Larry Crowder is the Edward F. Ricketts Provostial Professor of Marine Ecology and Conservation at Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability and a senior fellow at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment.  He is also Affliated Faculty at Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions and Professor by Courtesy, Department of Biology. Previously, he was the Stephen Toth Professor of Marine Biology at Duke University. Dr. Crowder's research centers on predation and food web interactions, mechanisms underlying recruitment variation in fishes, population and food web modeling in conservation biology, and interdisciplinary approaches to marine conservation. He has studied food web processes in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, and has used observational, experimental, and modeling approaches to understand these interactions in an effort to improve management. He was principal investigator for a number of large interdisciplinary research projects including the South Atlantic Bight Recruitment Experiment (SABRE), OBIS SEAMAP (Spatial Ecological Analysis of Megavertebrate Animal Populations), and Project GLOBAL (Global Bycatch Assessment of Long-Lived Species). Current Interdisciplinary Projects include Dynamic Ocean Management in Costa Rica (DYNAMAR), Sea Turtle Research Experiment on the Thermal Corridor Hypothesis (STRETCH) and Traits-based tools to inform cross-jurisdictional fisheries management under climate change. He has also directed and participated in a number of research, analysis, and synthesis groups at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) and for the National Research Council’s Ocean Studies Board. His recent research has focused on marine conservation, including research on bycatch, spatial ecological analysis, nutrients and low oxygen, sustainable seafood, ecosystem-based management, marine spatial planning, and governance. He is a AAAS Fellow and was awarded Duke University’s Scholar/Teacher of the year award in 2008-2009. Larry was recently named National Geographic Explorer and received a lifetime achievement award from the International Sea Turtle Society.
Specialties: Bycatch, Coastal and Nearshore Environment, Dead Zones and Hypoxia, Dynamics Ocean Management, Ecosystem Health, Estuaries, Fisheries, Governance, Land-Sea Interactions, Ocean Pelagic Organisms, Ocean Conservation, Oil Spills, Small-Scale Fisheries, Social-Ecological Systems

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Science Director, Center for Ocean Solutions (2011 - 2017)

Honors & Awards

  • National Geographic Explorer, National Geographic (2022)
  • Lifetime Achievement Award, International Sea Turtle Society (2020)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Ecology, conservation, fisheries, protected species, ecosystem-based management

2023-24 Courses

Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Biology (School of Humanities and Sciences) (Phd Program)

All Publications

  • The effect of reef morphology on coral recruitment at multiple spatial scales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Carlson, R. R., Crowder, L. B., Martin, R. E., Asner, G. P. 2024; 121 (4): e2311661121


    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, making it increasingly important to promote coral recruitment in new or degraded habitat. Coral reef morphology-the structural form of reef substrate-affects many aspects of reef function, yet the effect of reef morphology on coral recruitment is not well understood. We used structure-from-motion photogrammetry and airborne remote sensing to measure reef morphology (rugosity, curvature, slope, and fractal dimension) across a broad continuum of spatial scales and evaluated the effect of morphology on coral recruitment in three broadcast-spawning genera. We also measured the effect of other environmental and biotic factors such as fish density, adult coral cover, hydrodynamic larval import, and depth on coral recruitment. All variables combined explained 72% of coral recruitment in the study region. Coarse reef rugosity and curvature mapped at ≥2 m spatial resolution-such as large colonies, knolls, and boulders-were positively correlated with coral recruitment, explaining 22% of variation in recruitment. Morphology mapped at finer scales (≤32 cm resolution) was not significant. Hydrodynamic larval import was also positively related to coral recruitment in Porites and Montipora spp., and grazer fish density was linked to significantly lower recruitment in all genera. In addition, grazer density, reef morphology, and hydrodynamic import had differential effects on coral genera, reflecting genus-specific life history traits, and model performance was lower in gonochoric species. Overall, coral reef morphology is a key indicator of recruitment potential that can be detected by remote sensing, allowing potential larval sinks to be identified and factored into restoration actions.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2311661121

    View details for PubMedID 38190515

  • Trait-based analyses reveal global patterns in diverse diets of albacore tuna (<i>Thunnus alalunga</i>) FISH AND FISHERIES Hardy, N. A., Matuch, C., Roote, Z., George, I., Muhling, B. A., Jacox, M. G., Hazen, E. L., Bograd, S. J., Crowder, L. B., Green, S. J. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1111/faf.12807

    View details for Web of Science ID 001118933500001

  • Exploring climate-induced sex-based differences in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to mitigate biodiversity loss. Nature communications Gissi, E., Schiebinger, L., Hadly, E. A., Crowder, L. B., Santoleri, R., Micheli, F. 2023; 14 (1): 4787

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-023-40316-8

    View details for PubMedID 37587108

    View details for PubMedCentralID 5326506

  • Projecting climate change impacts from physics to fisheries: A view from three California Current fisheries PROGRESS IN OCEANOGRAPHY Smith, J. A., Buil, M., Muhling, B., Tommasi, D., Brodie, S., Frawley, T. H., Fiechter, J., Koenigstein, S., Himes-Cornell, A., Alexander, M. A., Bograd, S. J., Quiros, N., Crowder, L. B., Curchitser, E., Green, S. J., Hardy, N. A., Haynie, A. C., Hazen, E. L., Holsman, K., Le Fol, G., Lezama-Ochoa, N., Rykaczewski, R. R., Stock, C. A., Stohs, S., Sweeney, J., Welch, H., Jacox, M. G. 2023; 211
  • Priorities for synthesis research in ecology and environmental science ECOSPHERE Halpern, B. S., Boettiger, C., Dietze, M. C., Gephart, J. A., Gonzalez, P., Grimm, N. B., Groffman, P. M., Gurevitch, J., Hobbie, S. E., Komatsu, K. J., Kroeker, K. J., Lahr, H. J., Lodge, D. M., Lortie, C. J., Lowndes, J. S., Micheli, F., Possingham, H. P., Ruckelshaus, M. H., Scarborough, C., Wood, C. L., Wu, G. C., Aoyama, L., Arroyo, E. E., Bahlai, C. A., Beller, E. E., Blake, R. E., Bork, K. S., Branch, T. A., Brown, N. M., Brun, J., Bruna, E. M., Buckley, L. B., Burnett, J. L., Castorani, M. N., Cheng, S. H., Cohen, S. C., Couture, J. L., Crowder, L. B., Dee, L. E., Dias, A. S., Diaz-Maroto, I. J., Downs, M. R., Dudney, J. C., Ellis, E. C., Emery, K. A., Eurich, J. G., Ferriss, B. E., Fredston, A., Furukawa, H., Gagne, S. A., Garlick, S. R., Garroway, C. J., Gaynor, K. M., Gonzalez, A. L., Grames, E. M., Guy-Haim, T., Hackett, E., Hallett, L. M., Harms, T. K., Haulsee, D. E., Haynes, K. J., Hazen, E. L., Jarvis, R. M., Jones, K., Kandlikar, G. S., Kincaid, D. W., Knope, M. L., Koirala, A., Kolasa, J., Kominoski, J. S., Koricheva, J., Lancaster, L. T., Lawlor, J. A., Lowman, H. E., Muller-Karger, F. E., Norman, K. A., Nourn, N., O'Hara, C. C., Ou, S. X., Padilla-Gamino, J. L., Pappalardo, P., Peek, R. A., Pelletier, D., Plont, S., Ponisio, L. C., Portales-Reyes, C., Provete, D. B., Raes, E. J., Ramirez-Reyes, C., Ramos, I., Record, S., Richardson, A. J., Salguero-Gomez, R., Satterthwaite, E., Schmidt, C., Schwartz, A. J., See, C. R., Shea, B. D., Smith, R. S., Sokol, E. R., Solomon, C. T., Spanbauer, T., Stefanoudis, P., Sterner, B. W., Sudbrack, V., Tonkin, J. D., Townes, A. R., Valle, M., Walter, J. A., Wheeler, K., Wieder, W. R., Williams, D. R., Winter, M., Winterova, B., Woodall, L. C., Wymore, A. S., Youngflesh, C. 2023; 14 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ecs2.4342

    View details for Web of Science ID 000928051800001

  • The influence of social cues on timing of animal migrations. Nature ecology & evolution Oestreich, W. K., Aiu, K. M., Crowder, L. B., McKenna, M. F., Berdahl, A. M., Abrahms, B. 2022


