with irradiated tumor cells and CpG adjuvant failed to alter progressive tumor growth. However, mice bearing primary, disseminated lung, or metastatic liver tumors were uniformly cured after administration of total body irradiation, followed by the transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and T cells from syngeneic, but not allogeneic vaccinated donors. Requirements for effective treatment of tumors included irradiation of hosts, vaccination of donors with both tumor cells and CpG, transfer of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells along with progenitor cells, and ability of donor cells to produce IFN-gamma. Irradiation markedly increased the infiltration of donor T cells into the tumors, and the combined irradiation and HCT altered the balance of tumor-infiltrating cells to favor CD8(+) effector memory T cells as compared with CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. The combination of vaccination and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation was also effective in treating tumors. In conclusion, these findings show that otherwise ineffective vaccination to solid nonhematologic tumors can be dramatically enhanced by HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.0900159

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272478800039

    View details for PubMedID 19890041

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2783632

  • Salvage Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Fludarabine and Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation after Rejection of First Allografts 50th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology/ASH/ASCO Joint Symposium Gyurkocza, B., Cao, T. M., Storb, R. F., Lange, T., Leisenring, W., Franke, G. N., Sorror, M., Hoppe, R., Maloney, D. G., Negrin, R. S., Shizuru, J. A., Sandmaier, B. M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2009: 1314–22

    Abstract

    We summarized results in 38 consecutive patients (median age=56 years) with hematologic malignancies (n=35), aplastic anemia (n=2), or renal cell carcinoma (n=1), who underwent salvage hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for allograft rejection. In 14 patients, the original donors were used for salvage HCT, and, in 24 cases, different donors were used. Conditioning for salvage HCT consisted of fludarabine (Flu) and either 3 or 4 Gy total body irradiation (TBI). Sustained engraftment was achieved in 33 patients (87%). Grafts were rejected in 5 patients (13%), 4 of whom had myelofibrosis. With a median follow-up of 2 years (range: 0.3 to 7.8 years), the 2- and 4-year estimated survivals were 49% and 42%, respectively. The 2-year relapse rate and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 36% and 24%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of grades II-IV acute and moderate-severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) were 42% and 41%, respectively. In this cohort, TBI dose, grafts from original versus different donors, related versus unrelated donors, and HCT comorbidity scores did not have an impact on outcomes. We concluded that graft rejection after allogeneic HCT could be overcome by salvage transplantation using conditioning with Flu and low-dose TBI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.06.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270257200012

    View details for PubMedID 19747640

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2757150

  • TLI and ATG conditioning with low risk of graft-versus-host disease retains antitumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors BLOOD Kohrt, H. E., Turnbull, B. B., Heydari, K., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Johnston, L. J., Arai, S., Weng, W., Hoppe, R. T., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2009; 114 (5): 1099-1109

    Abstract

    A hematopoietic cell transplantation regimen was adapted from a preclinical model that used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and protected against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by skewing residual host T-cell subsets to favor regulatory natural killer T cells. One hundred eleven patients with lymphoid (64) and myeloid (47) malignancies received RIC using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by the infusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized grafts. Included were 34 patients at least 60 years of age, 32 patients at high risk of lymphoma relapse after disease recurrence following prior autologous transplantation, and 51 patients at high risk of developing GVHD due to lack of a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor. Durable chimerism was achieved in 97% of patients. Cumulative probabilities of acute GVHD (grades II-IV) were 2 and 10% of patients receiving related and unrelated donor grafts. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was less than 4%. Cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 27%. The 36-month probability of overall and event-free survival was 60% and 40%, respectively. Disease status at start of conditioning and the level of chimerism achieved after transplantation significantly impacted clinical outcome. The high incidence of sustained remission among patients with active disease at time of transplantation suggests retained graft-versus-tumor reactions. Active trial registration currently at clinicaltrials.gov under IDs of NCT00185640 and NCT00186615.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-03-211441

    View details for PubMedID 19423725

  • A chromosome 16 quantitative trait locus regulates allogeneic bone marrow engraftment in nonmyeloablated mice BLOOD Cao, T. M., Thomas, A., Wang, Y., Tsai, S., Logronio, K., Shizuru, J. A. 2009; 114 (1): 202-210

    Abstract

    Identifying genes that regulate bone marrow (BM) engraftment may reveal molecular targets for overcoming engraftment barriers. To achieve this aim, we applied a forward genetic approach in a mouse model of nonmyeloablative BM transplantation. We evaluated engraftment of allogeneic and syngeneic BM in BALB.K and B10.BR recipients. This allowed us to partition engraftment resistance into its intermediate phenotypes, which are firstly the immune-mediated resistance and secondly the nonimmune rejection of donor BM cells. We observed that BALB.K and B10.BR mice differed with regard to each of these resistance mechanisms, thereby providing evidence that both are under genetic control. We then generated a segregating backcross (n = 200) between the BALB.K and B10.BR strains to analyze for genetic linkage to the allogeneic BM engraftment phenotype using a 127-marker genome scan. This analysis identified a novel quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 16, termed Bmgr5 (logarithm of odds 6.4, at 11.1 cM). The QTL encodes susceptibility alleles, from the BALB.K strain, that are permissive for allogeneic BM engraftment. Further identification of Bmgr5 genes by positional cloning may reveal new and effective approaches for overcoming BM engraftment obstacles.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-03-208801

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267789800031

    View details for PubMedID 19417206

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2710949

  • Identification of a Major Susceptibility Locus for Lethal Graft-versus-Host Disease in MHC-Matched Mice JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Cao, T. M., Lazzeroni, L. C., Tsai, S., Pang, W. W., Kao, A., Camp, N. J., Thomas, A., Shizuru, J. A. 2009; 183 (1): 462-469

    Abstract

    Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hemopoietic cell transplantation. From a genetic perspective, GVHD is a complex phenotypic trait. Although it is understood that susceptibility results from interacting polymorphisms of genes encoding histocompatibility Ags and immune regulatory molecules, a detailed and integrative understanding of the genetic background underlying GVHD remains lacking. To gain insight regarding these issues, we performed a forward genetic study. A MHC-matched mouse model was used in which irradiated recipient BALB.K and B10.BR mice demonstrate differential susceptibility to lethal GHVD when transplanted using AKR/J donors. Assessment of GVHD in (B10.BR x BALB.K)F(1) mice revealed that susceptibility is a dominant trait and conferred by deleterious alleles from the BALB.K strain. To identify the alleles responsible for GVHD susceptibility, a genome-scanning approach was taken using (B10.BR x BALB.K)F(1) x B10.BR backcross mice as recipients. A major susceptibility locus, termed the Gvh1 locus, was identified on chromosome 16 using linkage analysis (logarithm of the odds, 9.1). A second locus was found on chromosome 13, named Gvh2, which had additive but protective effects. Further identification of Gvh genes by positional cloning may yield new insight into genetic control mechanisms regulating GVHD and potentially reveal novel approaches for effective GVHD therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.0900454

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275119400051

    View details for PubMedID 19525392

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2735236

  • Long-term outcome of patients with multiple myeloma after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation and nonmyeloablative allografting BLOOD Rotta, M., Storer, B. E., Sahebi, F., Shizuru, J. A., Bruno, B., Lange, T., Agura, E. D., McSweeney, P. A., Pulsipher, M. A., Hari, P., Maziarz, R. T., Chauncey, T. R., Appelbaum, F. R., Sorror, M. L., Bensinger, W., Sandmaier, B. M., Storb, R. F., Maloney, D. G. 2009; 113 (14): 3383-3391

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) followed by nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT (auto/alloHCT) provides cytoreduction and graft-versus-myeloma effects. We report on long-term outcomes of 102 patients with multiple myeloma who received auto/alloHCT with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. Treatment consisted of high-dose melphalan and autograft followed by 2-Gy total body irradiation, with or without fludarabine, and alloHCT from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Postgrafting immunosuppressive agent was cyclosporine or tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Forty-two percent of patients developed grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and 74% extensive chronic GVHD. Five-year nonrelapse mortality after allografting was 18%, 95% related to GVHD or infections. Among 95 patients with detectable disease, 59 achieved complete remissions. Median time to progression was 5 years. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3 years. Five-year OS and PFS were 64% and 36%, respectively. Seventy-three patients receiving autoHCT within 10 months from treatment initiation had 5-year OS of 69% and PFS of 37%. In multivariate analysis, beta-2-microglobulin of more than 3.5 microg/mL at diagnosis and auto/alloHCT more than 10 months after treatment initiation correlated with shorter OS (P = .03 and P = .02) and PFS (P = .04 and P = .03), whereas Karnofsky scores less than 90% at allotransplantation correlated with shorter PFS only (P = .005). Long-term disease control and GVHD remain key issues.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-07-170746

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264848900034

    View details for PubMedID 19015394

  • Purified hematopoietic stem cell allografts reconstitute immunity superior to bone marrow PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tsao, G. J., Allen, J. A., Logronio, K. A., Lazzeroni, L. C., Shizuru, J. A. 2009; 106 (9): 3288-3293

    Abstract

    Antigen-specific immune responses are impaired after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The events contributing to this impairment include host hematolymphoid ablation and donor cell regeneration, which is altered by pharmacologic immune suppression to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A generally accepted concept is that graft T cell depletion performed to avoid GVHD yields poorer immune recovery because mature donor T cells are thought to be the major mediators of protective immunity early post-HCT. Our findings contradict the idea that removal of mature donor cells worsens immune recovery post-HCT. By transplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) compared with bone marrow (BM) across donor and recipient pairs of increasing genetic disparity, we show that grafts composed of the purified progenitor population give uniformly superior lymphoid reconstitution, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Subclinical GVHD by T cells in donor BM likely caused this lympho-depleting GVHD. We further determined in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched pairs, that T cell restricted proliferative responses were dictated by donor rather than host elements. We interpret these latter findings to show the importance of peripheral antigen presentation in the selection and maintenance of the T cell repertoire.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0813335106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263844100057

    View details for PubMedID 19223585

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2644259

  • The origins of the identification and isolation of hematopoietic stem cells, and their capability to induce donor-specific transplantation tolerance and treat autoimmune diseases BLOOD Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2008; 112 (9): 3543-3553

    Abstract

    Advances in the understanding of the cells of the hematopoietic system have provided a rich basis for improving clinical hematopoietic cell transplants; finding and using proteins and molecules to amplify or suppress particular blood cell types; understanding the stepwise progression of preleukemic stages leading first to chronic myeloid disorders, then the emergence of acute blastic leukemias; and treating malignant and nonmalignant diseases with cell subsets. As a result of intense scientific investigation, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been isolated and their key functional characteristics revealed-self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. These characteristics are now found to be present in all tissue/organ stem cell studies, and even in the analysis of pluripotent embryonic, nuclear transfer, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies on HSC have identified hematopoiesis as one of the best systems for studying developmental cell lineages and as the best for understanding molecular changes in cell fate decision-making and for finding preclinical and clinical platforms for tissue and organ replacement, regeneration, and oncogenesis. Here we review the steps, from our viewpoint, that led to HSC isolation and its importance in self-nonself immune recognition.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-08-078220

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260301800011

    View details for PubMedID 18948588

  • Non-myeloablative allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a multicentre experience 7th International Meeting on AAA Proteins Rezvani, A. R., Norasetthada, L., Gooley, T., Sorror, M., Bouvier, M. E., Sahebi, F., Agura, E., Chauncey, T., Maziarz, R. T., Maris, M., Shizuru, J., Bruno, B., Bredeson, C., Lange, T., Yeager, A., Sandmaier, B. M., Storb, R. F., Maloney, D. G. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC. 2008: 395–403

    Abstract

    Patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who have failed or are ineligible for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have a poor prognosis. We examined the outcomes of non-myeloablative allogeneic HCT in this setting. Thirty-one patients with DLBCL and one patient with Burkitt lymphoma received allogeneic HCT following 2 Gy total body irradiation with or without fludarabine. Median age was 52 years. Twenty-four patients (75%) had undergone prior autologous HCT. Disease status at HCT was complete response (14/32, 44%), partial response (9/32, 28%), or refractory (9/32, 28%). Cumulative incidences of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II-IV, grades III-IV, and chronic GVHD were 53%, 19%, and 47% respectively. With a median follow-up of 45 months, 3-year estimated overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 45% and 35% respectively. Three-year cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 41% and 25% respectively. In multivariate models, chemosensitive disease and receipt of >or=4 lines of treatment before HCT were associated with better OS. Patients with chemosensitive disease had 3-year OS and PFS of 56% and 43% respectively. Non-myeloablative allogeneic HCT can produce long-term disease-free survival in patients with chemosensitive relapsed DLBCL who have failed or are ineligible for autologous HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07365.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260117300012

    View details for PubMedID 18759762

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2654416

  • Five-Year Follow-Up of Patients With Advanced Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treated With Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation After Nonmyeloablative Conditioning Tandem Bone Marrow Transplantation Meeting Sorror, M. L., Storer, B. E., Sandmaier, B. M., Maris, M., Shizuru, J., Maziarz, R., Agura, E., Chauncey, T. R., Pulsipher, M. A., McSweeney, P. A., Wade, J. C., Bruno, B., Langston, A., Radich, J., Niederwieser, D., Blume, K. G., Storb, R., Maloney, D. G. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2008: 4912–20

    Abstract

    We reported encouraging early results of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after nonmyeloablative conditioning in 64 patients who had advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we have extended the follow-up to a median of 5 years and have included data on an additional 18 patients.Eighty-two patients, age 42 to 72 years, who had fludarabine-refractory CLL were conditioned with 2 Gy total-body irradiation alone or combined with fludarabine followed by HCT from related (n = 52) or unrelated (n = 30) donors.Complete remission (CR) and partial remission were achieved in 55% and 15% of patients, respectively. Higher CR rates were noted after unrelated HCT (67% v 48%). The 5-year incidences of nonrelapse mortality (NRM), progression/relapse, overall survival, and progression-free survival were 23%, 38%, 50%, and 39%, respectively. Among 25 patients initially reported in CR, 8% relapsed and 8% died as a result of NRM, whereas 84% have remained alive and in CR. Among 14 responding patients who were tested and who had molecular eradication of their disease, two died as a result of NRM, two relapsed, and 10 have remained negative. At 5 years, 76% of living patients were entirely well, whereas 24% continued to receive immunosuppression for chronic graft-versus-host disease; the median performance status in each group was 100% and 90%, respectively. Lymphadenopathy > or = 5 cm, but not cytogenetic abnormalities at HCT, predicted relapse. In a risk-stratification model, patients who had lymphadenopathy less than 5 cm and no comorbidities had a 5-year OS of 71%.Nonmyeloablative HCT resulted in a median survival of 5 years for patients who had fludarabine-refractory CLL with sustained remissions and in the continued resolution of chronic graft-versus-host disease in surviving patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2007.15.4757

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260113600013

    View details for PubMedID 18794548

  • Complementing mutations in core binding factor leukemias: from mouse models to clinical applications ONCOGENE Mueller, A., Duque, J., Shizuru, J. A., Luebbert, M. 2008; 27 (44): 5759-5773

    Abstract

    A great proportion of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) display cytogenetic abnormalities including chromosomal aberrations and/or submicroscopic mutations. These abnormalities significantly influence the prognosis of the disease. Hence, a thorough genetic work-up is an essential constituent of standard diagnostic procedures. Core binding factor (CBF) leukemias denote AMLs with chromosomal aberrations disrupting one of the CBF transcription factor genes; the most common examples are translocation t(8;21) and inversion inv(16), which result in the generation of the AML1-ETO and CBFbeta-MYH11 fusion proteins, respectively. However, in murine models, these alterations alone do not suffice to generate full-blown leukemia, but rather, complementary events are required. In fact, a substantial proportion of primary CBF leukemias display additional activating mutations, mostly of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) c-KIT. The awareness of the impact and prognostic relevance of these 'second hits' is increasing with a wider range of mutations tested in clinical trials. Furthermore, novel agents targeting RTKs are emanating rapidly and entering therapeutic regimens. Here, we present a concise review on complementing mutations in CBF leukemias including pathophysiology, mouse models, and clinical implications.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2008.196

