Bio


Mark Brongersma is a Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University. He received his PhD in Materials Science from the FOM Institute in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 1998. From 1998-2001 he was a postdoctoral research fellow at the California Institute of Technology. During this time, he coined the term “Plasmonics” for a new device technology that exploits the unique optical properties of nanoscale metallic structures to route and manipulate light at the nanoscale. His current research is directed towards the development and physical analysis of nanostructured materials that find application in nanoscale electronic and photonic devices. Brongersma received a National Science Foundation Career Award, the Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching, the International Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize in the Physical Sciences (Physics) for his work on plasmonics, and is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, the SPIE, and the American Physical Society.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Deputy Director of the Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford (2013 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Fellow, SPIE (2011)
  • Fellow, American Physical Society (2010)
  • Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize in the Physical Sciences for Physics, Tel Aviv University (2010)
  • Fellow, Optical Society of America (2008)
  • Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching, Stanford (2007)
  • CAREER Award, National Science Foundation (2004)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Co-founder of Rolith, Inc, Rolith, Inc; http://www.rolith.com/ (2008 - Present)
  • Member, The Bohmische Physical Society (1999 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Materials Science and Engineering (1998)

2018-19 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Optical emission near a high-impedance mirror. Nature communications Esfandyarpour, M., Curto, A. G., Kik, P. G., Engheta, N., Brongersma, M. L. 2018; 9 (1): 3224

    Abstract

    Solid state light emitters rely on metallic contacts with a high sheet-conductivity for effective charge injection. Unfortunately, such contacts also support surface plasmon polariton and lossy wave excitations that dissipate optical energy into the metal and limit the external quantum efficiency. Here, inspired by the concept of radio-frequency high-impedance surfaces and their use in conformal antennas we illustrate how electrodes can be nanopatterned to simultaneously provide a high DC electrical conductivity and high-impedance at optical frequencies. Such electrodes do not support SPPs across the visible spectrum and greatly suppress dissipative losses while facilitating a desirable Lambertian emission profile. We verify this concept by studying the emission enhancement and photoluminescence lifetime for a dye emitter layer deposited on the electrodes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-05505-w

    View details for PubMedID 30104605

  • Electrochemical Fabrication of Flat, Polymer-Embedded Porous Silicon 1D Gradient Refractive Index Microlens Arrays Krueger, N. A., Holsteen, A. L., Zhao, Q., Kang, S., Ocier, C. R., Zhou, W., Mensing, G., Rogers, J. A., Brongersma, M. L., Braun, P. V. WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH. 2018
  • Metasurface Mirrors for External Control of Mie Resonances. Nano letters van de Groep, J., Brongersma, M. L. 2018

    Abstract

    The ability to control and structurally tune the optical resonances of semiconductor nanostructures has far-reaching implications for a wide range of optical applications, including photodetectors, (bio)sensors, and photovoltaics. Such control is commonly obtained by tailoring the nanostructure's geometry, material, or dielectric environment. Here, we combine insights from the field of coherent optics and metasurface mirrors to effectively turn Mie resonances on and off with high spatial control and in a polarization-dependent fashion. We illustrate this in an integrated device by manipulating the photocurrent spectra of a single-nanowire photodetector placed on a metasurface mirror. This approach can be generalized to control spectral, angle-dependent, absorption, and scattering properties of semiconductor nanostructures with an engineered metasurface and without a need to alter their geometric or materials properties.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01148

    View details for PubMedID 29787285

  • Silicon Mie resonators for highly directional light emission from monolayer MoS2 NATURE PHOTONICS Cihan, A., Curto, A. G., Raza, S., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L. 2018; 12 (5): 284-+
  • Spatially controlled doping of two-dimensional SnS2 through intercalation for electronics NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Gong, Y., Yuan, H., Wu, C., Tang, P., Yang, S., Yang, A., Li, G., Liu, B., van de Groep, J., Brongersma, M. L., Chisholm, M. F., Zhang, S., Zhou, W., Cui, Y. 2018; 13 (4): 294-+

    Abstract

    Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices 1 . In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface2,3. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits4-9. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development 10 . Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturally grown n-type S-vacancy SnS2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of ~40 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the obtained Co-SnS2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene 5 . Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p-n-metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41565-018-0069-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000429935600013

    View details for PubMedID 29483599

  • Tuning of Plasmons in Transparent Conductive Oxides by Carrier Accumulation ACS PHOTONICS Liu, X., Kang, J., Yuan, H., Park, J., Cui, Y., Hwang, H. Y., Brongersma, M. L. 2018; 5 (4): 1493–98
  • Thermoplasmonic Ignition of Metal Nanoparticles NANO LETTERS Mutlu, M., Kang, J., Raza, S., Schoen, D., Zheng, X., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L. 2018; 18 (3): 1699–1706

    Abstract

    Explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics are energetic materials that can store and quickly release tremendous amounts of chemical energy. Aluminum (Al) is a particularly important fuel in many applications because of its high energy density, which can be released in a highly exothermic oxidation process. The diffusive oxidation mechanism (DOM) and melt-dispersion mechanism (MDM) explain the ways powders of Al nanoparticles (NPs) can burn, but little is known about the possible use of plasmonic resonances in NPs to manipulate photoignition. This is complicated by the inhomogeneous nature of powders and very fast heating and burning rates. Here, we generate Al NPs with well-defined sizes, shapes, and spacings by electron beam lithography and demonstrate that their plasmonic resonances can be exploited to heat and ignite them with a laser. By combining simulations with thermal-emission, electron-, and optical-microscopy studies, we reveal how an improved control over NP ignition can be attained.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04739

    View details for Web of Science ID 000427910600019

    View details for PubMedID 29356548

  • Anti-Hermitian photodetector facilitating efficient subwavelength photon sorting NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Kim, S., Kang, J., Mutlu, M., Park, J., Park, W., Goodson, K. E., Sinclair, R., Fan, S., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L. 2018; 9: 316

    Abstract

    The ability to split an incident light beam into separate wavelength bands is central to a diverse set of optical applications, including imaging, biosensing, communication, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics. Entirely new opportunities are currently emerging with the recently demonstrated possibility to spectrally split light at a subwavelength scale with optical antennas. Unfortunately, such small structures offer limited spectral control and are hard to exploit in optoelectronic devices. Here, we overcome both challenges and demonstrate how within a single-layer metafilm one can laterally sort photons of different wavelengths below the free-space diffraction limit and extract a useful photocurrent. This chipscale demonstration of anti-Hermitian coupling between resonant photodetector elements also facilitates near-unity photon-sorting efficiencies, near-unity absorption, and a narrow spectral response (∼ 30 nm) for the different wavelength channels. This work opens up entirely new design paradigms for image sensors and energy harvesting systems in which the active elements both sort and detect photons.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-017-02496-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000422915700011

    View details for PubMedID 29358626

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5778063

  • Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas SCIENCE Holsteen, A. L., Raza, S., Fan, P., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L. 2017; 358 (6369): 1407–10

    Abstract

    Subwavelength, high-refractive index semiconductor nanostructures support optical resonances that endow them with valuable antenna functions. Control over the intrinsic properties, including their complex refractive index, size, and geometry, has been used to manipulate fundamental light absorption, scattering, and emission processes in nanostructured optoelectronic devices. In this study, we harness the electric and magnetic resonances of such antennas to achieve a very strong dependence of the optical properties on the external environment. Specifically, we illustrate how the resonant scattering wavelength of single silicon nanowires is tunable across the entire visible spectrum by simply moving the height of the nanowires above a metallic mirror. We apply this concept by using a nanoelectromechanical platform to demonstrate active tuning.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aao5371

    View details for Web of Science ID 000417918500035

    View details for PubMedID 29242341

  • Metasurface electrode light emitting diodes with planar light control SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Park, Y., Kim, J., Cho, K., Kim, H., Lee, M., Lee, J., Kim, U., Hwang, S., Brongersma, M. L., Roh, Y., Park, Q. 2017; 7: 14753

    Abstract

    The ability of metasurfaces to manipulate light at the subwavelength scale offers unprecedented functionalities for passive and active lasing devices. However, applications of metasurfaces to optical devices are rare due to fabrication difficulties. Here, we present quantum dot light emitting diodes (QDLEDs) with a metasurface-integrated metal electrode and demonstrate microscopically controlled LED emission. By incorporating slot-groove antennas into the metal electrode, we show that LED emission from randomly polarized QD sources can be polarized and directed at will. Utilizing the relation between polarization and emission direction, we also demonstrate microscopic LED beam splitting through the selective choice of polarization.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-15254-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000414569100043

    View details for PubMedID 29116150

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5677004

  • Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Liu, X., Kang, H., Yuan, H., Park, J., Kim, S., Cui, Y., Hwang, H. Y., Brongersma, M. L. 2017; 12 (9): 866-+

    Abstract

    Surface plasmon (SP) excitations in metals facilitate confinement of light into deep-subwavelength volumes and can induce strong light-matter interaction. Generally, the SP resonances supported by noble metal nanostructures are explained well by classical models, at least until the nanostructure size is decreased to a few nanometres, approaching the Fermi wavelength λF of the electrons. Although there is a long history of reports on quantum size effects in the plasmonic response of nanometre-sized metal particles, systematic experimental studies have been hindered by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble measurements, as well as imperfect control over size, shape, faceting, surface reconstructions, contamination, charging effects and surface roughness in single-particle measurements. In particular, observation of the quantum size effect in metallic films and its tuning with thickness has been challenging as they only confine carriers in one direction. Here, we show active tuning of quantum size effects in SP resonances supported by a 20-nm-thick metallic film of indium tin oxide (ITO), a plasmonic material serving as a low-carrier-density Drude metal. An ionic liquid (IL) is used to electrically gate and partially deplete the ITO layer. The experiment shows a controllable and reversible blue-shift in the SP resonance above a critical voltage. A quantum-mechanical model including the quantum size effect reproduces the experimental results, whereas a classical model only predicts a red shift.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NNANO.2017.103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000409361800011

    View details for PubMedID 28604706

  • Applying plasmonics to a sustainable future. Science (New York, N.Y.) Naldoni, A., Shalaev, V. M., Brongersma, M. L. 2017; 356 (6341): 908-909

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aan5802

    View details for PubMedID 28572352

  • CMOS Compatible High-speed Electro-optical Modulator Kekatpure, D., Brongersma, M., L.
  • Observing Plasmon Damping Due to Adhesion Layers in Gold Nanostructures Using Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy ACS PHOTONICS Madsen, S. J., Esfandyarpour, M., Brongersma, M. L., Sinclair, R. 2017; 4 (2): 268-274
  • Spin-Controlled Multifunctional Metasurfaces Maguid, E., Yulevich, I., Yannai, M., Kleiner, V., Brongersma, M. L., Hasman, E., IEEE IEEE. 2017
  • All-Silica Multifunctional Beam Information Detector without Destroying Original Wave Fronts Li, Q., Dong, F., Wang, B., Chu, W., Gong, Q., Brongersma, M. L., Li, Y., IEEE IEEE. 2017
  • Dynamic Reflection Phase and Polarization Control in Metasurfaces NANO LETTERS Park, J., Kang, J., Kim, S. J., Liu, X., Brongersma, M. L. 2017; 17 (1): 407-413

    Abstract

    Optical metasurfaces are two-dimensional optical elements composed of dense arrays of subwavelength optical antennas and afford on-demand manipulation of the basic properties of light waves. Following the pioneering works on active metasurfaces capable of modulating wave amplitude, there is now a growing interest to dynamically control other fundamental properties of light. Here, we present metasurfaces that facilitate electrical tuning of the reflection phase and polarization properties. To realize these devices, we leverage the properties of actively controlled plasmonic antennas and fundamental insights provided by coupled mode theory. Indium-tin-oxide is embedded into gap-plasmon resonator-antennas as it offers electrically tunable optical properties. By judiciously controlling the resonant properties of the antennas from under- to overcoupling regimes, we experimentally demonstrate tuning of the reflection phase over 180°. This work opens up new design strategies for active metasurfaces for displacement measurements and tunable waveplates.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04378

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392036600058

    View details for PubMedID 27936784

  • Active flat optics using a guided mode resonance OPTICS LETTERS Kim, S. J., Brongersma, M. L. 2017; 42 (1): 5-8

    Abstract

    Dynamically-controlled flat optics relies on achieving active and effective control over light-matter interaction in ultrathin layers. A variety of metasurface designs have achieved efficient amplitude and phase modulation. Particularly, noteworthy progress has been made with the incorporation of newly emerging electro-optical materials into such metasurfaces, including graphene, phase change materials, and transparent conductive oxides. In this Letter, we demonstrate dynamic light-matter interaction in a silicon-based subwavelength grating that supports a guided mode resonance. By overcoating the grating with indium tin oxide as an electrically tunable material, its reflectance can be tuned from 4% to 86%. Guided mode resonances naturally afford higher optical quality factors than the optical antennas used in the construction of metasurfaces. As such, they facilitate more effective control over the flow of light within the same layer thickness.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OL.42.000005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391396800003

    View details for PubMedID 28059210

  • Shared-aperture multitasking Pancharatnam-Berry phase dielectric nanoantenna array Maguid, E., Yulevich, I., Yannai, M., Kleiner, V., Brongersma, M. L., Hasman, E., IEEE IEEE. 2017
  • Subwavelength Angle Sensing Photodetector Yi, S., Zhou, M., Yu, Z., Fan, P., Lin, D., Fan, S., Brongersma, M., IEEE IEEE. 2017
  • Fabry-Perot description for Mie resonances of rectangular dielectric nanowire optical resonators OPTICS EXPRESS Landreman, P. E., Chalabi, H., Park, J., Brongersma, M. L. 2016; 24 (26): 29761-29773
  • Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Raza, S., Esfandyarpour, M., Koh, A. L., Mortensen, N. A., Brongersma, M. L., Bozhevolnyi, S. I. 2016; 7

    Abstract

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron microscope combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we experimentally show the propagation, bending and splitting of slot gap plasmons.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms13790

    View details for Web of Science ID 000390315900001

    View details for PubMedID 27982030

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5171719

  • Plasmonic Photodetectors, Photovoltaics, and Hot-Electron Devices PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE Brongersma, M. L. 2016; 104 (12): 2349-2361
  • Photonic Multitasking Interleaved Si Nanoantenna Phased Array NANO LETTERS Lin, D., Holsteen, A. L., Maguid, E., Wetzstein, G., Kik, P. G., Hasman, E., Brongersma, M. L. 2016; 16 (12): 7671-7676

    Abstract

    Metasurfaces provide unprecedented control over light propagation by imparting local, space-variant phase changes on an incident electromagnetic wave. They can improve the performance of conventional optical elements and facilitate the creation of optical components with new functionalities and form factors. Here, we build on knowledge from shared aperture phased array antennas and Si-based gradient metasurfaces to realize various multifunctional metasurfaces capable of achieving multiple distinct functions within a single surface region. As a key point, we demonstrate that interleaving multiple optical elements can be accomplished without reducing the aperture of each subelement. Multifunctional optical elements constructed from Si-based gradient metasurface are realized, including axial and lateral multifocus geometric phase metasurface lenses. We further demonstrate multiwavelength color imaging with a high spatial resolution. Finally, optical imaging functionality with simultaneous color separation has been obtained by using multifunctional metasurfaces, which opens up new opportunities for the field of advanced imaging and display.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03505

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389963200053

    View details for PubMedID 27960478

  • Porous Silicon Gradient Refractive Index Micro-Optics NANO LETTERS Krueger, N. A., Holsteen, A. L., Kang, S., Ocier, C. R., Zhou, W., Mensing, G., Rogers, J. A., Brongersma, M. L., Braun, P. V. 2016; 16 (12): 7402-7407

    Abstract

    The emergence and growth of transformation optics over the past decade has revitalized interest in how a gradient refractive index (GRIN) can be used to control light propagation. Two-dimensional demonstrations with lithographically defined silicon (Si) have displayed the power of GRIN optics and also represent a promising opportunity for integrating compact optical elements within Si photonic integrated circuits. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of three-dimensional Si-based GRIN micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous Si (PSi). Conventional microfabrication creates Si square microcolumns (SMCs) that can be electrochemically etched into PSi elements with nanoscale porosity along the shape-defined etching pathway, which imparts the geometry with structural birefringence. Free-space characterization of the transmitted intensity distribution through a homogeneously etched PSi SMC exhibits polarization splitting behavior resembling that of dielectric metasurfaces that require considerably more laborious fabrication. Coupled birefringence/GRIN effects are studied by way of PSi SMCs etched with a linear (increasing from edge to center) GRIN profile. The transmitted intensity distribution shows polarization-selective focusing behavior with one polarization focused to a diffraction-limited spot and the orthogonal polarization focused into two laterally displaced foci. Optical thickness-based analysis readily predicts the experimentally observed phenomena, which strongly match finite-element electromagnetic simulations.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02939

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389963200014

    View details for PubMedID 27797522

  • Optically resonant dielectric nanostructures SCIENCE Kuznetsov, A. I., Miroshnichenko, A. E., Brongersma, M. L., Kivshar, Y. S., Luk'yanchuk, B. 2016; 354 (6314): 846-?

    Abstract

    Rapid progress in nanophotonics is driven by the ability of optically resonant nanostructures to enhance near-field effects controlling far-field scattering through intermodal interference. A majority of such effects are usually associated with plasmonic nanostructures. Recently, a new branch of nanophotonics has emerged that seeks to manipulate the strong, optically induced electric and magnetic Mie resonances in dielectric nanoparticles with high refractive index. In the design of optical nanoantennas and metasurfaces, dielectric nanoparticles offer the opportunity for reducing dissipative losses and achieving large resonant enhancement of both electric and magnetic fields. We review this rapidly developing field and demonstrate that the magnetic response of dielectric nanostructures can lead to novel physical effects and applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aag2472

    View details for Web of Science ID 000388531900030

    View details for PubMedID 27856851

  • Focused thermal emission from a nanostructured SiC surface PHYSICAL REVIEW B Chalabi, H., Alu, A., Brongersma, M. L. 2016; 94 (9)
  • Picosecond Electric-Field-Induced Threshold Switching in Phase-Change Materials. Physical review letters Zalden, P., Shu, M. J., Chen, F., Wu, X., Zhu, Y., Wen, H., Johnston, S., Shen, Z., Landreman, P., Brongersma, M., Fong, S. W., Wong, H. P., Sher, M., Jost, P., Kaes, M., Salinga, M., von Hoegen, A., Wuttig, M., Lindenberg, A. M. 2016; 117 (6): 067601-?