    Animal migration plays a central role in many ecological and evolutionary processes, yet migratory populations worldwide are increasingly threatened. Adjusting migration timing to match ecosystem phenology is key to survival in dynamic and changing ecosystems, especially in an era of human-induced rapid environmental change. Social cues are increasingly recognized as major components of migratory behaviour, yet a comprehensive understanding of how social cues influence the timing of animal migrations remains elusive. Here, we introduce a framework for assessing the role that social cues, ranging from explicit (for example, active cueing) to implicit (for example, competition), play in animals' temporal migration decisions across a range of scales. By applying this theoretical lens to a systematic review of published literature, we show that a broad range of social cues frequently mediate migration timing at a range of temporal scales and across highly diverse migratory taxa. We further highlight that while rarely documented, several social cue mechanisms (for example, social learning and density dependency) play important adaptive roles in matching migration timing with ecosystem dynamics. Thus, social cues play a fundamental role in migration timing, with potentially widespread ecological consequences and implications for the conservation of migratory species. Furthermore, our analysis establishes a theoretical basis on which to evaluate future findings on the role of both conspecific and interspecific social cues in this intersection of behavioural ecology and global change biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41559-022-01866-0

    View details for PubMedID 36280783

  • Land-dependent marine species face climate-driven impacts on land and at sea MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Blondin, H. E., Armstrong, K. C., Hazen, E. L., Oestreich, W. K., Santos, B. S., Haulsee, D. E., Mikles, C. S., Knight, C. J., Bennett, A. E., Crowder, L. B. 2022; 699: 181-198

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps14174

    View details for Web of Science ID 000919294900012

  • Large-scale effects of turbidity on coral bleaching in the Hawaiian islands FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Carlson, R. R., Li, J., Crowder, L. B., Asner, G. P. 2022; 9
  • The diverse benefits of biodiversity conservation in global ocean areas beyond national jurisdiction FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Santos, B. S., Devereaux, S. G., Gjerde, K., Chand, K., Martinez, J., Crowder, L. B. 2022; 9
  • One ocean CONSERVATION SCIENCE AND PRACTICE Crowder, L. B. 2022; 4 (5)

    View details for DOI 10.1111/csp2.12692

    View details for Web of Science ID 000797790400025

  • Acoustic signature reveals blue whales tune life-history transitions to oceanographic conditions FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY Oestreich, W. K., Abrahms, B., McKenna, M. F., Goldbogen, J. A., Crowder, L. B., Ryan, J. P. 2022
  • Linking small-scale fisheries performance to governance attributes: A quantitative assessment from stakeholders' perceptions in the Americas and Europe MARINE POLICY Ourens, R., Melnychuk, M. C., Crowder, L. B., Gutierrez, N. L., Hilborn, R., Pita, C., Defeo, O. 2022; 136
  • Trait-based approaches to global change ecology: moving from description to prediction. Proceedings. Biological sciences Green, S. J., Brookson, C. B., Hardy, N. A., Crowder, L. B. 2022; 289 (1971): 20220071


    Trait-based approaches are increasingly recognized as a tool for understanding ecosystem re-assembly and function under intensifying global change. Here we synthesize trait-based research globally (n = 865 studies) to examine the contexts in which traits may be used for global change prediction. We find that exponential growth in the field over the last decade remains dominated by descriptive studies of terrestrial plant morphology, highlighting significant opportunities to expand trait-based thinking across systems and taxa. Very few studies (less than 3%) focus on predicting ecological effects of global change, mostly in the past 5 years and via singular traits that mediate abiotic limits on species distribution. Beyond organism size (the most examined trait), we identify over 2500 other morphological, physiological, behavioural and life-history traits known to mediate environmental filters of species' range and abundance as candidates for future predictive global change work. Though uncommon, spatially explicit process models-which mechanistically link traits to changes in organism distributions and abundance-are among the most promising frameworks for holistic global change prediction at scales relevant for conservation decision-making. Further progress towards trait-based forecasting requires addressing persistent barriers including (1) matching scales of multivariate trait and environment data to focal processes disrupted by global change, and (2) propagating variation in trait and environmental parameters throughout process model functions using simulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rspb.2022.0071

    View details for PubMedID 35291837

  • Where do the billfish go? Using recreational catch data to relate local and basin scale environmental conditions to billfish occurrence in the Eastern Tropical Pacific FISHERIES OCEANOGRAPHY Haulsee, D. E., Blondin, H. E., Logan, R. K., Crowder, L. B. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1111/fog.12567

    View details for Web of Science ID 000728908700001

  • Climate change stressors and social-ecological factors mediating access to subsistence resources in Arctic Alaska ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Green, K. M., Beaudreau, A. H., Lukin, M. H., Crowder, L. B. 2021; 26 (4)
  • Major challenges in developing marine spatial planning MARINE POLICY Santos, C., Agardy, T., Andrade, F., Crowder, L. B., Ehler, C. N., Orbach, M. K. 2021; 132
  • Fishers as foragers: Individual variation among small-scale fishing vessels as revealed by novel tracking technology FISHERIES RESEARCH Frawley, T. H., Blondin, H. E., White, T. D., Carlson, R. R., Villalon, B., Crowder, L. B. 2021; 238
  • Social relationship dynamics mediate climate impacts on income inequality: evidence from the Mexican Humboldt squid fishery REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE Elsler, L. G., Frawley, T., Britten, G. L., Crowder, L. B., DuBois, T. C., Radosavljevic, S., Gilly, W. F., Crepin, A., Schluter, M. 2021; 21 (2)
  • Dynamic Thermal Corridor May Connect Endangered Loggerhead Sea Turtles Across the Pacific Ocean FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Briscoe, D. K., Tomaszewicz, C., Seminoff, J. A., Parker, D. M., Balazs, G. H., Polovina, J. J., Kurita, M., Okamoto, H., Saito, T., Rice, M. R., Crowder, L. B. 2021; 8
  • Social relationship dynamics mediate climate impacts on income inequality: evidence from the Mexican Humboldt squid fishery. Regional environmental change Elsler, L. G., Frawley, T. H., Britten, G. L., Crowder, L. B., DuBois, T. C., Radosavljevic, S., Gilly, W. F., Crépin, A. S., Schlüter, M. 2021; 21 (2): 35


    Small-scale fisheries are critically important for livelihoods around the world, particularly in tropical regions. However, climate variability and anthropogenic climate change may seriously impact small-scale fisheries by altering the abundance and distribution of target species. Social relationships between fishery users, such as fish traders, can determine how each individual responds and is affected by changes in fisheries. These informal cooperative and competitive relationships provide access, support, and incentives for fishing and affect the distribution of benefits. Yet, individuals' actions and impacts on individuals are often the primary focus of the economic analyses informing small-scale fisheries' formal management. This focus dismisses relevant social relationships. We argue that this leads to a disconnect between reality and its model representation used in formal management, which may reduce formal fisheries management's efficiency and efficacy and potentially trigger adverse consequences. Here, we examine this argument by comparing the predictions of a simple bioeconomic fishery model with those of a social-ecological model that incorporates the dynamics of cooperative relationships between fish traders. We illustrate model outcomes using an empirical case study in the Mexican Humboldt squid fishery. We find that (1) the social-ecological model with relationship dynamics substantially improves accuracy in predicting observed fishery variables to the simple bioeconomic model. (2) Income inequality outcomes are associated with changes in cooperative trade relationships. When environmental temperature is included in the model as a driver of species production dynamics, we find that climate-driven temperature variability drives a decline in catch that, in turn, reduce fishers' income. We observe an offset of this loss in income by including cooperative relationships between fish traders (oligopoly) in the model. These relationships break down following species distribution changes and result in an increase in prices fishers receive. Finally, (3) our social-ecological model simulations show that the current fishery development program, which seeks to increase fishers' income through an increase in domestic market demand, is supported by predictions from the simple bioeconomic model, may increase income inequality between fishers and traders. Our findings highlight the real and urgent need to re-think fisheries management models in the context of small-scale fisheries and climate change worldwide to encompass social relationship dynamics.The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1007/s10113-021-01747-5).