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259722400001

    View details for PubMedID 18604246

  • Hepatic parenchymal replacement in mice by transplanted allogeneic hepatocytes is facilitated by bone marrow transplantation and mediated by CD4 cells HEPATOLOGY Streetz, K. L., Doyonnas, R., Grimm, D., Jenkins, D. D., Fuess, S., Perryman, S., Lin, J., Trautwein, C., Shizuru, J., Blau, H., Sylvester, K. G., Kay, M. A. 2008; 47 (2): 706-718

    Abstract

    The lack of adequate donor organs is a major limitation to the successful widespread use of liver transplantation for numerous human hepatic diseases. A desirable alternative therapeutic option is hepatocyte transplantation (HT), but this approach is similarly restricted by a shortage of donor cells and by immunological barriers. Therefore, in vivo expansion of tolerized transplanted cells is emerging as a novel and clinically relevant potential alternative cellular therapy. Toward this aim, in the present study we established a new mouse model that combines HT with prior bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Donor hepatocytes were derived from human alpha(1)-antitrypsin (hAAT) transgenic mice of the FVB strain. Serial serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for hAAT protein were used to monitor hepatocyte engraftment and expansion. In control recipient mice lacking BMT, we observed long-term yet modest hepatocyte engraftment. In contrast, animals undergoing additional syngeneic BMT prior to HT showed a 3- to 5-fold increase in serum hAAT levels after 24 weeks. Moreover, complete liver repopulation was observed in hepatocyte-transplanted Balb/C mice that had been transplanted with allogeneic FVB-derived bone marrow. These findings were validated by a comparison of hAAT levels between donor and recipient mice and by hAAT-specific immunostaining. Taken together, these findings suggest a synergistic effect of BMT on transplanted hepatocytes for expansion and tolerance induction. Livers of repopulated animals displayed substantial mononuclear infiltrates, consisting predominantly of CD4(+) cells. Blocking the latter prior to HT abrogated proliferation of transplanted hepatocytes, and this implied an essential role played by CD4(+) cells for in vivo hepatocyte selection following allogeneic BMT.The present mouse model provides a versatile platform for investigation of the mechanisms governing HT with direct relevance to the development of clinical strategies for the treatment of human hepatic failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.22012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252939500040

    View details for PubMedID 18220289

  • Tolerance and chimerism after renal and hematopoietic-cell transplantation. New England journal of medicine Scandling, J. D., Busque, S., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Benike, C., Millan, M. T., Shizuru, J. A., Hoppe, R. T., Lowsky, R., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2008; 358 (4): 362-368

    Abstract

    We describe a recipient of combined kidney and hematopoietic-cell transplants from an HLA-matched donor. A post-transplantation conditioning regimen of total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin allowed engraftment of the donor's hematopoietic cells. The patient had persistent mixed chimerism, and the function of the kidney allograft has been normal for more than 28 months since discontinuation of all immunosuppressive drugs. Adverse events requiring hospitalization were limited to a 2-day episode of fever with neutropenia. The patient has had neither rejection episodes nor clinical manifestations of graft-versus-host disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa074191

    View details for PubMedID 18216356

  • Brief report: Tolerance and chimerism after renal and hematopoietic-cell transplantation NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Scandling, J. D., Busque, S., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Benike, C., Millan, M. T., Shizuru, J. A., Hoppe, R. T., Lowsky, R., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2008; 358 (4): 362-368

    Abstract

    We describe a recipient of combined kidney and hematopoietic-cell transplants from an HLA-matched donor. A post-transplantation conditioning regimen of total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin allowed engraftment of the donor's hematopoietic cells. The patient had persistent mixed chimerism, and the function of the kidney allograft has been normal for more than 28 months since discontinuation of all immunosuppressive drugs. Adverse events requiring hospitalization were limited to a 2-day episode of fever with neutropenia. The patient has had neither rejection episodes nor clinical manifestations of graft-versus-host disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252507900006

  • Nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in relapsed, refractory, and transformed indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 48th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Rezvani, A. R., Storer, B., Maris, M., Sorror, M. L., Agura, E., Maziarz, R. T., Wade, J. C., Chauncey, T., Forman, S. J., Lange, T., Shizuru, J., Langston, A., Pulsipher, M. A., Sandmaier, B. M., Storb, R., Maloney, D. G. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2008: 211–17

    Abstract

    Few effective treatment options exist for chemotherapy-refractory indolent or transformed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We examined the outcome of nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in this setting.Sixty-two patients with indolent or transformed NHL were treated with allogeneic HCT from related (n = 34) or unrelated (n = 28) donors after conditioning with 2 Gy of total-body irradiation with or without fludarabine. Nine unrelated donors were mismatched for >/= one HLA antigen. Sixteen patients had histologic transformation before HCT. Twenty patients (32%) had progressive disease after previous high-dose therapy with autologous HCT. Median age was 54 years, and patients had received a median of six lines of treatment before HCT. Median follow-up time after HCT was 36.6 months.At 3 years, the estimated overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 52% and 43%, respectively, for patients with indolent disease, and 18% and 21%, respectively, for patients with transformed disease. Patients with indolent disease and related donors (n = 26) had 3-year estimated OS and PFS rates of 67% and 54%, respectively. The incidences of grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD were 63%, 18%, and 47%, respectively. Among survivors, the median Karnofsky performance status at last follow-up was 85%.Nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT can produce durable disease-free survival in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent NHL, even in this relatively elderly and heavily pretreated cohort. Outcomes were particularly good in patients with untransformed disease and related donors, whereas patients with transformed disease did poorly. Long-term survivors reported good overall functional status.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2007.11.5477

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254177100010

    View details for PubMedID 18056679

  • Nonmyeloablative unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation to treat patients with poor-risk, relapsed, or refractory multiple myeloma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Georges, G. E., Maris, M. B., Maloney, D. G., Sandmaier, B. M., Sorror, M. L., Shizuru, J. A., Lange, T., Agura, E. D., Bruno, B., McSweeney, P. A., Pulsipher, M. A., Chauncey, T. R., Mielcarek, M., Storer, B. E., Storb, R. 2007; 13 (4): 423-432

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine long-term outcome of unrelated donor nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with poor-risk multiple myeloma. A total of 24 patients were enrolled; 17 patients (71%) had chemotherapy-refractory disease, and 14 (58%) experienced disease relapse or progression after previous autologous transplantation. Thirteen patients underwent planned autologous transplantation followed 43-135 days later with unrelated transplantation, whereas 11 proceeded directly to unrelated transplantation. All 24 patients were treated with fludarabine (90 mg/m(2)) and 2 Gy of total body irradiation before HLA-matched unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. The median follow-up was 3 years after allografting. One patient experienced nonfatal graft rejection. The incidences of acute grades II and III and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 54%, 13%, and 75%, respectively. The 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 21%. Complete responses were observed in 10 patients (42%); partial responses, in 4 (17%). At 3 years, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 61% and 33%, respectively. Patients receiving tandem autologous-unrelated transplantation had superior OS and PFS (77% and 51%) compared with patients proceeding directly to unrelated donor transplantation (44% and 11%) (PFS P value = .03). In summary, for patients with poor-risk, relapsed, or refractory multiple myeloma, cytoreductive autologous HCT followed by nonmyeloablative conditioning and unrelated HCT is an effective treatment approach, with low NRM, high complete remission rates, and prolonged disease-free survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2006.11.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245540300005

    View details for PubMedID 17287157

  • Factors associated with outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning after failed myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation 47th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Baron, F., Storb, R., Storer, B. E., Maris, M. B., Niederwieser, D., Shizuru, J. A., Chauncey, T. R., Bruno, B., Forman, S. J., McSweeney, P. A., Maziarz, R. T., Pulsipher, M. A., Agura, E. D., Wade, J., Sorror, M., Maloney, D. G., Sandmaier, B. M. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2006: 4150–57

    Abstract

    Several studies have investigated the feasibility of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) after reduced-intensity conditioning in patients who experienced relapse after myeloablative HCT. Although most studies showed relatively low nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates and encouraging short-term results, it has yet to be defined which patients would benefit most from these approaches.We analyzed data from 147 patients with hematologic malignancies who experienced treatment failure with conventional autologous (n = 135), allogeneic (n = 10), or syngeneic (n = 2) HCT and were treated with HLA-matched related (n = 62) or unrelated (n = 85) grafts after conditioning with 2 Gy of total-body irradiation with or without fludarabine.Three-year probabilities of NRM, relapse, and overall survival were 32%, 48%, and 27%, respectively, for related recipients, and 28%, 44%, and 44%, respectively, for unrelated recipients. The best outcomes were observed in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, whereas patients with multiple myeloma and Hodgkin's disease had worse outcomes as a result of high incidences of relapse and progression. Being in partial remission (PR) or complete remission (CR) at HCT (P = .002) and developing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; P = .03) resulted in lower risks of relapse and progression. Factors associated with better overall survival were PR or CR (P = .01) and lack of comorbidity (P = .03) at HCT and absence of acute GVHD after HCT (P = .06).Encouraging outcomes were seen with allogeneic HCT after nonmyeloablative conditioning in selected patients who had experienced relapse after a high-dose HCT, particularly in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results with unrelated grafts were comparable with results with related grafts.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2006.06.9914

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240320000018

    View details for PubMedID 16896000

  • Nonobese diabetic mice express aspects of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chaparro, R. J., Konigshofer, Y., Beilhack, G. F., Shizuru, J. A., McDevitt, H. O., Chien, Y. 2006; 103 (33): 12475-12480

    Abstract

    Before the onset of autoimmune destruction, type 1 diabetic patients and an animal model, the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, show morphological and functional abnormalities in target organs, which may act as inciting events for leukocyte infiltration. To better understand these abnormalities, but without the complications associated with lymphocytic infiltrates, we examined genes expressed in autoimmune target tissues of NOD/severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice and of autoimmune-resistant C57BL/6/scid mice. Our results suggest that the NOD genetic background may predispose them to diabetic complications, including insulin resistance in the absence of high circulating glucose levels and without autoimmune destruction of their beta cells. Several of these genes lie within known type 1 and 2 diabetes loci. These data suggest that the NOD mouse may be a good candidate to study an interface between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0604317103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239867500050

    View details for PubMedID 16895987

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1832259

  • High-dose carmustine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Law, L. Y., Horning, S. J., Wong, R. M., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E. 2006; 12 (7): 703-711

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been shown to be curative in a group of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A previous study has demonstrated equivalent outcomes with a conditioning regimen based on total body irradiation and another not based on total body irradiation with preparative therapy using cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV) in autologous HCT. We investigated the safety and efficacy of using CBV in an allogeneic setting. Patients were required to have relapsed or be at high risk for subsequent relapse of NHL. All patients had a fully HLA-matched sibling donor. Patients received carmustine (15 mg/kg), etoposide (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) on days -6, -4, and -2, respectively, followed by allogeneic HCT. All patients were treated with cyclosporine and methylprednisolone as prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Thirty-one patients (median age, 46 years) who were felt to be inappropriate candidates for autologous transplantation were enrolled. Each subject had a median of 3 previous chemotherapy regimens. All patients engrafted. Fifteen of 31 patients are alive. Median follow-up time was 11.5 months (range, .4-126). There were 8 deaths due to relapse. Nonrelapse mortality (n = 8) included infection (n = 3), GVHD (n = 2), diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (n = 1), veno-occlusive disease in the setting of concurrent acute GVHD of the liver (n = 1), and leukoencephalopathy (n = 1). Probabilities of event-free survival and overall survival were, respectively, 44% (95% confidence interval, 26%-62%) and 51% (33%-69%) at 1 year and 44% (26%-62%) and 47% (29%-65%) at 5 years. Probability of relapse was 33% (15%-51%) at 1 year and 5 years. Probability of nonrelapse mortality was 31% (13%-49%) at 1 year and 5 years. Incidences were 29% for acute GVHD and 39% for chronic GVHD. None of the 12 patients who developed chronic GVHD has disease recurrence. Patients who had required >3 previous chemotherapy regimens before HCT had an increased probability of relapse. CBV is an effective preparative regimen for patients with aggressive NHL who undergo allogeneic HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2006.02.009

    View details for PubMedID 16785059

  • Of mice and men BLOOD Shizuru, J. A. 2006; 107 (7): 2589-2590
  • Unrelated donor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning: The effect of postgrafting mycophenolate mofetil dosing BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Maris, M. B., Sandmaier, B. M., Storer, B. E., Maloney, D. G., Shizuru, J. A., Agura, E., Kliem, C., Pulsipher, M., Maziarz, R. T., McSweeney, P. A., Wade, J., Langston, A. A., Chauncey, T. R., Bruno, B., Blume, K. G., Storb, R. 2006; 12 (4): 454-465

    Abstract

    We previously reported results in 71 patients with advanced hematologic malignancies given HLA-matched unrelated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell (G-PBMC) grafts after fludarabine 90 mg/m(2), 2 Gy of total body irradiation, and postgrafting mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 15 mg/kg twice daily and cyclosporine 6.25 mg/kg twice daily orally. Graft rejection was 15%; the cumulative probability of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 52%. According to MMF pharmacokinetic studies, which showed a short half-life of its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid, we increased MMF dosing from 15 mg/kg twice daily to 15 mg/kg 3 times daily to increase immunosuppression and reduce the incidence of both graft rejection and acute GVHD. Among 103 patients so treated, graft rejection occurred in 5%, whereas acute GVHD remained at 53%. Outcomes were compared with results of previous G-PBMC recipients given MMF twice daily. Infection rates were slightly higher with MMF 3 times daily than with MMF twice daily. Nevertheless, 2-year nonrelapse mortality and overall and progression-free survivals were similar for MMF 3-times-daily and twice-daily patients (19%, 58%, and 49% versus 20%, 48%, and 37%, respectively). Nonmyeloablative conditioning with postgrafting cyclosporine and MMF given 3 times daily allowed 95% durable engraftment of unrelated donor G-PBMC grafts.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.12.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236494600008

    View details for PubMedID 16545729

  • Toward biomarkers for chronic graft-versus-host disease: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on criteria for clinical trials in chronic graft-versus-host disease: III. Biomarker working group report BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Schultz, K. R., Miklos, D. B., Fowler, D., Cooke, K., Shizuru, J., Zorn, E., Holler, E., Ferrara, Y., Shulman, H., Lee, S. Y., Martin, P., Filipovich, A. H., Flowers, M. E., Weisdorf, D., Couriel, D., Lachenbruch, P. A., Mittleman, B., Vogelsang, G. B., Pavletic, S. Z. 2006; 12 (2): 126-137