    Abstract

    Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Here, picosecond electric pulses are used to excite amorphous Ag_{4}In_{3}Sb_{67}Te_{26}. Field-dependent reversible changes in conductivity and pulse-driven crystallization are observed. The present results show that threshold switching can take place within the electric pulse on subpicosecond time scales-faster than crystals can nucleate. This supports purely electronic models of threshold switching and reveals potential applications as an ultrafast electronic switch.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.067601

    View details for PubMedID 27541475

  • Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array SCIENCE Maguid, E., Yulevich, I., Veksler, D., Kleiner, V., Brongersma, M. L., Hasman, E. 2016; 352 (6290): 1202-1206

    Abstract

    The shared-aperture phased antenna array developed in the field of radar applications is a promising approach for increased functionality in photonics. The alliance between the shared-aperture concepts and the geometric phase phenomenon arising from spin-orbit interaction provides a route to implement photonic spin-control multifunctional metasurfaces. We adopted a thinning technique within the shared-aperture synthesis and investigated interleaved sparse nanoantenna matrices and the spin-enabled asymmetric harmonic response to achieve helicity-controlled multiple structured wavefronts such as vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. We used multiplexed geometric phase profiles to simultaneously measure spectrum characteristics and the polarization state of light, enabling integrated on-chip spectropolarimetric analysis. The shared-aperture metasurface platform opens a pathway to novel types of nanophotonic functionality.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaf3417

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377045700038

    View details for PubMedID 27103668

  • Superabsorbing, Artificial Metal Films Constructed from Semiconductor Nanoantennas NANO LETTERS Kim, S. J., Park, J., Esfandyarpour, M., Pecora, E. F., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L. 2016; 16 (6): 3801-3808

    Abstract

    In 1934, Wilhelm Woltersdorff demonstrated that the absorption of light in an ultrathin, freestanding film is fundamentally limited to 50%. He concluded that reaching this limit would require a film with a real-valued sheet resistance that is exactly equal to R = η/2 ≈ 188.5Ω/□, where [Formula: see text] is the impedance of free space. This condition can be closely approximated over a wide frequency range in metals that feature a large imaginary relative permittivity εr″, that is, a real-valued conductivity σ = ε0εr″ω. A thin, continuous sheet of semiconductor material does not facilitate such strong absorption as its complex-valued permittivity with both large real and imaginary components preclude effective impedance matching. In this work, we show how a semiconductor metafilm constructed from optically resonant semiconductor nanostructures can be created whose optical response mimics that of a metallic sheet. For this reason, the fundamental absorption limit mentioned above can also be reached with semiconductor materials, opening up new opportunities for the design of ultrathin optoelectronic and light harvesting devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01198

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377642700057

    View details for PubMedID 27149008

  • Combined electron energy-loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy on individual and composite plasmonic nanostructures PHYSICAL REVIEW B Coenen, T., Schoen, D. T., Brenny, B. J., Polman, A., Brongersma, M. L. 2016; 93 (19)
  • Probing the electrical switching of a memristive optical antenna by STEM EELS. Nature communications Schoen, D. T., Holsteen, A. L., Brongersma, M. L. 2016; 7: 12162-?

    Abstract

    The scaling of active photonic devices to deep-submicron length scales has been hampered by the fundamental diffraction limit and the absence of materials with sufficiently strong electro-optic effects. Plasmonics is providing new opportunities to circumvent this challenge. Here we provide evidence for a solid-state electro-optical switching mechanism that can operate in the visible spectral range with an active volume of less than (5 nm)(3) or ∼10(-6) λ(3), comparable to the size of the smallest electronic components. The switching mechanism relies on electrochemically displacing metal atoms inside the nanometre-scale gap to electrically connect two crossed metallic wires forming a cross-point junction. These junctions afford extreme light concentration and display singular optical behaviour upon formation of a conductive channel. The active tuning of plasmonic antennas attached to such junctions is analysed using a combination of electrical and optical measurements as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms12162

    View details for PubMedID 27412052

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4947179

  • Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Park, J., Kang, J., Liu, X., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 5

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep15754

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364288500001

    View details for PubMedID 26549615

  • Nanoscale Spatial Coherent Control over the Modal Excitation of a Coupled Plasmonic Resonator System NANO LETTERS Coenen, T., Schoen, D. T., Mann, S. A., Rodriguez, S. R., Brenny, B. J., Polman, A., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 15 (11): 7666-7670

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b03614

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364725400074

    View details for PubMedID 26457569

  • Li Intercalation in MoS2: In Situ Observation of Its Dynamics and Tuning Optical and Electrical Properties NANO LETTERS Xiong, F., Wang, H., Liu, X., Sun, J., Brongersma, M., Pop, E., Cui, Y. 2015; 15 (10): 6777-6784

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02619

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363003100074

    View details for PubMedID 26352295

  • Backward phase-matching for nonlinear optical generation in negative-index materials NATURE MATERIALS Lan, S., Kang, L., Schoen, D. T., Rodrigues, S. P., Cui, Y., Brongersma, M. L., Cai, W. 2015; 14 (8): 807-?

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT4324

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358530100023

  • Gap Plasmon Resonance in a Suspended Plasmonic Nanowire Coupled to a Metallic Substrate NANO LETTERS Miyata, M., Holsteen, A., Nagasaki, Y., Brongersma, M. L., Takahara, J. 2015; 15 (8): 5609-5616

    Abstract

    We present an experimental demonstration of nanoscale gap plasmon resonators that consist of an individual suspended plasmonic nanowire (NW) over a metallic substrate. Our study demonstrates that the NW supports strong gap plasmon resonances of various gap sizes including single-nanometer-scale gaps. The obtained resonance features agree well with intuitive resonance models for near- and far-field regimes. We also illustrate that our suspended NW geometry is capable of constructing plasmonic coupled systems dominated by quasi-electrostatics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02307

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359613700115

    View details for PubMedID 26192214

  • Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics of a Photo-Excited Germanium Nanowire-Air Metamaterial ACS PHOTONICS Li, Y., Clady, R., Marshall, A. F., Park, J., Thombare, S. V., Chan, G., Schmidt, T. W., Brongersma, M. L., McIntyre, P. C. 2015; 2 (8): 1091-1098
  • Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Yuan, H., Liu, X., Afshinmanesh, F., Li, W., Xu, G., Sun, J., Lian, B., Curto, A. G., Ye, G., Hikita, Y., Shen, Z., Zhang, S., Chen, X., Brongersma, M., Hwang, H. Y., Cui, Y. 2015; 10 (8): 707-713

    Abstract

    The ability to detect light over a broad spectral range is central to practical optoelectronic applications and has been successfully demonstrated with photodetectors of two-dimensional layered crystals such as graphene and MoS2. However, polarization sensitivity within such a photodetector remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate a broadband photodetector using a layered black phosphorus transistor that is polarization-sensitive over a bandwidth from ∼400 nm to 3,750 nm. The polarization sensitivity is due to the strong intrinsic linear dichroism, which arises from the in-plane optical anisotropy of this material. In this transistor geometry, a perpendicular built-in electric field induced by gating can spatially separate the photogenerated electrons and holes in the channel, effectively reducing their recombination rate and thus enhancing the performance for linear dichroism photodetection. The use of anisotropic layered black phosphorus in polarization-sensitive photodetection might provide new functionalities in novel optical and optoelectronic device applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NNANO.2015.112

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359754500016

    View details for PubMedID 26030655

  • Tuning Optical Absorption in an Ultrathin Lossy Film by Use of a Metallic Metamaterial Mirror IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Park, J., Kang, J., Kim, S. J., Hasman, E., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 27 (15): 1617-1620
  • Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Kim, S. J., Fan, P., Kang, J., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 6

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms8591

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358855900004

  • Bandgap-customizable germanium using lithographically determined biaxial tensile strain for silicon-compatible optoelectronics OPTICS EXPRESS Sukhdeo, D. S., Nam, D., Kang, J., Brongersma, M. L., Saraswat, K. C. 2015; 23 (13): 16740-16749
  • Monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator p-i-n photodetector on silicon OPTICS EXPRESS Nam, J. H., Afshinmanesh, F., Nam, D., Jung, W. S., Kamins, T. I., Brongersma, M. L., Saraswat, K. C. 2015; 23 (12): 15816-15823
  • Effect of shape in near-field thermal transfer for periodic structures PHYSICAL REVIEW B Chalabi, H., Hasman, E., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 91 (17)
  • Condition for unity absorption in an ultrathin and highly lossy film in a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration OPTICS LETTERS Park, J., Kim, S. J., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 40 (9): 1960-1963

    Abstract

    We present a condition for unity absorption for a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration constructed from an ultrathin and highly lossy film on top of metallic mirror. From the impedance matching condition in the transmission line theory, we identify a solution space for the required complex refractive index of the lossy film in various film thickness and dielectric constants of the metallic mirror. It is shown that strong absorption requires the imaginary part of the refractive index of the ultrathin lossy film be larger than 0.64, and the physical origin of this condition is elucidated. The proposed method is useful in identifying candidate semiconductor materials that can be used as the lossy film in a unity-absorption Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration and designing the thickness of this film to maximize absorption.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OL.40.001960

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353924600020

    View details for PubMedID 25927758

  • Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH Nam, J. H., Alkis, S., Nam, D., Afshinmanesh, F., Shim, J., Park, J., Brongersma, M., Okyay, A. K., Kamins, T. I., Saraswat, K. 2015; 416: 21-27
  • Electrically tunable coherent optical absorption in graphene with ion gel. Nano letters Thareja, V., Kang, J., Yuan, H., Milaninia, K. M., Hwang, H. Y., Cui, Y., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 15 (3): 1570-1576

    Abstract

    We demonstrate electrical control over coherent optical absorption in a graphene-based Salisbury screen consisting of a single layer of graphene placed in close proximity to a gold back reflector. The screen was designed to enhance light absorption at a target wavelength of 3.2 μm by using a 600 nm-thick, nonabsorbing silica spacer layer. An ionic gel layer placed on top of the screen was used to electrically gate the charge density in the graphene layer. Spectroscopic reflectance measurements were performed in situ as a function of gate bias. The changes in the reflectance spectra were analyzed using a Fresnel based transfer matrix model in which graphene was treated as an infinitesimally thin sheet with a conductivity given by the Kubo formula. The analysis reveals that a careful choice of the ionic gel layer thickness can lead to optical absorption enhancements of up to 5.5 times for the Salisbury screen compared to a suspended sheet of graphene. In addition to these absorption enhancements, we demonstrate very large electrically induced changes in the optical absorption of graphene of ∼3.3% per volt, the highest attained so far in a device that features an atomically thick active layer. This is attributable in part to the more effective gating achieved with the ion gel over the conventional dielectric back gates and partially by achieving a desirable coherent absorption effect linked to the presence of the thin ion gel that boosts the absorption by 40%.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl503431d

    View details for PubMedID 25671369

  • Shape-Dependent Light Scattering Properties of Subwavelength Silicon Nanoblocks NANO LETTERS Ee, H., Kang, J., Brongersma, M. L., Seo, M. 2015; 15 (3): 1759-1765

    Abstract

    We explore the shape-dependent light scattering properties of silicon (Si) nanoblocks and their physical origin. These high-refractive-index nanostructures are easily fabricated using planar fabrication technologies and support strong, leaky-mode resonances that enable light manipulation beyond the optical diffraction limit. Dark-field microscopy and a numerical modal analysis show that the nanoblocks can be viewed as truncated Si waveguides, and the waveguide dispersion strongly controls the resonant properties. This explains why the lowest-order transverse magnetic (TM01) mode resonance can be widely tuned over the entire visible wavelength range depending on the nanoblock length, whereas the wavelength-scale TM11 mode resonance does not change greatly. For sufficiently short lengths, the TM01 and TM11 modes can be made to spectrally overlap, and a substantial scattering efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of the scattering cross section to the physical cross section of the nanoblock, of ∼9.95, approaching the theoretical lowest-order single-channel scattering limit, is achievable. Control over the subwavelength-scale leaky-mode resonance allows Si nanoblocks to generate vivid structural color, manipulate forward and backward scattering, and act as excellent photonic artificial atoms for metasurfaces.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl504442v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351188000048

    View details for PubMedID 25668601

  • Probing Complex Reflection Coefficients in One-Dimensional Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguides and Cavities Using STEM EELS. Nano letters Schoen, D. T., Atre, A. C., García-Etxarri, A., Dionne, J. A., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 15 (1): 120-126

    Abstract

    The resonant properties of a plasmonic cavity are determined by the size of the cavity, the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion relationship, and the complex reflection coefficients of the cavity boundaries. In small wavelength-scale cavities, the phase propagation due to reflections from the cavity walls is of a similar magnitude to propagation due to traversing the cavity. Until now, this reflection phase has been inferred from measurements of the resonant frequencies of a cavity of known dispersion and length. In this work, we present a method for measuring the complex reflection coefficients of a truncation in a 1D surface plasmon waveguide using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM EELS) and show that this insight can be used to engineer custom cavities with engineered reflecting boundaries, whose resonant wavelengths and internal mode density profiles can be analytically predicted given knowledge of the cavity dimensions and complex reflection coefficients of the boundaries.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl503179j

    View details for PubMedID 25545292

  • Near-field radiative thermal transfer between a nanostructured periodic material and a planar substrate PHYSICAL REVIEW B Chalabi, H., Hasman, E., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 91 (1)
  • Significant enhancement of infrared photodetector sensitivity using a semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube/c60 phototransistor. Advanced materials Park, S., Kim, S. J., Nam, J. H., Pitner, G., Lee, T. H., Ayzner, A. L., Wang, H., Fong, S. W., Vosgueritchian, M., Park, Y. J., Brongersma, M. L., Bao, Z. 2015; 27 (4): 759-765

    Abstract

    A highly sensitive single-walled carbon nanotube/C60 -based infrared photo-transistor is fabricated with a responsivity of 97.5 A W(-1) and detectivity of 1.17 × 10(9) Jones at 1 kHz under a source/drain bias of -0.5 V. The much improved performance is enabled by this unique device architecture that enables a high photoconductive gain of ≈10(4) with a response time of several milliseconds.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201404544

    View details for PubMedID 25607919

  • Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. Nature communications Kim, S. J., Fan, P., Kang, J., Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 6: 7591-?

    Abstract

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms8591

    View details for PubMedID 26184335

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4518292

  • Introductory lecture: nanoplasmonics FARADAY DISCUSSIONS Brongersma, M. L. 2015; 178: 9-36

    Abstract

    Nanoplasmonics or nanoscale metal-based optics is a field of science and technology with a tremendously rich and colourful history. Starting with the early works of Michael Faraday on gold nanocolloids and optically-thin gold leaf, researchers have been fascinated by the unusual optical properties displayed by metallic nanostructures. We now can enjoy selecting from over 10 000 publications every year on the topic of plasmonics and the number of publications has been doubling about every three years since 1990. This impressive productivity can be attributed to the significant growth of the scientific community as plasmonics has spread into a myriad of new directions. With 2015 being the International Year of Light, it seems like a perfect moment to review some of the most notable accomplishments in plasmonics to date and to project where the field may be moving next. After discussing some of the major historical developments in the field, this article will analyse how the most successful plasmonics applications are capitalizing on five key strengths of metallic nanostructures. This Introductory Lecture will conclude with a brief look into the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c5fd90020d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354962300001

    View details for PubMedID 25968246

  • Plasmon-induced hot carrier science and technology NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Brongersma, M. L., Halas, N. J., Nordlander, P. 2015; 10 (1): 25-34

    Abstract

    The discovery of the photoelectric effect by Heinrich Hertz in 1887 set the foundation for over 125 years of hot carrier science and technology. In the early 1900s it played a critical role in the development of quantum mechanics, but even today the unique properties of these energetic, hot carriers offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and applications. Measurement of the kinetic energy and momentum of photoejected hot electrons can provide valuable information on the electronic structure of materials. The heat generated by hot carriers can be harvested to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes. Their kinetic energy can be used to harvest solar energy or create sensitive photodetectors and spectrometers. Photoejected charges can also be used to electrically dope two-dimensional materials. Plasmon excitations in metallic nanostructures can be engineered to enhance and provide valuable control over the emission of hot carriers. This Review discusses recent advances in the understanding and application of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation and highlights some of the exciting new directions for the field.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NNANO.2014.311

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347405800015

    View details for PubMedID 25559968

  • An ab-initio coupled mode theory for near field radiative thermal transfer OPTICS EXPRESS Chalabi, H., Hasman, E., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 22 (24): 30032-30046
  • Quantification and impact of nonparabolicity of the conduction band of indium tin oxide on its plasmonic properties APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Liu, X., Park, J., Kang, J., Yuan, H., Cui, Y., Hwang, H. Y., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 105 (18)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4900936

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345000000017

  • Observation of improved minority carrier lifetimes in high-quality Ge-on-insulator using time-resolved photoluminescence OPTICS LETTERS Nam, D., Kang, J., Brongersma, M. L., Saraswat, K. C. 2014; 39 (21): 6205-6208
  • Transparent metallic fractal electrodes for semiconductor devices. Nano letters Afshinmanesh, F., Curto, A. G., Milaninia, K. M., van Hulst, N. F., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 14 (9): 5068-5074

    Abstract

    Nanostructured metallic films have the potential to replace metal oxide films as transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices. An ideal transparent electrode should possess a high, broadband, and polarization-independent transmittance. Conventional metallic gratings and grids with wavelength-scale periodicities, however, do not have all of these qualities. Furthermore, the transmission properties of a nanostructured electrode need to be assessed in the actual dielectric environment provided by a device, where a high-index semiconductor layer can reflect a substantial fraction of the incident light. Here we propose nanostructured aluminum electrodes with space-filling fractal geometries as alternatives to gratings and grids and experimentally demonstrate their superior optoelectronic performance through integration with Si photodetectors. As shown by polarization and spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements, devices with fractal electrodes exhibit both a broadband transmission and a flat polarization response that outperforms both square grids and linear gratings. Finally, we show the benefits of adding a thin silicon nitride film to the nanostructured electrodes to further reduce reflection.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl501738b

    View details for PubMedID 25140611

  • Transparent Metallic Fractal Electrodes for Semiconductor Devices NANO LETTERS Afshinmanesh, F., Curto, A. G., Milaninia, K. M., van Hulst, N. F., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 14 (9): 5068-5074

