Breakfast Consumption in Low-Income Hispanic Elementary School-Aged Children: Associations with Anthropometric, Metabolic, and Dietary Parameters.
2020; 12 (7)
Breakfast consumption is associated with lower obesity prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and higher dietary quality (DQ) in children. Low-income, Hispanic populations are disproportionately affected by obesity and cardiometabolic risks. This study examined the relationship between breakfast consumption groups (BCG) on anthropometric, metabolic, and dietary parameters in predominately low-income, Hispanic children from 16 Texas schools. Cross-sectional data were from TX Sprouts, a school-based gardening, nutrition, and cooking randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body mass index, body fat percent via bioelectrical impedance, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Metabolic parameters included fasting plasma glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. DQ and BCG were assessed via two 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariate multiple regression examined relationships between BCG and anthropometric, metabolic, and dietary parameters. This study included 671 students (mean age 9 years, 58% Hispanic, 54% female, 66% free/reduced lunch, 17% breakfast skippers). No relationships were observed between BCG and anthropometric or metabolic parameters. BCG had higher DQ; higher daily protein, total sugar, and added sugar intake; and lower daily fat intake. Skipping breakfast was associated with lower DQ; higher daily fat intake; and lower daily protein intake. Longitudinal research examining breakfast quality on cardiometabolic outcomes in low-income, Hispanic children is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.3390/nu12072038
View details for PubMedID 32659982
Barriers to Preparing and Cooking Vegetables Are Associated with Decreased Home Availability of Vegetables in Low-Income Households.
2020; 12 (6)
Knowing which barriers to buying and preparing/cooking vegetables at home are linked with the home availability of vegetables and how food-security status impacts this relationship will facilitate the tailoring of future public health interventions. Baseline data were used from an elementary-school-based intervention. Data on household food-security status, availability of vegetables at home, and barriers to buying and preparing/cooking vegetables were collected from 1942 parents. Differences between food-secure and food-insecure households were examined for barriers to buying and preparing/cooking vegetables. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to estimate the associations between barriers to buying and preparing/cooking vegetables and food-security status on the home availability of vegetables. Food insecurity was reported in 27% of households. Food-insecure households were significantly more likely to report barriers to buying and preparing/cooking vegetables. The barriers to purchasing/cooking vegetables score was associated with a decrease in the home availability of vegetables score (beta = -0.77; 95% CI: -0.88, -0.65; p < 0.001). Compared to food-secure households, food-insecure households were 15% less likely to have home vegetable availability (beta = -1.18; 95% CI: -1.45, -0.92; p < 0.001). Although home availability of vegetables does not guarantee consumption, this study identified specific barriers that were associated with availability that can be targeted in future interventions seeking to improve vegetable consumption in the homes of low-income families.
View details for DOI 10.3390/nu12061823
View details for PubMedID 32570923
- Food Waste in K-12 Schools: An Opportunity to Create More Equitable and Sustainable Food Systems JOURNAL OF NUTRITION EDUCATION AND BEHAVIOR 2020; 52 (5): 463
The Association Between Child Cooking Involvement in Food Preparation and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Hispanic Youth Population.