    Abstract

    Biology-based markers that can be used to confirm the diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or monitor progression of the disease could help in the evaluation of new therapies. Biomarkers have been defined as any characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of a normal biologic or pathogenic process, a pharmacologic response to a therapeutic intervention, or a surrogate end point intended to substitute for a clinical end point. The following applications of biomarkers could be useful in chronic GVHD clinical trials or management: (1) predicting response to therapy; (2) measuring disease activity and distinguishing irreversible damage from continued disease activity; (3) predicting the risk of developing chronic GVHD; (4) diagnosing chronic GVHD: (5) predicting the prognosis of chronic GVHD; (6) evaluating the balance between GVHD and graft-versus-leukemia effects (graft-versus-leukemia or GVT); and (7) serving as a surrogate end point for therapeutic response. Such biomarkers can be identified by either hypothesis-driven testing or by high-throughput discovery-based methods. To date, no validated biomarkers have been established for chronic GVHD, although several candidate biomarkers have been identified from limited hypothesis-driven studies. Both approaches have merit and should be pursued. The consistent treatment and standardized documentation needed to support biomarker studies are most likely to be satisfied in prospective clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.11.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235284900002

    View details for PubMedID 16443511

  • Treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia by low-dose, total-body, irradiation-based conditioning and hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Hegenbart, U., Niederwieser, D., Sandmaier, B. M., Maris, M. B., Shizuru, J. A., Greinix, H., Cordonnier, C., Rio, B., Gratwohl, A., Lange, T., Al-Ali, H., Storer, B., Maloney, D., McSweeney, P., Chauncey, T., Agura, E., Bruno, B., Maziarz, R. T., Petersen, F., STORB, R. 2006; 24 (3): 444-453

    Abstract

    The use of low-dose, irradiation-based preparative regimens have allowed the extension of allografting to older and medically infirm patients. The study reported here assessed outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in different stages of their disease, who were not considered candidates for conventional hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) because of age and/or other known risk factors and were given minimal conditioning followed by HCT from related or unrelated donors.The present study included 122 patients with AML, who were conditioned with 2 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) on day 0 with or without preceding fludarabine (30 mg/m2/d from days -4 to -2), and given postgrafting cyclosporine at 6.25 mg/kg twice daily from day -3 and mycophenolate mofetil at 15 mg/kg twice daily from day 0.Durable engraftment was observed in 95% of the patients. Cumulative incidences of acute graft-versus-host disease grades 2 to 4 at 6 months were 35% after related and 42% after unrelated HCT, respectively. With a median follow-up of 44 months (range, 26 to 79 months), 51 patients were alive, of whom 48 were in complete remission (CR). Cumulative nonrelapse mortalities were 10% and 22%, and cumulative mortalities from disease progression were 47% and 33% at 2 years for related and unrelated recipients, respectively. Overall, 2-year survival was 48%, and disease-free survival was 44%. Patients receiving transplantation in CR1 had 2-year overall survivals of 44% after related and 63% after unrelated HCT, respectively.We conclude that HCT from related and unrelated donors after low-dose TBI is a promising treatment for elderly patients with AML.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2005.03.1765

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234776300021

    View details for PubMedID 16344316

  • Protective conditioning for acute graft-versus-host disease NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Lowsky, R., Takahashi, T., Liu, Y. P., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., GRUMET, F. C., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Hoppe, R. T., Bloch, D. A., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S. 2005; 353 (13): 1321-1331

    Abstract

    Conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte serum protects mice against acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. We tested this strategy in humans.Thirty-seven patients with lymphoid malignant diseases or acute leukemia underwent an experimental conditioning regimen with 10 doses of total lymphoid irradiation (80 cGy each) plus antithymocyte globulin, followed by an infusion of HLA-matched peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from related or unrelated donors who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.Of the 37 transplant recipients, only 2 had acute GVHD after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. Potent antitumor effects in patients with lymphoid malignant diseases were shown by the change from partial to complete remission. In the transplant recipients who underwent conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin, the fraction of donor CD4+ T cells that produced interleukin-4 after in vitro stimulation increased by a factor of five, and the proliferative response to alloantigens in vitro was reduced, as compared with normal control subjects and control subjects who underwent conditioning with a single dose of total-body irradiation (200 cGy).A regimen of total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte globulin decreases the incidence of acute GVHD and allows graft antitumor activity in patients with lymphoid malignant diseases or acute leukemia treated with hematopoietic-cell transplantation.

    View details for PubMedID 16192477

  • Hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after low-dose radiation-based conditioning for treatment of CML LEUKEMIA Kerbauy, F. R., STORB, R., Hegenbart, U., Gooley, T., Shizuru, J., Al-Ali, H. K., Radich, J. P., Maloney, D. G., Agura, E., Bruno, B., Epner, E. M., Chauncey, T. R., Blume, K. G., Niederwieser, D., Sandmaier, B. M. 2005; 19 (6): 990-997

    Abstract

    A total of 24 patients (median age 58; range, 27-71 years) with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in first chronic (CP1) (n=14), second chronic (n=4), or accelerated phase (n=6) who were not candidates for conventional hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), received nonmyeloablative HCT from HLA-matched siblings a median of 28.5 (range, 11-271) months after diagnosis. They were conditioned with 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) alone (n=8) or combined with fludarabine, 90 mg/m(2) (n=16). Postgrafting immunosuppression included cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. All patients initially engrafted. However, 4 of 8 patients not given fludarabine experienced nonfatal rejection while all others had sustained engraftment. With a median follow-up of 36 (range, 4-49) months, 13 of 24 patients (54%) were alive and in complete remission. There were five (21%) deaths from nonrelapse mortality, one (4%) during the first 100 days after transplant. The proportions of grade II, III, and IV acute GVHD were 38, 4, and 8%, respectively. The 2-year estimate of chronic GVHD was 32%. The 2-year survival estimates for patients in CP1 (n=14) and beyond CP1 (n=10) were 70 and 56%, respectively. This study shows encouraging remission rates for patients with CML not eligible for conventional allografting.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.leu.2403730

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229323900016

    View details for PubMedID 15800667

  • Prevention of type 1 diabetes with major histocompatibility complex-compatible and nonmarrow ablative hematopoietic stem cell transplants DIABETES Beilhack, G. F., Landa, R. R., Masek, M. A., Shizuru, J. A. 2005; 54 (6): 1770-1779

    Abstract

    Progression to hyperglycemia in young nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is blocked by the transplantation of hematopoietic cells mismatched at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Because the NOD MHC class II allele, I-A(g7), is the primary disease susceptibility gene, it is logical to conclude that MHC-mismatched hematopoietic grafts prevent diabetes by replacement of this susceptibility allele on critical hematolymphoid populations. In this report, transplantation of MHC-matched purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) pre-vented diabetes development in NOD mice, demonstrating that alleles of non-MHC background genes expressed on hematopoietic cells are sufficient to disrupt the autoaggressive process. Nonmarrow ablative conditioning was 100% protective, further showing that elimination of NOD hematopoiesis, including T-cells, was not required for the graft to block diabetes pathogenesis. The current standard clinical practice of hematopoietic cell transplantation uses donor/recipient pairs that are matched at the MHC. In our view, the principles established here using an MHC-matched engineered hematopoietic graft in conjunction with nonmarrow ablative conditioning to successfully block autoimmune diabetes sufficiently reduces the morbidity of the allogeneic transplantation procedure such that a similar approach can be translated to the treatment of human autoimmune disorders.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229499600019

    View details for PubMedID 15919799

  • Prognostic relevance of 'early-onset' graft-versus-host disease following non-myeloablative haematopoietic cell transplantation BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Mielcarek, M., Burroughs, L., Leisenring, W., Diaconescu, R., Martin, P. J., Sandmaier, B. M., Maloney, D. G., Maris, M. B., Chauncey, T. R., Shizuru, J. A., Blume, K. G., Hegenbart, U., Niederwieser, D., Forman, S., Bruno, B., Woolfrey, A., STORB, R. 2005; 129 (3): 381-391

    Abstract

    We retrospectively analysed outcomes among 395 patients with haematologic malignancies who underwent non-myeloablative haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related (n = 297) or unrelated donors (n = 98) in order to identify a possible correlation between the time of onset of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and survival. The non-myeloablative regimen consisted of 2 Gy total body irradiation with or without fludarabine, followed by postgrafting immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine. The cumulative incidences of grades II-IV acute GVHD and extensive chronic GVHD were 45% and 47%, respectively, with related donors, and 68% and 68%, respectively, with unrelated donors. High-dose corticosteroid treatment for acute or chronic GVHD was started at a median of 79 (range, 8-799) days and 30 (range, 5-333) days after transplantation from related and unrelated donors respectively. With related donors, the cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality among patients with GVHD was 55% at 4 years when prednisone was started before day 50 (n = 72), compared with 29% when treatment was started after day 50 (n = 115) (P < 0.001). With unrelated donors, time to onset of treatment for GVHD was not associated with survival. Patients with early-onset GVHD after non-myeloablative HCT from HLA-identical related donors might benefit from intensified primary immunosuppressive treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05458.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228489700011

    View details for PubMedID 15842663

  • HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Baron, F., Maris, M. B., Storer, B. E., Sandmaier, B. M., Stuart, M. J., McSweeney, P. A., Radich, J. P., Pulsipbek, M. A., Agura, E. D., Chauncey, T. R., Maloney, D. G., Shizuru, J. A., Storb, R. 2005; 11 (4): 272-279

    Abstract

    We evaluated 10/10 HLA antigen-matched unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after nonmyeloablative conditioning with fludarabine 3 x 30 mg/m2 and 2 Gy of total body irradiation as treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who were ineligible for conventional HCT. Data from 21 consecutive patients in first chronic phase (CP1; n = 12), accelerated phase (AP; n = 5), second CP (CP2; n = 3), and blast crisis (n = 1) were analyzed. Stem cell sources were bone marrow (n = 4) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (G-PBMCs; n = 17). The patient who underwent transplantation in blast crisis died on day 21 (too early to be evaluated for engraftment) from progressive disease. Sustained engraftment was achieved in 5 of 12 patients who underwent transplantation in CP1, 4 of 5 patients who underwent transplantation in AP, and 2 of 3 patients who underwent transplantation in CP2, whereas 9 patients rejected their grafts between 28 and 400 days after HCT. Specifically, 1 of 4 marrow recipients and 10 of 17 G-PBMC recipients achieved sustained engraftment. Graft rejections were nonfatal in all cases and were followed by autologous reconstitution with persistence or recurrence of chronic myeloid leukemia. Seven of 11 patients with sustained engraftment--including all 5 patients in CP1, 2 of 4 patients in AP, and neither of the 2 patients in CP2--were alive in complete cytogenetic remissions 118 to 1205 days (median, 867 days) after HCT. Two of the remaining 4 patients died of nonrelapse causes in complete (n = 1) or major (n = 1) cytogenetic remissions, and 2 died of progressive disease. Further efforts are directed at reducing the risk of graft rejection by exclusive use of G-PBMC and increasing the degree of pretransplantation immunosuppression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2004.12.326

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228510800005

    View details for PubMedID 15812392

  • Engraftment and survival following reduced-intensity allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplantation is affected by CD8(+) T-cell dose BLOOD Cao, T. M., Shizuru, J. A., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Stuart, M. J., GRUMET, F. C., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2005; 105 (6): 2300-2306

    Abstract

    The influence of graft composition on clinical outcomes after reduced-intensity conditioning is not well-characterized. In this report we prospectively enumerated CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell (G-PBMC) allografts in 63 patients who received transplants following non-myeloablative conditioning with total body irradiation 200 cGy plus fludarabine as treatment for malignant diseases. Donors were HLA-identical siblings (n = 38) or HLA-matched unrelated individuals (n = 25). By univariate analyses G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose in at least the 50th percentile favorably correlated with full donor blood T-cell chimerism (P = .03), freedom from progression (P = .001), and overall survival (P = .01). No G-PBMC cell dose influenced grade II to IV acute or extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. In multivariate analysis only G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose (P = .003; RR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.6) was associated with improved freedom from progression. Infusion of low G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose for reduced-intensity allografting may adversely affect T-cell engraftment and survival outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2004-04-1473

    View details for PubMedID 15572597

  • CD34, CD49 and CD8 cell doses do not influence engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, or survival following myeloablative human leukocyte antigen-identical peripheral blood allografting for hematologic malignancies EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Cao, T. M., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2005; 33 (3): 279-285

    Abstract

    Optimal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cell (G-PBMC) graft compositions for myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) have not been identified. G-PBMC cell contents were analyzed for influence on outcomes.Human leukocyte antigen(HLA)-identical related donor AHCT was used to treat 101 patients with hematologic malignancies at a single institution between 1995 and 2002. CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses were enumerated by flow cytometry and evaluated by univariate analysis.Categorized by the median of cell doses infused, no G-PBMC cell dose significantly correlated with neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Incidence of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 24.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.9-33.3) and was not significantly influenced by evaluated G-PBMC cell doses. With a median follow-up time of 18 months for surviving patients, estimates for extensive chronic GVHD was 43.8% (95% CI: 31.4-56.2), for freedom from progression was 69.5% (95% CI: 58.1-80.9), and for overall survival was 46.9% (95% CI: 35.5-58.3). CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses were not significantly predictive of extensive chronic GVHD, freedom from progression or overall survival. Additionally, comparing patients receiving the upper versus lower 33rd percentiles of CD34+ cell dose, associations with extensive chronic GVHD remained insignificant (p=0.21; relative risk (RR)=1.7; 95% CI: 0.7-3.9).G-PBMC graft content does not influence outcomes after myeloablative AHCT. In particular, no significant association between extensive chronic GVHD was identified with any G-PBMC cell dose, including CD34.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exphem.2004.12.004

    View details for PubMedID 15730851

  • Rapamycin (sirolimus) for treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Johnston, L. J., Brown, J., Shizuru, J. A., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Stuart, M. J., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Chao, N. J. 2005; 11 (1): 47-55

    Abstract

    We conducted a phase II trial in 19 chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) patients with rapamycin, calcineurin inhibitors, and prednisone with the goals of controlling cGVHD, reducing prednisone use, and defining the safety of this regimen. Rapamycin was begun as second-line (n = 9) or more than second-line (n = 10) therapy. With a median follow-up of 42 months, 16 patients were evaluable for response. Nine patients discontinued rapamycin because of poor compliance/patient request (n = 2) or an adverse event (n = 7), 3 of whom were not evaluable because of withdrawal at < or =1 month or noncompliance. The adverse events included serum creatinine > or =2.4 mg/dL (n = 4), hemolytic uremic syndrome (n = 2), and relapse of malignancy (n = 1). Fifteen of 16 evaluable patients had a clinical response. Five of the 16 discontinued the drug, and 1 died of relapsed leukemia. Of the 10 patients who continued rapamycin, 2 discontinued and 1 successfully tapered all systemic immunosuppression. Three of the 10 developed progressive cGVHD with tapering immunosuppression; all responded to resumption of prior medications. Four of the 10 patients required alternate therapy for persistent or progressive cGVHD while receiving rapamycin; prednisone was discontinued (n = 2) or tapered at the time of progressive disease (n = 2). Seventeen of 19 original patients were alive. One death was due to relapsed malignancy, and 1 was due to congestive heart failure. In this report of rapamycin as cGVHD therapy, there is evidence of rapamycin's efficacy. Given the significant toxicities described, investigation of altered administration of rapamycin and calcineurin inhibitors should be pursued in future cGVHD trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2004.10.004

    View details for PubMedID 15625544

  • Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: Clinical and preclinical regeneration of the hematolymphoid system ANNUAL REVIEW OF MEDICINE Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 56: 509-538

    Abstract

    A vast literature exists on the biology of blood formation and regeneration under experimental and clinical conditions. The field of hematopoiesis was recently advanced by the capacity to purify to homogeneity primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Isolation of cells at defined maturational stages has enhanced the understanding of the fundamental nature of stem cells, including how cell fate decisions are made, and this understanding is relevant to the development of other normal as well as malignant tissues. This review updates the basic biology of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and progenitors, the evolving use of purified HSC as grafts for clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) including immune tolerance induction, and the application of HSC biology to other stem cell fields.