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10113-021-01747-5

    View details for PubMedID 34720738

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8550063

  • How adaptive capacity shapes the Adapt, React, Cope response to climate impacts: insights from small-scale fisheries CLIMATIC CHANGE Green, K. M., Selgrath, J. C., Frawley, T. H., Oestreich, W. K., Mansfield, E. J., Urteaga, J., Swanson, S. S., Santana, F. N., Green, S. J., Naggea, J., Crowder, L. B. 2021; 164 (1-2)
  • WTO must ban harmful fisheries subsidies. Science (New York, N.Y.) Sumaila, U. R., Skerritt, D. J., Schuhbauer, A., Villasante, S., Cisneros-Montemayor, A. M., Sinan, H., Burnside, D., Abdallah, P. R., Abe, K., Addo, K. A., Adelsheim, J., Adewumi, I. J., Adeyemo, O. K., Adger, N., Adotey, J., Advani, S., Afrin, Z., Aheto, D., Akintola, S. L., Akpalu, W., Alam, L., Alava, J. J., Allison, E. H., Amon, D. J., Anderies, J. M., Anderson, C. M., Andrews, E., Angelini, R., Anna, Z., Antweiler, W., Arizi, E. K., Armitage, D., Arthur, R. I., Asare, N., Asche, F., Asiedu, B., Asuquo, F., Badmus, L., Bailey, M., Ban, N., Barbier, E. B., Barley, S., Barnes, C., Barrett, S., Basurto, X., Belhabib, D., Bennett, E., Bennett, N. J., Benzaken, D., Blasiak, R., Bohorquez, J. J., Bordehore, C., Bornarel, V., Boyd, D. R., Breitburg, D., Brooks, C., Brotz, L., Campbell, D., Cannon, S., Cao, L., Cardenas Campo, J. C., Carpenter, S., Carpenter, G., Carson, R. T., Carvalho, A. R., Castrejón, M., Caveen, A. J., Chabi, M. N., Chan, K. M., Chapin, F. S., Charles, T., Cheung, W., Christensen, V., Chuku, E. O., Church, T., Clark, C., Clarke, T. M., Cojocaru, A. L., Copeland, B., Crawford, B., Crépin, A. S., Crowder, L. B., Cury, P., Cutting, A. N., Daily, G. C., Da-Rocha, J. M., Das, A., de la Puente, S., de Zeeuw, A., Deikumah, S. K., Deith, M., Dewitte, B., Doubleday, N., Duarte, C. M., Dulvy, N. K., Eddy, T., Efford, M., Ehrlich, P. R., Elsler, L. G., Fakoya, K. A., Falaye, A. E., Fanzo, J., Fitzsimmons, C., Flaaten, O., Florko, K. R., Aviles, M. F., Folke, C., Forrest, A., Freeman, P., Freire, K. M., Froese, R., Frölicher, T. L., Gallagher, A., Garcon, V., Gasalla, M. A., Gephart, J. A., Gibbons, M., Gillespie, K., Giron-Nava, A., Gjerde, K., Glaser, S., Golden, C., Gordon, L., Govan, H., Gryba, R., Halpern, B. S., Hanich, Q., Hara, M., Harley, C. D., Harper, S., Harte, M., Helm, R., Hendrix, C., Hicks, C. C., Hood, L., Hoover, C., Hopewell, K., Horta E Costa, B. B., Houghton, J. D., Iitembu, J. A., Isaacs, M., Isahaku, S., Ishimura, G., Islam, M., Issifu, I., Jackson, J., Jacquet, J., Jensen, O. P., Ramon, J. J., Jin, X., Jonah, A., Jouffray, J. B., Juniper, S. K., Jusoh, S., Kadagi, I., Kaeriyama, M., Kaiser, M. J., Kaiser, B. A., Kakujaha-Matundu, O., Karuaihe, S. T., Karumba, M., Kemmerly, J. D., Khan, A. S., Kimani, P., Kleisner, K., Knowlton, N., Kotowicz, D., Kurien, J., Kwong, L. E., Lade, S., Laffoley, D., Lam, M. E., Lam, V. W., Lange, G. M., Latif, M. T., Le Billon, P., Le Brenne, V., Le Manach, F., Levin, S. A., Levin, L., Limburg, K. E., List, J., Lombard, A. T., Lopes, P. F., Lotze, H. K., Mallory, T. G., Mangar, R. S., Marszalec, D., Mattah, P., Mayorga, J., McAusland, C., McCauley, D. J., McLean, J., McMullen, K., Meere, F., Mejaes, A., Melnychuk, M., Mendo, J., Micheli, F., Millage, K., Miller, D., Mohamed, K. S., Mohammed, E., Mokhtar, M., Morgan, L., Muawanah, U., Munro, G. R., Murray, G., Mustafa, S., Nayak, P., Newell, D., Nguyen, T., Noack, F., Nor, A. M., Nunoo, F. K., Obura, D., Okey, T., Okyere, I., Onyango, P., Oostdijk, M., Orlov, P., Österblom, H., Owens, D., Owens, T., Oyinlola, M., Pacoureau, N., Pakhomov, E., Abrantes, J. P., Pascual, U., Paulmier, A., Pauly, D., Pèlèbè, R. O., Peñalosa, D., Pennino, M. G., Peterson, G., Pham, T. T., Pinkerton, E., Polasky, S., Polunin, N. V., Prah, E., Ramírez, J., Relano, V., Reygondeau, G., Robadue, D., Roberts, C., Rogers, A., Roumbedakis, K., Sala, E., Scheffer, M., Segerson, K., Seijo, J. C., Seto, K. C., Shogren, J. F., Silver, J. J., Singh, G., Soszynski, A., Splichalova, D. V., Spring, M., Stage, J., Stephenson, F., Stewart, B. D., Sultan, R., Suttle, C., Tagliabue, A., Tall, A., Talloni-Álvarez, N., Tavoni, A., Taylor, D. R., Teh, L. S., Teh, L. C., Thiebot, J. B., Thiele, T., Thilsted, S. H., Thumbadoo, R. V., Tigchelaar, M., Tol, R. S., Tortell, P., Troell, M., Uzmanoğlu, M. S., van Putten, I., van Santen, G., Villaseñor-Derbez, J. C., Wabnitz, C. C., Walsh, M., Walsh, J. P., Wambiji, N., Weber, E. U., Westley, F., Williams, S., Wisz, M. S., Worm, B., Xiao, L., Yagi, N., Yamazaki, S., Yang, H., Zeller, D. 2021; 374 (6567): 544


    [Figure: see text].

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abm1680

    View details for PubMedID 34709891

  • Promoting equity in scientific recommendations for high seas governance One Earth Chapman, M. S., Oestreich, W. K., Frawley, T. H., Boettiger, C., Diver, S., Santos, B. S., Scoville, C., Armstrong, K., Blondin, H., Chand, K., Haulsee, D. E., Knight, C. J., Crowder, L. B. 2021; 4 (6): 790-794
  • Online News Media Coverage of Sea Turtles and Their Conservation BioScience Santos, B. S., Crowder, L. B. 2021; 71 (3): 305-313

    View details for DOI 10.1093/biosci/biaa175

  • Combining high temporal resolution whale distribution and vessel tracking data improves estimates of ship strike risk BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Blondin, H., Abrahms, B., Crowder, L. B., Hazen, E. L. 2020; 250
  • Organizational perspectives on sustainable ocean governance: A multi-stakeholder, meta-organization model of collective action MARINE POLICY Berkowitz, H., Crowder, L. B., Brooks, C. M. 2020; 118
  • A comparative analysis of dynamic management in marine and terrestrial systems FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Oestreich, W. K., Chapman, M. S., Crowder, L. B. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fee.2243

    View details for Web of Science ID 000552430800001

  • Operationalizing Ocean Health: Toward Integrated Research on Ocean Health and Recovery to Achieve Ocean Sustainability ONE EARTH Franke, A., Blenckner, T., Duarte, C. M., Ott, K., Fleming, L. E., Antia, A., Reusch, T. H., Bertram, C., Hein, J., Kronfeld-Goharani, U., Dierking, J., Kuhn, A., Sato, C., van Doorn, E., Wall, M., Schartau, M., Karez, R., Crowder, L., Keller, D., Engel, A., Hentschel, U., Prigge, E. 2020; 2 (6): 557-565
  • Integrating climate change in ocean planning NATURE SUSTAINABILITY Frazao Santos, C., Agardy, T., Andrade, F., Calado, H., Crowder, L. B., Ehler, C. N., Garcia-Morales, S., Gissi, E., Halpern, B. S., Orbach, M. K., Poertner, H., Rosa, R. 2020
  • Shark fin trade bans and sustainable shark fisheries CONSERVATION LETTERS Ferretti, F., Jacoby, D. P., Pfleger, M. O., White, T. D., Dent, F., Micheli, F., Rosenberg, A. A., Crowder, L. B., Block, B. A. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1111/conl.12708

    View details for Web of Science ID 000512962900001

  • Mobile protected areas for biodiversity on the high seas. Science (New York, N.Y.) Maxwell, S. M., Gjerde, K. M., Conners, M. G., Crowder, L. B. 2020; 367 (6475): 252–54