Current developments in nutrition
2020; 4 (4): nzaa028
Background: Cooking interventions have been linked to reductions in obesity and improvements in dietary intake in children.Objective: To assess whether child cooking involvement (CCI) was associated with fruit intake (FI), vegetable intake (VI), vegetable preference (VP), and vegetable exposure (VE) in children participating in the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG) randomized controlled trial.Methods: Baseline data from TGEG included 1231 3rd grade students and their parents. Conducted in 28 low-income, primarily Hispanic schools across Texas, TGEG schools were assigned to: 1) Coordinated School Health (CSH) only (control group), 2) CSH plus gardening and nutrition intervention (Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! or LGEG group), 3) CSH plus physical activity intervention (Walk Across Texas or WAT group), and 4) CSH plus LGEG plus WAT (combined group). Height, weight, dietary intake, VE, VP, and CCI were collected at baseline and postintervention. Linear regressions were used to assess the relation between baseline CCI and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, VE, and VP. A priori covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, and TGEG treatment group.Results: Children who were always involved in family cooking had higher VP and VE when compared with children who were never involved in family cooking (beta = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.67, 4.86; P< 0.01 and beta = 2.26; 95% CI: 0.67, 3.85; P< 0.01, respectively). Both VI and FI were higher for children who were always involved in family cooking compared with children who never cooked with their family (beta = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.47, 3.44; P< 0.01 and beta = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.39; P< 0.01, respectively). VI and fruit consumption were higher for children who reported being sometimes involved in family cooking compared with children who were never involved in family cooking, (beta = 1.47; 95% CI: 0.51, 2.42; P< 0.01, and beta = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.20, 1.08; P< 0.01, respectively).Conclusions: Results show a positive relation between family cooking and FV intake and preference in high-risk, minority children.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cdn/nzaa028
View details for PubMedID 32258989
- Design and participant characteristics of TX sprouts: A school-based cluster randomized gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention (vol 85, 105834, 2019) CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL TRIALS 2020; 88: 105906
Child Compared with Parent Perceptions of Child-Level Food Security
CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN NUTRITION
2019; 3 (10): nzz106
There is a need to directly and accurately conceptualize and measure food insecurity in children as part of surveillance and public health efforts.The aim of this study was to compare parent and child perceptions of child-level food security status via questionnaires within a large, ethnically diverse population.Cross-sectional baseline data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial involving primarily low-income, Hispanic third- to fifth-grade students and their parents were used for analysis. The sample consisted of 2408 dyadic (parent and child) pairs. Parents completed the 8-item child-referenced Household Food Security Survey Module and their responses were compared with an adaption of the 5-item Child Food Security Assessment completed by their child. Levels of association between child and parent perceptions within dyads were calculated using Goodman and Kruskal's γ statistic. A mixed-effects binomial logistic regression model was used to model discordance as a function of child, parent, and household sociodemographic characteristics.The child sample was 53% girls, mean age of 9 y, and 63% were Hispanic. The parent sample was 86% women and 65% Hispanic. Child and parent perceptions of child-level food security agreed only 21.7% of the time. There was a weak positive association between child and parent perceptions of child-level food security (γ = 0.162, P < 0.001). Children perceived themselves as less food secure than their parents' perception 70.1% of the time. Household receipt of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits was associated with greater odds of discordant food security perceptions, whereas female children, older children, and parents not working were characteristics associated with lower odds of discordant perceptions.Results, in combination with the existing literature, suggest that parent perceptions of child-level food insecurity may underestimate child-level food insecurity experiences. Inaccurate estimations or underestimations of the true prevalence of child-level food insecurity could be detrimental to maternal and child health efforts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02668744.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cdn/nzz106
View details for Web of Science ID 000504325000008
View details for PubMedID 31637366
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6794475
Design and participant characteristics of TX sprouts: A school-based cluster randomized gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention
CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL TRIALS
2019; 85: 105834