    View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev.med.54.101601.152334

    View details for PubMedID 15660525

  • Cytokines and cytotoxic pathways in engraftment resistance to purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Scheffold, C., Scheffold, J. C., Cao, T. M., Gworek, J., Shizuru, J. A. 2005; 11 (1): 1-12

    Abstract

    The way that allogeneic hematopoietic cells are rejected is not completely understood. Regimen-resistant populations, including natural killer (NK) cells and lymphocytes, are thought to mediate the allograft barrier. In this report, the mechanism by which recipient cell populations resist engraftment of purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) was examined in mice. To define the immunoregulatory pathways involved in allogeneic hematopoietic cell resistance, HSC transplantations were performed in immune-defective recipients. Recipients were wild-type mice treated with alpha-NK cell antibodies or knockout strain mice lacking expression of CD8, perforin, Fas ligand, or 1 of the following cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha, transforming growth factor beta, interferon gamma, interleukin 4, or interleukin 10. Elimination of a single cytotoxic pathway was ineffective in reducing engraftment resistance, although mice treated with a polyclonal antibody that recognizes NK-cell determinants or CD8 expression showed a profound reduction in the engraftment barrier. Posttransplantation chimerism analysis revealed regeneration of host hematopoiesis in some experimental groups. These studies show, for the first time, that elimination of selected cytokines does not alter allogeneic hematopoietic resistance. Furthermore, the chimerism data reinforce the importance of competition for HSC niches in conjunction with immune mechanisms in resistance to long-term HSC engraftment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2004.10.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226450300001

    View details for PubMedID 15625539

  • Genetic susceptibility loci for lethal graft-versus-host disease in MHC-identical mice: Initial results from a genome-wide scan. 46th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Cao, T. M., Pang, W. W., Grumet, R. C., Lazzeroni, L. C., Shizuru, J. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2004: 328B–328B
  • Approaches to transplantation tolerance in humans TRANSPLANTATION Strober, S., Lowsky, R. J., Shizuru, J. A., Scandling, J. D., Millan, M. T. 2004; 77 (6): 932-936

    Abstract

    Although transplantation tolerance to organ allografts has been achieved using a wide variety of immunologic interventions in laboratory animals, few tolerance induction protocols with complete immunosuppressive drug withdrawal have been tested in humans. Preclinical and clinical studies of the use of total lymphoid irradiation for the induction of chimeric and nonchimeric tolerance are summarized here.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.TP.0000117782.93598.6E

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220460500027

    View details for PubMedID 15077041

  • Rituximab as adjuvant to high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma 43rd Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Horwitz, S. M., Negrin, R. S., Blume, K. G., Breslin, S., Stuart, M. J., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Wong, R. M., Shizuru, J. A., Horning, S. J. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2004: 777–83

    Abstract

    Based on the favorable safety profile and the independent activity of rituximab in B-cell lymphoma, we evaluated its efficacy and toxicity after high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Thirty-five patients with diffuse large cell (25 patients), mantle cell (3 patients), transformed (3 patients), or other (4 patients) subtypes of B-cell lymphoma received HDT followed by a purged autologous graft. The rituximab schedule was 4 weekly infusions (375 mg/m(2)) starting at day 42 after HCT and, for patients 5 to 35, a second 4-week course 6 months after HCT. All planned therapy was completed in 29 patients. With 30 months' median follow-up, the 2-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 83% and the overall survival (OS) rate was 88%. For 21 patients with relapsed or refractory large cell lymphoma, the EFS rate was 81% and the OS rate was 85%. Grades 3 to 4 neutropenia occurred in 19 (54%) patients. A prospective study of immune reconstitution included measurements of lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulins, and response to vaccination. Serious infections were not observed despite delayed B-cell recovery in all patients and suppressed immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and low pneumococcus antibody titers in a subset. Rituximab after HDT and HCT is feasible, and these phase 2 data support the current US Intergroup phase 3 trial in recurrent/refractory diffuse large cell lymphoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2003-04-1257

    View details for PubMedID 12907446

  • Variable hematopoietic graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease in MHC-matched strains of mice PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Cao, T. M., Lo, B., Ranheim, E. A., GRUMET, F. C., Shizuru, J. A. 2003; 100 (20): 11571-11576

    Abstract

    MHC typing for human hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from unrelated donors is currently performed by using a combination of serologic and molecular techniques. It has been determined that allelic differences in human MHC molecules, revealed by nucleotide sequencing but not by serologic typing, substantially influence graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease, two serious complications of clinical HCT. We studied transplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells in a series of mouse strains that were matched at the MHC but had different background genes, and we observed striking differences in engraftment resistance and graft-versus-host disease severity, both factors depending on the donor-recipient strain combination. The individual mouse lines studied here were established nearly a century ago, and their MHC types were determined exclusively by serologic techniques. We considered the possibility that serologically silent MHC polymorphisms could account for our observations and, therefore, we performed DNA sequencing of the class I and II MHC alleles of our mouse strains. At each locus, exact homology was found between serologically MHC-matched strains. Our results likely extend to all serologically MHC-matched mouse strains used in modern research and highlight the profound and variable influence that non-MHC genetic determinants can have in dictating outcome after HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2035077100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185685700072

    View details for PubMedID 14504392

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC208799

  • Common lymphoid progenitors rapidly engraft and protect against lethal murine cytomegalovirus infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation BLOOD Arber, C., Bitmansour, A., Sparer, T. E., Higgins, J. P., Mocarski, E. S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A., Brown, J. M. 2003; 102 (2): 421-428

    Abstract

    Lymphoid deficiency after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) results in increased susceptibility to infection; however, transplantation of mature lymphocytes frequently results in a serious complication known as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here we demonstrate in mice that both congenic as well as allogeneic transplantation of low numbers of highly purified common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs)-a rare population of lymphoid-lineage-committed bone marrow cells-accelerates immune reconstitution after lethal irradiation and rescue with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). After congenic transplantation, 3 x 10(3) CLPs protected against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection at a level roughly equivalent to 107 unfractionated lymph node cells. In the allogeneic model of matched unrelated donor HSC transplantation, cotransplantation of 3 x 10(3) CLPs protected thymus-bearing as well as thymectomized hosts from MCMV infection and attenuated disease severity. Immunohistochemistry in combination with antibody depletion of T and natural killer (NK) cells confirmed that CLP-derived as well as residual host lymphocytes contribute to antiviral protection. Importantly, transplantation of allogeneic CLPs provided a durable antiviral immunity without inducing GVHD. These data support the potential for composing grafts with committed progenitors to reduce susceptibility to viral infection following HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-12-3834

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184083500010

    View details for PubMedID 12663447

  • Reconstitution of NK cell receptor repertoire following HLA-matched hematopoietic cell transplantation BLOOD Shilling, H. G., McQueen, K. L., Cheng, N. W., Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. S., Parham, P. 2003; 101 (9): 3730-3740

    Abstract

    Interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands influence development of natural killer (NK) cell repertoire and response to infection, cancer, and allogeneic tissue. As KIRs and HLA class I molecules are highly polymorphic, clinical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is predicted to frequently involve KIR mismatch, and thus to provide a unique system for study of human NK cell receptor repertoire development. Eighteen leukemia patients undergoing HLA-matched transplantation and their donors were analyzed for KIR genotype. Ten of 13 HLA-identical donor-patient pairs were KIR mismatched and 3 were matched; all HLA-matched unrelated pairs were KIR mismatched. Reconstitution of recipient NK cell repertoire following transplantation was examined using flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies specific for KIR and CD94:NKG2A. These data form 3 groups. Six to 9 months after transplantation, 8 patients (group 1) reconstituted an NK cell repertoire resembling that of their donor, and for KIR-mismatched transplants, distinct from the recipient before transplantation. In the first year after transplantation, 5 patients (group 2) exhibited a generally depressed frequency of KIR-expressing NK cells and concomitant high frequency of CD94:NKG2A expression. By 3 years after transplantation, the frequency of KIR-expressing NK cells had increased to donor values, in the 3 patients from group 2 analyzed for this period. The remaining 5 patients experienced severe clinical complications following transplantation and displayed unique features in their NK cell receptor reconstitution. These results demonstrate that a majority of HLA-matched hematopoietic cell transplantations involve KIR mismatch and reveal differences in NK cell repertoire having potential impact for immune responsiveness and transplantation outcome.

    View details for PubMedID 12511415

  • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) and fludarabine followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors and postgrafting immunosuppression with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil (MNF) can induce durable complete chimerism and sustained remissions in patients with hematological diseases BLOOD Niederwieser, D., Maris, M., Shizuru, J. A., Petersdorf, E., Hegenbart, U., Sandmaier, B. M., Maloney, D. G., Storer, B., Lange, T., Chauncey, T., Deininger, M., Ponisch, W., Anasetti, C., Woolfrey, A., Little, M. T., Blume, K. G., McSweeney, P. A., Storb, R. F. 2003; 101 (4): 1620-1629

    Abstract

    Toxicities of high-dose conditioning regimens have limited the use of conventional unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to younger, medically fit patients. Based on preclinical studies, an HCT approach has been developed for elderly or medically infirm patients with HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors. In this study, 52 patients with hematological diseases were included. Most (88%) had preceding unsuccessful conventional HCT or refractory/advanced disease. Patients were treated with fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/d from days -4 to -2, 2 Gy total body irradiation on day 0, cyclosporine at 6.25 mg/kg twice daily from day -3, and mycophenolate mofetil at 15 mg/kg twice daily from day 0. Durable donor chimerism was attained in 88% of the patients. By day 28, a median of 100% of CD56(+) cells were of donor origin. Granulocyte and T-cell donor chimerism increased to medians of 100% on day 56 and day 180 (range, 55%-100%), respectively. Acute GVHD, grade II, was seen in 42% (CI, 29%-56%); grade III in 8% (CI, 0%-15%); and grade IV in 13% (CI, 4%-23%) of patients; it was fatal in 9%. The 100-day transplantation-related mortality was 11%. Complete remissions, including molecular remissions, were seen in 45% of patients with measurable disease before transplantation. Mortality from disease progression was 27% at one year. With a median follow-up of 19 months, 18 of the 52 patients (35%) were alive and 25% were in remission. HCT from HLA-matched or mismatched unrelated donors can be performed with a reduced intensity conditioning regimen in patients ineligible for conventional HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-05-1340

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180846700061

    View details for PubMedID 12393457

  • Biology of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors: Implications for clinical application ANNUAL REVIEW OF IMMUNOLOGY Kondo, M., Wagers, A. J., Manz, M. G., Prohaska, S. S., Scherer, D. C., Beilhack, G. E., Shizuru, J. A., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 21: 759-806

    Abstract

    Stem cell biology is scientifically, clinically, and politically a current topic. The hematopoietic stem cell, the common ancestor of all types of blood cells, is one of the best-characterized stem cells in the body and the only stem cell that is clinically applied in the treatment of diseases such as breast cancer, leukemias, and congenital immunodeficiencies. Multicolor cell sorting enables the purification not only of hematopoietic stem cells, but also of their downstream progenitors such as common lymphoid progenitors and common myeloid progenitors. Recent genetic approaches including gene chip technology have been used to elucidate the gene expression profile of hematopoietic stem cells and other progenitors. Although the mechanisms that control self-renewal and lineage commitment of hematopoietic stem cells are still ambiguous, recent rapid advances in understanding the biological nature of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells have broadened the potential application of these cells in the treatment of diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev.immunol.21.120601.141007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182523500023

    View details for PubMedID 12615892

  • Purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation blocks diabetes pathogenesis in NOD mice DIABETES Beilhack, G. F., Scheffold, Y. C., Weissman, I. L., TAYLOR, C., Jerabek, L., Burge, M. J., Masek, M. A., Shizuru, J. A. 2003; 52 (1): 59-68

    Abstract

    Purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were transplanted into NOD mice to test whether development of hyperglycemia could be prevented. Engraftment of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched HSCs was compared with bone marrow (BM) grafts. HSCs differed from BM because HSCs were more strongly resisted and HSC recipients retained significant levels of NOD T-cells, whereas BM recipients were full donor chimeras. Despite persistent NOD T-cells, all HSC chimeras were protected from hyperglycemia, and attenuation of islet lesions was observed. T-cell selection was altered in allogeneic HSC recipients as demonstrated by deletion of both donor and host superantigen-specific T-cells. Syngeneic and congenic hematopoietic cell transplants were also performed to differentiate the influence of the preparative regimen(s) versus the allografts. Unlike the allogeneic HSC transplantations, syngeneic or congenic grafts did not retard diabetes development. In a pilot study, overtly diabetic NOD mice were cured by co-transplantation of allogeneic HSCs and donor-matched islets. We conclude that allogeneic HSC transplants block allo- and autoimmunity, despite residual host T-cell presence. These data demonstrate for the first time that purified HSC grafts block development of autoimmune diabetes and illuminate how HSC grafts alter thymic and peripheral T-cell responses against auto- and alloantigens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180157300009

    View details for PubMedID 12502494

  • Kinetics of mixed chimerism in peripheral blood hematopoietic subpopulations from 120 patients after nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplant. 44th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Little, M. T., Baker, J. E., Sandmaier, B. M., Maris, M. B., Maloney, D., Gooley, T., Oparin, D., Zellmer, E., Mielcarek, M., Wagner, J., Shizuru, J., Blume, K., Chauncey, T., STORB, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2002: 39A–39A
  • Immune tolerance to combined organ and bone marrow transplants after fractionated lymphoid irradiation involves regulatory NK T cells and clonal deletion JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Higuchi, M., Zeng, D. F., Shizuru, J., Gworek, J., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Taniguchi, M., Strober, S. 2002; 169 (10): 5564-5570

    Abstract

    Immune tolerance to organ transplants has been reported in laboratory animals and in humans after nonmyeloablative conditioning of the host and infusion of donor bone marrow cells. We examined the mechanisms of immune tolerance to mouse cardiac allografts in MHC-mismatched hosts that developed mixed chimerism after posttransplant conditioning with a 2-wk course of multiple doses of lymphoid tissue irradiation, depletive anti-T cell Abs, and an infusion of donor bone marrow cells. When CD1(-/-) or J(alpha)281(-/-) hosts with markedly reduced NK T cells were used instead of wild-type hosts, then the conditioning regimen failed to induce tolerance to the heart allografts despite the development of mixed chimerism. Tolerance could be restored to the CD1(-/-) hosts by infusing enriched T cells from the bone marrow of wild-type mice containing CD1-reactive T cells but not from CD1(-/-) host-type mice. Tolerance could not be induced in either IL-4(-/-) or IL-10(-/-) hosts given the regimen despite the development of chimerism and clonal deletion of host T cells to donor MHC-Ags in the IL-10(-/-) hosts. We conclude that immune tolerance to bone marrow transplants involves clonal deletion, and tolerance to heart allografts in this model also involves regulatory CD1-reactive NK T cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179170300026

    View details for PubMedID 12421933

  • Related and unrelated nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for malignant diseases 29th World Congress of the International-Society-of-Hematology Georges, G. E., Maris, M., Sandmaier, B. M., Maloney, D. G., Feinstein, L., Niederweiser, D., Shizuru, J. A., McSweeney, P. A., Chauncey, T. R., Agura, E., Little, M. T., Sahebi, F., Hegenbart, U., Pulsipher, M. A., Bruno, B., Forman, S., Woolfrey, A. E., Radich, J. P., Blume, K. G., STORB, R. SPRINGER JAPAN KK. 2002: 184–189