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl501738b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341544500022

  • Omnidirectional Near-Unity Absorption in an Ultrathin Planar Semiconductor Layer on a Metal Substrate ACS PHOTONICS Park, J., Kang, J., Vasudev, A. P., Schoen, D. T., Kim, H., Hasman, E., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 1 (9): 812-821

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ph500093d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342120300010

  • Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements. Science Lin, D., Fan, P., Hasman, E., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 345 (6194): 298-302

    Abstract

    Gradient metasurfaces are two-dimensional optical elements capable of manipulating light by imparting local, space-variant phase changes on an incident electromagnetic wave. These surfaces have thus far been constructed from nanometallic optical antennas, and high diffraction efficiencies have been limited to operation in reflection mode. We describe the experimental realization and operation of dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements capable of also achieving high efficiencies in transmission mode in the visible spectrum. Ultrathin gratings, lenses, and axicons have been realized by patterning a 100-nanometer-thick Si layer into a dense arrangement of Si nanobeam antennas. The use of semiconductors can broaden the general applicability of gradient metasurfaces, as they offer facile integration with electronics and can be realized by mature semiconductor fabrication technologies.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1253213

    View details for PubMedID 25035488

  • Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Nam, D., Sukhdeo, D. S., Gupta, S., Kang, J., Brongersma, M. L., Saraswat, K. C. 2014; 20 (4)
  • Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices. Nature nanotechnology Esfandyarpour, M., Garnett, E. C., Cui, Y., McGehee, M. D., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 9 (7): 542-547

    Abstract

    The phase reversal that occurs when light is reflected from a metallic mirror produces a standing wave with reduced intensity near the reflective surface. This effect is highly undesirable in optoelectronic devices that use metal films as both electrical contacts and optical mirrors, because it dictates a minimum spacing between the metal and the underlying active semiconductor layers, therefore posing a fundamental limit to the overall thickness of the device. Here, we show that this challenge can be circumvented by using a metamaterial mirror whose reflection phase is tunable from that of a perfect electric mirror (φ = π) to that of a perfect magnetic mirror (φ = 0). This tunability in reflection phase can also be exploited to optimize the standing wave profile in planar devices to maximize light-matter interaction. Specifically, we show that light absorption and photocurrent generation in a sub-100 nm active semiconductor layer of a model solar cell can be enhanced by ∼20% over a broad spectral band.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2014.117

    View details for PubMedID 24952475

  • Ultrafast electron and phonon response of oriented and diameter-controlled germanium nanowire arrays. Nano letters Li, Y., Clady, R., Park, J., Thombare, S. V., Schmidt, T. W., Brongersma, M. L., McIntyre, P. C. 2014; 14 (6): 3427-3431

    Abstract

    Carrier and phonon dynamics in dense arrays of aligned, single-crystal Ge nanowires (NWs) of controlled diameter are investigated by ultrafast optical pump-probe measurements, effective medium calculations, and elasticity analysis. Both a pronounced induced absorption and the amplitude and spectral range of Fabry-Perot oscillations observed in the probe signal are predicted for the NW array/air metamaterial by effective medium calculations. Detected temporal oscillations of reflectivity are consistent with excitation of radial breathing mode acoustic phonons by the intense pump pulse.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl500953p

    View details for PubMedID 24797453

  • Second-Harmonic Generation in GaAs Photonic Crystal Cavities in (111)B and (001) Crystal Orientations ACS PHOTONICS Buckley, S., Radulaski, M., Petykiewicz, J., Lagoudakis, K. G., Kang, J., Brongersma, M., Biermann, K., Vuckovic, J. 2014; 1 (6): 516-523

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ph500054u

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337720300007

  • Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% < 100 > uniaxial tensile strain [Invited] PHOTONICS RESEARCH Sukhdeo, D. S., Nam, D., Kang, J., Brongersma, M. L., Saraswat, K. C. 2014; 2 (3): A8-A13
  • Optical Fano resonance of an individual semiconductor nanostructure NATURE MATERIALS Fan, P., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 13 (5): 471-475

    Abstract

    Fano resonances with a characteristic asymmetric line shape can be observed in light scattering, transmission and reflection spectra of resonant optical systems. They result from interference between direct and indirect, resonance-assisted pathways. In the nanophotonics field, Fano effects have been observed in a wide variety of systems, including metallic nanoparticle assemblies, metamaterials and photonic crystals. Their unique properties find extensive use in applications, including optical filtering, polarization selectors, sensing, lasers, modulators and nonlinear optics. We report on the observation of a Fano resonance in a single semiconductor nanostructure, opening up opportunities for their use in active photonic devices. We also show that Fano-resonant semiconductor nanostructures afford the intriguing opportunity to simultaneously measure the far-field scattering response and the near-field energy storage by extracting photogenerated charge. Together they can provide a complete experimental characterization of this type of resonance.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT3927

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334845600017

    View details for PubMedID 24747781

  • Light management for photovoltaics using high-index nanostructures NATURE MATERIALS Brongersma, M. L., Cui, Y., Fan, S. 2014; 13 (5): 451-460

    Abstract

    High-performance photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into clean electrical power, and transparent dielectrics or conductive oxides as antireflection coatings. A common feature of these materials is their high refractive index. Whereas high-index materials in a planar form tend to produce a strong, undesired reflection of sunlight, high-index nanostructures afford new ways to manipulate light at a subwavelength scale. For example, nanoscale wires, particles and voids support strong optical resonances that can enhance and effectively control light absorption and scattering processes. As such, they provide ideal building blocks for novel, broadband antireflection coatings, light-trapping layers and super-absorbing films. This Review discusses some of the recent developments in the design and implementation of such photonic elements in thin-film photovoltaic cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT3921

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334845600014

    View details for PubMedID 24751773

  • Light trapping for solar fuel generation with mie resonances. Nano letters Kim, S. J., Thomann, I., Park, J., Kang, J., Vasudev, A. P., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 14 (3): 1446-1452

    Abstract

    The implementation of solar fuel generation as a clean, terawatt-scale energy source is critically dependent on the development of high-performance, inexpensive photocatalysts. Many candidate materials, including for example α-Fe2O3 (hematite), suffer from very poor charge transport with minority carrier diffusion lengths that are significantly shorter (nanometer scale) than the absorption depth of light (micrometer scale near the band edge). As a result, most of the photoexcited carriers recombine rather than participate in water-splitting reactions. For this reason, there is a tremendous opportunity for photon management. Plasmon-resonant nanostructures have been employed to effectively enhance light absorption in the near-surface region of photocatalysts, but this approach suffers from intrinsic optical losses in the metal. Here, we circumvent this issue by driving optical resonances in the active photocatalyst material itself. We illustrate that judiciously nanopatterned photocatalysts support optical Mie and guided resonances capable of substantially enhancing the photocarrier generation rate within 10-20 nm from the water/photocatalyst interface.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl404575e

    View details for PubMedID 24524658

  • Hot-electron photodetection with a plasmonic nanostripe antenna. Nano letters Chalabi, H., Schoen, D., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 14 (3): 1374-1380

    Abstract

    Planar metal-oxide-metal structures can serve as photodetectors that do not rely on the usual electron-hole pair generation in a semiconductor. Instead, absorbed light in one of the metals can produce a current of hot electrons when the incident photon energy exceeds the oxide barrier energy. Despite the desirable traits of convenient fabrication and room-temperature operation at zero bias of this type of device, the low power conversion efficiency has limited its use. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of reshaping one of the metallic contacts into a plasmonic stripe antenna. We use measurements of the voltage-dependence, spectral-dependence, stripe-width dependence, and polarization-dependence of the photocurrent to show that surface plasmon excitations can result in a favorable redistribution in the electric fields in the stripe that enhances the photocurrent. We also provide a theoretical model that quantifies the spectral photocurrent in terms of the electrical and optical properties of the junction. This model provides an accurate estimate of the bias dependence of the external quantum efficiency of different devices and shows that both the spatial and vectorial properties of the electric field distribution are important to its operation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl4044373

    View details for PubMedID 24502677

  • Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits NATURE PHOTONICS Huang, K. C., Seo, M., Sarmiento, T., Huo, Y., Harris, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 8 (3): 244-249
  • Nearly Total Solar Absorption in Ultrathin Nanostructured Iron Oxide for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting ACS PHOTONICS Wang, K. X., Wu, Z., Liu, V., Brongersma, M. L., Jaramillo, T. F., Fan, S. 2014; 1 (3): 235-240

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ph4001026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335802900013

  • Deep-subwavelength semiconductor nanowire surface plasmon polariton couplers. Nano letters Landreman, P. E., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 14 (2): 429-434

    Abstract

    The increased importance of plasmonic devices has prompted a sizable research activity directed toward the development of ultracompact and high-performance couplers. Here, we present a novel scheme for efficient, highly localized, and directional sourcing of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) that relies on the excitation of leaky mode optical resonances supported by high-refractive index, semiconductor nanowires. High coupling efficiencies are demonstrated via finite difference frequency domain simulations and experimentally by leakage radiation microscopy. This efficiency is quantified by means of a coupling cross section, the magnitude of which can exceed twice the geometric cross section of the nanowire by exploiting its leaky resonant modes. We provide intuition into why the SPP coupling via certain wire modes is more effective than others based on their symmetry properties. Furthermore, we provide an example showing that dielectric scatterers may perform as well as metallic scatterers in coupling to SPPs.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402980j

    View details for PubMedID 24382272

  • Chair Gordon Conference on Plasmonics Brongersma, M., L. 2014
  • Electrifying photonic metamaterials for tunable nonlinear optics. Nature communications Kang, L., Cui, Y., Lan, S., Rodrigues, S. P., Brongersma, M. L., Cai, W. 2014; 5: 4680-?

    Abstract

    Metamaterials have not only enabled unprecedented flexibility in producing unconventional optical properties that are not found in nature, they have also provided exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with high-order properties correlated to linear behaviour. Two particularly compelling directions are active metamaterials, whose optical properties can be purposely tailored by external stimuli in a reversible manner, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light waves. Here, by exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically controlled nonlinear optical processes from a metamaterial. Both second harmonic generation and optical rectification, enhanced by the resonance behaviour in the metamaterial absorber, are modulated externally with applied voltage signals. Our results reveal an opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electro-optic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms5680

    View details for PubMedID 25109813

  • Two-dimensional chalcogenide nanoplates as tunable metamaterials via chemical intercalation. Nano letters Cha, J. J., Koski, K. J., Huang, K. C., Wang, K. X., Luo, W., Kong, D., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L., Cui, Y. 2013; 13 (12): 5913-5918

    Abstract

    New plasmonic materials with tunable properties are in great need for nanophotonics and metamaterials applications. Here we present two-dimensional layered, metal chalcogenides as tunable metamaterials that feature both dielectric photonic and plasmonic modes across a wide spectral range from the infrared to ultraviolet. The anisotropic layered structure allows intercalation of organic molecules and metal atoms at the van der Waals gap of the host chalcogenide, presenting a chemical route to create heterostructures with molecular and atomic precision for photonic and plasmonic applications. This marks a departure from a lithographic method to create metamaterials. Monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope was used to first establish the presence of the dielectric photonic and plasmonic modes in M2E3 (M = Bi, Sb; E = Se, Te) nanoplates and to observe marked changes in these modes after chemical intercalation. We show that these modal properties can also be tuned effectively by more conventional methods such as thickness control and alloy composition of the nanoplates.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402937g

    View details for PubMedID 24266743

  • Two-Dimensional Chalcogenide Nanoplates as Tunable Metamaterials via Chemical Intercalation NANO LETTERS Cha, J. J., Koski, K. J., Huang, K. C., Wan, K. X., Luo, W., Kong, D., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L., Cui, Y. 2013; 13 (12): 5913-5918

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402937g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328439200024

  • Compact aperiodic metallic groove arrays for unidirectional launching of surface plasmons. Nano letters Huang, X., Brongersma, M. L. 2013; 13 (11): 5420-5424

    Abstract

    The ever-increasing power of computers and the development of new optimization methodologies have enabled the ability to design complex aperiodic devices, which can outperform periodic ones and offer new functionalities. Here, we describe the realization of an ultracompact aperiodic grating coupler capable of selectively launching surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a desired direction. We use a transfer matrix model to facilitate the rapid optimization of such structures. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally that a structure consisting of five subwavelength grooves patterned into silver can unidirectionally launch SPPs in the visible spectral range with a record right-to-left contrast ratio of 55. The general design principles behind this study can readily be extended to a great diversity of sophisticated aperiodic nanophotonic structures.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402982u

    View details for PubMedID 24127855

  • Electro-optical modulation of a silicon waveguide with an "epsilon-near-zero" material. Optics express Vasudev, A. P., Kang, J., Park, J., Liu, X., Brongersma, M. L. 2013; 21 (22): 26387-26397

    Abstract

    Accumulating electrons in transparent conductive oxides such as indium tin oxide (ITO) can induce an "epsilon-near-zero" (ENZ) in the spectral region near the important telecommunications wavelength of λ = 1.55 μm. Here we theoretically demonstrate highly effective optical electro-absorptive modulation in a silicon waveguide overcoated with ITO. This modulator leverages the combination of a local electric field enhancement and increased absorption in the ITO when this material is locally brought into an ENZ state via electrical gating. This leads to large changes in modal absorption upon gating. We find that a 3 dB modulation depth can be achieved in a non-resonant structure with a length under 30 μm for the fundamental waveguide modes of either linear polarization, with absorption contrast values as high as 37. We also show a potential for 100 fJ/bit modulation, with a sacrifice in performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.026387

    View details for PubMedID 24216861

  • Broadband Sharp 90-degree Bends and T-Splitters in Plasmonic Coaxial Waveguides. Nano letters Shin, W., Cai, W., Catrysse, P. B., Veronis, G., Brongersma, M. L., Fan, S. 2013; 13 (10): 4753-4758

    Abstract

    We demonstrate numerically that sharp 90° bends and T-splitters can be designed in plasmonic coaxial waveguides at deep-subwavelength scale to operate without reflection and radiation over a broad range of wavelengths, including the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 μm. We explain the principles of the operation using a transmission line model of the waveguide in the quasi-static limit. The compact bends and T-splitters open up a new avenue for the design of densely integrated optical circuits with minimal crosstalk.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402335x

    View details for PubMedID 23981038

  • Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles. Nano letters Nam, D., Sukhdeo, D. S., Kang, J., Petykiewicz, J., Lee, J. H., Jung, W. S., Vuckovic, J., Brongersma, M. L., Saraswat, K. C. 2013; 13 (7): 3118-3123

    Abstract

    Semiconductor heterostructures play a vital role in photonics and electronics. They are typically realized by growing layers of different materials, complicating fabrication and limiting the number of unique heterojunctions on a wafer. In this Letter, we present single-material nanowires which behave exactly like traditional heterostructures. These pseudoheterostructures have electronic band profiles that are custom-designed at the nanoscale by strain engineering. Since the band profile depends only on the nanowire geometry with this approach, arbitrary band profiles can be individually tailored at the nanoscale using existing nanolithography. We report the first experimental observations of spatially confined, greatly enhanced (>200×), and wavelength-shifted (>500 nm) emission from strain-induced potential wells that facilitate effective carrier collection at room temperature. This work represents a fundamentally new paradigm for creating nanoscale devices with full heterostructure behavior in photonics and electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl401042n

    View details for PubMedID 23758608

  • Self-assembly based plasmonic arrays tuned by atomic layer deposition for extreme visible light absorption. Nano letters Hägglund, C., Zeltzer, G., Ruiz, R., Thomann, I., Lee, H., Brongersma, M. L., Bent, S. F. 2013; 13 (7): 3352-3357

    Abstract

    Achieving complete absorption of visible light with a minimal amount of material is highly desirable for many applications, including solar energy conversion to fuel and electricity, where benefits in conversion efficiency and economy can be obtained. On a fundamental level, it is of great interest to explore whether the ultimate limits in light absorption per unit volume can be achieved by capitalizing on the advances in metamaterial science and nanosynthesis. Here, we combine block copolymer lithography and atomic layer deposition to tune the effective optical properties of a plasmonic array at the atomic scale. Critical coupling to the resulting nanocomposite layer is accomplished through guidance by a simple analytical model and measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thereby, a maximized absorption of light exceeding 99% is accomplished, of which up to about 93% occurs in a volume-equivalent thickness of gold of only 1.6 nm. This corresponds to a record effective absorption coefficient of 1.7 × 10(7) cm(-1) in the visible region, far exceeding those of solid metals, graphene, dye monolayers, and thin film solar cell materials. It is more than a factor of 2 higher than that previously obtained using a critically coupled dye J-aggregate, with a peak width exceeding the latter by 1 order of magnitude. These results thereby substantially push the limits for light harvesting in ultrathin, nanoengineered systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl401641v

    View details for PubMedID 23805835

  • Self-Assembly Based Plasmonic Arrays Tuned by Atomic Layer Deposition for Extreme Visible Light Absorption NANO LETTERS Haegglund, C., Zeltzer, G., Ruiz, R., Thomann, I., Lee, H., Brongersma, M. L., Bent, S. F. 2013; 13 (7): 3352-3357

    Abstract

    Achieving complete absorption of visible light with a minimal amount of material is highly desirable for many applications, including solar energy conversion to fuel and electricity, where benefits in conversion efficiency and economy can be obtained. On a fundamental level, it is of great interest to explore whether the ultimate limits in light absorption per unit volume can be achieved by capitalizing on the advances in metamaterial science and nanosynthesis. Here, we combine block copolymer lithography and atomic layer deposition to tune the effective optical properties of a plasmonic array at the atomic scale. Critical coupling to the resulting nanocomposite layer is accomplished through guidance by a simple analytical model and measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thereby, a maximized absorption of light exceeding 99% is accomplished, of which up to about 93% occurs in a volume-equivalent thickness of gold of only 1.6 nm. This corresponds to a record effective absorption coefficient of 1.7 × 10(7) cm(-1) in the visible region, far exceeding those of solid metals, graphene, dye monolayers, and thin film solar cell materials. It is more than a factor of 2 higher than that previously obtained using a critically coupled dye J-aggregate, with a peak width exceeding the latter by 1 order of magnitude. These results thereby substantially push the limits for light harvesting in ultrathin, nanoengineered systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl401641v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321884300057