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaz9327

    View details for PubMedID 31949070

  • COVID-19 reveals vulnerability of small-scale fisheries to global market systems. The Lancet. Planetary health Knight, C. J., Burnham, T. L., Mansfield, E. J., Crowder, L. B., Micheli, F. n. 2020; 4 (6): e219

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30128-5

    View details for PubMedID 32559437

  • Fishers' solutions for hammerhead shark conservation in Peru BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Mason, J. G., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Mangel, J. C., Crowder, L. B., Ardoin, N. M. 2020; 243 (108460)
  • Rethinking megafauna. Proceedings. Biological sciences Moleón, M. n., Sánchez-Zapata, J. A., Donázar, J. A., Revilla, E. n., Martín-López, B. n., Gutiérrez-Cánovas, C. n., Getz, W. M., Morales-Reyes, Z. n., Campos-Arceiz, A. n., Crowder, L. B., Galetti, M. n., González-Suárez, M. n., He, F. n., Jordano, P. n., Lewison, R. n., Naidoo, R. n., Owen-Smith, N. n., Selva, N. n., Svenning, J. C., Tella, J. L., Zarfl, C. n., Jähnig, S. C., Hayward, M. W., Faurby, S. n., García, N. n., Barnosky, A. D., Tockner, K. n. 2020; 287 (1922): 20192643


    Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are 'megafauna'? Here, we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyse associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and palaeontologists to assess the species traits used to identify and define megafauna. Our review indicates that definitions are highly dependent on the study ecosystem and research question, and primarily rely on ad hoc size-related criteria. Our survey suggests that body size is crucial, but not necessarily sufficient, for addressing the different applications of the term megafauna. Thus, after discussing the pros and cons of existing definitions, we propose an additional approach by defining two function-oriented megafaunal concepts: 'keystone megafauna' and 'functional megafauna', with its variant 'apex megafauna'. Assessing megafauna from a functional perspective could challenge the perception that there may not be a unifying definition of megafauna that can be applied to all eco-evolutionary narratives. In addition, using functional definitions of megafauna could be especially conducive to cross-disciplinary understanding and cooperation, improvement of conservation policy and practice, and strengthening of public perception. As megafaunal research advances, we encourage scientists to unambiguously define how they use the term 'megafauna' and to present the logic underpinning their definition.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rspb.2019.2643

    View details for PubMedID 32126954

  • Impacts of a shift to a warm-water regime in the Gulf of California on jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) ICES JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE Frawley, T. H., Briscoe, D. K., Daniel, P. C., Britten, G. L., Crowder, L. B., Robinson, C. J., Gilly, W. F. 2019; 76 (7): 2413–26
  • Reaching consensus for conserving the global commons: The case of the Ross Sea, Antarctica CONSERVATION LETTERS Brooks, C. M., Crowder, L. B., Osterblom, H., Strong, A. L. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1111/conl.12676

    View details for Web of Science ID 000487364900001

  • Seasonal spatial segregation in blue sharks (Prionace glauca) by sex and size class in the Northeast Pacific Ocean DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS Maxwell, S. M., Scales, K. L., Bograd, S. J., Briscoe, D. K., Dewar, H., Hazen, E. L., Lewison, R. L., Welch, H., Crowder, L. B. 2019; 25 (8): 1304–17

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ddi.12941

    View details for Web of Science ID 000476676000010

  • The market for sustainable seafood drives transformative change in fishery social-ecological systems GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS Travaille, K., Lindley, J., Kendrick, G. A., Crowder, L. B., Clifton, J. 2019; 57
  • Community-level effects of spatial management in the California drift gillnet Fishery FISHERIES RESEARCH Mason, J. G., Hazen, E. L., Bograd, S. J., Dewar, H., Crowder, L. B. 2019; 214: 175–82
  • Key attributes related to fishery improvement project (FIP) effectiveness in promoting improvements towards sustainability FISH AND FISHERIES Travaille, K., Crowder, L. B., Kendrick, G. A., Clifton, J. 2019; 20 (3): 452–65

    View details for DOI 10.1111/faf.12357

    View details for Web of Science ID 000477638500004

  • Heterogeneous Perceptions of Social-Ecological Change Among Small-Scale Fishermen in the Central Gulf of California: Implications for Adaptive Response FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Frawley, T. H., Crowder, L. B., Broad, K. 2019; 6
  • Environmental and institutional degradation in the globalized economy: lessons from small-scale fisheries in the Gulf of California ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Frawley, T. H., Finkbeiner, E. M., Crowder, L. B. 2019; 24 (1)
  • Parsing human and biophysical drivers of coral reef regimes. Proceedings. Biological sciences Jouffray, J., Wedding, L. M., Norstrom, A. V., Donovan, M. K., Williams, G. J., Crowder, L. B., Erickson, A. L., Friedlander, A. M., Graham, N. A., Gove, J. M., Kappel, C. V., Kittinger, J. N., Lecky, J., Oleson, K. L., Selkoe, K. A., White, C., Williams, I. D., Nystrom, M. 2019; 286 (1896): 20182544


    Coral reefs worldwide face unprecedented cumulative anthropogenic effects of interacting local human pressures, global climate change and distal social processes. Reefs are also bound by the natural biophysical environment within which they exist. In this context, a key challenge for effective management is understanding how anthropogenic and biophysical conditions interact to drive distinct coral reef configurations. Here, we use machine learning to conduct explanatory predictions on reef ecosystems defined by both fish and benthic communities. Drawing on the most spatially extensive dataset available across the Hawaiian archipelago-20 anthropogenic and biophysical predictors over 620 survey sites-we model the occurrence of four distinct reef regimes and provide a novel approach to quantify the relative influence of human and environmental variables in shaping reef ecosystems. Our findings highlight the nuances of what underpins different coral reef regimes, the overwhelming importance of biophysical predictors and how a reef's natural setting may either expand or narrow the opportunity space for management interventions. The methods developed through this study can help inform reef practitioners and hold promises for replication across a broad range of ecosystems.

    View details for PubMedID 30963937

  • Parsing human and biophysical drivers of coral reef regimes PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Jouffray, J., Wedding, L. M., Norstrom, A. V., Donovan, M. K., Williams, G. J., Crowder, L. B., Erickson, A. L., Friedlander, A. M., Graham, N. J., Gove, J. M., Kappel, C. V., Kittinger, J. N., Lecky, J., Oleson, K. L., Selkoe, K. A., White, C., Williams, I. D., Nystrom, M. 2019; 286 (1896)
  • Marine Spatial Planning WORLD SEAS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION, VOL III: ECOLOGICAL ISSUES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, 2ND EDITION Santos, C., Ehler, C. N., Agardy, T., Andrade, F., Orbach, M. K., Crowder, L. B., Sheppard, C. 2019: 571–92
  • The changing social world of the oceans PREDICTING FUTURE OCEANS: SUSTAINABILITY OF OCEAN AND HUMAN SYSTEMS AMIDST GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE Crowder, L. B., Swartz, W., CisnerosMontemayor, A. M., Cheung, W. W., Ota, Y. 2019: 267–69
  • The impact of environmental change on small-scale fishing communities: moving beyond adaptive capacity to community response PREDICTING FUTURE OCEANS: SUSTAINABILITY OF OCEAN AND HUMAN SYSTEMS AMIDST GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE Oestreich, W. K., Frawley, T. H., Mansfield, E. J., Green, K. M., Green, S. J., Naggea, J., Selgrath, J. C., Swanson, S. S., Urteaga, J., White, T. D., Crowder, L. B., CisnerosMontemayor, A. M., Cheung, W. W., Ota, Y. 2019: 271–82
  • Combining fish and benthic communities into multiple regimes reveals complex reef dynamics. Scientific reports Donovan, M. K., Friedlander, A. M., Lecky, J., Jouffray, J., Williams, G. J., Wedding, L. M., Crowder, L. B., Erickson, A. L., Graham, N. A., Gove, J. M., Kappel, C. V., Karr, K., Kittinger, J. N., Norstrom, A. V., Nystrom, M., Oleson, K. L., Stamoulis, K. A., White, C., Williams, I. D., Selkoe, K. A. 2018; 8 (1): 16943


    Coral reefs worldwide face an uncertain future with many reefs reported to transition from being dominated by corals to macroalgae. However, given the complexity and diversity of the ecosystem, research on how regimes vary spatially and temporally is needed. Reef regimes are most often characterised by their benthic components; however, complex dynamics are associated with losses and gains in both fish and benthic assemblages. To capture this complexity, we synthesised 3,345 surveys from Hawai'i to define reef regimes in terms of both fish and benthic assemblages. Model-based clustering revealed five distinct regimes that varied ecologically, and were spatially heterogeneous by island, depth and exposure. We identified a regime characteristic of a degraded state with low coral cover and fish biomass, one that had low coral but high fish biomass, as well as three other regimes that varied significantly in their ecology but were previously considered a single coral dominated regime. Analyses of time series data reflected complex system dynamics, with multiple transitions among regimes that were a function of both local and global stressors. Coupling fish and benthic communities into reef regimes to capture complex dynamics holds promise for monitoring reef change and guiding ecosystem-based management of coral reefs.