To outline the study design, outcome measures, protocol and baseline characteristics of enrolled participants of Texas (TX) Sprouts, a one-year school-based gardening, nutrition, and cooking cluster randomized trial.Eight schools were randomly assigned to the TX Sprouts intervention and eight schools to the delayed intervention over three years (2016-2019). The intervention arm received: formation/training of Garden Leadership Committees; a 0.25-acre outdoor teaching garden; 18 student lessons including gardening, nutrition, and cooking activities, taught weekly during school hours by hired educators throughout one school year; and nine parent lessons taught monthly to families. The delayed intervention was implemented the following academic year and received the same protocol as the intervention arm. Primary outcomes included: dietary intake, dietary-related behaviors, obesity, and metabolic parameters. Child measures included: height, weight, waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, and dietary psychosocial variables. A subsample of children were measured for glucose, hemoglobin-A1C, and 24-hour dietary recalls. Parent measures included: height and weight, dietary intake, and related dietary psychosocial variables.Of the 4239 eligible students, 3137 students consented and provided baseline clinical measures; 3132 students completed child surveys, with 92% of their parents completing parent surveys. The subsamples of blood draws and dietary recalls were 34% and 24%, respectively. Intervention arm baseline descriptives, clinical and dietary data for children and parents are reported.The TX Sprouts intervention targeted primarily low-income Hispanic children and their parents; utilized an interactive gardening, nutrition, and cooking program; and measured a battery of dietary behaviors, obesity and metabolic outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2019.105834
View details for Web of Science ID 000497244700002
View details for PubMedID 31449880
Association of breastfeeding and gestational diabetes mellitus with the prevalence of prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome in offspring of Hispanic mothers
2019; 14 (7): e12515
The effects of breastfeeding (BF) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus in children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in utero have rarely been evaluated.This study assessed BF and GDM in relation to the prevalence of prediabetes and MetS in Hispanic children and adolescents (8-19 y).This is a longitudinal study with 229 Hispanic children (8-13 y) with overweight/obesity, family history of diabetes, and an average of four annual visits (AV). Participants were categorized as follows: never (negative for prediabetes/MetS at all AVs), ever (positive for prediabetes/MetS at any visit), intermittent (positive for prediabetes/MetS at 1-2 AVs), and persistent (positive for prediabetes/MetS at greater than or equal to 3 AVs).Compared with GDM offspring who were not BF (referent), GDM offspring who were BF had lower odds of persistent prediabetes (OR = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.82; P = 0.02) and MetS (OR = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02-0.55; P = 0.008). Compared with referent group, non-GDM offspring who were BF, and non-GDM offspring not BF had lower odds of persistent prediabetes (OR = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03-0.39; P = 0.001; OR = 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.11; P < 0.001) and MetS (OR = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.59; P = 0.01 and OR = 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.11; P < 0.001).These results show BF is protective against prediabetes and MetS in offspring regardless of GDM status.
View details for DOI 10.1111/ijpo.12515
View details for Web of Science ID 000470005100007
View details for PubMedID 30734524
Child-Report of Food Insecurity Is Associated with Diet Quality in Children
2019; 11 (7)
Food insecurity (FI) is adversely associated with physical and mental wellbeing in children. The mechanism underlying this association is assumed to be dietary intake; however, evidence has been mixed. This study examined the relationship between self-reported FI and dietary quality among low-income children. Cross-sectional data were used from TX Sprouts, a school-based cooking, gardening, and nutrition intervention. A sample of 598 children completed two 24-h dietary recalls and a questionnaire including an adapted version of the 5-item Child Food Security Assessment (CFSA). Food security was categorized as food secure or FI based on summed CFSA scores. Dietary quality was assessed using the Health Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015). Mixed effects linear regression models examined associations between FI and dietary quality. Children were 64% Hispanic, 55% female, and were 9.2 years old on average. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI percentile, and energy intake, FI was associated with lower HEI-2015 total scores (β = -3.17; 95% CI = -5.28, -1.06; p = 0.003). Compared to food secure children, FI children had lower greens and beans (2.3 vs. 1.9, p = 0.016), seafood and plant protein (2.0 vs. 1.6, p = 0.006), and added sugar (7.4 vs. 8.0, p = 0.002) component scores. Interventions targeting low-income and FI children should investigate ways to improve dietary quality.
View details for DOI 10.3390/nu11071574
View details for Web of Science ID 000478885400032
View details for PubMedID 31336880
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6683069
Child and Parent Knowledge of Added Sugar Recommendations Is Associated with Decreased Added Sugar Intake in Multiethnic Elementary Aged Children (P16-021-19).