  • Strain-Induced Pseudoheterostructure Nanowires Confining Carriers at Room Temperature with Nanoscale-Tunable Band Profiles NANO LETTERS Nam, D., Sukhdeo, D. S., Kang, J., Petykiewicz, J., Lee, J. H., Jung, W. S., Vuckovic, J., Brongersma, M. L., Saraswat, K. C. 2013; 13 (7): 3118-3123

    Abstract

    Semiconductor heterostructures play a vital role in photonics and electronics. They are typically realized by growing layers of different materials, complicating fabrication and limiting the number of unique heterojunctions on a wafer. In this Letter, we present single-material nanowires which behave exactly like traditional heterostructures. These pseudoheterostructures have electronic band profiles that are custom-designed at the nanoscale by strain engineering. Since the band profile depends only on the nanowire geometry with this approach, arbitrary band profiles can be individually tailored at the nanoscale using existing nanolithography. We report the first experimental observations of spatially confined, greatly enhanced (>200×), and wavelength-shifted (>500 nm) emission from strain-induced potential wells that facilitate effective carrier collection at room temperature. This work represents a fundamentally new paradigm for creating nanoscale devices with full heterostructure behavior in photonics and electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl401042n

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321884300019

  • Effects of surface oxide formation on germanium nanowire band-edge photoluminescence APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Hashemi, F. S., Thombare, S., Fontcuberta i Morral, A., Brongersma, M. L., McIntyre, P. C. 2013; 102 (25)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4812334

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321145200022

  • Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells OPTICS EXPRESS Kim, S. J., Margulis, G. Y., Rim, S., Brongersma, M. L., McGehee, M. D., Peumans, P. 2013; 21 (9): A305-A312
  • Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells. Optics express Kim, S. J., Margulis, G. Y., Rim, S., Brongersma, M. L., McGehee, M. D., Peumans, P. 2013; 21: A305-12

    Abstract

    The efficiency of today's most efficient organic solar cells is primarily limited by the ability of the active layer to absorb all the sunlight. While internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 90% are common, the external quantum efficiency rarely exceeds 70%. Light trapping techniques that increase the ability of a given active layer to absorb light are common in inorganic solar cells but have only been applied to organic solar cells with limited success. Here, we analyze the light trapping mechanism for a cell with a V-shape substrate configuration and demonstrate significantly improved photon absorption in an 5.3%-efficient PCDTBT:PC(70)BM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell. The measured short circuit current density improves by 29%, in agreement with model predictions, and the power conversion efficiency increases to 7.2%, a 35% improvement over the performance in the absence of a light trap.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.00A305

    View details for PubMedID 24104418

  • PLASMONICS Harvest season for hot electrons NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Chalabi, H., Brongersma, M. L. 2013; 8 (4): 229-230

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2013.49

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317046800004

    View details for PubMedID 23552114

  • Redesigning Photodetector Electrodes as an Optical Antenna NANO LETTERS Fan, P., Huang, K. C., Cao, L., Brongersma, M. L. 2013; 13 (2): 392-396

    Abstract

    At the nanoscale, semiconductor and metallic structures naturally exhibit strong, tunable optical resonances that can be utilized to enhance light-matter interaction and to dramatically increase the performance of chipscale photonic elements. Here, we demonstrate that the metallic leads used to extract current from a Ge nanowire (NW) photodetector can be redesigned to serve as optical antennas capable of concentrating light in the NW. The NW itself can also be made optically resonant and an overall performance optimization involves a careful tuning of both resonances. We show that such a procedure can result in broadband absorption enhancements of up to a factor 1.7 at a target wavelength of 660 nm and an ability to control the detector's polarization-dependent response. The results of this study demonstrate the critical importance of performing a joint optimization of the electrical and optical properties of the metallic and semiconductor building blocks in optoelectronic devices with nanoscale components.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl303535s

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315079500011

    View details for PubMedID 23297673

  • The Planar Parabolic Optical Antenna NANO LETTERS Schoen, D. T., Coenen, T., Garcia de Abajo, F. J., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. 2013; 13 (1): 188-193

    Abstract

    One of the simplest and most common structures used for directing light in macroscale applications is the parabolic reflector. Parabolic reflectors are ubiquitous in many technologies, from satellite dishes to hand-held flashlights. Today, there is a growing interest in the use of ultracompact metallic structures for manipulating light on the wavelength scale. Significant progress has been made in scaling radiowave antennas to the nanoscale for operation in the visible range, but similar scaling of parabolic reflectors employing ray-optics concepts has not yet been accomplished because of the difficulty in fabricating nanoscale three-dimensional surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that plasmon physics can be employed to realize a resonant elliptical cavity functioning as an essentially planar nanometallic structure that serves as a broadband unidirectional parabolic antenna at optical frequencies.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl303850v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313142300033

    View details for PubMedID 23194111

  • Optimization of non-periodic plasmonic light-trapping layers for thin-film solar cells. Nature communications Pala, R. A., Liu, J. S., Barnard, E. S., Askarov, D., Garnett, E. C., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2013; 4: 2095-?

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms3095

    View details for PubMedID 23817445

  • Compact Aperiodic Metallic Groove Arrays for Unidirectional Launching of Surface Plasmons, Xinpeng Huang Nano Lett Brongersma, Mark, L., Krishna, C., White, Justin, S., Wahl, P., Brongersma, Mark, L., Miller, David, A.B. 2013; 13: 5420-5424
  • Two-Dimensional Chalcogenide Nanoplates as Tunable Metamaterials via Chemical Intercalation Nano Letters Cha, J. 2013; 13: 5913-5918
  • Program committee for Section on Light-Matter interactions at the nanoscale Brongersma, M., L. 2013
  • Plasmonics: Harvest season for hot electrons Nature Nanotechnology Chalabi, H., van Blaaderen, A., van Dillen, T., Kats, C., M., Velikov, K., Brongersma, M., L. 2013; 8: 229–230
  • Geometric tuning of Plasmonic and Semiconductor Resonances in Nanophotonic devices Kenote presentation at Meta 13, Sharjah, Dubai Brongersma, Mark, L., Barnard, Edward, S., Cai, W., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2013
  • Program Committee of the Nanometa 2013 conference Brongersma, M., L. 2013
  • One of the 5 Meeting Chairs for the 2013 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting. Brongersma, M., L. 2013
  • Program committee of the SPIE conference on Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications Brongersma, M., L. 2013
  • Program committee for Section on Nanophotonics Brongersma, M., L. 2013
  • Plasmonic and Semiconductor Building Blocks Brongersma, M., L. 2013
  • Optical Nanostructures and Advanced Materials for Photovoltaics Brongersma, M., L. 2013
  • Electrically Driven Plasmonic Nanocircuits Breakthrough talk at Nano Meta 2013, Seefeld, Austria Brongersma, Mark, L., Vasudev, Alok, P., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2013
  • Optimization of non-periodic plasmonic light-trapping layers for thin-film solar cells. Nature communications Pala, R. A., Liu, J. S., Barnard, E. S., Askarov, D., Garnett, E. C., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2013; 4: 2095-?

    Abstract

    Non-periodic arrangements of nanoscale light scatterers allow for the realization of extremely effective broadband light-trapping layers for solar cells. However, their optimization is challenging given the massive number of degrees of freedom. Brute-force, full-field electromagnetic simulations are computationally too time intensive to identify high-performance solutions in a vast design space. Here we illustrate how a semi-analytical model can be used to quickly identify promising non-periodic spatial arrangements of nanoscale scatterers. This model only requires basic knowledge of the scattering behaviour of a chosen nanostructure and the waveguiding properties of the semiconductor layer in a cell. Due to its simplicity, it provides new intuition into the ideal amount of disorder in high-performance light-trapping layers. Using simulations and experiments, we demonstrate that arrays of nanometallic stripes featuring a limited amount of disorder, for example, following a quasi-periodic or Fibonacci sequence, can substantially enhance solar absorption over perfectly periodic and random arrays.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms3095

    View details for PubMedID 23817445

  • Plasmonics in optoelectronic devices NANOTECHNOLOGY Demming, A., Brongersma, M., Kim, D. S. 2012; 23 (44)
  • An Electrically-Driven GaAs Nanowire Surface Plasmon Source NANO LETTERS Fan, P., Colombo, C., Huang, K. C., Krogstrup, P., Nygard, J., Fontcuberta i Morral, A., Brongersma, M. L. 2012; 12 (9): 4943-4947

    Abstract

    Over the past decade, the properties of plasmonic waveguides have extensively been studied as key elements in important applications that include biosensors, optical communication systems, quantum plasmonics, plasmonic logic, and quantum-cascade lasers. Whereas their guiding properties are by now fairly well-understood, practical implementation in chipscale systems is hampered by the lack of convenient electrical excitation schemes. Recently, a variety of surface plasmon lasers have been realized, but they have not yet been waveguide-coupled. Planar incoherent plasmonic sources have recently been coupled to plasmonic guides but routing of plasmonic signals requires coupling to linear waveguides. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of electrically driven GaAs nanowire light sources integrated with plasmonic nanostrip waveguides with a physical cross-section of 0.08λ(2). The excitation and waveguiding of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) is experimentally demonstrated and analyzed with the help of full-field electromagnetic simulations. Splitting and routing of the electrically generated SPP signals around 90° bends are also shown. The realization of integrated plasmon sources greatly increases the applicability range of plasmonic waveguides and routing elements.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl302521v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308576000087

    View details for PubMedID 22924961

  • Antenna electrodes for controlling electroluminescence NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Huang, K. C., Seo, M., Huo, Y., Sarmiento, T., Harris, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. 2012; 3

    Abstract

    Optical antennas can control the emission from quantum emitters by modifying the local density of optical states via the Purcell effect. A variety of nanometallic antennas have been implemented to enhance and control key photoluminescence properties, such as the decay rate, directionality and polarization. However, their implementation in active devices has been hampered by the need to precisely place emitters near an antenna and to efficiently excite them electrically. Here we illustrate a design methodology for antenna electrodes that for the first time facilitates simultaneous operation as electrodes for current injection and as antennas capable of optically manipulating the electroluminescence. We show that by confining the electrically excited carriers to the vicinity of antenna electrodes and maximizing the optical coupling of the emission to a single, well-defined antenna mode, their electroluminescence can be effectively controlled. This work spurs the development of densely integrated, electrically driven light sources with tailored emission properties.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1985

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308801100021

    View details for PubMedID 22893129

  • Direct-gap photoluminescence from germanium nanowires PHYSICAL REVIEW B Kawamura, Y., Huang, K. C., Thombare, S. V., Hu, S., Gunji, M., Ishikawa, T., Brongersma, M. L., Itoh, K. M., McIntyre, P. C. 2012; 86 (3)
  • A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain NATURE PHOTONICS Jain, J. R., Hryciw, A., Baer, T. M., Miller, D. A., Brongersma, M. L., Howe, R. T. 2012; 6 (6): 398-405
  • Hybrid Silicon Nanocone-Polymer Solar Cells NANO LETTERS Jeong, S., Garnett, E. C., Wang, S., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L., McGehee, M. D., Cui, Y. 2012; 12 (6): 2971-2976

    Abstract

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm(2), which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl300713x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305106400054

    View details for PubMedID 22545674

  • An invisible metal-semiconductor photodetector NATURE PHOTONICS Fan, P., Chettiar, U. K., Cao, L., Afshinmanesh, F., Engheta, N., Brongersma, M. L. 2012; 6 (6): 380-385
  • Nanophotonic light trapping with patterned transparent conductive oxides OPTICS EXPRESS Vasudev, A. P., Schuller, J. A., Brongersma, M. L. 2012; 20 (10): A385-A394

    Abstract

    Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) play a crucial role in solar cells by efficiently transmitting sunlight and extracting photo-generated charge. Here, we show how nanophotonics concepts can be used to transform TCO films into effective photon management layers for solar cells. This is accomplished by patterning the TCO layer present on virtually every thin-film solar cell into an array of subwavelength beams that support optical (Mie) resonances. These resonances can be exploited to concentrate randomly polarized sunlight or to effectively couple it to guided and diffracted modes. We first demonstrate these concepts with a model system consisting of a patterned TCO layer on a thin silicon (Si) film and outline a design methodology for high-performance, TCO-based light trapping coatings. We then show that the short circuit current density from a 300 nm thick amorphous silicon (a-Si) cell with an optimized TCO anti-reflection coating can be enhanced from 19.9 mA/cm2 to 21.1 mA/cm2, out of a possible 26.0 mA/cm2, by using an optimized nanobeam array. The key differences and advantages over plasmonic light trapping layers will be discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303879700002

    View details for PubMedID 22712089

  • Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Nam, D., Sukhdeo, D., Cheng, S., Roy, A., Huang, K. C., Brongersma, M., Nishi, Y., Saraswat, K. 2012; 100 (13)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3699224

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302230800012

  • Thermal Stability and Surface Passivation of Ge Nanowires Coated by Epitaxial SiGe Shells NANO LETTERS Hu, S., Kawamura, Y., Huang, K. C., Li, Y., Marshall, A. F., Itoh, K. M., Brongersma, M. L., McIntyre, P. C. 2012; 12 (3): 1385-1391

    Abstract

    Epitaxial growth of a highly strained, coherent SiGe alloy shell around a Ge nanowire core is investigated as a method to achieve surface passivation and carrier confinement, important in realizing nanowire devices. The high photoluminescence intensity observed from the core-shell nanowires with spectral features similar to that of bulk Ge indicates effective surface passivation. Thermal stability of these core-shell heterostructures has been systematically investigated, with a method demonstrated to avoid misfit strain relaxation during postgrowth annealing.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl204053w

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301406800046

    View details for PubMedID 22364183

  • Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions NATURE MATERIALS Garnett, E. C., Cai, W., Cha, J. J., Mahmood, F., Connor, S. T., Christoforo, M. G., Cui, Y., McGehee, M. D., Brongersma, M. L. 2012; 11 (3): 241-249

    Abstract

    Nanoscience provides many strategies to construct high-performance materials and devices, including solar cells, thermoelectrics, sensors, transistors, and transparent electrodes. Bottom-up fabrication facilitates large-scale chemical synthesis without the need for patterning and etching processes that waste material and create surface defects. However, assembly and contacting procedures still require further development. Here, we demonstrate a light-induced plasmonic nanowelding technique to assemble metallic nanowires into large interconnected networks. The small gaps that form naturally at nanowire junctions enable effective light concentration and heating at the point where the wires need to be joined together. The extreme sensitivity of the heating efficiency on the junction geometry causes the welding process to self-limit when a physical connection between the wires is made. The localized nature of the heating prevents damage to low-thermal-budget substrates such as plastics and polymer solar cells. This work opens new avenues to control light, heat and mass transport at the nanoscale.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT3238

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300625500025

    View details for PubMedID 22306769

  • Metal-dielectric-metal surface plasmon-polariton resonators PHYSICAL REVIEW B Chandran, A., Barnard, E. S., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. 2012; 85 (8)
  • Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Mallick, S. B., Agrawal, M., Wangperawong, A., Barnard, E. S., Singh, K. K., Visser, R. J., Brongersma, M. L., Peumans, P. 2012; 100 (5)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3680602

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300065300069

  • Highly-Strained Germanium as a Gain Medium for Silicon-Compatible Lasers Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Sukhdeo, D., Nam, D., Cheng, S., Yuan, Z., Roy, A., Huang, K. C., Brongersma, M., Nishi, Y., Saraswat, K. IEEE. 2012
  • Routing and photodetection in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides NANOPHOTONICS Ly-Gagnon, D., Balram, K. C., White, J. S., Wahl, P., Brongersma, M. L., Miller, D. A. 2012; 1 (1): 9-16
  • Measurement of the polarization state of light using an integrated plasmonic polarimeter NANOPHOTONICS Afshinmanesh, F., White, J. S., Cai, W., Brongersma, M. L. 2012; 1 (2): 125-129
  • Editorial Board of the Journal Nano-Photonics Brongersma, Mark, L., Jun, Y. C., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2012
  • Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal Advanced Optical Materials Brongersma, Mark, L., Agrawal, M., Wangperawong, A., Barnard, Edward, S., Singh, Kaushal, K., Visser, Robert, J. 2012
  • Electrical control of plasmonic Nanodevices SPIE Newsroom. Cai, W., Sukhdeo, D., Roy, A., Balram, K., Cheng, S., Huang, K. C., Brongersma, M. L. 2012

    View details for DOI 10.1117/2.1201112.004060

  • Optical antennas for information technology and energy harvesting Optical Antenna Theory, Design and Applications Brongersma, M. edited by Alù, A., Engheta, N. Cambridge University Press. 2012: 1
  • Plasmonics Short course at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics CLEO US, San Jose Brongersma, Mark, L., Selker, Mark, D., Catrysse, Peter, B., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2012
  • Plasmonic and Semiconductor Building Blocks for Hybrid Nanophotonic Devices Brongersma, M., L. 2012
  • International program Committee of the 12th Near-field Optics Brongersma, M., L. 2012
  • Rolling mask nanolithography: the pathway to large area and low cost nanofabrication Kobrin, B., Barnard, Edward, S., Brongersma, Mark, L., Kwak, M. K., Guo, L., Jay 2012
  • Vice Chair Gordon Conference on Plasmonics Brongersma, M., L. 2012
  • Measurement of the polarization state of light using an integrated plasmonic polarimeter Nanophotonics Afshinmanesh, F., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2012; 1: 125–129
  • Excitons and Plasmon Resonances in Nanostructures III Brongersma, M., L. 2012
  • Routing and photodetection in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides Nanophotonics Ly-Gagnon 1, D., Brongersma, M., L., Snoeks, E., Polman, A. 2012; 1: 9–16
  • Rolling mask nanolithography: the pathway to large area and low cost nanofabrication Conference on Advanced Fabrication Technologies for Micro/Nano Optics and Photonics V Kobrin, B., Barnard, E. S., Brongersma, M. L., Kwak, M. K., Guo, L. J. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2012

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.910158

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302640700015

  • Smart & Adaptive Optics Brongersma, M., L. 2012
  • Metal-dielectric-metal surface plasmon-polariton resonators Phys. Rev Chandran, A., White, Justin, S., Park, J., Schuller, Jon, A., Clemens, Bruce, M., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2012; B 85: 85416
  • Antenna electrodes for optical sources and solar cells Keynote presentation at the SPIE Annual Meeting, San Diego Brongersma, Mark, L., Thombare, S., Morral, A. F., Brongersma, Mark, L., McIntyre, Paul, C. 2012
  • Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics OPTICS EXPRESS Nam, D., Sukhdeo, D., Roy, A., Balram, K., Cheng, S., Huang, K. C., Yuan, Z., Brongersma, M., Nishi, Y., Miller, D., Saraswat, K. 2011; 19 (27): 25866-25872