    View details for PubMedID 30446687

  • Integrating Dynamic Subsurface Habitat Metrics Into Species Distribution Models FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Brodie, S., Jacox, M. G., Bograd, S. J., Welch, H., Dewar, H., Scales, K. L., Maxwel, S. M., Briscoe, D. M., Edwards, C. A., Crowder, L. B., Lewison, R. L., Hazen, E. L. 2018; 5
  • Safe Harbors: The Many Benefits of Marine Monuments and Sanctuaries FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Bruno, J. F., Saumweber, W., Crowder, L. B., Pendleton, L., Roady, S. E., Rouleau, T., Sakashita, M. 2018; 5
  • Uncertainty analysis and robust areas of high and low modeled human impact on the global oceans. Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Stock, A., Crowder, L. B., Halpern, B. S., Micheli, F. 2018


    Increasing anthropogenic pressure on marine ecosystems from fishing, pollution, climate change and other sources is a big concern in marine conservation. Scientists have thus developed spatial models to map cumulative human impacts on marine ecosystems. However, these models make many assumptions and incorporate data that suffer from substantial incompleteness and inaccuracies. Here, as opposed to using a single model, we used Monte Carlo simulations to identify which parts of the oceans are most and least impacted by anthropogenic stressors under seven simulated sources of uncertainty (factors), including errors in the input data and choices between alternative model assumptions. Most maps generated in the simulations agreed that high-impact areas were located in the Northeast Atlantic, the eastern Mediterranean, the Caribbean, the continental shelf off northern West Africa, offshore parts of the tropical Atlantic, the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, parts of East and Southeast Asia, parts of the northwestern Pacific, and in many coastal waters; and that large low-impact areas were located off Antarctica, in the central Pacific, and in the southern Atlantic. Uncertainty in the broad-scale spatial distribution of modeled human impact was caused by the aggregate effects of several factors, rather than being attributable to a single dominant source. In spite of the identified uncertainty in human impact maps, they can - at broad spatial scales and in combination with other environmental and socioeconomic information - point to priority areas for research and management.

    View details for PubMedID 29797608

  • A dynamic ocean management tool to reduce bycatch and support sustainable fisheries SCIENCE ADVANCES Hazen, E. L., Scales, K. L., Maxwell, S. M., Briscoe, D. K., Welch, H., Bograd, S. J., Bailey, H., Benson, S. R., Eguchi, T., Dewar, H., Kohin, S., Costa, D. P., Crowder, L. B., Lewison, R. L. 2018; 4 (5): eaar3001


    Seafood is an essential source of protein for more than 3 billion people worldwide, yet bycatch of threatened species in capture fisheries remains a major impediment to fisheries sustainability. Management measures designed to reduce bycatch often result in significant economic losses and even fisheries closures. Static spatial management approaches can also be rendered ineffective by environmental variability and climate change, as productive habitats shift and introduce new interactions between human activities and protected species. We introduce a new multispecies and dynamic approach that uses daily satellite data to track ocean features and aligns scales of management, species movement, and fisheries. To accomplish this, we create species distribution models for one target species and three bycatch-sensitive species using both satellite telemetry and fisheries observer data. We then integrate species-specific probabilities of occurrence into a single predictive surface, weighing the contribution of each species by management concern. We find that dynamic closures could be 2 to 10 times smaller than existing static closures while still providing adequate protection of endangered nontarget species. Our results highlight the opportunity to implement near real-time management strategies that would both support economically viable fisheries and meet mandated conservation objectives in the face of changing ocean conditions. With recent advances in eco-informatics, dynamic management provides a new climate-ready approach to support sustainable fisheries.

    View details for PubMedID 29854945

  • Characterizing habitat suitability for a central-place forager in a dynamic marine environment ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION Briscoe, D. K., Fossette, S., Scales, K. L., Hazen, E. L., Bograd, S. J., Maxwell, S. M., McHuron, E. A., Robinson, P. W., Kuhn, C., Costa, D. P., Crowder, L. B., Lewison, R. L. 2018; 8 (5): 2788–2801


    Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success. We explore how lactating females may select habitat and respond to environmental variability over broad spatial and temporal scales within the California Current System. We combine near-real-time remotely sensed satellite oceanography, animal tracking data (n = 72) from November to February over multiple years (2003-2009) and Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) to determine the probability of sea lion occurrence based on environmental covariates. Results indicate that sea lion presence is associated with cool (<14°C), productive waters, shallow depths, increased eddy activity, and positive sea-level anomalies. Predictive habitat maps generated from these biophysical associations suggest winter foraging areas are spatially consistent in the nearshore and offshore environments, except during the 2004-2005 winter, which coincided with an El Niño event. Here, we show how a species distribution model can provide broadscale information on the distribution of female California sea lions during an important life history stage and its implications for population dynamics and spatial management.

    View details for PubMedID 29531695

  • Advancing the integration of spatial data to map human and natural drivers on coral reefs PLOS ONE Wedding, L. M., Lecky, J., Gove, J. M., Walecka, H. R., Donovan, M. K., Williams, G. J., Jouffray, J., Crowder, L. B., Erickson, A., Falinski, K., Friedlander, A. M., Kappel, C. V., Kittinger, J. N., McCoy, K., Norstrom, A., Nystrom, M., Oleson, K. L., Stamoulis, K. A., White, C., Selkoe, K. A. 2018; 13 (3): e0189792


    A major challenge for coral reef conservation and management is understanding how a wide range of interacting human and natural drivers cumulatively impact and shape these ecosystems. Despite the importance of understanding these interactions, a methodological framework to synthesize spatially explicit data of such drivers is lacking. To fill this gap, we established a transferable data synthesis methodology to integrate spatial data on environmental and anthropogenic drivers of coral reefs, and applied this methodology to a case study location-the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Environmental drivers were derived from time series (2002-2013) of climatological ranges and anomalies of remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a, irradiance, and wave power. Anthropogenic drivers were characterized using empirically derived and modeled datasets of spatial fisheries catch, sedimentation, nutrient input, new development, habitat modification, and invasive species. Within our case study system, resulting driver maps showed high spatial heterogeneity across the MHI, with anthropogenic drivers generally greatest and most widespread on O'ahu, where 70% of the state's population resides, while sedimentation and nutrients were dominant in less populated islands. Together, the spatial integration of environmental and anthropogenic driver data described here provides a first-ever synthetic approach to visualize how the drivers of coral reef state vary in space and demonstrates a methodological framework for implementation of this approach in other regions of the world. By quantifying and synthesizing spatial drivers of change on coral reefs, we provide an avenue for further research to understand how drivers determine reef diversity and resilience, which can ultimately inform policies to protect coral reefs.