    Abstract

    Patients with advanced hematological malignancies ineligible for conventional myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) due to advanced age or medical contraindications were enrolled in multi-center study to investigate the safety and efficacy of nonmyeloablative HSCT using a 2 Gy total body irradi ation (TBI)-based regimen. A total of 192 patients (median age 55) were treated with HLA-matched sibling peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts, and 63 patients (median age 53) received a 10 of 10 HLA-antigen matched unrelated donor (URD) HSCT (PBSC graft, n = 48; marrow graft, n = 15). Diagnoses included multiple myeloma (n = 61), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 55), chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 31), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 31), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 28), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 24), Hodgkin Disease (n = 14). The conditioning regimen was fludarabine 30 mg/m2/d x 3 days and 2 Gy TBI. Ninety-five related HSCT patients received 2 Gy TBI without fludarabine. Postgrafting immunosuppression was combined mycophenolate mofetil an cyclosporine. Transplants were well tolerated with a median of 0 days of hospitalization in the first 60 days for eligible patients. For related HSCT recipients, median follow-up was 289 (100-1,188) days. Nonfatal graft rejection occurred in 6.8%. Of those with sustained engraftment, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 49% (33% grade II, 11% grade III, 5% grade IV). Day-100 non-relapse mortality was 6%. Overall, 59% (114/192) of patients were alive. The relapse/disease progression mortality was 18%, and non-relapse mortality was 22%. The projecte 2-year survival and progression-free survival were 50% and 40%. For the URD HSCT recipients, median follow-up was 190 (100-468) days. Graft rejection occurred in 27% (17/63) of patients, mostly in recipients of marrow grafts (9/15). Acute GVHD occurred in 63% (50% grade II, 13% grade III) of 46 engrafted patients. Chronic GVHD requiring therapy occurred in 50% of patients. Of the 63 URD HSCT patients, 54% were alive, 37% in CR, 3% PR, and 14% with disease progression or relapse. Related and unrelated nonmyeloablative HSCT is feasible and potentially curative in patients with advanced hematological malignancies who have no other treatment options.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179005800020

    View details for PubMedID 12430851

  • Mixed chimerism and immunosuppressive drug withdrawal after HLA-mismatched kidney and hematopoietic progenitor transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Millan, T. L., Shizuru, J. A., Hoffmann, P., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Scandling, J. D., GRUMET, F. C., Tan, J. C., Salvatierra, O., Hoppe, R. T., Strober, S. 2002; 73 (9): 1386-1391

    Abstract

    Rodents and dogs conditioned with total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI), with or without antithymocyte globulin (ATG), have been shown to develop mixed chimerism and immune tolerance without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after the infusion of major histocompatability complex (MHC)-mismatched donor bone marrow cells given alone or in combination with an organ allograft.Four human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched recipients of living donor kidney transplants were conditioned with TLI and ATG posttransplantation and infused with cyropreserved donor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) "mobilized" hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) cells (3-5x10(6) cells/kg) thereafter. Maintenance prednisone and cyclosporine dosages were tapered, and recipients were monitored for chimerism, GVHD, graft function, T-cell subsets in the blood, and antidonor reactivity in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR).Three of the four patients achieved multilineage macrochimerism, with up to 16% of donor-type cells among blood mononuclear cells without evidence of GVHD. Prolonged depletion of CD4+ T cells was observed in all four patients. Rejection episodes were not observed in the three macrochimeric recipients, and immunosuppressive drugs were withdrawn in the first patient by 12 months. Prednisone was withdrawn from a second patient at 9 months, and cyclosporine was tapered thereafter.Multilineage macrochimerism can be achieved without GVHD in HLA-mismatched recipients of combined kidney and hematopoietic progenitor transplants. Conditioning of the host with posttransplant TLI and ATG was nonmyeloablative and was not associated with severe infections. Recipients continue to be studied for the development of immune tolerance.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175933100002

    View details for PubMedID 12023614

  • A non-myeloablative conditioning regimen followed by progenitor cell (CD34+) infusion after kidney transplantation can achieve mixed chimerism and immunosuppressive drug withdrawal Millan, M. T., Shizuru, J. A., Hoffmann, P., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Scandling, J. D., GRUMET, F. C., Tan, J. C., Salvatierra, O., Strober, S. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 2002: A1030–A1030
  • Rapid establishment of dendritic cell chimerism in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients BLOOD Auffermann-Gretzinger, S., Lossos, I. S., Vayntrub, T. A., Leong, W., GRUMET, F. C., Blume, K. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Levy, R., Shizuru, J. A. 2002; 99 (4): 1442-1448

    Abstract

    Regeneration of hematopoiesis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) involves conversion of the recipient's immune system to donor type. It is likely that distinct cell lineages in the recipient reconstitute at different rates. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a subset of hematopoietic cells that function as a critical component of antigen-specific immune responses because they modulate T-cell activation, as well as induction of tolerance. Mature DCs are transferred with hematopoietic grafts and subsequently arise de novo. Little information exists about engraftment kinetics and turnover of this cell population in patients after allogeneic HCT. This study examined the kinetics of DC chimerism in patients who underwent matched sibling allogeneic HCT. T-cell, B-cell, and myelocytic and monocytic chimerism were also studied. Peripheral blood cells were analyzed at defined intervals after transplantation from 19 patients with various hematologic malignancies after treatment with myeloablative or nonmyeloablative preparatory regimens. Cell subsets were isolated before analysis of chimerism. Despite the heterogeneity of the patient population and preparatory regimens, all showed rapid and consistent development of DC chimerism. By day +14 after transplantation approximately 80% of DCs were of donor origin with steady increase to more than 95% by day +56. Earlier time points were examined in a subgroup of patients who had undergone nonmyeloablative conditioning and transplantation. These data suggest that a major proportion of blood DCs early after transplantation is donor-derived and that donor chimerism develops rapidly. This information has potential implications for manipulation of immune responses after allogeneic HCT.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173787600049

    View details for PubMedID 11830498

  • Non-myeloablative transplantation. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program Maloney, D. G., Sandmaier, B. M., Mackinnon, S., Shizuru, J. A. 2002: 392-421

    Abstract

    The concept of utilizing enhanced immunosuppression rather than myeloablative cytotoxic conditioning has allowed the engraftment of allogeneic stem cells from related and unrelated donors with lower early transplant-related mortality (TRM) and morbidity. This approach shifts tumor eradication to the graft-vs-host immune response directed against minor histocompatibility antigens expressed on tumor cells. This is not without risk, as the long-term effects of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), it's treatment, or resulting complications and immunodeficiency may be life threatening. However, this approach does allow the application of a potentially curative procedure to elderly or medically infirm patients who would not tolerate high-dose conditioning regimens. Section I, by Dr. Sandmaier, describes the current use of nonmyeloablative regimens and matched related or unrelated donors for the treatment of patients with CLL, CML, acute leukemia, MDS, lymphoma, and myeloma. In Section II, Dr. Maloney discusses the use of cytoreductive autologous followed by planned non-myeloablative allografts as treatment for patients with myeloma or NHL. This tandem transplant approach has a lower TRM than conventional high dose allografting. The nonmyeloablative allograft may allow the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) immune response to eradicate the minimal residual disease that causes nearly all patients with low-grade NHL or myeloma to relapse following autologous transplantation. In Section III, Dr. Mackinnon discusses the risks and benefits of T cell depletion strategies to prevent acute GVHD, while retaining GVT activity by planned donor lymphocyte infusions. Finally, in Section IV, Dr. Shizuru discusses the relationship between GVHD and GVT activity. Future studies, employing a greater understanding of these issues and the separation of GVHD from GVT activity by immunization or T cell cloning, may allow nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation to be safer and more effective.

    View details for PubMedID 12446434

  • Immunity to infections following hematopoietic cell transplantation CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY Brown, J. M., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2001; 13 (4): 451-457

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation has progressed from the use of unpurified bone marrow cells or mobilized peripheral blood cells to the use of purified stem cells and progenitor cells. These kinds of transplants can be designed to provide not only hematopoietic rescue but also augmented innate and acquired immunity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169648600010

    View details for PubMedID 11498301

  • Nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Transplantation for the 21(st) century FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE-LANDMARK Maris, M., Woolfrey, A., McSweeney, P. A., Sandmaier, B. M., Nash, R. A., Georges, G., Maloney, D. G., Molina, A., Chauncey, T., Yu, C., Zaucha, J. M., Blume, K. G., Shizuru, J., Niederwieser, D., STORB, R. 2001; 6: G13-G16

    Abstract

    Conventional approaches to allogeneic stem cell transplantation have used toxic high-dose conditioning therapy to achieve allogeneic engraftment and control of underlying disease. For engraftment purposes, preclinical studies and clinical observations have shown that conditioning regimens can be markedly reduced in intensity, resulting in reduced treatment toxicities. Preclinical canine studies demonstrated that the use of potent pre- and postgrafting immunosuppression allows for reduction in conditioning regimens while facilitating development of stable mixed chimerism. If attenuated conditioning regimens can be successfully translated to human stem cell transplantation, an improved safety profile will allow potentially curative treatment to a more representative patient profile not currently offered such therapy. Mixed chimerism could prove curative of disease phenotype of various nonmalignant disturbances of the hematopoietic and immune systems. For patients with hematopoietic malignancy, spontaneous conversion to full donor hematopoeisis after stem cell transplant may prove curative by virtue of graft versus host reactions directed against the malignancy, however infusion of additional donor lymphocytes may be needed to treat persistent disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170318400025

    View details for PubMedID 11487474

  • Non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation ISBT 7th European Congress Maris, M., Sandmaier, B. M., Maloney, D. G., McSweeney, P. A., Woolfrey, A., Chauncey, T., Shizuru, J., Niederwieser, D., Blume, K. G., Forman, S., Storb, R. ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER. 2001: 231–34

    Abstract

    Conventional approaches to allogeneic stem cell transplantation have used toxic high-dose conditioning therapy in attempts to eradicate underlying diseases and achieve allogeneic engraftment. Preclinical studies and clinical observations have shown that to achieve engraftment conditioning regimens could be markedly reduced in intensity with reduction in treatment toxicities. The use of potent pre- and postgrafting immunosuppression facilitated stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism in a preclinical canine model. The initial clinical experiences with attenuated conditioning regimens have shown promise as a modality to achieve human stem cell transplantation with an improved safety profile. This may allow offering potentially curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to a more representative patient population (older and sicker) who are currently not eligible for such therapy. Obtaining a state of mixed hematopoietic chimerism could prove curative of the disease phenotype of various nonmalignant disturbances of the hematopoietic and immune systems. On the other hand, patients with hematopoietic malignancy will likely require conversion to full donor hematopoeisis by virtue of graft-versus-host (GVH) reactions directed against both recipient hematopoiesis and underlying malignancy. The infusion of additional donor lymphocytes has been proposed by many groups to augment graft versus tumor responses, but most likely more specific strategies will need to be developed to improve efficacy and avoid nonspecific GVH reactions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170142900014

    View details for PubMedID 11499966

  • Hematopoietic cell transplantation in older patients with hematologic malignancies: replacing high-dose cytotoxic therapy with graft-versus-tumor effects BLOOD McSweeney, P. A., Niederwieser, D., Shizuru, J. A., Sandmaier, B. M., Molina, A. J., Maloney, D. G., Chauncey, T. R., Gooley, T. A., Hegenbart, U., Nash, R. A., Radich, J., Wagner, J. L., Minor, S., Appelbaum, F. R., Bensinger, W. I., Bryant, E., Flowers, M. E., Georges, G. E., GRUMET, F. C., Kiem, H. P., Torok-Storb, B., Yu, G., Blume, K. G., Storb, R. F. 2001; 97 (11): 3390-3400

    Abstract

    Toxicities have limited the use of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to younger, medically fit patients. In a canine HCT model, a combination of postgrafting mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporine (CSP) allowed stable allogeneic engraftment after minimally toxic conditioning with low-dose (200 cGy) total-body irradiation (TBI). These findings, together with the known antitumor effects of donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs), led to the design of this trial. Forty-five patients (median age 56 years) with hematologic malignancies, HLA-identical sibling donors, and relative contraindications to conventional HCT were treated. Immunosuppression involved TBI of 200 cGy before and CSP/MMF after HCT. DLIs were given after HCT for persistent malignancy, mixed chimerism, or both. Regimen toxicities and myelosuppression were mild, allowing 53% of eligible patients to have entirely outpatient transplantations. Nonfatal graft rejection occurred in 20% of patients. Grades II to III acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 47% of patients with sustained engraftment. With median follow-up of 417 days, survival was 66.7%, nonrelapse mortality 6.7%, and relapse mortality 26.7%. Fifty-three percent of patients with sustained engraftment were in complete remission, including 8 with molecular remissions. This novel allografting approach, based on the use of postgrafting immunosuppression to control graft rejection and GVHD, has dramatically reduced the acute toxicities of allografting. HCT with the induction of potent graft-versus-tumor effects can be performed in previously ineligible patients, largely in an outpatient setting. Future protocol modifications should reduce rejection and GVHD, thereby facilitating studies of allogeneic immunotherapy for a variety of malignancies. (Blood. 2001;97:3390-3400)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168927900011

    View details for PubMedID 11369628

  • Expansion of cytolytic CD8(+) natural killer T cells with limited capacity for graft-versus-host disease induction due to interferon gamma production BLOOD Baker, J., Verneris, M. R., Ito, M., Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. S. 2001; 97 (10): 2923-2931

    Abstract

    T cells with natural killer cell phenotype and function (NKT cells) have been described in both human and murine tissues. In this study, culture conditions were developed that resulted in the expansion of CD8(+) NKT cells from bone marrow, thymus, and spleen by the timed addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. After 14 to 21 days in culture, dramatic expansion of CD3(+), CD8(+), alphabetaT-cell receptor(+) T cells resulted with approximately 20% to 50% of the cells also expressing the NK markers NK1.1 and DX5. The CD8(+) NKT cells demonstrated lytic activity against several tumor target cells with more than 90% lysis by day 14 to day 21 of culture. Cytotoxicity was observed against both syngeneic and allogeneic tumor cell targets with the greatest lytic activity by the cells expressing either NK1.1 or DX5. The expanded CD8(+) NKT cells produce T(H)1-type cytokines with high levels of IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Expansion of the CD8(+) NKT cells was independent of CD1d. Ly49 molecules were expressed on only a minority of cells. A single injection of expanded CD8(+) NKT cells was capable of protecting syngeneic animals from an otherwise lethal dose of Bcl1 leukemia cells. Expanded CD8(+) NKT cells produced far less graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) than splenocytes across major histocompatibility barriers, even when 10 times the number of CD8(+) NKT cells as compared to splenocytes were injected. This reduction in GVHD was related to IFN-gamma production since cells expanded from IFN-gamma knock-out animals caused acute lethal GVHD, whereas cells expanded from animals defective in fas ligand, fas, IL-2, and perforin did not. These data indicate that CD8(+) NKT cells expanded in this fashion could be useful for preserving graft-versus-leukemia activity without causing GVHD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170301300001

    View details for PubMedID 11342413

  • Toward regenerative medicine IMMUNITY Lagasse, E., Shizuru, J. A., Uchida, N., Tsukamoto, A., Weissman, I. L. 2001; 14 (4): 425-436

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168246700010

    View details for PubMedID 11336688

  • Engineering hematopoietic grafts: Purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells plus expanded CD8(+) NK-T cells in the treatment of lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Verneris, M. R., Ito, M., Baker, E., Arshi, A., Negrin, R. S., Shizuru, J. A. 2001; 7 (10): 532-542