    Abstract

    This work presents a novel method to introduce a sustainable biaxial tensile strain larger than 1% in a thin Ge membrane using a stressor layer integrated on a Si substrate. Raman spectroscopy confirms 1.13% strain and photoluminescence shows a direct band gap reduction of 100meV with enhanced light emission efficiency. Simulation results predict that a combination of 1.1% strain and heavy n(+) doping reduces the required injected carrier density for population inversion by over a factor of 60. We also present the first highly strained Ge photodetector, showing an excellent responsivity well beyond 1.6um.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301151500004

    View details for PubMedID 22274174

  • Engineering light absorption in single-nanowire solar cells with metal nanoparticles NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS Colombo, C., Krogstrup, P., Nygard, J., Brongersma, M. L., Fontcuberta i Morral, A. 2011; 13
  • Rapid computation of light scattering from aperiodic plasmonic structures PHYSICAL REVIEW B Huang, X., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 84 (24)
  • A submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Liu, J. S., Pala, R. A., Afshinmanesh, F., Cai, W., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 2

    Abstract

    Spectral imaging and sensing techniques, new solar cell designs and wavelength-division multiplexing in optical communication rely on structures that collect and sort photons by wavelength. The strong push for chip-scale integration of such optical components has necessitated ultracompact, planar structures, and fomented great interest in identifying the smallest possible devices. Consequently, novel micro-ring, photonic crystal and plasmonic solutions have emerged. Meanwhile, the optical coupling of subwavelength plasmonic structures supporting a very limited number of modes has also enabled new functionalities, including Fano resonances and structural electromagnetically-induced transparency. Here we show how two similarly sized subwavelength metal grooves can form an ultracompact submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter. Each groove supports just two electromagnetic modes of opposite symmetry that allows independent control of how a groove collects free-space photons and directs surface plasmon polaritons. These results show how the symmetry of electromagnetic modes can be exploited to build compact optical components.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1537

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297686500012

    View details for PubMedID 22068592

  • Tensile-strained germanium-on-insulator substrate fabrication for silicon-compatible optoelectronics OPTICAL MATERIALS EXPRESS Jain, J. R., Ly-Gagnon, D., Balram, K. C., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L., Miller, D. A., Howe, R. T. 2011; 1 (6): 1121-1126
  • Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence NANO LETTERS Barnard, E. S., Coenen, T., Vesseur, E. J., Polman, A., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 11 (10): 4265-4269

    Abstract

    We perform spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging nanoscopy using a 30 keV electron beam to identify the resonant modes of an ultrathin (20 nm), laterally tapered plasmonic Ag nanostrip antenna. We resolve with deep-subwavelength resolution four antenna resonances (resonance orders m = 2-5) that are ascribed to surface plasmon polariton standing waves that are confined on the strip. We map the local density of states on the strip surface and show that it has contributions from symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmon polariton modes, each with a very different mode index. This work illustrates the power of CL experiments that can visualize hidden modes that for symmetry reasons have been elusive in optical light scattering experiments.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl202256k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295667000041

    View details for PubMedID 21879729

  • Power flow from a dipole emitter near an optical antenna OPTICS EXPRESS Huang, K. C., Jun, Y. C., Seo, M., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 19 (20): 19084-19092

    Abstract

    Current methods to calculate the emission enhancement of a quantum emitter coupled to an optical antenna of arbitrary geometry rely on analyzing the total Poynting vector power flow out of the emitter or the dyadic Green functions from full-field numerical simulations. Unfortunately, these methods do not provide information regarding the nature of the dominant energy decay pathways. We present a new approach that allows for a rigorous separation, quantification, and visualization of the emitter output power flow captured by an antenna and the subsequent reradiation power flow to the far field. Such analysis reveals unprecedented details of the emitter/antenna coupling mechanisms and thus opens up new design strategies for strongly interacting emitter/antenna systems used in sensing, active plasmonics and metamaterials, and quantum optics.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295373800033

    View details for PubMedID 21996849

  • Electrically Controlled Nonlinear Generation of Light with Plasmonics SCIENCE Cai, W., Vasudev, A. P., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 333 (6050): 1720-1723

    Abstract

    Plasmonics provides a route to develop ultracompact optical devices on a chip by using extreme light concentration and the ability to perform simultaneous electrical and optical functions. These properties also make plasmonics an ideal candidate for dynamically controlling nonlinear optical interactions at the nanoscale. We demonstrate electrically tunable harmonic generation of light from a plasmonic nanocavity filled with a nonlinear medium. The metals that define the cavity also serve as electrodes that can generate high direct current electric fields across the nonlinear material. A fundamental wave at 1.56 micrometers was frequency doubled and modulated in intensity by applying a moderate external voltage to the electrodes, yielding a voltage-dependent nonlinear generation with a normalized magnitude of ~7% per volt.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1207858

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295121500034

    View details for PubMedID 21940887

  • Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Barnard, E. S., Pala, R. A., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 6 (9): 588-593

    Abstract

    An increasing number of photonics applications make use of nanoscale optical antennas that exhibit a strong, resonant interaction with photons of a specific frequency. The resonant properties of such antennas are conventionally characterized by far-field light-scattering techniques. However, many applications require quantitative knowledge of the near-field behaviour, and existing local field measurement techniques provide only relative, rather than absolute, data. Here, we demonstrate a photodetector platform that uses a silicon-on-insulator substrate to spectrally and spatially map the absolute values of enhanced fields near any type of optical antenna by transducing local electric fields into photocurrent. We are able to quantify the resonant optical and materials properties of nanoscale (∼50 nm) and wavelength-scale (∼1 µm) metallic antennas as well as high-refractive-index semiconductor antennas. The data agree well with light-scattering measurements, full-field simulations and intuitive resonator models.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NNANO.2011.131

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294550000016

    View details for PubMedID 21857687

  • Plasmon Enhanced Solar-to-Fuel Energy Conversion NANO LETTERS Thomann, I., Pinaud, B. A., Chen, Z., Clemens, B. M., Jaramillo, T. F., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 11 (8): 3440-3446

    Abstract

    Future generations of photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation must employ inexpensive, earth-abundant absorber materials in order to provide a large-scale source of clean energy. These materials tend to have poor electrical transport properties and exhibit carrier diffusion lengths which are significantly shorter than the absorption depth of light. As a result, many photoexcited carriers are generated too far from a reactive surface and recombine instead of participating in solar-to-fuel conversion. We demonstrate that plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures and multilayer interference effects can be engineered to strongly concentrate sunlight close to the electrode/liquid interface, precisely where the relevant reactions take place. On comparison of spectral features in the enhanced photocurrent spectra to full-field electromagnetic simulations, the contribution of surface plasmon excitations is verified. These results open the door to the optimization of a wide variety of photochemical processes by leveraging the rapid advances in the field of plasmonics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl201908s

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293665600066

    View details for PubMedID 21749077

  • Sombrero-Shaped Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Molecular-Level Sensitivity and Multifunctionality ACS NANO Wi, J., Barnard, E. S., Wilson, R. J., Zhang, M., Tang, M., Brongersma, M. L., Wang, S. X. 2011; 5 (8): 6449-6457

    Abstract

    We demonstrate top-down synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic nanoparticles designed to contain internal Raman hot spots. Our Raman-active nanoparticles are fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and thin-film deposition and are composed of novel internal structures with sublithographic dimensions: a disk-shaped Ag core, a Petri-dish-shaped SiO(2) base whose inner surface is coated with Ag film, and a sub-10 nm scale circular gap between the core and the base. Confocal Raman measurements and electromagnetic simulations show that Raman hot spots appear at the inside perimeter of individual nanoparticles and serve as the source of a 1000-fold improvement of minimum molecular detection level that enables detection of signals from a few molecules near hot spots. A multimodality version of these nanoparticles, which includes the functionality offered by magnetic multilayers, is also demonstrated. These results illustrate the potential of direct fabrication for creating exotic monodisperse nanoparticles, which combine engineered internal nanostructures and multilayer composite materials, for use in nanoparticle-based molecular imaging and detection.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn201649n

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294085400044

    View details for PubMedID 21732686

  • Multiple-Wavelength Focusing of Surface Plasmons with a Nonperiodic Nanoslit Coupler NANO LETTERS Tanemura, T., Balram, K. C., Ly-Gagnon, D., Wahl, P., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L., Miller, D. A. 2011; 11 (7): 2693-2698

    Abstract

    A novel type of multiple-wavelength focusing plasmonic coupler based on a nonperiodic nanoslit array is designed and experimentally demonstrated. An array of nanoslits patterned on a thin metal film is used to couple free-space light into surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and simultaneously focus different-wavelength SPPs into arbitrary predefined locations in the two-dimensional plane. We design and fabricate a compact triplexer on a glass substrate with an integrated silicon photodetector. The photocurrent spectra demonstrate that the incident light is effectively coupled to SPPs and routed into three different focal spots depending on the wavelength. The proposed scheme provides a simple method of building wavelength-division multiplexing and spectral filtering elements, integrated with other plasmonic and optoelectronic devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl200938h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292849400022

    View details for PubMedID 21627101

  • Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Jun, Y. C., Huang, K. C., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 2

    Abstract

    Nanometallic optical antennas are rapidly gaining popularity in applications that require exquisite control over light concentration and emission processes. The search is on for high-performance antennas that offer facile integration on chips. Here we demonstrate a new, easily fabricated optical antenna design that achieves an unprecedented level of control over fluorescent emission by combining concepts from plasmonics, radiative decay engineering and optical beaming. The antenna consists of a nanoscale plasmonic cavity filled with quantum dots coupled to a miniature grating structure that can be engineered to produce one or more highly collimated beams. Electromagnetic simulations and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the beaming process. The metals defining the plasmonic cavity can be utilized to electrically control the emission intensity and wavelength. These findings facilitate the realization of a new class of active optical antennas for use in new optical sources and a wide range of nanoscale optical spectroscopy applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1286

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289983800021

    View details for PubMedID 21505439

  • Optical Coupling of Deep-Subwavelength Semiconductor Nanowires NANO LETTERS Cao, L., Fan, P., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 11 (4): 1463-1468

    Abstract

    Systems of coupled resonators manifest a myriad of exciting fundamental physical phenomena. Analogous to the synthesis of molecules from single atoms, the construction of photonic molecules from stand-alone optical resonators represents a powerful strategy to realize novel functionalities. The coupling of high quality factor (Q) dielectric and semiconductor microresonators is by now well-understood and chipscale applications are abound. The coupling behavior of low-Q nanometallic structures has also been exploited to realize high-performance plasmonic devices and metamaterials. Although dense arrays of semiconductor nanoparticles and nanowires (NWs) find increasing use in optoelectronic devices, their photonic coupling has remained largely unexplored. These high refractive index nano-objects can serve as low-Q optical antennas that can effectively receive and broadcast light. We demonstrate that the broad band antenna response of a pair of NWs can be tuned significantly by engineering their optical coupling and develop an intuitive coupled-mode theory to explain our observations.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl1040429

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289341500013

    View details for PubMedID 21443245

  • Atomic Layer Deposition of Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots on Nanowire Surfaces NANO LETTERS Dasgupta, N. P., Jung, H. J., Trejo, O., McDowell, M. T., Hryciw, A., Brongersma, M., Sinclair, R., Prinz, F. B. 2011; 11 (3): 934-940

    Abstract

    Quantum dots provide unique advantages in the design of novel optoelectronic devices owing to the ability to tune their properties as a function of size. Here we demonstrate a new technique for fabrication of quantum dots during the nucleation stage of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of PbS. Islands with sub-10 nm diameters were observed during the initial ALD cycles by transmission electron microscopy, and in situ observations of the coalescence and sublimation behavior of these islands show the possibility of further modifying the size and density of dots by annealing. The ALD process can be used to cover high-aspect-ratio nanostructures, as demonstrated by the uniform coating of a Si nanowire array with a single layer of PbS quantum dots. Photoluminescence measurements on the quantum dot/nanowire composites show a blue shift when the number of ALD cycles is decreased, suggesting a route to fabricate unique three-dimensional nanostructured devices such as solar cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl103001h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288061500003

    View details for PubMedID 21319844

  • Thermo-optic tuning of erbium-doped amorphous silicon nitride microdisk resonators APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Hryciw, A. C., Kekatpure, R. D., Yerci, S., Dal Negro, L., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 98 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3545845

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286676600002

  • Strained Germanium Membrane using Thin Film Stressor for High Efficiency Laser Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Nam, D., Roy, A. M., Huang, K. C., Brongersma, M. L., Saraswat, K. C. IEEE. 2011
  • Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by coupling to plasmons Conference on Advances in Photonics of Quantum Computing, Memory, and Communication IV Faraon, A., Jun, Y. C., Barclay, P. E., Fu, K. C., Santori, C. M., Brongersma, M. L., Beausoleil, R. G. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2011

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.874221

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293702100018

  • Effect of illlumination on thermionic emission from microfabricated silicon carbide structures 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Beijing, China Lee, J., H., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2011
  • Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by coupling to plasmons Advances in Photonics of Quantum Computing, Memory, and Communication IV, San Francisco, CA Faraon, A., White, J., Barnard, E., Liu, J., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2011
  • Hybrid Semiconductor/Plasmonic Devices for Nanophotonics Keynote presentation at the SPIE Annual Meeting, San Diego Brongersma, Mark, L., Fan, P., Vasudev, Alok, P., White, Justin, S., Yu, Z., Cai, W. 2011
  • Guest Editor for special Green Photonics issue for the Journal of Optics Brongersma, Mark, L., Pala, R., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2011
  • Plasmons and rust for solar energy conversion Thomann, I., Pinaud, B., Pala, R., Seo, M., Chen, Z., Jaramillo, T., Brongersma, M. L. 2011
  • Nanoplasmonics course at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics CLEO Europe, Munich, Germany Brongersma, Mark, L., Brongersma, M. L. 2011
  • Program Committee for the Annual OSA meeting on Integrated Photonics Research Brongersma, M., L. 2011
  • Submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter Nature Communications Liu, John, S.Q. 2011; 2: 525
  • Guest Editor for a special Plasmonics issue for the journal Nanotechnology Brongersma, Mark, L., Park, J., Fan, P., Clemens, B., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2011
  • Nanowire Solar Cells ANNUAL REVIEW OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, VOL 41 Garnett, E. C., Brongersma, M. L., Cui, Y., McGehee, M. D. 2011; 41: 269-295
  • An Integrated Plasmonic Polarimeter Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) Afshinmanesh, F., White, J. S., Cai, W., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2011
  • Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Ding, I., Zhu, J., Cai, W., Moon, S., Cai, N., Wang, P., Zakeeruddin, S. M., Graetzel, M., Brongersma, M. L., Cui, Y., McGehee, M. D. 2011; 1 (1): 52-57
  • Elements for Plasmonic Nanocircuits with Three-Dimensional Slot Waveguides ADVANCED MATERIALS Cai, W., Shin, W., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 22 (45): 5120-?

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201001440

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285396400010

    View details for PubMedID 20859937

  • High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells NANO LETTERS Hardin, B. E., Yum, J., Hoke, E. T., Jun, Y. C., Pechy, P., Torres, T., Brongersma, M. L., Nazeeruddin, M. K., Graetzel, M., McGehee, M. D. 2010; 10 (8): 3077-3083

    Abstract

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (ETE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO(2) films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl1016688

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280728900058

    View details for PubMedID 20617816

  • Response to "Comment on 'Energy transfer in nanowire solar cells with photon-harvesting shells'" [J. Appl. Phys. 105, 124509 (2009)] JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Peters, C. H., Guichard, A. R., Hryciw, A. C., Brongersma, M. L., McGehee, M. D. 2010; 108 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3452392

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280909900118

  • Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures NANO LETTERS Cao, L., Fan, P., Barnard, E. S., Brown, A. M., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 10 (7): 2649-2654

    Abstract

    Empowering silicon (Si) with optical functions constitutes a very important challenge in photonics. The scalable fabrication capabilities for this earth-abundant, environmentally friendly material are unmatched in sophistication and can be unleashed to realize a plethora of high-performance photonic functionalities that find application in information, bio-, display, camouflage, ornamental, and energy technologies. Nanofashioning represents a general strategy to turn Si into a useful optical material and Si structures have already been engineered to enable light emission, optical cloaking, waveguiding, nonlinear optics, enhanced light absorption, and sensing. Here, we demonstrate that a wide spectrum of colors can be generated by harnessing the strong resonant light scattering properties of Si nanostructures under white light illumination. The ability to engineer such colors in a predetermined fashion through a choice of the structure size, dielectric environment, and illumination conditions opens up entirely new applications of Si and puts this material in a new light.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl1013794

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280416200059

    View details for PubMedID 20507083

  • NANOSCALE OPTICS Plasmonics gets transformed NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Cai, W., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 5 (7): 485-486

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280529800008

    View details for PubMedID 20606641

  • Phase-Coupled Plasmon-Induced Transparency PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Kekatpure, R. D., Barnard, E. S., Cai, W., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 104 (24)

    Abstract

    We demonstrate the existence of electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT-)like spectral response in a system of nanoscale plasmonic resonator antennas coupled by means of a single-mode silicon waveguide. Our proposed scheme exploits the phase of the coupling between the antennas in contrast with the existing plasmonic approaches that rely on the strength of direct, near-field coupling of nanometallic elements. Quality factors of over 100 and group indices of over 10 are readily achieved at near-infrared frequencies by a single unit in ≈1  μm2 of total device footprint, representing a more than two orders size reduction over corresponding dielectric EIT structures. By obviating the need for a near-field interaction, the phase-coupling scheme also facilitates an improved access to the coupling medium between the resonators thereby paving the way toward dynamic control of their sharp EIT-like spectral response.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.243902

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278884900001

    View details for PubMedID 20867303

  • Strong Modification of Quantum Dot Spontaneous Emission via Gap Plasmon Coupling in Metal Nanoslits JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Jun, Y. C., Pala, R., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 114 (16): 7269-7273

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp9083376

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276889300009

  • APPLIED PHYSICS The Case for Plasmonics SCIENCE Brongersma, M. L., Shalaev, V. M. 2010; 328 (5977): 440-441