    View details for PubMedID 29494613

  • Spatial management in small-scale fisheries: A potential approach for climate change adaptation in Pacific Islands MARINE POLICY Le Cornu, E., Doerr, A. N., Finkbeiner, E. M., Gourlie, D., Crowder, L. B. 2018; 88: 350–58
  • Fit to predict? Eco-informatics for predicting the catchability of a pelagic fish in near real time ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Scales, K. L., Hazen, E. L., Maxwell, S. M., Dewar, H., Kohin, S., Jacox, M. G., Edwards, C. A., Briscoe, D. K., Crowder, L. B., Lewison, R. L., Bograd, S. J. 2017; 27 (8): 2313–29

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eap.1610

    View details for Web of Science ID 000416862700006

  • Fit to predict? Eco-informatics for predicting the catchability of a pelagic fish in near real time. Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America Scales, K. L., Hazen, E. L., Maxwell, S. M., Dewar, H., Kohin, S., Jacox, M. G., Edwards, C. A., Briscoe, D. K., Crowder, L. B., Lewison, R. L., Bograd, S. J. 2017; 27 (8): 2313-2329


    The ocean is a dynamic environment inhabited by a diverse array of highly migratory species, many of which are under direct exploitation in targeted fisheries. The timescales of variability in the marine realm coupled with the extreme mobility of ocean-wandering species such as tuna and billfish complicates fisheries management. Developing eco-informatics solutions that allow for near real-time prediction of the distributions of highly mobile marine species is an important step towards the maturation of dynamic ocean management and ecological forecasting. Using 25 yr (1990-2014) of NOAA fisheries' observer data from the California drift gillnet fishery, we model relative probability of occurrence (presence-absence) and catchability (total catch per gillnet set) of broadbill swordfish Xiphias gladius in the California Current System. Using freely available environmental data sets and open source software, we explore the physical drivers of regional swordfish distribution. Comparing models built upon remotely sensed data sets with those built upon a data-assimilative configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), we explore trade-offs in model construction, and address how physical data can affect predictive performance and operational capacity. Swordfish catchability was found to be highest in deeper waters (>1,500 m) with surface temperatures in the 14-20°C range, isothermal layer depth (ILD) of 20-40 m, positive sea surface height (SSH) anomalies, and during the new moon (<20% lunar illumination). We observed a greater influence of mesoscale variability (SSH, wind speed, isothermal layer depth, eddy kinetic energy) in driving swordfish catchability (total catch) than was evident in predicting the relative probability of presence (presence-absence), confirming the utility of generating spatiotemporally dynamic predictions. Data-assimilative ROMS circumvent the limitations of satellite remote sensing in providing physical data fields for species distribution models (e.g., cloud cover, variable resolution, subsurface data), and facilitate broad-scale prediction of dynamic species distributions in near real time.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eap.1610

    View details for PubMedID 28833890

  • Reconstructing overfishing: Moving beyond Malthus for effective and equitable solutions FISH AND FISHERIES Finkbeiner, E. M., Bennett, N. J., Frawley, T. H., Mason, J. G., Briscoe, D. K., Brooks, C. M., Ng, C. A., Ourens, R., Seto, K., Swanson, S., Urteaga, J., Crowder, L. B. 2017; 18 (6): 1180–91

    View details for DOI 10.1111/faf.12245

    View details for Web of Science ID 000413962500013

  • Committing to socially responsible seafood. Science (New York, N.Y.) Kittinger, J. N., Teh, L. C., Allison, E. H., Bennett, N. J., Crowder, L. B., Finkbeiner, E. M., Hicks, C., Scarton, C. G., Nakamura, K., Ota, Y., Young, J., Alifano, A., Apel, A., Arbib, A., Bishop, L., Boyle, M., Cisneros-Montemayor, A. M., Hunter, P., Le Cornu, E., Levine, M., Jones, R. S., Koehn, J. Z., Marschke, M., Mason, J. G., Micheli, F., McClenachan, L., Opal, C., Peacey, J., Peckham, S. H., Schemmel, E., Solis-Rivera, V., Swartz, W., Wilhelm, T. '. 2017; 356 (6341): 912-913

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aam9969

    View details for PubMedID 28572354

  • Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States. Bioscience Mason, J. G., Rudd, M. A., Crowder, L. B. 2017; 67 (5): 418-428


    Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Significant priority differences were that scientists favored research questions about ocean acidification and marine protected areas; policymakers prioritized questions about habitat restoration, bycatch, and precaution; and fisheries sector resource users called for the inclusion of local ecological knowledge in policymaking. These results quantitatively demonstrate how different stakeholder groups approach ocean issues and highlight the need to incorporate other types of knowledge in the codesign of solutions-oriented research, which may facilitate cross-sectoral collaboration.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/biosci/biw172

    View details for PubMedID 28533565

  • Avoiding a crisis of motivation for ocean management under global environmental change. Global change biology Mumby, P. J., Sanchirico, J. N., Broad, K., Beck, M. W., Tyedmers, P., Morikawa, M., Okey, T. A., Crowder, L. B., Fulton, E. A., Kelso, D., Kleypas, J. A., Munch, S. B., Glynn, P., Matthews, K., Lubchenco, J. 2017


    Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues. Using diverse case studies, including the decline of coral reefs, coastal defences from flooding, shifting fish stocks and the emergence of new shipping opportunities in the Arctic, we argue that human interests are better served by increased investments in resource management. But greater government investment in management does not simply mean more of "business-as-usual." Management needs to become more flexible, better at anticipating and responding to surprise, and able to facilitate change where it is desirable. A range of technological, economic, communication and governance solutions exists to help transform management. While not all have been tested, judicious application of the most appropriate solutions should help humanity adapt to novel circumstances and seek opportunity where possible.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/gcb.13698

    View details for PubMedID 28447373

  • Science-based management in decline in the Southern Ocean. Science Brooks, C. M., Crowder, L. B., Curran, L. M., Dunbar, R. B., Ainley, D. G., Dodds, K. J., Gjerde, K. M., Sumaila, U. R. 2016; 354 (6309): 185-187

    View details for PubMedID 27738163

  • Translating sustainable seafood frameworks to assess the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management FISHERIES RESEARCH Hazen, L., Le Cornu, E., Zerbe, A., Martone, R., Erickson, A. L., Crowder, L. B. 2016; 182: 149-157
  • Ocean planning in a changing climate NATURE GEOSCIENCE Santos, C., Agardy, T., Andrade, F., Barange, M., Crowder, L. B., Ehler, C. N., Orbach, M. K., Rosa, R. 2016; 9 (10): 730

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ngeo2821

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385373000002

  • Bright spots among the world's coral reefs NATURE Cinner, J. E., Huchery, C., MacNeil, M. A., Graham, N. A., McClanahan, T. R., Maina, J., Maire, E., Kittinger, J. N., Hicks, C. C., Mora, C., Allison, E. H., D'Agata, S., Hoey, A., Feary, D. A., Crowder, L., Williams, I. D., Kulbicki, M., Vigliola, L., Wantiez, L., Edgar, G., Stuart-Smith, R. D., Sandin, S. A., Green, A. L., Hardt, M. J., Beger, M., Friedlander, A., Campbell, S. J., Holmes, K. E., Wilson, S. K., Brokovich, E., Brooks, A. J., Cruz-Motta, J. J., Booth, D. J., Chabanet, P., Gough, C., Tupper, M., Ferse, S. C., Sumaila, U. R., Mouillot, D. 2016; 535 (7612): 416-?


    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them3. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine6. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries governance, particularly aspects such as participation and property rights, could facilitate innovative conservation actions that help communities defy expectations of global reef degradation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature18607

    View details for Web of Science ID 000380344200039

    View details for PubMedID 27309809

  • Active dispersal in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) during the 'lost years' PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Briscoe, D. K., Parker, D. M., Balazs, G. H., Kurita, M., Saito, T., Okamoto, H., Rice, M., Polovina, J. J., Crowder, L. B. 2016; 283 (1832)


    Highly migratory marine species can travel long distances and across entire ocean basins to reach foraging and breeding grounds, yet gaps persist in our knowledge of oceanic dispersal and habitat use. This is especially true for sea turtles, whose complex life history and lengthy pelagic stage present unique conservation challenges. Few studies have explored how these young at-sea turtles navigate their environment, but advancements in satellite technology and numerical models have shown that active and passive movements are used in relation to open ocean features. Here, we provide the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to simultaneously combine a high-resolution physical forcing ocean circulation model with long-term multi-year tracking data of young, trans-oceanic North Pacific loggerhead sea turtles during their 'lost years' at sea. From 2010 to 2014, we compare simulated trajectories of passive transport with empirical data of 1-3 year old turtles released off Japan (29.7-37.5 straight carapace length cm). After several years, the at-sea distribution of simulated current-driven trajectories significantly differed from that of the observed turtle tracks. These results underscore current theories on active dispersal by young oceanic-stage sea turtles and give further weight to hypotheses of juvenile foraging strategies for this species. Such information can also provide critical geographical information for spatially explicit conservation approaches to this endangered population.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rspb.2016.0690

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378318700019

    View details for PubMedID 27252021

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4920322

  • Social drivers forewarn of marine regime shifts FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Hicks, C. C., Crowder, L. B., Graham, N. A., Kittinger, J. N., Le Cornu, E. 2016; 14 (5): 253-261

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fee.1284

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378272200015

  • Multi-year tracking reveals extensive pelagic phase of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in the North Pacific. Movement ecology Briscoe, D. K., Parker, D. M., Bograd, S., Hazen, E., Scales, K., Balazs, G. H., Kurita, M., Saito, T., Okamoto, H., Rice, M., Polovina, J. J., Crowder, L. B. 2016; 4: 23-?