Current developments in nutrition
2019; 3 (Suppl 1)
Objectives: Due to the adverse health effects of added sugar consumption, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) have encouraged reduced intake of added sugars. While education is a key component of the DGA, no research has studied whether knowledge of the recommendations for added sugar is associated with decreased intake. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of parent and child knowledge of added sugar recommendations on added sugar intake in a sample of multiethnic 3rd to 5th grade students.Methods: This study examined cross-sectional data from TX Sprouts, a 1-year cooking, gardening, and nutrition clustered randomized control trial. A sample of 685 children and one of their parents completed questionnaires to assess knowledge of added sugar recommendations. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to assess average child energy and added sugar intake. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between child and parent knowledge and a child's added sugar intake while controlling for child age, ethnicity, gender, and energy intake and parent ethnicity and gender.Results: Only 38% of children were able to identify the correct recommendation for added sugar intake, compared to 46% of parents. Parent knowledge of the added sugar recommendation was associated with a lower intake of added sugar (40.1 vs 35.6 grams, P<0.01). Child knowledge of the added sugar recommendation was associated with a lower intake of added sugar (39.9 vs 35.9 grams, P<0.02).Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that knowledge of added sugar guidelines is associated with lower intake of added sugar. Nutrition education for children and their parents should focus on increasing knowledge of national guidelines and recommendations to improve dietary intake and overall health.Funding Sources: This research was supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cdn/nzz050.P16-021-19
View details for PubMedID 31224029
Association of Breastfeeding and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption with Obesity Prevalence in Offspring Born to Mothers with and Without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (P11-098-19).
Current developments in nutrition
2019; 3 (Suppl 1)
Objectives: Prenatal and early life factors such as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and early exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may contribute to obesity in children. The relationship of EBF and SSBs with obesity prevalence in children exposed to GDM has rarely been evaluated. This study examined the association of EBF and early SSBs consumption with obesity prevalence in children (1-5y) born to mothers with and without GDM.Methods: This study used data from the 2014 Los Angeles County Women, Infants, and Children(WIC) Survey, which included 3,707 mothers and their children (1-5y). Infants (1-2y) with weight-for-height≥97.7thpercentile were classified as subjects with high weight-for-length and children (2-5y) were classified as subjects with obesity if their BMI-for-age was≥95thpercentile.Results: The individual and combination interaction effects of GDM, SSBs intake, and EBF on obesity prevalence were all significant (P<0.05). Compared to GDM offspring, with low SSBs intake, and who were EBF (referent), those who were GDM, with high SSBs intake and who were EBF had approximately a five-fold increase in odds of obesity (OR=4.77, 95%CI 1.55-8.60, P=0.03). Compared to the GDM referent group, GDM offspring who were not EBF with low and high SSBs intake had 4.3- and 4.4-times higher odds of obesity, respectively (OR=4.33, 95%CI 1.42- 8.07, P=0.01; OR=4.38, 95%CI 1.39- 8.16, P=0.01). Using non-GDM, EBF and low SSBs as referent, those who were not EBF, with either high or low SSBs had approximately a 4-fold increase in odds of obesity (OR=3.62, 95%CI: 2.16-6.05, P<0.0001; OR=3.83, 95%CI: 2.26-6.48, P<0.0001).Compared to the non-GDM referent group, those who were EBF and had high SSBs intake had 77% higher odds of obesity (OR=1.77, 95%CI 0.93-3.37, P=0.001).Conclusions: In non-GDM offspring, EBF was protective against odds of obesity in both high and low SSBs consumers. In GDM offspring, EBF was only protective against obesity when SSBs intake was low. Surprisingly, GDM offspring who were EBF and had high SSBs consumption had a 4- to 5-fold increase in odds of obesity compared to those not EBF with either low or high SSBs intake. These results suggest that interventions should focus on the combined protective effects of EBF and low SSBs intake, particularly in GDM offspring.Funding Sources: First 5 LA.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cdn/nzz048.P11-098-19
View details for PubMedID 31225178
Food Insecurity Is Associated with Higher Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Low-Income Elementary Aged Children (P04-059-19).