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1186905

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276952400023

    View details for PubMedID 20413483

  • Resonant Germanium Nanoantenna Photodetectors NANO LETTERS Cao, L., Park, J., Fan, P., Clemens, B., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 10 (4): 1229-1233

    Abstract

    On-chip optical interconnection is considered as a substitute for conventional electrical interconnects as microelectronic circuitry continues to shrink in size. Central to this effort is the development of ultracompact, silicon-compatible, and functional optoelectronic devices. Photodetectors play a key role as interfaces between photonics and electronics but are plagued by a fundamental efficiency-speed trade-off. Moreover, engineering of desired wavelength and polarization sensitivities typically requires construction of space-consuming components. Here, we demonstrate how to overcome these limitations in a nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal germanium photodetector for the optical communications band. The detector capitalizes on antenna effects to dramatically enhance the photoresponse (>25-fold) and to enable wavelength and polarization selectivity. The electrical design featuring asymmetric metallic contacts also enables ultralow dark currents (approximately 20 pA), low power consumption, and high-speed operation (>100 GHz). The presented high-performance photodetection scheme represents a significant step toward realizing integrated on-chip communication and manifests a new paradigm for developing miniaturized optoelectronics components.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl9037278

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276557100024

    View details for PubMedID 20230043

  • Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy on indium-catalyzed core-shell germanium nanowires: size effects NANOTECHNOLOGY Xiang, Y., Zardo, I., Cao, L. Y., Garma, T., Heiss, M., Morante, J. R., Arbiol, J., Brongersma, M. L., Morral, A. F. 2010; 21 (10)

    Abstract

    The structure of indium-catalyzed germanium nanowires is investigated by atomic force microscopy, scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The nanowires are formed by a crystalline core and an amorphous shell. We find that the diameter of the crystalline core varies along the nanowire, down to few nanometers. Phonon confinement effects are observed in the regions where the crystalline region is the thinnest. The results are consistent with the thermally insulating behavior of the core-shell nanowires.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/21/10/105703

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274572900026

    View details for PubMedID 20154375

  • Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation NATURE MATERIALS Schuller, J. A., Barnard, E. S., Cai, W., Jun, Y. C., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 9 (3): 193-204

    Abstract

    The unprecedented ability of nanometallic (that is, plasmonic) structures to concentrate light into deep-subwavelength volumes has propelled their use in a vast array of nanophotonics technologies and research endeavours. Plasmonic light concentrators can elegantly interface diffraction-limited dielectric optical components with nanophotonic structures. Passive and active plasmonic devices provide new pathways to generate, guide, modulate and detect light with structures that are similar in size to state-of-the-art electronic devices. With the ability to produce highly confined optical fields, the conventional rules for light-matter interactions need to be re-examined, and researchers are venturing into new regimes of optical physics. In this review we will discuss the basic concepts behind plasmonics-enabled light concentration and manipulation, make an attempt to capture the wide range of activities and excitement in this area, and speculate on possible future directions.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT2630

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274700900013

    View details for PubMedID 20168343

  • Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers NANO LETTERS Cao, L., Fan, P., Vasudev, A. P., White, J. S., Yu, Z., Cai, W., Schuller, J. A., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 10 (2): 439-445

    Abstract

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells can serve as a virtually unlimited clean source of energy by converting sunlight into electrical power. Their importance is reflected in the tireless efforts that have been devoted to improving the electrical and structural properties of PV materials. More recently, photon management (PM) has emerged as a powerful additional means to boost energy conversion efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new PM strategy that capitalizes on strong broad band optical antenna effects in one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures to dramatically enhance absorption of sunlight. We show that the absorption of sunlight in Si nanowires (Si NWs) can be significantly enhanced over the bulk. The NW's optical properties also naturally give rise to an improved angular response. We propose that by patterning the silicon layer in a thin film PV cell into an array of NWs, one can boost the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250% increase in the light absorption per unit volume of material). These results significantly advance our understanding of the way sunlight is absorbed by one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures and provide a clear, intuitive guidance for the design of efficient NW solar cells. The presented approach is universal to any semiconductor and a wide range of nanostructures; as such, it provides a new PV platform technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl9036627

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274338800013

    View details for PubMedID 20078065

  • Solving Dielectric and Plasmonic Dispersion Equations on a Pocket Calculator Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) Kekatpure, R. D., Hryciw, A. C., Barnard, E. S., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2010
  • Program Committee Photonics for Solar Energy Systems (part of SPIE Photonics Europe) Brongersma, M., L. 2010
  • Nanotechnology Research Directions A World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) study, Chicago Brongersma, Mark, L., Kekapture, Rohan, D., White, Justin, S., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2010
  • Program Committee for the Annual OSA meeting on Integrated Photonics Research Brongersma, M., L. 2010
  • Nature Communications Brongersma, Mark, L., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2010
  • Active Plasmonic Devices Employing Extreme Light Concentration Gordon Conference on Plasmonics, New Hampshire Brongersma, Mark, L., Sukhdeo, David, S., Kang, J., Petykiewicz, J., Lee, J. H., Jung, W. S. 2010
  • Program Chair for the Optical Nanostructures for Photovoltaics (PV) conference Brongersma, M., L. 2010
  • Plasmonic, Semiconductor, and Dielectric Building Blocks for Nanophotonics Keynote presentation at the SPIE Annual Meeting, San Diego Brongersma, Mark, L., Chandran, A., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2010
  • Recent Advances in Plasmonic Device Technologies Plenary presentation at the Annual Integrated Photonic Research (IPR) conference, Monterey Brongersma, Mark, L., Brongersma, M., L., Polman, A. 2010
  • Plasmonics gets transformed Nature Nanotechnology Cai, W., Bell, L., D., Santamore, D., H., Brongersma, M., L., Atwater, H., A. 2010; 5: 485 - 486
  • Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics Garnett, E., C., Peters, C., Brongersma, M., Cui, Y., McGehee, M., D. 2010
  • Applications: Nanophotonics and Plasmonics WTEC (World Technology Evaluation Center) study on ‘Nanotechnology Research Directions. As the National Nanotechnology Initiative entered into its next decade, WTEC carried out a study to assess the progress made and to anticipate future challenges and opportunities for research in nanotechnology. Hu, E., L., Brongersma, M., L., Baca, A. Springer. 2010: 1
  • Plasmonics: A Focus on Light Concentration Keynote presentation at the SPIE Annual Meeting, San Diego Brongersma, Mark, L., Brongersma, M., L., Bell, L., D., Atwater, H., A. 2010
  • The Case for Plasmonics Science Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 328: 440-441
  • Electrifying plasmonics on silicon Nature Materials Hryciw, A., Coenen, T., Vesseur, Ernst, Jan R., Polman, A., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2010; 9: 3-4
  • Plasmonic Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) Pala, R. A., Barnard, E. S., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2010
  • Passive Building Blocks for Plasmonics Nanocircuits with Three-dimensional Slot Waveguides Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) Cai, W., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2010
  • Plasmonic Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) Pala, R. A., Barnard, E. S., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2010
  • SILICON NANOWIRE HYBRID PHOTOVOLTAICS 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Garnett, E. C., Peters, C., Brongersma, M., Cui, Y., McGehee, M. IEEE. 2010: 934–938
  • PLASMONICS Electrifying plasmonics on silicon NATURE MATERIALS Hryciw, A., Jun, Y. C., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 9 (1): 3-4

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nmat2598

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272854800007

    View details for PubMedID 20019659

  • Mid-IR plasmonic antennas on silicon-rich oxinitride absorbing substrates: Nonlinear scaling of resonance wavelengths with antenna length APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Sikola, T., Kekatpure, R. D., Barnard, E. S., White, J. S., Van Dorpe, P., Brinek, L., Tomanec, O., Zlamal, J., Lei, D. Y., Sonnefraud, Y., Maier, S. A., Humlicek, J., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 95 (25)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3278593

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273037700048

  • Solving dielectric and plasmonic waveguide dispersion relations on a pocket calculator OPTICS EXPRESS Kekatpure, R. D., Hryciw, A. C., Barnard, E. S., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 17 (26): 24112-24129

    Abstract

    We present a robust iterative technique for solving complex transcendental dispersion equations routinely encountered in integrated optics. Our method especially befits the multilayer dielectric and plasmonic waveguides forming the basis structures for a host of contemporary nanophotonic devices. The solution algorithm ports seamlessly from the real to the complex domain--i.e., no extra complexity results when dealing with leaky structures or those with material/metal loss. Unlike several existing numerical approaches, our algorithm exhibits markedly-reduced sensitivity to the initial guess and allows for straightforward implementation on a pocket calculator.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273156200081

    View details for PubMedID 20052123

  • General properties of dielectric optical antennas OPTICS EXPRESS Schuller, J. A., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 17 (26): 24084-24095

    Abstract

    Using Mie theory we derive a number of general results concerning the resonances of spherical and cylindrical dielectric antennas. Specifically, we prove that the peak scattering cross-section of radiation-limited antennas depends only on the resonance frequency and thus is independent of refractive index and size, a result which is valid even when the resonator is atomic-scale. Furthermore, we derive scaling limits for the bandwidth of dielectric antennas and describe a cylindrical mode which is unique in its ability to support extremely large bandwidths even when the particle size is deeply subwavelength. Finally, we show that higher Q antennas may couple more efficiently to an external load, but the optimal absorption cross-section depends only on the resonance frequency.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273156200078

    View details for PubMedID 20052120

  • Compact, High-Speed and Power-Efficient Electrooptic Plasmonic Modulators NANO LETTERS Cai, W., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 9 (12): 4403-4411

    Abstract

    CMOS compatible electrooptic plasmonic modulators are slated to be key components in chip-scale photonic circuits. In this work, we investigate detailed design and optimization protocols for electrooptic plasmonic modulators that are suitable for free-space coupling and on-chip integration. The metallic structures in the proposed devices offer simultaneous electric and optical functions. The resonance-enhanced nonlinear interaction and submicrometer-footprint of these devices meet the stringent requirements for future CMOS modulators, allowing for high-speed operation (>100 GHz) with a decent modulation depth (>3 dB) and moderate insertion loss (<3 dB) at a very low swing voltage ( approximately 1 V) and power dissipation ( approximately 1 fJ/bit). The realization of the proposed structures appears feasible with current materials and lithographic techniques.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl902701b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272395400077

    View details for PubMedID 19827771

  • Optical antenna thermal emitters NATURE PHOTONICS Schuller, J. A., Taubner, T., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 3 (11): 658-661
  • Near-infrared free-carrier absorption in silicon nanocrystals OPTICS LETTERS Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 34 (21): 3397-3399

    Abstract

    We report quantification of the free-carrier absorption (FCA) cross section in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a thin SiO(2) film at 1540 nm using a collinear pump-probe method. To this end, we measured the pump-intensity dependence of both the light transmission through the film and the photoexcited carrier density in the nanocrystals. From these measurements, we extracted a FCA cross section of sigma(FCA)=(3.6+/-1.4)x10(-17) cm(2), consistent with previous results in the visible range and the known lambda(2) scaling behavior of this quantity. Given the rapidly rising prevalence of silicon-based active photonic devices, our finding assumes particular significance for Si-nanocrystal-sensitized rare-earth-atom lasers and all optical switches at important telecom wavelengths.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271374600050

    View details for PubMedID 19881606

  • Side-coupled cavity model for surface plasmon-polariton transmission across a groove OPTICS EXPRESS Liu, J. S., White, J. S., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 17 (20): 17837-17848

    Abstract

    We demonstrate that the transmission properties of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) across a rectangular groove in a metallic film can be described by an analytical model that treats the groove as a side-coupled cavity to propagating SPPs on the metal surface. The coupling efficiency to the groove is quantified by treating it as a truncated metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide. Finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) simulations and mode orthogonality relations are employed to derive the basic scattering coefficients that describe the interaction between the relevant modes in the system. The modeled SPP transmission and reflection intensities show excellent agreement with full-field simulations over a wide range of groove dimensions, validating this intuitive model. The model predicts the sharp transmission minima that occur whenever an incident SPP resonantly couples to the groove. We also for the first time show the importance of evanescent, reactive MDM SPP modes to the transmission behavior. SPPs that couple to this mode are resonantly enhanced upon reflection from the bottom of the groove, leading to high field intensities and sharp transmission minima across the groove. The resonant behavior exhibited by the grooves has a number of important device applications, including SPP mirrors, filters, and modulators.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270295300065

    View details for PubMedID 19907571

  • Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements ADVANCED MATERIALS Pala, R. A., White, J., Barnard, E., Liu, J., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 21 (34): 3504-?
  • Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices NATURE MATERIALS Cao, L., White, J. S., Park, J., Schuller, J. A., Clemens, B. M., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 8 (8): 643-647

    Abstract

    The use of quantum and photon confinement has enabled a true revolution in the development of high-performance semiconductor materials and devices. Harnessing these powerful physical effects relies on an ability to design and fashion structures at length scales comparable to the wavelength of electrons (approximately 1 nm) or photons (approximately 1 microm). Unfortunately, many practical optoelectronic devices exhibit intermediate sizes where resonant enhancement effects seem to be insignificant. Here, we show that leaky-mode resonances, which can gently confine light within subwavelength, high-refractive-index semiconductor nanostructures, are ideally suited to enhance and spectrally engineer light absorption in this important size regime. This is illustrated with a series of individual germanium nanowire photodetectors. This notion, together with the ever-increasing control over nanostructure synthesis opens up tremendous opportunities for the realization of a wide range of high-performance, nanowire-based optoelectronic devices, including solar cells, photodetectors, optical modulators and light sources.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT2477

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268288000016

    View details for PubMedID 19578337

  • Nonradiative recombination in strongly interacting silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon-oxide films PHYSICAL REVIEW B Rowlette, J. A., Kekatpure, R. D., Panzer, M. A., Brongersma, M. L., Goodson, K. E. 2009; 80 (4)
  • Single crystalline and core-shell indium-catalyzed germanium nanowires-a systematic thermal CVD growth study NANOTECHNOLOGY Xiang, Y., Cao, L., Conesa-Boj, S., Estrade, S., Arbiol, J., Peiro, F., Heiss, M., Zardo, I., Morante, J. R., Brongersma, M. L., Fontcuberta i Morral, A. 2009; 20 (24)

    Abstract

    Germanium nanowires were synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and indium as a catalyst. The process parameter space for successful growth was studied. By optimizing the growth temperature and gas pressure, high aspect ratio germanium nanowires have been obtained. Scanning electron microscopy investigations indicate that the final diameter of the nanowires is strongly influenced by the growth temperature and the germane partial pressure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that nanowires grow either as high quality single crystalline, or with a high quality single-crystalline core and a concentric amorphous shell. The occurrence of these two morphologies is found to only depend on the wire diameter. Chemical analysis of the nanowire tip indicates the presence of indium, validating its role as a catalyst. Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal a higher incidence of core-shell structures for nanowires synthesized at 30 Torr and indicate the presence of tensile strain. These results are important towards obtaining high quality germanium nanowires without the use of gold as a catalyst, which is known to degrade the wires' electrical and optical properties.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/20/24/245608

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266436500024

    View details for PubMedID 19471084

  • Energy transfer in nanowire solar cells with photon-harvesting shells Peters, C. H., Guichard, A. R., Hryciw, A. C., Brongersma, M. L., McGehee, M. D. AMER INST PHYSICS. 2009

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3153281

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267599600137

  • Broadband enhancement of light emission in silicon slot waveguides OPTICS EXPRESS Jun, Y. C., Briggs, R. M., Atwater, H. A., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 17 (9): 7479-7490

    Abstract

    We investigate the light emission properties of electrical dipole emitters inside 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) silicon slot waveguides and evaluate the spontaneous emission enhancement (F(p)) and waveguide coupling ratio (beta). Under realistic conditions, we find that greater than 10-fold enhancement in F(p) can be achieved, together with a beta as large as 0.95. In contrast to the case of high Q optical resonators, such performance enhancements are obtained over a broad wavelength region, which can cover the entire emission spectrum of popular optical dopants such as Er. The enhanced luminescence efficiency and the strong coupling into a limited set of well-defined waveguide modes enables a new class of power-efficient, CMOS-compatible, waveguide-based light sources.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266381700063

    View details for PubMedID 19399126

  • Synthesis parameter space of bismuth catalyzed germanium nanowires APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Xiang, Y., Cao, L., Arbiol, J., Brongersma, M. L., Fontcuberta i Morral, A. 2009; 94 (16)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3116625

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265823300056

  • Metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguide devices for manipulating light at the nanoscale CHINESE OPTICS LETTERS Veronis, G., Yu, Z., Kocabas, S. E., Miller, D. A., Brongersma, M. L., Fang, S. 2009; 7 (4): 302-308
  • Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits OPTICS LETTERS White, J. S., Veronis, G., Yu, Z., Barnard, E. S., Chandran, A., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 34 (5): 686-688

    Abstract

    We report on the ability of resonant plasmonic slits to efficiently concentrate electromagnetic energy into a nanoscale volume of absorbing material placed inside or directly behind the slit. This gives rise to extraordinary optical absorption characterized by an absorption enhancement factor that well exceeds the enhancements seen for extraordinary optical transmission through slits. A semianalytic Fabry-Perot model for the resonant absorption is developed and shown to quantitatively agree with full-field simulations. We show that absorption enhancements of nearly 1000% can be realized at 633 nm for slits in aluminum films filled with silicon. This effect can be utilized in a wide range of applications, including high-speed photodetectors, optical lithography and recording, and biosensors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264522400046

    View details for PubMedID 19252593

  • Plasmon-enhanced emission from optically-doped MOS light sources OPTICS EXPRESS Hryciw, A. C., Jun, Y. C., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 17 (1): 185-192

    Abstract

    We evaluate the spontaneous emission rate (Purcell) enhancement for optically-doped metal-dielectric-semiconductor light-emitting structures by considering the behavior of a semiclassical oscillating point dipole placed within the dielectric layer. For a Ag-SiO(2)-Si structure containing emitters at the center of a 20-nm-thick SiO(2) layer, spontaneous emission rate enhancements of 40 to 60 can be reached in the wavelength range of 600 to 1800 nm, far away from the surface plasmon resonance; similar enhancements are also possible if Al is used instead of Ag. For dipoles contained in the thin oxide layer of a Ag-SiO(2)-Si-SiO(2) structure, the emission exhibits strong preferential coupling to a single well-defined Si waveguide mode. This work suggests a means of designing a new class of power-efficient, high-modulation-speed, CMOS-compatible optical sources that take full advantage of the excellent electrical properties and plasmon-enhanced op cal properties afforded by MOS devices.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262220300021