    Abstract

    A major benefit of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the treatment of malignancies is the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect conferred by lymphocytes contained within the graft. However, lymphocytes can also induce the potentially lethal complication of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We have previously reported a method of generating large numbers of ex vivo activated and expanded T cells with antitumor activity after culture with interferon-y, cross-linking antibodies to CD3, and interleukin-2. Murine splenocytes expanded under these conditions are a heterogeneous population of which approximately 20% to 60% of cells express natural killer (NK)-cell markers (NK1.1 and DX5) and display major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted antitumor activity. Here we demonstrate the in vivo antitumor activity of this population of expanded CD8+ NK-T cells when transplanted across MHC barriers into tumor-bearing hosts. In cotransfer studies with purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells, expanded CD8+ NK-T cells confer GVT activity with minimal to no GVHD. In vitro studies show that, although expanded NK-T cells lyse normal allogeneic bone marrow cells, they preferentially mediate cytolysis against tumor targets. These cells persist in the peripheral circulation of host animals for at least 3 weeks posttransfer. GVT activity is dependent on perforin, but not on Fas-ligand. We conclude that expanded CD8+ NK-T cells may serve as a valuable adjuvant population for allogeneic HCT because they mediate GVT effects with minimal GVHD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172275500002

    View details for PubMedID 11760085

  • Nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation - Replacing high-dose cytotoxic therapy by the graft-versus-tumor effect 3rd International Conference on Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Genetics and Medicine Fenstein, L., SANDMAIER, B., Maloney, D., McSweeney, P. A., Maris, M., Flowers, C., Radich, J., Little, M. T., Nash, R. A., Chauncey, T., Woolfrey, A., Georges, G., Kiem, H. P., Zaucha, J. M., Blume, K. G., Shizuru, J., Niederwieser, D., STORB, R. NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES. 2001: 328–339

    Abstract

    Conventional allografting produces considerable regimen-related toxicities that generally limit this treatment to patients younger than 55 years and in otherwise good medical condition. T cell-mediated graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects are known to play an important role in the elimination of malignant disease after allotransplants. A minimally myelosuppressive regimen that relies on immunosuppression for allogeneic engraftment was developed to reduce toxicities while optimizing GVT effects. Pre-transplant total-body irradiation (200 cGy) followed by post-transplant immunosuppression with cyclosporine (CSP) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) permitted human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell engraftment in 82% of patients (n = 55) without prior high-dose therapy. The addition of fludarabine (90 mg/m2) facilitated engraftment in all 28 subsequent patients. Overall, fatal progression of underlying disease occurred in 20% of patients after transplant. Non-relapse mortality occurred in 11% of patients. Toxicities were low. Grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) associated with primary engraftment developed in 47% of patients, and was readily controlled in all but two patients. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) were not very effective at converting a low degree of mixed donor/host chimerism to full donor chimerism; however, the addition of fludarabine reduced the need for DLI. With a median follow-up of 244 days, 68% of patients were alive, with 42% of patients in complete remission, including molecular remissions. Remissions occurred gradually over periods of weeks to a year. If long-term efficacy is demonstrated, such a strategy would expand treatment options for patients who would otherwise be excluded from conventional allografting.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172028500034

    View details for PubMedID 11458521

  • Efficacy and toxicity of a CCNU-containing high-dose chemotherapy regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's disease BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Stuart, M. J., Chao, N. S., Horning, S. J., Wong, R. M., Negrin, R. S., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Long, G. D., Blume, K. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Goldstein, S. 2001; 7 (10): 552-560

    Abstract

    High-dose CBV (cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide) in combination with autologous HCT achieves survival rates of approximately 50% at 5 years in recurrent or refractory Hodgkin's disease (HD). However, carmustine (BCNU) dose-dependent pulmonary toxicity occurs in 20% to 30% of patients. A decreased incidence of interstitial pneumonitis as well as a possible benefit in efficacy has been reported with lomustine (CCNU) compared to BCNU in the standard dose setting. In a dose-escalation study, we substituted CCNU for BCNU in the CBV regimen for 16 patients with HD (n = 12) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 4). Based on the promising results, an additional 47 consecutive patients with HD were treated with the following regimen: CCNU (15 mg/kg) orally on day -6, etoposide (60 mg/kg) intravenously on day -4, and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) intravenously on day -2. Peripheral blood progenitor cells and/or bone marrow were infused on day 0. With a median follow-up for the surviving patients of 3.2 years (range, 0.8-9.9 years), the 3-year overall survival rate was 57% (CI, +/-15%), event-free survival was 52% (CI, +/-14%), and freedom from progression was 68% (CI, +/-14%). There were 21 deaths, 10 due to HD. Six patients died due to respiratory failure. Interstitial pneumonitis occurred in 63% of patients and could not be correlated with prior chest radiotherapy. This regimen demonstrated survival rates similar to those of historical studies that used the CBV regimen. However, the incidence of interstitial pneumonitis was in excess of expected.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172275500004

    View details for PubMedID 11760087

  • High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic-cell transplantation for follicular lymphoma beyond first remission: The Stanford University experience BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Cao, T. M., Horning, S. F., Negrin, R. S., Hu, W. W., Johnston, L. F., Taylor, T. L., Shizuru, J. A., Hoppe, R. T., Brown, B. W., Blume, K. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. 2001; 7 (5): 294-301

    Abstract

    A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the outcome of high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with follicular lymphomas beyond first remission. Ninety-two patients with primary induction failure or relapsed follicular low-grade lymphoma (FLGL), follicular large cell lymphoma (FLCL), and transformed follicular lymphoma (TFL) were treated with myeloablative therapy consisting of etoposide (60 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg), and either carmustine (BCNU;15 mg/kg) or fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI; 1200 cGy) followed by transplantation of purged autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood hematopoietic cells. For the 49 patients with relapsed FLGL, the median age was 49 years and the median interval from diagnosis to HDT was 30 months. The 4-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45%-75%) and of disease-free survival (DFS) was 44% (95% CI, 29%-59%). Treatment with the FTBI-containing HDT regimen was associated with significantly longer DFS (P = .04) and OS (P = .04) in our multivariate analysis. OS was also significantly longer among those treated with 3 or fewer chemotherapy regimens. For the 26 FLCL patients, the median age was 51 years and in 31% the indication for HDT was primary induction failure. For FLCL patients, the 4-year estimate of OS was 58% (95% CI, 37%-79%) and of DFS was 51% (95% CI, 30%-72%). Among the 17 patients with TFL, 13 (76%) transformed at first relapse, and only 6 patients (35%) achieved complete remission with salvage therapy prior to HDT. For TFL patients, the 4-year estimate of OS was 50% (95% CI, 24%-76%) and of DFS 49% (95% CI, 20%-78%). There were 3 occurrences of myelodysplasia (1 after treatment with TBI, 2 after BCNU treatment), yielding an estimated incidence of 7% (95% CI, 0%-16%) at 56 months. This analysis shows that relapsed FLGL patients treated with 3 or fewer different chemotherapy regimens show inferior survival. The HDT regimen containing FTBI appears to be superior to the BCNU-based regimen for relapsed FLGL, although longer follow-up is needed to evaluate late effects. Lastly, patients with TFL or induction failure and relapsed FLCL can achieve survival outcome comparable to those observed with the indolent follicular lymphomas.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169118600007

    View details for PubMedID 11400952

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: From the nuclear age into the twenty-first century 6th Congress of the Asian-Society-of-Transplantation Storb, R., McSweeney, P. A., Sandmaier, B. M., Nash, R. A., Georges, G., Maloney, D. G., Molina, A., Chauncey, T., Yu, C., Zaucha, J. M., Blume, K. G., Shizuru, J., Niederwieser, D. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2000: 2548–49

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166001400504

    View details for PubMedID 11120287

  • Purified hematopoietic stem cell grafts induce tolerance to alloantigens and can mediate positive and negative T cell selection PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Shizuru, J. A., Weissman, I. L., Kernoff, R., Masek, M., Scheffold, Y. C. 2000; 97 (17): 9555-9560

    Abstract

    Engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow (BM) has been shown to induce tolerance to organs genotypically matched with the BM donor. Immune reconstitution after BM transplantation therefore involves re-establishment of a T cell pool tolerant to antigens present on both donor and host tissues. However, how hematopoietic grafts exert their influence over the regenerating immune system is not completely understood. Prior studies suggest that education of the newly arising T cell pool involves distinct contributions from donor and host stromal elements. Specifically, negative selection is thought to be mediated primarily by donor BM-derived antigen-presenting cells, whereas positive selection is dictated by radio-resistant host-derived thymic stromal cells. In this report we studied the effect of highly purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) on organ transplantation tolerance induction and immune reconstitution. In contrast to engraftment of BM that results in near-complete donor T cell chimerism, HSC engraftment results in mixed T cell chimerism. Nonetheless we observed that HSC grafts induce tolerance to donor-matched neonatal heart grafts, and one way the HSC grafts alter host immune responses is via deletion of newly arising donor as well as radiation-resistant host T cells. Furthermore, using an in vivo assay of graft rejection to study positive selection we made the unexpected observation that T cells in chimeric mice rejected grafts only in the context of the donor MHC type. These latter findings conflict with the conventionally held view that radio-resistant host elements primarily dictate positive selection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088840500041

    View details for PubMedID 10920206

  • Effect of oral glutamine supplementation during bone marrow transplantation JOURNAL OF PARENTERAL AND ENTERAL NUTRITION Dickson, T. M., Wong, R. M., Negrin, R. S., Shizuru, J. A., JOHNSTON, L. J., Hu, W. W., Blume, K. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E. 2000; 24 (2): 61-66

    Abstract

    Because all patients receiving bone marrow transplant (BMT) and peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant (PBPCT) experience gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity from the preparative regimen of chemotherapy, with or without radiation, oral glutamine was administered during the preparatory regimen and after transplant to maintain GI structure and function.To evaluate effects of oral glutamine on nutritional status and overall outcome, a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study was performed on 58 autologous and allogeneic BMT patients. Patients received 30 g of oral glutamine or placebo daily.The trends of decreased median length of stay and the median number of days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were seen in the group supplemented with the >0.285-g/kg (the recommended dosage) dose of glutamine; however, there was no statistically significant difference in the nutritional status and overall patient outcome as assessed by days receiving TPN, number of days required until oral intake resumed, length of hospitalization, number of days and highest grade of mucositis, and quantity and number of days of diarrhea.This study does not support the hypothesis that oral glutamine may offer benefit. Further investigation is required regarding clinical tools for determining effectiveness, administration for tolerance and compliance, dosage, and potential of oral glutamine usage.

    View details for PubMedID 10772184

  • Four-cycle high-dose therapy with hematopoietic support for metastatic breast cancer: No improvement in outcomes compared with single-course high-dose therapy BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Hu, W. W., Negrin, R. S., Stockerl-Goldstein, K., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Wong, R. M., Chao, N. J., Long, G. D., Feiner, R. H., Blume, K. G. 2000; 6 (1): 58-69

    Abstract

    Multiple-cycle high-dose therapy with autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell (AHPC) support has been used to deliver dose-intensive therapy. We have used this approach as well as single-cycle high-dose therapy in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer. We present the outcomes of multiple-cycle high-dose therapies and compare them with those resulting from single-course high-dose therapies performed at a single institution. Fifty-five patients received 4 cycles of intensive chemotherapy with AHPC support. Three multicycle regimens were sequentially applied. Twenty patients were enrolled to receive 4 cycles of high-dose mitoxantrone, thiotepa, and cyclophosphamide. Nineteen subsequent patients received this regimen modified by the incorporation of paclitaxel. Sixteen patients received 2 cycles of high-dose melphalan, thiotepa, and paclitaxel and 2 cycles of mitoxantrone, thiotepa, and paclitaxel. The results of all 3 multiple-cycle therapies are compared with those of 55 contemporaneous patients with metastatic breast cancer who received a single course of high-dose cyclophosphamide and thiotepa or cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and BCNU (carmustine) with hematopoietic cell rescue. Multiple-cycle therapy was associated with more infectious complications, increased transfusion requirements, and increased hospital admissions. However, there were no significant differences in outcomes between the groups. For 55 patients who received multiple-cycle therapy, the actuarial 3-year overall survival rate was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23%-49%); freedom from progression and event-free survival were both 15% (CI 5%-25%). The median time to disease progression and median survival were 1.0 and 1.6 years, respectively. For the 55 patients who underwent a single course of high-dose therapy, the 3-year overall survival was also 36% (CI 18%-54%), whereas freedom from progression and event-free survival were both 19% (CI 7%-31%). The median time to progression and median survival were 0.8 and 2.2 years, respectively. Within the constraints of this patient population, the outcomes of 4 cycles of high-dose therapy with AHPC support were not superior to those resulting from single courses of high-dose therapy in the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090022000007

    View details for PubMedID 10708000

  • Non-myeloablative haematopoietic stem cell transplants 4th International Stem Cell Workshop on High-Dose Therapy and Transplantation of Haematopoietic Stem Cells STORB, R., McSweeney, P. A., Sandmaier, B. M., Nash, R. A., Georges, G., Maloney, D., Yu, C., Zaucha, M., Blume, K., Shizuru, J., Niederwieser, D. BLACKWELL WISSENSCHAFTS-VERLAGGMBH. 2000: 170–174
  • Transplantation of highly purified CD34(+)Thy-I+ hematopoietic stem cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Negrin, R. S., Atkinson, K., Leemhuis, T., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Tierney, K., Hu, W. W., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Blume, K. G., Weissman, I. L., Bower, S., Baynes, R., Dansey, R., Karanes, C., Peters, W., Klein, J. 2000; 6 (3): 262-271

    Abstract

    We report here the transplantation of extensively purified "mobilized" peripheral blood CD34Thy-1 hematopoietic stem cells from 22 patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Patients were mobilized with either high-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or cyclophosphamide plus G-CSE Median purity of the stem cell product at cryopreservation was 95.3% (range, 91.1%-98.3%), and viability was 98.6% (range, 96.5%-100%). After high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine, cisplatin, and cyclophosphamide, CD34+Thy-1 cells at a median dose of 11.3 x 10(5) per kilogram (range, 4.7-163 x 10(5) per kilogram) were infused. No infusion-related toxicity was observed. Neutrophil recovery was prompt, with median absolute neutrophil count >500/microL by day 10 (range, 8-15 days) and >1000/microL by day 11 (range, 8-17 days). Median platelet recovery (>20,000/microL) was observed by day 14 (range, 9-42 days) and >50,000/microL by day 17 (range, 11-49 days). Tumor cell depletion below the limits of detection of a sensitive immunofluorescence-based assay was accomplished in all patients who had detectable tumor cells in apheresis products before processing. Although CD4+ T-cell reconstitution was slow, no unusual infections were observed. Neither early nor late graft failure was observed, and no patient required infusion of unmanipulated backup cells. At a median follow-up of approximately 1.4 years and a maximum follow-up of 2.5 years, 16 of the 22 patients remain alive, with 9 free of disease progression, and have stable blood counts. In summary, highly purified CD34+Thy-1+ cells used as the sole source of the hematopoietic graft result in rapid and sustained hematopoietic engraftment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090022300006

    View details for PubMedID 10871151

  • Pulmonary toxicity syndrome in breast cancer patients undergoing BCNU-containing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Cao, T. M., Negrin, R. S., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Taylor, T. L., Rizk, N. W., Wong, R. M., Blume, K. G., Hu, W. W. 2000; 6 (4): 387-394