Current developments in nutrition
2019; 3 (Suppl 1)
Objectives: Food insecurity is adversely associated with physical and mental health and wellbeing in children. The mechanism that underlies this association is assumed to be dietary intake; however, evidence linking food insecurity to child dietary intake has been mixed. This study examined the relationship between self-reported food insecurity and dietary intake among low-income 7-12 year old children.Methods: Cross-sectional data were used from TX Sprouts, a school-based cooking, gardening, and nutrition intervention in 16 central Texas schools. A sample of 680 children completed two 24-hour dietary recalls (24hDR) and a questionnaire that included an adapted version of the 5-item Child Food Security Assessment (CFSA). Four ordinal groups, High Food Security (HFS), Marginal Food Security (MFS), Low Food Security (LFS), and Very Low Food Security (VLFS), were generated based on summed scores from the CFSA. The Health Eating Index-2015 and dietary components (total energy, macronutrients, and servings of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)) were derived from 24hDR. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine the associations between food security and dietary outcomes. A priori covariates included sex, age, ethnicity, and daily energy.Results: Children in the study were 45% male, 54% Hispanic, and had an average age of 9.3 years. Main effects of food security were significant for added sugar (P<0.03) and SSBs (P<0.04). Compared to children with HFS (referent), those who were LFS and VLFS consumed more added sugar (33.2 g vs. 39.9 g and 40.6 g, P<0.03 and P<0.003; respectively). Compared to the HFS referent group, those who were MFS and VLFS had higher mean intakes of SSBs (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.9 servings, P<0.03 and P<0.01; respectively). There were no significant associations between food security and other dietary outcomes.Conclusions: Self-reported food insecurity among children (7-12 years of age) was associated with higher added sugar and SSB intake. Future research should assess if the positive association between food insecurity and added sugar and SSB intake contributes to adverse health outcomes.Funding Sources: This study was supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).
View details for DOI 10.1093/cdn/nzz051.P04-059-19
View details for PubMedID 31224723
The Relationship Between Beverage Consumption and Prediabetes in Predominantly Low-Income Hispanic Children (P11-110-19).
Current developments in nutrition
2019; 3 (Suppl 1)
Objectives: Previous studies have established a strong positive relationship between soda consumption and prediabetes in adolescents and adults; however, the same relationship in children younger than 10 years has not yet been examined. Furthermore, the associations of 100% fruit juice and artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption with prediabetes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between prediabetes and beverage consumption (sodas, ASBs, and 100% fruit juice) in predominantly low-income Hispanic 3rd-5th graders.Methods: This study used baseline data from 793 3rd-5th grade students who participated in TX Sprouts, a cluster randomized nutrition, gardening, and cooking intervention at 16 elementary schools in and around Austin, TX. The following measures were collected at baseline: frequency of soda, ASB, and 100% fruit juice consumption via validated dietary screener, fasting plasma glucose via fasting blood draw, age and sex via questionnaire, height via stadiometer, and weight via TANITA scale. Glucose values of 100-125 mg/dL were categorized as prediabetic based on American Diabetes Association 2018 guidelines. Logistic regression models were run to assess the relationship between beverage consumption and prediabetes, controlling for age, sex, and BMI.Results: Participants were 52.4% female and 66.4% Hispanic, with an average age of 9.2 years. The average fasting plasma glucose was 93.3 mg/dL, with 28.5% of students classified as prediabetic. Participants reporting consumption of two or more sodas per day (n=98) had a 65% higher odds of having prediabetes compared to those reporting no soda consumption on any given day (n=431) (OR=1.65; 95% CI 1.04-2.61; P=0.035). No significant differences were found in consumption of 100% fruit juice or ASBs with prediabetes status.Conclusions: This is the first study to show a positive relationship between soda consumption and prediabetes in children younger than 10 years, replicating findings in adolescent and adult populations. This study did not find a relationship between ASB and 100% fruit juice consumption and prediabetes. These results suggest that interventions should focus on reducing primarily soda consumption to potentially reduce prediabetes in pediatric populations.Funding Sources: This study was supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).
View details for DOI 10.1093/cdn/nzz048.P11-110-19
View details for PubMedID 31224498
Relationship Between Dark Green, Orange, and Yellow Vegetable Intake and Skin Carotenoids (P02-003-19).