    The juvenile stage of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) can last for decades. In the North Pacific Ocean, much is known about their seasonal movements in relation to pelagic habitat, yet understanding their multi-year, basin-scale movements has proven more difficult. Here, we categorize the large-scale movements of 231 turtles satellite tracked from 1997 to 2013 and explore the influence of biological and environmental drivers on basin-scale movement.Results show high residency of juvenile loggerheads within the Central North Pacific and a moderate influence of the Earth's magnetic field, but no real-time environmental driver to explain migratory behavior.We suggest the Central North Pacific acts as important developmental foraging grounds for young juvenile loggerhead sea turtles, rather than just a migratory corridor. We propose several hypotheses that may influence the connectivity between western and eastern juvenile loggerhead foraging grounds in the North Pacific Ocean.

    View details for PubMedID 27729983

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5048666

  • Are we missing important areas in pelagic marine conservation? Redefining conservation hotspots in the ocean ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH Briscoe, D. K., Maxwell, S. M., Kudela, R., Crowder, L. B., Croll, D. 2016; 29 (3): 229-237

    View details for DOI 10.3354/esr00710

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370181900004

  • Filling historical data gaps to foster solutions in marine conservation OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT Thurstan, R. H., McClenachan, L., Crowder, L. B., Drew, J. A., Kittinger, J. N., Levin, P. S., Roberts, C. M., Pandolfi, J. M. 2015; 115: 31-40
  • Dynamic ocean management: Defining and conceptualizing real-time management of the ocean MARINE POLICY Maxwell, S. M., Hazen, E. L., Lewison, R. L., Dunn, D. C., Bailey, H., Bograd, S. J., Briscoe, D. K., Fossette, S., Hobday, A. J., Bennett, M., Benson, S., Caldwell, M. R., Costa, D. P., Dewar, H., Eguchi, T., Hazen, L., Kohin, S., Sippel, T., Crowder, L. B. 2015; 58: 42-50
  • OCEANS. Managing mining of the deep seabed. Science Wedding, L. M., Reiter, S. M., Smith, C. R., Gjerde, K. M., Kittinger, J. N., Friedlander, A. M., Gaines, S. D., CLARK, M. R., Thurnherr, A. M., Hardy, S. M., Crowder, L. B. 2015; 349 (6244): 144-145

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aac6647

    View details for PubMedID 26160934

  • Dynamic Ocean Management: Identifying the Critical Ingredients of Dynamic Approaches to Ocean Resource Management BIOSCIENCE Lewison, R., Hobday, A. J., Maxwell, S., Hazen, E., Hartog, J. R., Dunn, D. C., Briscoe, D., Fossette, S., O'Keefe, C. E., Barnes, M., Abecassis, M., Bograd, S., Bethoney, N. D., Bailey, H., Wiley, D., Andrews, S., Hazen, L., Crowder, L. B. 2015; 65 (5): 486-498
  • Thresholds in Caribbean coral reefs: implications for ecosystem-based fishery management JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY Karr, K. A., Fujita, R., Halpern, B. S., Kappel, C. V., Crowder, L., Selkoe, K. A., Alcolado, P. M., Rader, D. 2015; 52 (2): 402-412
  • Managing Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries for Adaptive Capacity: Insights from Dynamic Social-Ecological Drivers of Change in Monterey Bay PLOS ONE Aguilera, S. E., Cole, J., Finkbeiner, E. M., Le Cornu, E., Ban, N. C., Carr, M. H., Cinner, J. E., Crowder, L. B., Gelcich, S., Hicks, C. C., Kittinger, J. N., Martone, R., Malone, D., Pomeroy, C., Starr, R. M., Seram, S., Zuercher, R., Broad, K. 2015; 10 (3)


    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0118992

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351425400059

    View details for PubMedID 25790464

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4366077

  • A Comparison of Small-Scale Fisheries Governability: Baja California Sur, Mexico and the Hawaiian Islands INTERACTIVE GOVERNANCE FOR SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES: GLOBAL REFLECTIONS Finkbeiner, E. M., Ayers, A. L., Kittinger, J. N., Crowder, L. B., Jentoft, S., Chuenpagdee, R. 2015; 13: 199–221
  • A practical approach for putting people in ecosystem-based ocean planning FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Kittinger, J. N., Koehn, J. Z., Le Cornu, E., Ban, N. C., Gopnik, M., Armsby, M., Brooks, C., Carr, M. H., Cinner, J. E., Cravens, A., D'Iorio, M., Erickson, A., Finkbeiner, E. M., Foley, M. M., Fujita, R., Gelcich, S., St Martin, K., Prahler, E., Reineman, D. R., Shackeroff, J., White, C., Caldwell, M. R., Crowder, L. B. 2014; 12 (8): 448-456

    View details for DOI 10.1890/130267

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342958700015

  • Current Practice and Future Prospects for Social Data in Coastal and Ocean Planning CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Le Cornu, E., Kittinger, J. N., Koehn, J. Z., Finkbeiner, E. M., Crowder, L. B. 2014; 28 (4): 902-911


    Coastal and ocean planning comprises a broad field of practice. The goals, political processes, and approaches applied to planning initiatives may vary widely. However, all planning processes ultimately require adequate information on both the biophysical and social attributes of a planning region. In coastal and ocean planning practice, there are well-established methods to assess biophysical attributes; however, less is understood about the role and assessment of social data. We conducted the first global assessment of the incorporation of social data in coastal and ocean planning. We drew on a comprehensive review of planning initiatives and a survey of coastal and ocean practitioners. There was significantly more incorporation of social data in multiuse versus conservation-oriented planning. Practitioners engaged a wide range of social data, including governance, economic, and cultural attributes of planning regions and human impacts data. Less attention was given to ecosystem services and social-ecological linkages, both of which could improve coastal and ocean planning practice. Although practitioners recognize the value of social data, little funding is devoted to its collection and incorporation in plans. Increased capacity and sophistication in acquiring critical social and ecological data for planning is necessary to develop plans for more resilient coastal and ocean ecosystems and communities. We suggest that improving social data monitoring, and in particular spatial social data, to complement biophysical data, is necessary for providing holistic information for decision-support tools and other methods. Moving beyond people as impacts to people as beneficiaries, through ecosystem services assessments, holds much potential to better incorporate the tenets of ecosystem-based management into coastal and ocean planning by providing targets for linked biodiversity conservation and human welfare outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cobi.12310

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339501100003

  • Increased nesting, good survival and variable site fidelity for leatherback turtles in Florida, USA BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Stewart, K. R., Martin, K. J., Johnson, C., Desjardin, N., Eckert, S. A., Crowder, L. B. 2014; 176: 117-125
  • Patterns and potential drivers of declining oxygen content along the southern California coast LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY Booth, J. A., Woodson, C. B., Sutula, M., Micheli, F., Weisberg, S. B., Bograd, S. J., Steele, A., Schoen, J., Crowder, L. B. 2014; 59 (4): 1127-1138
  • Environmental monitoring. Harnessing DNA to improve environmental management. Science Kelly, R. P., Port, J. A., Yamahara, K. M., Martone, R. G., Lowell, N., Thomsen, P. F., Mach, M. E., Bennett, M., Prahler, E., Caldwell, M. R., Crowder, L. B. 2014; 344 (6191): 1455-1456

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1251156

    View details for PubMedID 24970068

  • A system-wide approach to supporting improvements in seafood production practices and outcomes FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Micheli, F., De Leo, G., Shester, G. G., Martone, R. G., Lluch-Cota, S. E., Butner, C., Crowder, L. B., Fujita, R., Gelcich, S., Jams, M., Lester, S. E., McCay, B., Pelc, R., Saenz-Arroyo, A. 2014; 12 (5): 297-305

    View details for DOI 10.1890/110257

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336940100017

  • Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Lewison, R. L., Crowder, L. B., Wallace, B. P., Moore, J. E., Cox, T., Zydelis, R., McDonald, S., Dimatteo, A., Dunn, D. C., Kot, C. Y., Bjorkland, R., Kelez, S., Soykan, C., Stewart, K. R., Sims, M., Boustany, A., Read, A. J., Halpin, P., Nichols, W. J., Safina, C. 2014; 111 (14): 5271-5276