    Abstract

    We performed a retrospective review to investigate pulmonary toxicity syndrome (PTS) in a cohort of breast cancer patients undergoing BCNU-containing high-dose chemotherapy (HDC). Our aim was to characterize presentation, identify risk factors, determine outcome following therapy, and find any association with differences in survival. We reviewed the data of 152 patients with stage II or III or metastatic breast cancer treated with cyclophosphamide 5625 mg/m2, cisplatin 165 mg/m2, and BCNU 600 mg/m2 followed by autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplantation. During follow-up, PTS was diagnosed when the following criteria were met: (1) presentation with typical clinical symptoms of PTS, (2) an absolute carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) decline of 10% compared with pre-HDC DLCO, and (3) no clinical evidence of active pulmonary infection. Patients were then treated with a course of corticosteroid therapy. The incidence of PTS for all 152 patients was 59%, with a median onset at 45 days (range, 21-149 days) post-HDC. The median absolute DLCO decrement was 26% (range, 10%-73%) at diagnosis of PTS. There was no significant correlation between patient age, stage of breast cancer, pre-HDC chemotherapy regimen, pre-HDC chest wall radiotherapy, tobacco use, prior lung disease, or baseline pulmonary function test results and the development of PTS. We did observe an interesting association between PTS and the development of a noncholestatic elevation of transaminases. Of PTS patients treated with prednisone therapy for a median of 105.5 days (range, 44-300 days), 91% achieved resolution of their PTS without pulmonary sequelae. At 3 years, the overall survival (OS) of stage II or III patients who developed PTS was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73%-95%); of metastatic breast cancer patients with PTS, the OS was 58% (95% CI, 38%-78%). These values were not significantly different from those of patients who did not develop PTS (91% [95% confidence interval [CI], 81%-100%] and 53% [95% CI, 32%-74%], respectively). No significant differences in disease-free or event-free survival were observed between patients with and without PTS. The incidence of PTS in breast cancer patients treated with a BCNU-containing HDC regimen can be remarkably high. Treatment with a course of corticosteroid therapy is successful in the vast majority.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090022700005

    View details for PubMedID 10917574

  • Immune reconstitution NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 1999; 341 (16): 1227-1229

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083087400010

    View details for PubMedID 10519902

  • Lymphoid development from stem cells and the common lymphocyte progenitors 64th Symposia: Signaling and Gene Expression in the Immune System Akashi, K., Kondo, M., Cheshier, S., Shizuru, J., Gandy, K., Domen, J., Mebius, R., Traver, D., Weissman, I. L. COLD SPRING HARBOR LAB PRESS, PUBLICATIONS DEPT. 1999: 1–12

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087225400002

    View details for PubMedID 11232274

  • Impact of admission body weight and chemotherapy dose adjustment on the outcome of autologous bone marrow transplantation. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation Dickson, T. M., Kusnierz-Glaz, C. R., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Hu, W. W., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L. L., Wong, R. M., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E. 1999; 5 (5): 299-305

    Abstract

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 473 consecutive adult patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies between 1988 and 1995. The analysis examined whether significant deviation from ideal body mass index is associated with a decrease in event-free survival (EFS), an increase in nonrelapse mortality (NRM) including late toxicities and second malignancies, or relapse. Chemotherapy dosing in underweight and overweight patients is administered based on the relationship of admission body weight (ABW) to ideal body weight (IBW). Doses were adjusted for obesity; however, the adjustment did not obviate increased risk for NRM. Patients were categorized into five groups according to the relationship of ABW to age-adjusted body mass index (aBMI) as a percent of actual BMI, as follows: group I, 70-79%; group II, 80-99%; group III, 100-119%; group IV, 120-139%; and group V, 140-199% aBMI. When body weight was expressed as percent BMI adjusted for age, there was a significantly increased risk for NRM in groups I and IV (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). A trend toward greater NRM in group V (p = 0.10) was also noted. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the risk of NRM for extremely underweight and overweight patients is almost three times that of patients close to ideal body weight. Age-adjusted BMI was an independent predictive factor for NRM but not associated with increased relapse. We determined that dose adjustment could be safely used without significant increase of relapse. In patients with significant deviation of BMI from aBMI, dose adjustment and possible weight normalization should be considered.

    View details for PubMedID 10534060

  • Graft-vs.-lymphoma effect in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation model. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation Ito, M., Shizuru, J. A. 1999; 5 (6): 357-368

    Abstract

    It is known that an important curative benefit of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BAMT) in the treatment of hematolymphoid malignancies is a graft-vs.-tumor (GVT) effect. GVT activity has been attributed to mature immune cells contained within the graft because T-cell depletion of bone marrow results in increased rates of disease relapse post-transplantation. We previously demonstrated successful engraftment of highly purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transplanted across major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers in mice. In the present study, we have developed a preclinical model of allogeneic HSC transplantation into lymphoma-inoculated mice, allowing us to directly test whether purified HSCs have measurable GVT activity. We then performed cotransfer studies of HSCs with purified immune cells to identify which population(s) confers tumor protection and the mechanism by which such cells suppress tumor growth. MHC-mismatched donor-recipient combinations were studied. All of the GVT activity was contained in the CD8+ cell fraction and, at the doses of CD8+ cells tested, tumor protection was separable from acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD). Although there appears to be no functional difference between BM- and splenic-derived CDS8+ cells with regard to GVT activity without aGVHD, this was not the case for purified CD3+ cells. CD3+ cells derived from BM were tumor protective, whereas transplantation of equivalent doses of CD3+ cells purified from spleen resulted in lethal GVHD. The mechanism by which the GVT-conferring cells protect recipient mice from tumors was studied using immune defective mice as donors. We found that an intact pathway of perforin-dependent cytolysis, as well as an intact Fas-ligand pathway, is required in order to exert maximal anti-tumor activity.

    View details for PubMedID 10595813

  • From stem cells to lymphocytes: Biology and transplantation IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Aguila, H. L., Akashi, K., Domen, J., Gandy, K. L., Lagasse, E., Mebius, R. E., Morrison, S. J., Shizuru, J., Strober, S., Uchida, N., Wright, D. E., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 157: 13-40

    Abstract

    We review the development of the hematopoietic system, focusing on the transition from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to T cells. This includes the isolation of HSCs, and recent progress in understanding their ontogeny, homing properties, and differentiation. HSC transplantation is reviewed, including the kinetics of reconstitution, engraftment across histocompatibility barriers, the facilitation of allogeneic engraftment, and the mechanisms of graft rejection. We describe progress in understanding T-cell development in the bone marrow and thymus as well as the establishment of lymph nodes. Finally, the role of bcl-2 in regulating homeostasis in the hematopoietic system is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XL05000002

    View details for PubMedID 9255619

  • Transplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells: requirements for overcoming the barriers of allogeneic engraftment. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation Shizuru, J. A., Jerabek, L., Edwards, C. T., Weissman, I. L. 1996; 2 (1): 3-14

    Abstract

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation currently plays a critical role in the treatment of leukemias and inherited disorders of hematopoiesis, and it shows great promise for the treatment of numerous other diseases. The problems of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and failure to engraft, however, remain formidable obstacles to the widespread use of this therapy. Successful transplantation of purified populations of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can theoretically avoid the problem of GVHD, since purified HSCs lack the mature elements that allow the graft to mount a response against the host. In previous studies from our laboratory, a population of purified HSCs (Thy-1loLin-/loSca-1+) was isolated from mouse bone marrow (BM). These cells represent approximately 0.05% of BM cells and are capable of self-renewal and long-term reconstitution of all blood lineages. Here we report long-term engraftment of these purified HSCs transplanted in mice across successively more difficult allogeneic-histocompatibility barriers. Transplantation of purified HSCs were quantitatively compared with whole bone marrow (WBM) grafts containing equivalent numbers of stem cells. The mouse strain combinations tested were parent transplanted into F1 (Hh disparate), minor histocompatibility complex (mHC), and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plus mHC disparities. One of the recipient strains studied for MHC-disparate transplantations was that of spontaneously autoimmune diabetic mice. Recipient mice were administered lethal doses of whole-body irradiation in the presence or absence of antibodies directed against natural killer (NK) cell-associated determinants and/or monoclonal antibodies against the CD4+ T cell subset. We find that as the barrier to transplantation increases, greater numbers of HSCs are required for radioprotection and engraftment. In all cases, stable hematopoietic chimeras were generated with HSCs alone, but 10-60 times the number of HSCs was required for radioprotection of mice transplanted across allogeneic or semiallogeneic disparities as compared to Ly-5 congenic differences. Furthermore, we demonstrate a clear advantage of WBM vs HSCs with regard to tha ability to engraft [corrected]. Chimeric mice showed no symptoms of GVHD, and their T cells were unable to induce GVHD in neonatal mice expressing H-2 antigens of donor and host. These data confirm that a cell population resident in WBM and distinct from purified stem cells is important in facilitating hematopoietic engraftment, in this case, of purified allogeneic HSCs. The differences in engraftment between WBM and HSCs could be reduced significantly by the addition of antibodies directed against NK determinants to the host preparative regimen. Similarly, since antibodies directed against host NK-associated antigens can reduce the barrier to allogeneic HSC engraftment, an interaction between the facilitating population within donated WBM and a resistant host population with NK determinants is implied.

    View details for PubMedID 9078349

  • VASCULAR ADDRESSINS ARE INDUCED ON ISLET VESSELS DURING INSULITIS IN NONOBESE DIABETIC MICE AND ARE INVOLVED IN LYMPHOID-CELL BINDING TO ISLET ENDOTHELIUM JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Hanninen, A., TAYLOR, C., STREETER, P. R., Stark, L. S., SARTE, J. M., Shizuru, J. A., Simell, O., Michie, S. A. 1993; 92 (5): 2509-2515

    Abstract

    In the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, lymphocytic and monocytic infiltration of the pancreatic islets leads to beta cell destruction. To investigate the mechanisms by which lymphocytes enter the NOD pancreas, pancreata were immunostained using monoclonal antibodies to a variety of adhesion molecules known to be involved in lymphocyte binding to vascular endothelium, an initial step in the migration of lymphocytes from blood into organized lymphoid and inflamed tissues. These adhesion molecules include: lymphocyte homing receptors involved in tissue-selective binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node (L-selectin) or mucosal lymphoid tissue (LPAM-1, alpha 4 beta 7-integrin) high-endothelial venules (HEV); and HEV ligands peripheral vascular addressin (PNAd) and mucosal vascular addressin (MAdCAM-1). In NOD pancreata, alpha 4 beta 7 is expressed on most infiltrating cells at all stages of insulitis, whereas L-selectin expression is more pronounced on cells in the islets at later stages. During the development of insulitis, MAdCAM-1 and to a lesser extent PNAd became detectable on vascular endothelium adjacent to and within the inflamed islets. The Stamper-Woodruff in vitro assay was used to examine lymphoid cell binding to such vessels. These functional assays show that both the mucosal (MAdCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 7) and the peripheral (PNAd/L-selectin) recognition systems are involved in this binding. Our findings demonstrate that expression of peripheral and mucosal vascular addressins is induced on endothelium in inflamed islets in NOD pancreas, and that these addressins participate in binding lymphoid cells via their homing receptors. This suggests that these adhesion molecules play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes in these mice by being involved in the migration of lymphocytes from blood into the inflamed pancreas.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MF29100054

    View details for PubMedID 7693764

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC288436

  • Anti-CD4 antibodies in diabetes. Immunology series Shizuru, J. A., Fathman, C. G. 1993; 59: 237-252

    View details for PubMedID 8096401

  • THE USE OF GRANZYME A AS A MARKER OF HEART-TRANSPLANT REJECTION IN CYCLOSPORINE OR ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY-TREATED RATS TRANSPLANTATION CHEN, R. H., IVENS, K. W., Alpert, S., Billingham, M. E., Fathman, C. G., Flavin, T. F., Shizuru, J. A., Starnes, V. A., Weissman, I. L., Griffiths, G. M. 1993; 55 (1): 146-153

    Abstract

    Granzyme A is a serine protease expressed by populations of human and mouse natural killer cells and activated CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes; its expression marks a subset of inflammatory cells in allografts, autoimmune diabetes, and a number of other inflammatory lesions. In order to describe more completely the correlation between granzyme A expression and the presence of in vivo cytolytic effects, we grafted allogeneic rat hearts with vascular anastomoses in a heterotopic location, and treated the hosts with either cyclosporine, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (MRC OX38), or no therapy. The grafts were evaluated by palpation for cardiac functions, by immunohistochemistry for CD4/CD8 expression, by hematoxylin-and-eosin staining for inflammatory infiltration, and by in situ hybridization for granzyme A expression. The appearance of granzyme A+ cells in untreated allografts preceded both functional and standard histopathological and immunohistochemical evidence of graft rejection by two days. In donor-recipient combinations where cyclosporine and anti-CD4 treatments allowed indefinite allograft survival, the allografts showed minimal numbers of granzyme A+ cells, whether cellular infiltrates developed or not. The number of granzyme A+ cells present in the cardiac allografts in treated and untreated animals correlated with either current or impending episodes of rejection. The early time course of granzyme A expression suggests that it can be used as an early and reliable marker of graft rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KH66000027

    View details for PubMedID 8420039

  • GENETIC-CONTROL OF DIABETES-MELLITUS 3RD WORLD CONF ON DIABETES RESEARCH Weatherall, D., Sarvetnick, N., Shizuru, J. A. SPRINGER VERLAG. 1992: S1–S7

    Abstract

    Genetic inheritance predisposing individuals to diabetes mellitus was discussed in this work group. The two forms of the disease, Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) were discussed separately since the pattern of inheritance and genes involved appear to be distinctly different. Within these subtypes there is considerable genetic heterogeneity, and superimposed environmental factors confound the analysis. New technologies that will allow finer molecular analysis, as well as new candidates genes, were presented.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KA42900003

    View details for PubMedID 1478375

  • ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES IN THERAPY - CREATION OF NONCLASSICAL TOLERANCE IN THE ADULT IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Shizuru, J. A., Alters, S. E., Fathman, C. G. 1992; 129: 105-130

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JZ99700005

    View details for PubMedID 1361179

  • ANTI-CD8 ABROGATES EFFECT OF ANTI-CD4-MEDIATED ISLET ALLOGRAFT SURVIVAL IN RAT MODEL DIABETES SEYDEL, K., Shizuru, J., Grossman, D., Wu, A., Alters, S., Fathman, C. G. 1991; 40 (11): 1430-1434

    Abstract

    We studied the effects of anti-CD4 treatment of diabetic ACI rats on the induction of tolerance to allogeneic (Lewis) islet allografts. When given as a 4-day treatment regimen, OX38, a mouse anti-rat CD4 antibody, caused depletion of greater than 80% of CD4+ cells from the peripheral blood of treated rats. After induction of diabetes (a single high-dose bolus of streptozocin) and 3 days after the initiation of anti-CD4 immunotherapy, recipient ACI rats were transplanted with fully allogeneic (Lewis) islets of Langerhans via the portal circulation. These transplanted islets were capable of returning the anti-CD4-treated ACI recipients to normoglycemia, which was maintained indefinitely in the absence of further immunosuppression. In contrast, treatment of recipient rats with OX8, an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody (MoAb), induced only a slight prolongation of graft survival (less than or equal to 30 days). Further characterization of the cellular requirements for the induction of long-term transplantation survival revealed that successful pretransplantation anti-CD4 therapy could be ablated by the coincident treatment of recipient rats with depleting levels of anti-CD8 MoAb. These data point to the necessity of a regulator CD8+ cell in the induction of anti-CD4-mediated transplantation survival in this rat model of islet transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GN93200010

    View details for PubMedID 1834499

  • GENETIC DISSECTION OF T-CELL RECEPTOR-V-BETA GENE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPONTANEOUS MURINE DIABETES JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Shizuru, J. A., TAYLOREDWARDS, C., Livingstone, A., Fathman, C. G. 1991; 174 (3): 633-638