Current developments in nutrition
2019; 3 (Suppl 1)
Objectives: Skin carotenoid status assessed by Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) has emerged as a promising new biomarker of vegetable intake. As a result, only few studies have compared the relationship between free living vegetable and fruit intake and skin carotenoids in youth populations. The overall objective is toassess how vegetable intake correlates with skin carotenoids in primarily, Hispanic children.Methods: Baseline data from TX Sprouts, a 1-year school-based gardening, cooking, and nutrition randomized controlled trial were used, which included 465 low-income 3rd-5thgrade students from nine schools in central Texas. The following data were collected: demographics via questionnaires, dietary intake viatwo 24-hour dietary recalls collected via telephone, and skin carotenoid status assessed via RRS. Partial correlations were run between vegetable servings per day and changes in vegetable servings per day, controlling for school site, ethnicity/race, sex, age, ethnicity, and energy intake.Results: Students were 45% male and 70% Hispanic with a mean age of 9.4±0.9 years. Intake of dark green/orange/yellow vegetables (servings/day) was positively correlated with RRS scores (r=0.12; P=0.012). Total vegetable intake or fruit intake was not correlated to RRS scores.Conclusions: The correlation was significant, albeit small, between dark green, yellow, red, and orange vegetable intakes and RRS scores. This is one of the first free-living studies in youth to show that nutrient rich vegetable intake is positively linked to skin carotenoids. These results highlight that the RRS can provide a non-invasive and objective measure of vegetable intake that can be used in school settings with children.Funding Sources: This research was supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (grant number R01HL123865).
View details for DOI 10.1093/cdn/nzz029.P02-003-19
View details for PubMedID 31224739
The Relationship Between Dietary Intake and Parental Support with Child Cooking Involvement in a Youth Population (FS16-03-19).
Current developments in nutrition
2019; 3 (Suppl 1)
Objectives: This study assessed how child cooking involvement (CCI) and parental support in food preparation (PS) are related to vegetable preference (VP), vegetable intake (VI), and fruit intake (FI) in children participating in the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG) randomized controlled trial.Methods: Baseline data from the TGEG intervention, conducted in 28 low-income, primarily Hispanic schools across Texas, was used for this study, and included 1325 3rd grade students and their parents. Schools were assigned to: (1) control group; (2) school garden intervention [Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! (LGEG)]; (3) physical activity intervention [Walk Across Texas (WAT)]; or (4) combined group (LGEG plus WAT). Height (via stadiometer), weight (via Tanita scale), dietary intake and CCI (via child questionnaire), and PS (via parent questionnaire) were collected. General Linear Models examined variations in baseline VP, VI, and FI with baseline CCI and PS. A priori covariates for all analyses included: TGEG treatment group, age, sex, and ethnicity.Results: Students were 49.2% male and 42.4% Hispanic with a mean age of 8.3±0.6; 78.3% of the population had overweight/obesity. Children who never cooked with their families preferred fewer vegetables than children who sometimes/always cooked with their parents (7.0±0.6 vs. 8.7±0.5 and 9.4±0.5 vegetables, respectively; P<0.001). Children who never cooked with their families ate less vegetables than children who sometimes/always cooked with their parents (1.9±0.4 vs. 2.6±0.3 and 3.5±0.3 servings/day, respectively; P=0.003 and P=0.000, respectively). Children who never cooked with their families ate less fruit than children who sometimes/always cooked with their parents (1.2±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 2.09±0.1 servings/day, respectively; P<0.001).Conclusions: Interventions including family cooking activities with children may be an effective way to increase vegetable preference and intake, and fruit intake, especially in high-risk, minority children.Funding Sources: The research was supported by funding from the USDA Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, (grant 2011-68001-30138).