    Recent research on ocean health has found large predator abundance to be a key element of ocean condition. Fisheries can impact large predator abundance directly through targeted capture and indirectly through incidental capture of nontarget species or bycatch. However, measures of the global nature of bycatch are lacking for air-breathing megafauna. We fill this knowledge gap and present a synoptic global assessment of the distribution and intensity of bycatch of seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles based on empirical data from the three most commonly used types of fishing gears worldwide. We identify taxa-specific hotspots of bycatch intensity and find evidence of cumulative impacts across fishing fleets and gears. This global map of bycatch illustrates where data are particularly scarce--in coastal and small-scale fisheries and ocean regions that support developed industrial fisheries and millions of small-scale fishers--and identifies fishing areas where, given the evidence of cumulative hotspots across gear and taxa, traditional species or gear-specific bycatch management and mitigation efforts may be necessary but not sufficient. Given the global distribution of bycatch and the mitigation success achieved by some fleets, the reduction of air-breathing megafauna bycatch is both an urgent and achievable conservation priority.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1318960111

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333985200056

    View details for PubMedID 24639512

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3986184

  • Using environmental DNA to census marine fishes in a large mesocosm. PloS one Kelly, R. P., Port, J. A., Yamahara, K. M., Crowder, L. B. 2014; 9 (1)


    The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0086175

    View details for PubMedID 24454960

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3893283

  • The Future of Marine Conservation and Management MARINE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION Ruckelshaus, M. H., Kareiva, P. M., Crowder, L. B., Bertness, M. D., Bruno, J. F., Silliman, B. R., Stachowicz, J. J. 2014: 517–43
  • Cumulative human impacts on marine predators. Nature communications Maxwell, S. M., Hazen, E. L., Bograd, S. J., Halpern, B. S., Breed, G. A., Nickel, B., Teutschel, N. M., Crowder, L. B., Benson, S., Dutton, P. H., Bailey, H., Kappes, M. A., Kuhn, C. E., Weise, M. J., Mate, B., Shaffer, S. A., Hassrick, J. L., Henry, R. W., Irvine, L., McDonald, B. I., Robinson, P. W., Block, B. A., Costa, D. P. 2013; 4: 2688-?


    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms3688

    View details for PubMedID 24162104

  • Improving Ocean Management through the Use of Ecological Principles and Integrated Ecosyste Assessments BIOSCIENCE Foley, M. M., Armsby, M. H., Prahler, E. E., Caldwell, M. R., Erickson, A. L., Kittinger, J. N., Crowder, L. B., Levin, P. S. 2013; 63 (8): 619-631
  • Predicted habitat shifts of Pacific top predators in a changing climate NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Hazen, E. L., Jorgensen, S., Rykaczewski, R. R., Bograd, S. J., Foley, D. G., Jonsen, I. D., Shaffer, S. A., Dunne, J. P., Costa, D. P., Crowder, L. B., Block, B. A. 2013; 3 (3): 234-238
  • Impacts of fisheries bycatch on marine turtle populations worldwide: toward conservation and research priorities ECOSPHERE Wallace, B. P., Kot, C. Y., DiMatteo, A. D., Lee, T., Crowder, L. B., Lewison, R. L. 2013; 4 (3)
  • Moving beyond the fished or farmed dichotomy MARINE POLICY Klinger, D. H., Turnipseed, M., Anderson, J. L., Asche, F., Crowder, L. B., Guttormsen, A. G., Halpern, B. S., O'Connor, M. I., Sagarin, R., Selkoe, K. A., Shester, G. G., Smith, M. D., Tyedmers, P. 2013; 38: 369-374
  • Cumulative human impacts on marine predators. Nature communications Maxwell, S. M., Hazen, E. L., Bograd, S. J., Halpern, B. S., Breed, G. A., Nickel, B., Teutschel, N. M., Crowder, L. B., Benson, S., Dutton, P. H., Bailey, H., Kappes, M. A., Kuhn, C. E., Weise, M. J., Mate, B., Shaffer, S. A., Hassrick, J. L., Henry, R. W., Irvine, L., McDonald, B. I., Robinson, P. W., Block, B. A., Costa, D. P. 2013; 4: 2688-?


    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms3688

    View details for PubMedID 24162104

  • An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean NATURE Halpern, B. S., Longo, C., Hardy, D., McLeod, K. L., Samhouri, J. F., Katona, S. K., Kleisner, K., Lester, S. E., O'Leary, J., Ranelletti, M., Rosenberg, A. A., Scarborough, C., Selig, E. R., Best, B. D., Brumbaugh, D. R., Chapin, F. S., Crowder, L. B., Daly, K. L., Doney, S. C., Elfes, C., Fogarty, M. J., Gaines, S. D., Jacobsen, K. I., Karrer, L. B., Leslie, H. M., Neeley, E., Pauly, D., Polasky, S., Ris, B., St Martin, K., Stone, G. S., Sumaila, U. R., Zeller, D. 2012; 488 (7413): 615-?


    The ocean plays a critical role in supporting human well-being, from providing food, livelihoods and recreational opportunities to regulating the global climate. Sustainable management aimed at maintaining the flow of a broad range of benefits from the ocean requires a comprehensive and quantitative method to measure and monitor the health of coupled human–ocean systems. We created an index comprising ten diverse public goals for a healthy coupled human–ocean system and calculated the index for every coastal country. Globally, the overall index score was 60 out of 100 (range 36–86), with developed countries generally performing better than developing countries, but with notable exceptions. Only 5% of countries scored higher than 70, whereas 32% scored lower than 50. The index provides a powerful tool to raise public awareness, direct resource management, improve policy and prioritize scientific research.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature11397

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308095100048

    View details for PubMedID 22895186

  • Human Dimensions of Coral Reef Social-Ecological Systems ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Kittinger, J. N., Finkbeiner, E. M., Glazier, E. W., Crowder, L. B. 2012; 17 (4)
  • Cumulative estimates of sea turtle bycatch and mortality in USA fisheries between 1990 and 2007 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Finkbeiner, E. M., Wallace, B. P., Moore, J. E., Lewison, R. L., Crowder, L. B., Read, A. J. 2011; 144 (11): 2719-2727
  • Valuing Ecosystem Services with Fishery Rents: A Lumped-Parameter Approach to Hypoxia in the Neuse River Estuary SUSTAINABILITY Smith, M. D., Crowder, L. B. 2011; 3 (11): 2229-2267

    View details for DOI 10.3390/su3112229

    View details for Web of Science ID 000208763800011

  • Guiding ecological principles for marine spatial planning MARINE POLICY Foley, M. M., Halpern, B. S., Micheli, F., Armsby, M. H., Caldwell, M. R., Crain, C. M., Prahler, E., Rohr, N., Sivas, D., Beck, M. W., Carr, M. H., Crowder, L. B., Duffy, J. E., Hacker, S. D., McLeod, K. L., Palumbi, S. R., Peterson, C. H., Regan, H. M., Ruckelshaus, M. H., Sandifer, P. A., Steneck, R. S. 2010; 34 (5): 955-966
  • Sustainability and Global Seafood SCIENCE Smith, M. D., Roheim, C. A., Crowder, L. B., Halpern, B. S., Turnipseed, M., Anderson, J. L., Asche, F., Bourillon, L., Guttormsen, A. G., Khan, A., Liguori, L. A., Mcnevin, A., O'Connor, M. I., Squires, D., Tyedmers, P., Brownstein, C., Carden, K., Klinger, D. H., Sagarin, R., Selkoe, K. A. 2010; 327 (5967): 784-786

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1185345

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274408300025

    View details for PubMedID 20150469

  • Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles PLOS ONE Peckham, S. H., Maldonado Diaz, D., Walli, A., Ruiz, G., Crowder, L. B., Nichols, W. J. 2007; 2 (10)


    Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna.30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996-2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year(-1), rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge.Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in partnership with small-scale fishers may provide a crucial solution toward ensuring the persistence of vulnerable megafauna.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0001041

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207456100009

    View details for PubMedID 17940605

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2002513

  • Effects of stocking-up freshwater food webs TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION Eby, L. A., Roach, W. J., Crowder, L. B., Stanford, J. A. 2006; 21 (10): 576-584


    The establishment of exotic game fishes to enhance recreational fisheries through authorized and unauthorized stocking into freshwater systems is a global phenomenon. Stocked fishes are often top predators that either replace native top predators or increase the species richness of top predators. Many direct effects of stocking have been documented, but the ecosystem consequences are seldom quantified. New studies increasingly document how species and community shifts influence ecosystem processes. We discuss here how predator stocking might increase top-down effects, alter nutrient cycles and decrease links between aquatic and surrounding terrestrial ecosystems. As fisheries management moves beyond species-specific utilitarian objectives to incorporate ecosystem and conservation goals, ecologists must address how common management practices alter food-web structure and subsequent ecosystem-level effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tree.2006.06.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241256900008

    View details for PubMedID 16828522