    Abstract

    It has been demonstrated, in certain autoimmune disease models, that pathogenic T cells express antigen receptors of limited diversity. It has been suggested that the T cells responsible for the pathogenesis of type I diabetes mellitus might similarly demonstrate restricted T cell receptor (TCR) usage. Recently, attempts have been made to identify the V beta subset(s) that initiates and/or perpetuates the antiislet response in a mouse model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes (non-obese diabetic [NOD] mice). In studies reported here, we have bred NOD mice to a mouse strain that congenitally lacks approximately one-half of the conventional TCR V beta alleles. Included in this deletion are TCR V beta gene products previously implicated as being involved in the pathogenesis of NOD disease. By studying second backcross-intercross animals, we were able to demonstrate that this deletion of TCR V beta gene segments did not prevent the development of insulitis or diabetes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GC96000014

    View details for PubMedID 1831491

  • TRANSGENIC MICE FOR THE STUDY OF DIABETES-MELLITUS TRENDS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM Shizuru, J. A., Sarvetnick, N. 1991; 2 (3): 97-104

    Abstract

    Several recent studies have utilized transgenic technology to explore basic questions in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. The ultimate expression of altered glucose homeostasis is a theme common to them. The experimental models have been diverse, however, and, in some instances, resulted in unexpected biologic effects. Many of the studies have examined the autoimmune etiology of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by expressing regulatory molecules of the immune system as transgenes in islet beta cells. The molecules have included products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), cytokines, and other cell surface antigens. Ectopic expression of these transgenes resulted in altered immune responses directed against islets, and these transgenic mice now serve as important models to study mechanisms of immunologic tolerance. Transgenic technology is also being used to explore basic aspects of islet beta-cell physiology and insulin metabolism. beta-cell function is disrupted by transgenic beta-cell expression of molecules such as calmodulin and H-ras. Hyperexpression of insulin as a transgene can result in a syndrome resembling features of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FT22800004

    View details for PubMedID 18411173

  • GENETIC-ANALYSIS OF DIABETES IN THE NONOBESE DIABETIC MOUSE .1. MHC AND T-CELL RECEPTOR BETA-GENE EXPRESSION JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Livingstone, A., Edwards, C. T., Shizuru, J. A., Fathman, C. G. 1991; 146 (2): 529-534

    Abstract

    Backcross nonobese diabetic (NOD) ((NOD x SWr)F1 x NOD) mice (108 females and 105 males) were typed for MHC, TCR V beta, and monitored for 350 days for the onset of diabetes. The presence of "antipolar" antibodies in the sera and the occurrence of insulitis was examined in a proportion of these backcross mice. There was no difference in the incidence of diabetes in mice heterozygous for TCR V beta b/a vs those homozygous for TCR V beta b/b. Among the 17 diabetics (all female) detected in this backcross, 14/17 were H-2nod/nod but 3/17 were H-2nod/q. This supports a previous observation suggesting that the MHC-linked diabetogenic gene originally thought to be recessive may rather be dominant but have a low penetrance in the heterozygous state. Antipolar autoantibodies were found in both female and male backcross mice, and were similarly distributed in diabetic and nondiabetic mice. There appeared to be no correlation between the level of these auto-antibodies and development of diabetes. The incidence and severity of insulitis was linked to MHC but no influence of TCR genes on insulitis nor an association between insulitis and antipolar antibodies could be demonstrated in this study. Further analyses of H-2nod/nod intercross mice homozygous for TCR V beta a or TCR V beta b are currently underway.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EU50500019

    View details for PubMedID 1824775

  • INDUCTION OF DONOR-SPECIFIC UNRESPONSIVENESS TO CARDIAC ALLOGRAFTS IN RATS BY PRETRANSPLANT ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY THERAPY TRANSPLANTATION Shizuru, J. A., Seydel, K. B., Flavin, T. F., Wu, A. P., Kong, C. C., Hoyt, E. G., Fujimoto, N., Billingham, M. E., Starnes, V. A., Fathman, C. G. 1990; 50 (3): 366-373

    Abstract

    In the present report a monoclonal antibody designated OX-38 directed against the rat CD4 molecule was tested for its ability to prolong the survival of heterotopic vascularized rat heart allografts transplanted across major histocompatibility barriers. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorter analysis showed that administration of OX-38 selectively depleted 80-95% of CD4+ cells from peripheral blood of treated rats. The immunosuppressive effects of OX-38 in vivo were verified by suppression of an antibody response against OX-38 itself as a heterologous protein immunogen. Recipient rats received OX-38 antibody as a single agent given in pretransplant regimens. Nine of 12 treated rats have maintained heterotopic abdominal heart allografts for greater than 175 days. Control rats that did not receive antibody therapy rejected their grafts within 14 days. Rats that maintained heart allografts for greater than 100 days accepted second donor strain hearts but rejected third-party heart grafts transplanted into the femoral space. Anti-CD4-induced allograft unresponsiveness persisted for at least 90 days following surgical removal of donor tissue and retransplantation of a second donor-matched heart. These results indicated that transient, pretransplant therapy with monoclonal antibodies directed against the CD4+ lymphocyte induced specific, long-lasting unresponsiveness to fully MHC-mismatched cardiac allografts in rats without additional immunosuppression.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DY85500002

    View details for PubMedID 1976282

  • SELECTIVE T-CELL DEPLETION WITH OX-38 ANTI-CD4 MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY PREVENTS CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION IN RATS 9TH ANNUAL MEETING AND SCIENTIFIC SESSIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOC FOR HEART TRANSPLANTATION Flavin, T., Shizuru, J., SEYDEL, K., Wu, A., Fujimoto, N., Hoyt, E. G., Ivens, K., Billingham, M., Fathman, C. G., Starnes, V. A. MOSBY-YEAR BOOK INC. 1990: 482–88

    Abstract

    New monoclonal antibodies directed to membrane molecules unique to lymphocyte subsets have provided the means to alter the immune response to alloantigens in a more selective fashion. This investigation demonstrates that monoclonal antibody-induced depletion of CD4 helper/inducer T lymphocytes before transplantation of a fully mismatched heart allograft allows permanent engraftment in rats without further immunosuppression. Five adult male ACI (RT1a) rats received cell-depleting doses of the mouse anti-rat CD4 monoclonal antibody, MRC Ox-38, for 1 month before undergoing heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation. No other immunosuppression was administered, and immunotherapy was discontinued the day of transplantation. After all five Lewis rat (RT1(1)) hearts were maintained free of rejection for more than 3 months, a second heterotopic transplant was performed, this time to the femoral vessels, using either fresh Lewis heart allografts (n = 3) or third-party, Brown-Norway (RT1n) hearts (n = 2). Histologic evaluation was performed 3 weeks later and revealed severe rejection of the femoral Brown-Norway grafts with no evidence of rejection in any of the femoral or original abdominal Lewis grafts. These results suggested that limited, pretransplant anti-CD4 immunotherapy allowed permanent engraftment of fully mismatched cardiac allografts in rats and conferred donor-specific unresponsiveness.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EC26800005

    View details for PubMedID 1977898

  • LOSS OF PANCREATIC-ISLET TOLERANCE INDUCED BY BETA-CELL EXPRESSION OF INTERFERON-GAMMA NATURE Sarvetnick, N., Shizuru, J., Liggitt, D., Martin, L., McIntyre, B., Gregory, A., Parslow, T., Stewart, T. 1990; 346 (6287): 844-847

    Abstract

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is produced during the response to infection and participates in immunostimulatory events. We have previously reported the induction of diabetes in transgenic mice (ins-IFN-gamma) in which the expression of the lymphokine IFN-gamma is directed by the insulin promoter. This diabetes is a result of the progressive destruction of pancreatic islets that occurs with the influx of inflammatory cells. Here we demonstrate that this islet cell loss is mediated by lymphocytes, that engrafted histocompatible islets are destroyed, and that lymphocytes from the transgenic mice are cytotoxic to normal islets in vitro. These results indicate that the pancreatic expression of IFN-gamma can result in a loss of tolerance to normal islets, consistent with its role as an inducer of costimulatory activity, which is essential for lymphocyte activation during an immune response.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DW48800055

    View details for PubMedID 2118234

  • THE MOLECULAR-BASIS OF ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC RECOGNITION BY LYMPHOCYTES-T COLLOQUIUM ON DEFENSE MOLECULES Danska, J. S., Livingstone, A. M., Shizuru, J., Fathman, C. G. WILEY-LISS, INC. 1990: 241–254
  • CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT PROLONGATION IN MICE TREATED WITH COMBINED POSTTRANSPLANTATION TOTAL-LYMPHOID IRRADIATION AND ANTI-L3T4 ANTIBODY THERAPY TRANSPLANTATION TRAGER, D. K., Banks, B. A., Rosenbaum, G. E., HOLM, B. I., Shizuru, J. A., Strober, S., Fathman, C. G. 1989; 47 (4): 587-591

    Abstract

    Neonatal cardiac allograft survival was examined in mice treated with anti-L3T4 antibody, posttransplantation total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) or a combination of both therapies. Independently, both posttransplantation TLI and short-course antibody treatment allowed minimal prolongation. However, synergistic prolongation in graft survival was observed with the combination (synergistic) therapy. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from animals treated with combined anti-L3T4 and posttransplantation TLI additionally revealed "synergy" with respect to the degree of peripheral lymphocyte depletion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U208300004

    View details for PubMedID 2523098

  • INFLAMMATORY DESTRUCTION OF PANCREATIC BETA-CELLS IN GAMMA-INTERFERON TRANSGENIC MICE COLD SPRING HARBOR SYMPOSIA ON QUANTITATIVE BIOLOGY Sarvetnick, N., Shizuru, J., Liggitt, D., Stewart, T. 1989; 54: 837-842

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989JX74600026

    View details for PubMedID 2518012

  • INFLAMMATORY DESTRUCTION OF PANCREATIC BETA-CELLS IN GAMMA-INTERFERON TRANSGENIC MICE 3RD SYMP ON IMMUNOLOGICAL RECOGNITION Sarvetnick, N., Shizuru, J., Liggitt, D., Stewart, T. COLD SPRING HARBOR LABORATORY PRESS. 1989: 837–842
  • USE OF ANTI-L3T4 AND ANTI-IA TREATMENTS FOR PROLONGATION OF XENOGENEIC ISLET TRANSPLANTS TRANSPLANTATION Kaufman, D. S., Kong, C. S., Shizuru, J. A., Gregory, A. K., Fathman, C. G. 1988; 46 (2): 210-215

    Abstract

    The effects of T helper lymphocyte and Ia+ cell depletion were examined for their ability to independently and synergistically achieve prolongation of xenogeneic (rat-to-mouse) islet transplants. Recipient mice were depleted of T helper lymphocytes by short-term treatment with the anti-L3T4 monoclonal antibody GK1.5. Donor rat islets were treated prior to transplantation with a concentration of anti-Ia immunotoxin (13.4 x RT) that selectively depleted Ia+ cells within the islets while leaving functional insulin-secreting beta-cells unaffected. Anti-L3T4 treatment alone allowed transplants to be prolonged compared with untreated controls; however, all such treated mice rejected their xenogeneic transplant within 22 days. Although 13.4 x RT treatment of donor islets alone did not prolong engraftment, when donor rat islets were pretreated with the anti-Ia immunotoxin and grafted into L3T4-depleted mice, normoglycemia was maintained for greater than 50 days in 56% of transplants. These results suggest that neither L3T4 depletion nor anti-Ia immunotoxin treatment alone is enough to achieve indefinite survival of xenogeneic islets. However, decreasing the immunogenicity of the transplanted islets by anti-Ia immunotoxin treatment prior to transplantation into anti-L3T4 treated mice can allow greatly prolonged xenogeneic graft survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P695400005

    View details for PubMedID 2970132

  • IMMUNOTHERAPY OF THE NONOBESE DIABETIC MOUSE - TREATMENT WITH AN ANTIBODY TO T-HELPER LYMPHOCYTES SCIENCE Shizuru, J. A., TAYLOREDWARDS, C., Banks, B. A., Gregory, A. K., Fathman, C. G. 1988; 240 (4852): 659-662

    Abstract

    Spontaneous diabetes mellitus was blocked in nonobese diabetic mice by treatment with a monoclonal antibody against the L3T4 determinant present on the surface of T-helper lymphocytes. Sustained treatment with the monoclonal antibody led to cessation of the lymphocytic infiltration associated with the destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Moreover, the mice remained normoglycemic after the antibody therapy was stopped. These studies indicate that immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies to the lymphocyte subset may not only halt the progression of diabetes, but may lead to long-term reversal of the disease after therapy has ended.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N126500035

    View details for PubMedID 2966437

  • ISLET ALLOGRAFT SURVIVAL AFTER A SINGLE COURSE OF TREATMENT OF RECIPIENT WITH ANTIBODY TO L3T4 SCIENCE Shizuru, J. A., Gregory, A. K., CHAO, C. T., Fathman, C. G. 1987; 237 (4812): 278-280

    Abstract

    Allografts of pancreatic islets of Langerhans were induced to survive for an indefinite period in diabetic mice if, at the time of engraftment, the mice received a single course of treatment with a monoclonal antibody directed against the L3T4 determinant, a nonpolymorphic cell surface glycoprotein present on the cell surface of the murine T helper-inducer lymphocyte subset. This treatment allowed the survival of islets of Langerhans transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier without additional immunosuppression. The results demonstrate that the lymphocyte subset defined by the expression of the L3T4 molecules is central to the induction of allograft rejection and provides a model for tolerance induction for organ allograft transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J154700019

    View details for PubMedID 2955518

  • INHIBITION OF RAT MIXED LYMPHOCYTE PANCREATIC-ISLET CULTURES WITH ANTI-IA IMMUNOTOXIN TRANSPLANTATION Shizuru, J. A., Ramakrishnan, S., Hunt, T., Merrell, R. C., Fathman, C. G. 1986; 42 (6): 660-666

    Abstract

    Studies reported here indicate that an anti-Ia immunotoxin can eliminate the allostimulatory subpopulation of cells present within the islets of Langerhans without damaging the hormone-secreting cells. Such studies made use of an in vitro correlate of transplantation rejection, the mixed lymphocyte islet cell (MLIC) reaction. Using the MLIC, it was demonstrated that an anti-Ia immunotoxin removed cells capable of stimulating the MLIC in a dose-dependent fashion without altering the hormone-secreting functions of the remaining cells when challenged with glucose and theophylline. These studies suggest the feasibility of using such anti-Ia immunotoxins in islet allograft transplantation models to circumvent problems inherent in complement-mediated cytotoxicity, a previously documented effective form of inducing islet allotransplantation tolerance.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F366100016

    View details for PubMedID 2947362

  • STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, AND IMMUNE PROPERTIES OF REASSOCIATED ISLET CELLS DIABETES Shizuru, J., Trager, D., Merrell, R. C. 1985; 34 (9): 898-903

    Abstract

    Rat islets were mechanically dissociated to single cells and allowed to form aggregates by rotation-mediated cell-cell interaction. The aggregates, or neoislets, demonstrated insulin release in response to 20 mM glucose and 10 mM theophylline that was comparable to that of intact islets cultured for a similar time. However, basal insulin release was considerably greater than that from freshly isolated islets. The microscopic structure of the neoislets revealed sorting into a B-cell domain at the surface with A-cells interior to the aggregate. The neoislets generated no mitogenic response in allogeneic lymph node lymphocytes. Reassociation of single islet cells provides stable, functional endocrine units with substantial reduction of immunogenicity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AQC2600011

    View details for PubMedID 3161769