View details for DOI 10.1093/cdn/nzz050.FS16-03-19
View details for PubMedID 31223942
Diet Quality Is an Indicator of Disease Risk Factors in Hispanic College Freshmen
JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
2019; 119 (5): 760–68
No studies have assessed the relationship between diet quality, using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and adiposity, physical activity, and metabolic disease risk factors in a Hispanic college population.To assess associations between diet quality and adiposity, metabolic health, and physical activity levels in a Hispanic college freshman population.This was a cross-sectional study. Measurements were obtained during a 4-hour in-person visit and included demographic information via questionnaire, height, weight, waist circumference, body mass index, body fat via BodPod, hepatic fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue via magnetic resonance imaging, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipids via blood draw from fasting subjects, physical activity (ie, step counts per day and time spent in different intensity levels) via 7-day accelerometry, and dietary intake via three to four 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary quality was calculated using the HEI-2015.Hispanic college freshmen (n=92), 18 to 19 years, 49% male, who were enrolled at University of Texas at Austin from 2014 to 2015.Main outcome measures were diet quality and adiposity, metabolic health, and physical activity levels.Linear regressions determined if dietary quality is related to adiposity, metabolic, and physical activity outcomes. A priori covariates included sex, body fat, and body mass index percentile (for metabolic models), and moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for adiposity and metabolic models).The average HEI-2015 total score was 54.9±13.4. A 1-point increase in HEI score was associated with 1.5 mL lower VAT (P=0.013); 8 minutes per day higher light activity (P=0.008), and 107 more step counts per day (P=0.002); and 0.10 μg/mL lower insulin (P=0.046) and 0.5 U lower HOMA-IR (P<0.001).Results suggest that small improvements in diet quality may be positively associated with a reduction in metabolic disease risk, during a critical time period in a young person's life.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jand.2018.12.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000465445600007
View details for PubMedID 30799284
Cooking and Gardening Behaviors and Improvements in Dietary Intake in Hispanic/Latino Youth
2019; 15 (4): 262–70
Background: School gardening interventions typically include cooking and gardening (CG) components; however, few studies have examined associations between CG psychosocial behaviors (attitudes, self-efficacy, and motivation), dietary intake, and obesity parameters. This study assessed the association between changes in CG behaviors with changes in dietary intake and obesity in participants of the LA Sprouts study, an after-school, 12-week, randomized controlled CG intervention conducted in four inner-city elementary schools in Los Angeles. Methods: Process analysis using data from 290 low-income, primarily Hispanic/Latino third through fifth-grade students who were randomized to either the LA Sprouts intervention (n = 160) or control group (n = 130). Height, weight, waist circumference, dietary intake via questionnaire, and CG behaviors were collected at baseline and postintervention. Linear regressions determined whether changes in CG behaviors predicted changes in dietary intake and obesity outcomes. Results: There were no differences in changes in CG psychosocial behaviors between intervention and control groups, therefore groups were combined. Participants were 49% male, 87% Hispanic/Latino, and an average age of nine. Increases in cooking behaviors significantly predicted increases in dietary fiber intake (p = 0.004) and increases in vegetable intake (p = 0.03). Increases in gardening behaviors significantly predicted increased intake of dietary fiber (p = 0.02). Changes in CG behaviors were not associated with changes in BMI z-score or waist circumference. Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that school-based interventions should incorporate CG components, despite their potentially costly and time-intensive nature, as these behaviors may be responsible for improvements in dietary intake of high-risk minority youth.
View details for DOI 10.1089/chi.2018.0110
View details for Web of Science ID 000462155500001
View details for PubMedID 30907624
Impact of food security on glycemic control among low-income primarily Hispanic/Latino children in Los Angeles, California: A cross-sectional study
JOURNAL OF HUNGER & ENVIRONMENTAL NUTRITION
2019; 14 (5): 709–24
Studies examining the impact of food insecurity on metabolic markers are limited, specifically in Hispanic youth. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of 218 3rd-5th grade students (83% Hispanic and 49% male). Anthropometrics, blood glucose, insulin, and lipids via fasting blood draw, dietary intake via Block screener, and a 5-item food security scale were collected. HOMA-Insulin Resistance was calculated. Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to examine differences in glucose and insulin indices, adiposity, metabolic and dietary intake variables between categories of food security. Food secure children had greater glycemic control and decreased insulin resistance compared to food insecure children.
View details for DOI 10.1080/19320248.2018.1491367
View details for Web of Science ID 000483002400008
View details for PubMedID 31749895
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6867803