    View details for PubMedID 19129887

  • Planar Lenses Based on Nanoscale Slit Arrays in a Metallic Film NANO LETTERS Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., White, J. S., Barnard, E. S., Brongersma, M. L., Fan, S. 2009; 9 (1): 235-238

    Abstract

    We experimentally demonstrate planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film. Our lens structures consist of optically thick gold films with micron-size arrays of closely spaced, nanoscale slits of varying widths milled using a focused ion beam. We find excellent agreement between electromagnetic simulations of the design and confocal measurements on manufactured structures. We provide guidelines for lens design and show how actual lens behavior deviates from simple theory.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl802830y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262519100044

    View details for PubMedID 19053795

  • Nanoplasmonics Tutorial given at the open house of the center of optical technologies at Lehigh University Brongersma, Mark, L., Jun, Y. C., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2009
  • Nanoplasmonics: Components, Devices, and Circuits Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits Brongersma, Mark, L., Schuller, Jon, A., White, J., Jun, Y. C., Bozhevolnyi, Sergey, I., Søndergaard, T. edited by Bozhevolnyi, S. I. World Scientific. 2009: 1
  • Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings edited by Negro, L., Dal, Brongersma, M., L. 2009
  • Program Committee Surface Plasmon Photonics (SPP) 4 Brongersma, M., L. 2009
  • Guest Editor for Plasmonics and Metamaterials issue for the Journal of the Optical Society of America Brongersma, Mark, L., Barnard, E., Cai, W., Jun, Y. C., White, J., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2009
  • Active Plasmonics Ultrafast Developments Nature Photonics Cao, L., Zeltzer, G., Ruiz, R., Thomann, I., Lee, H., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2009; 12: 3
  • Plasmonics: The Next Wave of Chipscale Technologies Brongersma, M., L. 2009
  • Program Committee Near-Field Optics (NFO10) Conference Brongersma, M., L. 2009
  • Program Committee Nanometa-2009 Brongersma, M., L. 2009
  • Plasmonics and Metamaterials: Introduction J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26, PM1 Boardman, A., Bell, L., D., Brongersma, M., L., Atwater, H., A. 2009; B26, PM1
  • Plasmonics Short course at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics CLEO Europe, Munich, Germany Brongersma, Mark, L., Zia, R., Yanik, M., F., Fan, S., Brongersma, M., L. 2009
  • Plasmonics, Light Localization, and Metamaterials Brongersma, M., L. 2009
  • Planar Lenses Based on Nanoscale Slit Arrays in a Metallic Film Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2009) Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., White, J. S., Barnard, E. S., Brongersma, M. L., Fan, S. IEEE. 2009: 3224–3225
  • Ultrafast developments NATURE PHOTONICS Cao, L., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 3 (1): 12-13
  • Temperature-dependent Auger recombination dynamics in luminescent silicon nanowires PHYSICAL REVIEW B Guichard, A. R., Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L., Kamins, T. I. 2008; 78 (23)
  • Quantification of Free-Carrier Absorption in Silicon Nanocrystals with an Optical Microcavity NANO LETTERS Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L. 2008; 8 (11): 3787-3793

    Abstract

    We present a highly sensitive and accurate microcavity-based technique to quantify the free-carrier absorption (FCA) cross-section of semiconductor quantum-dot ensembles. The procedure is based on measuring the pump-intensity-dependent broadening of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of microdisk resonators. We have applied this technique to determine the FCA cross-section of Si nanocrystals (Si-ncs) in the visible-near-infrared wavelength range. Our procedure accounts for the size distribution effects by including the measured wavelength dependence of the excitation cross-section and the decay rate of photoexcited carriers in the analysis. By monitoring the WGM widths at various wavelengths in the 700-900 nm wavelength range, we found that the FCA cross-section follows an approximately quadratic wavelength dependence. The magnitude of the FCA cross-section of Si nanocrystals was determined to be a factor of 7 higher than that in bulk Si. For this reason, these findings have important implications for the design of Si-based lasers and all-optical switching devices in which FCA plays a critical role.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl8021016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260888600042

    View details for PubMedID 18826288

  • Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas OPTICS EXPRESS Barnard, E. S., White, J. S., Chandran, A., Brongersma, M. L. 2008; 16 (21): 16529-16537

    Abstract

    A theoretical study of the optical properties of metallic nano-strip antennas is presented. Such strips exhibit retardation-based resonances resulting from the constructive interference of counter propagating short-range surface plasmon-polaritons (SR-SPPs) that reflect from the antenna terminations. A Fabry-P erot model was formulated that successfully predicts both the peak position and spectral shape of their optical resonances. This model requires knowledge of the SR-SPP reflection amplitude and phase pickup upon reflection from the structure terminations. These quantities were first estimated using an intuitive Fresnel reflection model and then calculated exactly using full-field simulations based on the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method. With only three dimensionless scaling parameters, the Fabry-P erot model provides simple design rules for engineering resonant properties of such plasmonic resonator antennas.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260864900028

    View details for PubMedID 18852761

  • Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures PHYSICAL REVIEW B Jun, Y. C., Kekatpure, R. D., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. 2008; 78 (15)
  • Fundamental photophysics and optical loss processes in Si-nanocrystal-doped microdisk resonators PHYSICAL REVIEW A Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L. 2008; 78 (2)
  • Plasmonics - Engineering optical nanoantennas NATURE PHOTONICS Brongersma, M. L. 2008; 2 (5): 270-272
  • A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules NANO LETTERS Pala, R. A., Shimizu, K. T., Melosh, N. A., Brongersma, M. L. 2008; 8 (5): 1506-1510

    Abstract

    We demonstrate a surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waveguide all-optical switch that combines the unique physical properties of small molecules and metallic (plasmonic) nanostructures. The switch consists of a pair of gratings defined in an aluminum film coated with a 65 nm thick layer of photochromic (PC) molecules. The first grating couples a signal beam consisting of free space photons to SPPs that interact effectively with the PC molecules. These molecules can reversibly be switched between transparent and absorbing states using a free space optical pump. In the transparent (signal "on") state, the SPPs freely propagate through the molecular layer, and in the absorbing (signal "off") state, the SPPs are strongly attenuated. The second grating serves to decouple the SPPs back into a free space optical beam, enabling measurement of the modulated signal with a far-field detector. In a preliminary study, the switching behavior of the PC molecules themselves was confirmed and quantified by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The excellent (16%) overlap of the SPP mode profile with the thin layer of switching molecules enabled efficient switching with power densities of approximately 6.0 mW/cm2 in 1.5 microm x 8 microm devices, resulting in plasmonic switching powers of 0.72 nW per device. Calculations further showed that modulation depths in access of 20 dB can easily be attained in optimized designs. The quantitative experimental and theoretical analysis of the nonvolatile switching behavior in this letter guides the design of future nanoscale optically or electrically pumped optical switches.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl0808839

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255906400042

    View details for PubMedID 18412401

  • Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2008; 92 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2839324

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252860400017

  • Free-carrier Absorption in Si Nanocrystals Probed by Microcavity Photoluminescence Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2008) Kekatpure, R. D., Guichard, A. R., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2008: 1495–1496
  • Active plasmonic components employing extreme light concentration 487, 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Brongersma, Mark, L., Cai, W., Catrysse, Peter, B. 2008; 487
  • The dependence of poly-crystalline SiC mid-infrared optical properties on deposition conditions Provine, J., Roper, C., Schuller, J., A., Brongersma, M., L., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 2008
  • Fundamental photophysics and optical loss processes in Si-nanocrystal doped microcavities Phys. Rev. Kekatpure, Rohan, D., Shin, W., Fan, S., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2008; A 78: 23829
  • Free-carrier absorption in Si nanocrystals probed by microcavity photoluminescence Kekatpure, R., D., Guichard, A., R., Brongersma, M., L. 2008
  • Nanoplasmonics tutorial at the Materials Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting, San Francisco Brongersma, Mark, L., Kekatpure, Rohan, D., Brongersma, Mark, L., Kamins, Theodore, I. 2008
  • Plasmonics Bridging the Gap Between Microphotonics and Nanoelectronics Brongersma, M., L. 2008
  • Photophysics of Si nanostructures: ensembles and single particles Guichard, A., R., Kekatpure, R., D., Brongersma, M., L. 2008
  • Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Brongersma, M., L., Fan, S. 2008
  • Recent Progress in Plasmonics Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2008) Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2008: 3417–3418
  • The Dependence of Poly-crystalline SiC Mid-Infrared Optical Properties on Deposition Conditions IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics Provine, J., Roper, C., Schuller, J. A., Brongersma, M. L., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2008: 182–183
  • Photophysics of Si nanostructures: ensembles and single particles Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2008) Guichard, A. R., Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2008: 1331–1332
  • Plasmon-assisted local temperature control to pattern individual semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes NANO LETTERS Cao, L., Barsic, D. N., Guichard, A. R., Brongersma, M. L. 2007; 7 (11): 3523-3527

    Abstract

    We demonstrate a new versatile strategy to rapidly heat and cool subdiffraction-limited volumes of material with a focused light beam. The local temperature rise is obtained by exploiting the unique optical properties of metallic nanostructures that facilitate efficient light-to-heat conversion through the excitation of surface plasmons (collective electron oscillations). By locally heating nanoscale metallic catalysts, growth of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes can be initiated and controlled at arbitrarily prespecified locations and down to the single nanostructure level in a room-temperature chamber. This local heating strategy can be orders of magnitude (>10(5)) more energy efficient than conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tools in which an entire chamber/substrate is heated. For these reasons, it has great potential for use in process- and energy-efficient assembly of nanowires into complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible device architectures. In general, the high degree of spatial and temporal control over nanoscale thermal environments afforded by this method inspires new pathways for manipulating a range of important thermally stimulated processes and the development of novel photothermal devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl0722370

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251059800049

    View details for PubMedID 17963415

  • Plasmonics - the missing link between nanoelectronics and microphotonics APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING Brongersma, M. L., Zia, R., Schuller, J. A. 2007; 89 (2): 221-223
  • Dielectric metamaterials based on electric and magnetic resonances of silicon carbide particles PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Schuller, J. A., Zia, R., Taubner, T., Brongersma, M. L. 2007; 99 (10)

    Abstract

    Silicon carbide particles exhibit both electric and magnetic optical resonances, allowing unexplored dielectric metamaterial designs. Experimental extinction spectra and Mie theory calculations of single microscale rod-shaped particles reveal three observable midinfrared resonant modes. Two of the modes are degenerate, with a frequency that can be tuned according to a resonance condition derived within the Letter. The existence of both electric and magnetic resonances may enable a novel negative refractive index metamaterial design.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.107401

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249324100031

    View details for PubMedID 17930407

  • Surface plasmon polariton analogue to Young's double-slit experiment NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Zia, R., Brongersma, M. L. 2007; 2 (7): 426-429

    Abstract

    When a light wave strikes a metal film it can, under appropriate conditions, excite a surface plasmon polariton (SPP)--a surface electromagnetic wave that is coupled to the free electrons in the metal. Such SPPs are involved in a wide range of phenomena, including nanoscale optical waveguiding, perfect lensing, extraordinary optical transmission, subwavelength lithography and ultrahigh-sensitivity biosensing. However, before the full potential of technology based on SPPs (termed 'plasmonics') can be realized, many fundamental questions regarding the interaction between light and matter at the nanoscale need to be answered. For over 200 years, Young's double-slit experiment has been a valuable pedagogical tool for demonstrating the wave nature of light. Here, we perform a double-slit experiment with SPPs to reveal the strong analogy between SPP propagation along the surface of metallic structures and light propagation in conventional dielectric components (such as glass waveguides). This allows us to construct a general framework to describe the propagation, diffraction and interference of SPPs. It also suggests that there is an effective diffraction limit for the lateral confinement of SPPs on metal stripe waveguides, and justifies the use of well-developed concepts from conventional optics and photonics in the design of new plasmonic devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2007.185

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248302500013

    View details for PubMedID 18654327

  • Metal-dielectric slot-waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 mu m IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Feng, N., Brongersma, M. L., Dal Negro, L. 2007; 43 (5-6): 479-485
  • Omnidirectional light emission via surface plasmon polaritons APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Liu, J. S., Brongersma, M. L. 2007; 90 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2437053

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244591700016

  • Thin film patterning by surface-plasmon-induced thermocapillarity APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Roentzsch, L., Heinig, K., Schuller, J. A., Brongersma, M. L. 2007; 90 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2432282

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243789600122

  • High Q/V microdisk resonators for observation of Purcell effect in silicon nanocrystals 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics Kekatpure, R. D., Guichard, A. R., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2007: 259–261
  • Auger recombination in luminescent, CMOS-compatible Si nanowires Guichard, A., R., Kekatpure, R., D., Brongersma, M., L. 2007
  • Development and Near-field Characterization of Surface Plasmon Waveguides Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics Weeber, J., C., Baudrion, A., L, González, M., U., Dereux, A., Zia, R., Brongersma, Mark, L. edited by Brongersma, Mark, L., Kik, Pieter, G. 2007: 271
  • Excitons and Plasmon Resonances in Nanostructures - Fundamentals, synthesis, and applications Brongersma, M., L. 2007
  • Metal-dielectric slot waveguide structures for the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at 1.55 µm IEEE Journ. Of Quant. Electron. Feng, N., White, Justin, S., Fan, S., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2007; 43: 479- 485
  • High Q/V microdisk resonators for observation of purcell effect in silicon nanocrystals Kekatpure, R., D., Guichard, A., R., Brongersma, M., L. 2007
  • Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics Kik, Pieter, G., Brongersma, Mark, L. edited by Brongersma, Mark, L., Kik, Pieter, G. 2007: 271
  • Plasmonics – A New Wave of Opportunities Briefing of National Academies Committee on Nanophotonics Accessibility and Applicability, Washington DC Brongersma, Mark, L., Brongersma, M., L., Kik, P., G., Atwater, H., A. 2007
  • Midinfrared Dielectric Metamaterials Based on Electric and Magnetic Mie Resonances of Silicon Carbide Particles Phys. Rev. Lett. Schuller, J., A., Guichard, A., R., Hryciw, A., C., Brongersma, M., L., McGehee, M., D. 2007; 99: 107401
  • Design of mid-infrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Brongersma, M., L., Fan, S. 2007
  • Scientific Advisory Board for the journal "Metamaterials" Brongersma, Mark, L., Polman, A., Min, K., S., Boer, E., Tambo, T., Atwater, H., A. 2007
  • Plasmonics – The Next Wave of Chipscale Technologies NanoMaterials for Defense Applications Symposium, Organized by the US Denfense Agencies, San Diego Brongersma, Mark, L., Brongersma, M., L., Kik, P., G., Meltzer, S., Requicha, A., A.G., Atwater, H., A. 2007
  • Chipscale Plasmonics and Nanophotonics DARPA Components from Metamaterials Workshop, Washington Brongersma, Mark, L., Seo, M., Huo, Y., Sarmiento, T., Harris, James, S., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2007
  • Plasmonics - The missing link between nanoelectronics and microphotonics Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS 2007) Brongersma, M. L., Zia, R., Schuler, J. ELECTROMAGNETICS ACAD. 2007: 1043–1045
  • Design of mid-infrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures Conference on Integrated Optics - Devices, Materials, and Technology XI Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Brongersma, M. L., Fan, S. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2007

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.698016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246061700022

  • Auger recombination in luminescent, CMOS-compatible Si nanowires 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics Guichard, A. R., Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2007: 250–252
  • Probing molecular junctions using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy NANO LETTERS Shimizu, K. T., Pala, R. A., Fabbri, J. D., Brongersma, M. L., Melosh, N. A. 2006; 6 (12): 2797-2803

    Abstract

    The optical absorption spectra of nanometer-thick organic films and molecular monolayers sandwiched between two metal contacts have been measured successfully using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS). The electric field within metal-insulator (organic)-metal (MIM) cross-bar junctions created by surface plasmon-polaritons excited on the metal surface allows sensitive measurement of molecular optical properties. Specifically, this spectroscopic technique extracts the real and imaginary indices of the organic layer for each wavelength of interest. The SPRS sensitivity was calculated for several device architectures, metals, and layer thicknesses to optimize the organic film absorptivity measurements. Distinct optical absorption features were clearly observed for R6G layers as thin as a single molecular monolayer between two metal electrodes. This method also enables dynamic measurement of molecular conformation inside metallic junctions, as shown by following the optical switching of a thin spiropyran/polymer film upon exposure to UV light. Finally, optical and electrical measurements can be made simultaneously to study the effect of electrical bias and current on molecular conformation, which may have significant impact in areas such as molecular and organic electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl061893h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242786500029

    View details for PubMedID 17163708

  • Plasmon-assisted chemical vapor deposition NANO LETTERS Boyd, D. A., Greengard, L., Brongersma, M., El-Naggar, M. Y., Goodwin, D. G. 2006; 6 (11): 2592-2597

    Abstract

    We introduce a new chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process that can be used to selectively deposit materials of many different types. The technique makes use of the plasmon resonance in nanoscale metal structures to produce the local heating necessary to initiate deposition when illuminated by a focused low-power laser. We demonstrate the technique, which we refer to as plasmon-assisted CVD (PACVD), by patterning the spatial deposition of PbO and TiO(2) on glass substrates coated with a dispersion of 23 nm gold particles. The morphology of both oxide deposits is consistent with local laser-induced heating of the gold particles by more than 150 degrees C. We show that temperature changes of this magnitude are consistent with our analysis of the heat-loss mechanisms. The technique is general and can be used to spatially control the deposition of virtually any material for which a CVD process exists.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl062061m

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241856700036

    View details for PubMedID 17090097

  • Cavity Q measurements of silica microspheres with nanocluster silicon active layer IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Sung, J., Tewary, A., Brongersma, M. L., Shin, J. H. 2006; 12 (6): 1388-1393
  • Silicon-nanocrystal-coated silica microsphere thermooptical switch IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Tewary, A., Digonnet, M. J., Sung, J., Shin, J. H., Brongersma, M. L. 2006; 12 (6): 1476-1479
  • Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2006; 89 (15)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2360896

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241247900016

  • Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zia, R., Schuller, J. A., Brongersma, M. L. 2006; 74 (16)
  • Tunable light emission from quantum-confined excitons in TiSi2-catalyzed silicon nanowires NANO LETTERS Guichard, A. R., Barsic, D. N., Sharma, S., Kamins, T. I., Brongersma, M. L. 2006; 6 (9): 2140-2144

    Abstract

    Visible and near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature is reported from Si nanowires (NWs) grown by chemical vapor deposition from TiSi2 catalyst sites. NWs grown with average diameter of 20 nm were etched and oxidized to thin and passivate the wires. The PL emission blue shifted continuously with decreasing nanowire diameter. Slowed oxidation was observed for small nanowire diameters and provides a high degree of control over the emission wavelength. Transmission electron microscopy, PL, and time-resolved PL data are fully consistent with quantum confinement of charge carriers in the Si nanowire core being the source of luminescence. These light emitting nanowires could find application in future CMOS-compatible photonic devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl061287m

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240465100054

    View details for PubMedID 16968040

  • Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology MATERIALS TODAY Zia, R., Schuller, J. A., Chandran, A., Brongersma, M. L. 2006; 9 (7-8): 20-27
  • Controlling defect and Si nanoparticle luminescence from silicon oxynitride films with CO2 laser annealing APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Tewary, A., Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L. 2006; 88 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2178769

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235736300080

  • Silicon-nanocrystal-coated silica microsphere then-nooptical switch Conference on Silicon Photonics Tewary, A., Digonnet, M. J., Brongersma, M. L. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.669392

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237274900023

  • Synthesis and optimization of luminescent Si nanoparticles by CO2 laser annealing and Si nanocrystal light emission in microcavities Kekatpure, R., D., Tewary, A., Brongersma, M., L. 2006
  • Guiding Properties of Surface Plasmon-Polariton Waveguides "Nanophotonics with Surface Plasmons” and part of a Elsevier Series on “Advances in Nano-Optics and Nano-Photonics”. Zia, R., Brongersma, M. edited by Shalaev, V., Kawata, S. 2006: 1
  • Light emitting silicon nanowires for photonic device applications Guichard, A., R., Brongersma, M., L., Kamins, T., Sharma, S. 2006
  • Silicon-nanocrystal-coated Silica Microsphere Thermooptical Switch Tewary, A., Digonnet, Michel, J. F., Brongersma, Mark., L., Sung, J., Shin, Jung, H. 2006
  • Silicon-Based Microphotonics Brongersma, M., L. 2006
  • Synthesis and optimization of luminescent Si nanoparticles by CO2 laser annealing and Si nanocrystal light emission in microcavities Kekatpure, Rohan, D., Tewary, A., Brongersma, Mark., L. 2006
  • High-Q whispering gallery modes in wet etched silica microdisk resonators containing silicon nanocrystals Kekatpure, R., D., Brongersma, M., L. 2006
  • Synthesis and optimization of luminescent Si nanoparticles by CO2 laser annealing and Si nanocrystal light emission in microcavities Conference on Optoelectronic Devices - Physics, Fabrication, and Application III Kekatpure, R. D., Tewary, A., Brongersma, M. L. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.686562

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243902000001

  • Light emitting silicon nanowires for photonic device applications 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics Guichard, A. R., Brongersma, M. L., Kamins, T., Sharma, S. IEEE. 2006: 137–139
  • High-Q whispering gallery modes in wet etched silica microdisk resonators containing silicon nanocrystals 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L. IEEE. 2006: 22–24
  • Erbium-implanted silica microsphere laser 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2004) Kalkman, J., Polman, A., Kippenberg, T. J., Vahala, K. J., Brongersma, M. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2006: 182–85
  • Plasmon AccessScience@McGraw-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com Brongersma, Mark, L., Veronis, G., Fan, S., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2006

    View details for DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.526250

  • Design of a silicon-based field-effect electro-optic modulator with enhanced light-charge interaction OPTICS LETTERS Kekatpure, R. D., Brongersma, M. L., Shenoy, R. S. 2005; 30 (16): 2149-2151

    Abstract

    A new design for an all-silicon field-effect optical modulator in a ring resonator geometry is proposed and modeled by means of finite-element method simulations. It is shown that the optimal relative placement of the ultrathin field-effect-generated charge layers and the optical mode in the strong-confinement waveguides leads to more than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the light-charge interaction compared with the recent predictions in the literature. We show that such an enhancement could provide optical modulation with a >7 dB extinction-ratio using a voltage swing of only 2 V, thus making our design compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231072700033

    View details for PubMedID 16127939

  • Nanoengineered silicon/silicon dioxide nanoparticle heterostructures SOLID STATE SCIENCES Ostraat, M. L., Brongersma, M., Atwater, H. A., Flagan, R. C. 2005; 7 (7): 882-890
  • Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons OPTICS LETTERS Zia, R., Chandran, A., Brongersma, M. L. 2005; 30 (12): 1473-1475

    Abstract

    Although surface polariton modes supported by finite-width interfaces can guide electromagnetic energy in three dimensions, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that such modes can be modeled by the solutions of two-dimensional dielectric slab waveguides. An approximate model is derived by a ray-optics interpretation that is consistent with previous investigations of the Fresnel relations for surface polariton reflection. This model is compared with modal solutions for metal stripe waveguides obtained by full vectorial magnetic-field finite-difference methods. The field-symmetric modes of such waveguides are shown to be in agreement with the normalized dispersion relationship for analogous TE modes of dielectric slab waveguides. Lateral confinement is investigated by comparison of power-density profiles, and implications for the diffraction limit of guided polariton modes are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229689400015

    View details for PubMedID 16007778

  • Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zia, R., Selker, M. D., Brongersma, M. L. 2005; 71 (16)
  • Microring and microdisk optical resonators using silicon nanocrystals and erbium prepared using silicon technology Symposium of the European-Materials-Research-Society on Si-Based Photonics - Towards True Monolithic Integration Gardner, D. S., Brongersma, M. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2005: 804–11
  • Sub-wavelength resonances in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic structures 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE-Lasers-and-Electro-Optical-Society Fan, S. H., Shin, H., Brongersma, M., Veronis, G., Shen, J. T., Catrysse, P. B. IEEE. 2005: 520–521
  • Evidence for stimulated emission in silicon nanocrystal microspheres 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics Chen, H., Sung, J. Y., Tewary, A., Brongersma, M., Shin, J. H., Fauchet, P. M. IEEE. 2005: 99–101
  • Sub-wavelength resonances in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic structures Fan, S. 2005
  • Plasmonic functionality on Si chips Silicon Nanoelectronics and Beyond III, Workshop organized by SRC and NSF, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia Brongersma, Mark, L., Brongersma, Mark, L., Atwater, H., A., Flagan, R., C. 2005
  • The future of Plasmonics and Si microphotonics DARPA Frontiers on Quantum Device Engineering Workshop, Los Angeles Brongersma, Mark, L. 2005
  • Design of Silicon Based Field-Effect Electro-Optic Modulator With Enhanced Light-Charge Interaction Opt. Lett. Kekatpure, Rohan, D., Schuller, Jon, A., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2005; 30: 2149-2151
  • Microring and microdisk optical resonators using silicon nanocrystals and erbium prepared using silicon technology Gardner, D., S., Brongersma, M., L. 2005
  • Evidence for stimulated emission in silicon nanocrystal microspheres Chen, H., Sung, I., Y., Tewary, A., Brongersma, M., L., Shin, J., H., Fauchet, P., M. 2005
  • Towards CMOS Compatible Plasmonics and Nanophotonics Tutorial at NanoCommerce/SEMI NanoForum, Chicago Brongersma, Mark, L. 2005
  • Plasmonics--Nanoscale Optics and Photonics Based on Metals Brongersma, M., L. 2005
  • Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION Zia, R., Selker, M. D., Catrysse, P. B., Brongersma, M. L. 2004; 21 (12): 2442-2446

    Abstract

    Plasmonic waveguides can guide light along metal-dielectric interfaces with propagating wave vectors of greater magnitude than are available in free space and hence with propagating wavelengths shorter than those in vacuum. This is a necessary, rather than sufficient, condition for subwavelength confinement of the optical mode. By use of the reflection pole method, the two-dimensional modal solutions for single planar waveguides as well as adjacent waveguide systems are solved. We demonstrate that, to achieve subwavelength pitches, a metal-insulator-metal geometry is required with higher confinement factors and smaller spatial extent than conventional insulator-metal-insulator structures. The resulting trade-off between propagation and confinement for surface plasmons is discussed, and optimization by materials selection is described.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225378200024

    View details for PubMedID 15603083

  • Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectric-metal geometry APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Shin, H., Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. H., Zia, R., Brongersma, M. L. 2004; 84 (22): 4421-4423

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1758306

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221537500021

  • New Materials for Microphotonics Brongersma, M., L. 2004
  • Towards CMOS Compatible Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Brongersma, M., L. 2004
  • Nanoshells: gifts in a gold wrapper NATURE MATERIALS Brongersma, M. L. 2003; 2 (5): 296-297
  • Observation of near-field coupling in metal nanoparticle chains using far-field polarization spectroscopy PHYSICAL REVIEW B Maier, S. A., Brongersma, M. L., Kik, P. G., Atwater, H. A. 2002; 65 (19)
  • Electromagnetic energy transport along Yagi arrays EMRS Spring Meeting Maier, S. A., Brongersma, M. L., Atwater, H. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2002: 291–94
  • Electromagnetic energy transport along Yagi arrays Mat. Sci. and Eng. Maier, Stefan, A., Pinaud, Blaise, A., Chen, Z., Clemens, Bruce, M., Jaramillo, Thomas, F., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2002; C19: 291–294
  • Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes of plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit Symposia on Materials and Devices for Optoelectronics and Photonics/Photonic Crystals - From Materials to Devices held at the 2002 MRS Spring Meeting Maier, S. A., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L., Atwater, H. A., Meltzer, S., Requicha, A. A., Koel, B. E. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 2002: 431–436
  • Plasmonics - A route to nanoscale optical devices ADVANCED MATERIALS Maier, S. A., Brongersma, M. L., Kik, P. G., Meltzer, S., Requicha, A. A., Atwater, H. A. 2001; 13 (19): 1501-?
  • Models for quantitative charge imaging by atomic force microscopy JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Boer, E. A., Bell, L. D., Brongersma, M. L., Atwater, H. A. 2001; 90 (6): 2764-2772
  • Localized charge injection in SiO2 films containing silicon nanocrystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Boer, E. A., Brongersma, M. L., Atwater, H. A., Flagan, R. C., Bell, L. D. 2001; 79 (6): 791-793
  • Synthesis and characterization of aerosol silicon nanocrystal nonvolatile floating-gate memory devices APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ostraat, M. L., De Blauwe, J. W., Green, M. L., Bell, L. D., Brongersma, M. L., Casperson, J., Flagan, R. C., Atwater, H. A. 2001; 79 (3): 433-435
  • Charging of single Si nanocrystals by atomic force microscopy APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Boer, E. A., Bell, L. D., Brongersma, M. L., Atwater, H. A., Ostraat, M. L., Flagan, R. C. 2001; 78 (20): 3133-3135
  • Colloidal assemblies modified by ion irradiation E-MRS Spring Meeting on Materials Science with Ion Beams Snoeks, E., van Blaaderen, A., van Dillen, T., van Kats, C. M., Velikov, K., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2001: 62–68
  • Electromagnetic energy transport along arrays of closely spaced metal rods as an analogue to plasmonic devices APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Maier, S. A., Brongersma, M. L., Atwater, H. A. 2001; 78 (1): 16-18
  • Electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in periodic metal nanostructures Conference on Controlling and Using Light in Nanometric Domains Maier, S. A., Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L., Atwater, H. A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2001: 22–30
  • Manipulation and Charging of Single Si Nanocrystals by Atomic Force Microscopy Appl. Phys. Lett. Boer, E., A., Taubner, T., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2001; 78: 3133
  • Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit PHYSICAL REVIEW B Brongersma, M. L., Hartman, J. W., Atwater, H. A. 2000; 62 (24): 16356-16359
  • Colloidal ellipsoids with continuously variable shape ADVANCED MATERIALS Snoeks, E., van Blaaderen, A., van Dillen, T., van Kats, C. M., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. 2000; 12 (20): 1511-1514
  • Origin of MeV ion irradiation-induced stress changes in SiO2 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Brongersma, M. L., Snoeks, E., van Dillen, T., Polman, A. 2000; 88 (1): 59-64
  • Formation mechanism of silver nanocrystals made by ion irradiation of Na+<-> Ag+ ion-exchanged sodalime silicate glass NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS Peters, D. P., Strohhofer, C., Brongersma, M. L., van der Elsken, J., Polman, A. 2000; 168 (2): 237-244
  • Strong exciton-erbium coupling in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Kik, P. G., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. 2000; 76 (17): 2325-2327
  • Size-dependent electron-hole exchange interaction in Si nanocrystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Brongersma, M. L., Kik, P. G., Polman, A., Min, K. S., Atwater, H. A. 2000; 76 (3): 351-353
  • Monodisperse Silica and ZnS Particles with Continuously Variable Shape Made by Ion Irradiation of Micro-Spheres Advanced Materials Snoeks, E., Cao, L., Arbiol, J., Brongersma, Mark, L., Morral, A. F. 2000; 12: 1511
  • Colloidal Assemblies Modified by Ion Irradiation Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Snoeks, E., White, Justin, S., Cai, W., Brongersma, Mark, L. 2000; 178: 62
  • Depth distribution of luminescent Si nanocrystals in Si implanted SiO2 films on Si JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A., Min, K. S., Atwater, H. A. 1999; 86 (2): 759-763
  • Activation energy spectra for annealing of ion irradiation induced defects in silica glasses 11th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM98) van Dillen, T., Brongersma, M. L., Snoeks, E., Polman, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1999: 221–26
  • Nucl. Intrum. Methods Phys. edited by Vredenberg, A., Polman, A., Stolk, P. 1999
  • Activation Energy Spectra for Annealing of Ion Irradiation-induced Defects in Silica Glasses Nucl. Instr. and Meth. van Dillen, T., Kang, J., Park, J., Liu, X., Brongersma, Mark, L. 1999; B 148: 221
  • Tuning the emission wavelength of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 by oxidation APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A., Min, K. S., Boer, E., Tambo, T., Atwater, H. A. 1998; 72 (20): 2577-2579
  • Low energy k-dependent electronic structure of the layered magnetoresistive oxide La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 Symposium on Metallic Magnetic Oxides at the Materials-Research-Society Fall Meeting Saitoh, T., Dessau, D. S., Park, C. H., Shen, Z. X., Villella, P., Hamada, N., Moritomo, Y., Tokura, Y. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1998: 213–218
  • Co-organizer of the Eleventh International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials Brongersma, M., L. 1998
  • Tailoring the Optical Properties of Si Nanocrystals; Materials Issues and Nanocrystal Laser Perspectives Brongersma, M., L., Min, K., S., Boer, E., Tambo, T., Polman, A., Atwater, H., A. 1998
  • Temperature dependence of MeV heavy ion irradiation-induced viscous flow in SiO2 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Brongersma, M. L., Snoeks, E., Polman, A. 1997; 71 (12): 1628-1630
  • Defect-related versus excitonic visible light emission from ion beam synthesized Si nanocrystals in SiO2 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Min, K. S., SHCHEGLOV, K. V., Yang, C. M., Atwater, H. A., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. 1996; 69 (14): 2033-2035
  • The role of quantum-confined excitons vs defects in the visible luminescence of SiO2 films containing Ge nanocrystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Min, K. S., SHCHEGLOV, K. V., Yang, C. M., Atwater, H. A., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. 1996; 68 (18): 2511-2513
  • On the Origin of Visible Luminescence from SiO2 Films containing Ge Nanocrystals Min, K., S., Shcheglov, K., V., Yang, C., M., Camata, R., P., Atwater, H., A., Brongersma, M., L. 1996
  • Ion beam synthesis of planar opto-electronic devices (reprinted from Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, vol 106, pg 393-399, 1995) 9th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 95) Polman, A., Snoeks, E., VANDENHOVEN, G. N., Brongersma, M. L., Serna, R., Shin, J. H., Kik, P., Radius, E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1996: 393–399
  • On the origin of visible luminescence from SiO2 films containing Ge nanocrystals Symposium on Surface/Interface and Stress Effects in Electronic Material Nanostructures, at the 1995 MRS Fall Meeting Min, K. S., SHCHEGLOV, K. V., Yang, C. M., Camata, R. P., Atwater, H. A., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1996: 247–252
  • Ion beam synthesis of planar opto-electronic devices 9th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 95) Polman, A., Snoeks, E., VANDENHOVEN, G. N., Brongersma, M. L., Serna, R., Shin, J. H., Kik, P., Radius, E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1995: 393–99
  • CORRELATION OF SIZE AND PHOTOLUMINESCENCE FOR GE NANOCRYSTALS IN SIO2 MATRICES Symposium F: Microcrystalline and Nanocrystalline Semiconductors, at the 1994 Fall Meeting of the Materials-Research-Society Yang, C. M., SHCHEGLOV, K. V., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A., Atwater, H. A. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 1995: 181–186
  • Ion Beam Synthesis of Planar Optoelectronic Devices Polman, A., Snoeks, E., van den Hoven, G., N., Brongersma, M., L., Serna, R., Shin, J., H. 1995
  • Ion Beam Synthesis of Planar Optoelectronic Devices Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. Polman, A., Hryciw, Aaron, C., Barnard, Edward, S., Brongersma, Mark, L. 1995; B 106: 393
  • ION-BEAM SYNTHESIS OF LUMINESCENT SI AND GE NANOCRYSTALS IN A SILICON DIOXIDE MATRIX Symposium on Materials Synthesis and Processing Using Ion Beams, at the 1993 MRS Fall Meeting Atwater, H. A., SHCHEGLOV, K. V., Wong, S. S., Vahala, K. J., Flagan, R. C., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 409–420
  • ION-BEAM SYNTHESIS OF LUMINESCENT SI AND GE NANOCRYSTALS IN A SILICON DIOXIDE MATRIX Symposium on Crystallization and Related Phenomena in Amorphous Materials, at the 1993 Fall Meeting of the Materials-Research-Society Atwater, H. A., SHCHEGLOV, K. V., Wong, S. S., Vahala, K. J., Flagan, R. C., Brongersma, M. L., Polman, A. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1994: 363–374
  • Ion Beam Synthesis of Luminescent Si and Ge Nanocrystals in a Silicon Dioxide Matrix Atwater, H., A., Shcheglov, K., V., Wong, S., S., Vahala, K., J., Flagan, R., C., Brongersma, M., L. 1994