Bio


Dr. Noah Diffenbaugh is an Associate Professor in the School of Earth Sciences and Senior Fellow in the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford University. He studies the dynamics and impacts of climate variability and change. Much of his work has focused on the role of fine-scale processes in shaping climate change impacts, including studies of extreme weather, water resources, agriculture, human health, and poverty vulnerability.

Dr. Diffenbaugh is currently a Lead Author for Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and a member of the National Academy of Sciences Ad Hoc Committee on Effects of Provisions in the Internal Revenue Code on Greenhouse Gas Emissions. He also serves on the Executive Committee of the Atmospheric Sciences Section of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), as an Editor of Geophysical Research Letters, and as a Member Representative to the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). He has provided scientific briefings to State and Federal lawmakers, and in 2011 was named a Google Science Communication Fellow. Dr. Diffenbaugh is a recipient of the James R. Holton Award from the American Geophysical Union, recognizing outstanding research contributions by a junior atmospheric scientist. He has been recognized a Kavli Fellow by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and is the recipient of a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation and a Terman Fellowship from Stanford University. Before coming to Stanford, he was a member of the faculty of Purdue University, where he was a University Faculty Scholar and served as Interim Director of the Purdue Climate Change Research Center (PCCRC).

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Associate Professor of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University (2013 - Present)
  • Senior Fellow, Woods Institute for the Environment Stanford University (2013 - Present)
  • Assistant Professor of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University (2009 - 2013)
  • Center Fellow, Woods Institute for the Environment Stanford University (2009 - 2013)
  • Associate Professor of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University (2008 - 2009)
  • Assistant Professor of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University (2004 - 2008)
  • Postgraduate Research Earth Scientist, University of California, Santa Cruz (2003 - 2004)

Honors & Awards


  • Stanford Fellow, Stanford University (2013-2015)
  • NSF CAREER Award, National Science Foundation (2010 - Present)
  • Google Science Communication Fellow, Google (2011)
  • “2011 Highlights”, Diffenbaugh et al., Environmental Research Letters (2011)
  • Fifth Anniversary Collection, Diffenbaugh et al., Environmental Research Letters, (2011)
  • Kavli Fellow, U.S. National Academy of Sciences (2010)
  • AGU Research Spotlight, Diffenbaugh and Ashfaq, GRL, American Geophysical Union (2010)
  • Terman Fellowship, Stanford University (2009 - Present)
  • University Faculty Scholar, Purdue University (2009)
  • “2009 Highlights,” Ahmed et al., Environmental Research Letters (ERL) (2009)
  • Fifth Anniversary Collection, Jackson et al., Environmental Research Letters, (2008)
  • NSF Highlight of significant achievement toward strategic outcome goals, Trapp et al., 2007, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2008)
  • “Best of 2008,” Jackson et al, Environmental Research Letters (2008)
  • “Best of 2008,” Diffenbaugh et al., Environmental Research Letters (ERL) (2008)
  • Purdue President's Nominee - Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, Purdue University (2007)
  • James R. Holton Award, Atmospheric Sciences Section, American Geophysical Union (2006)
  • Scholar, ARCS Foundation (2002 - 2003)
  • Regents Fellowship, University of California (2000 - 2001)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Editor-in-Chief, Geophysical Research Letters (2015 - Present)
  • Earth Sciences Council, School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University (2014 - Present)
  • Undergraduate Advisory Council, Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, Stanford University (2014 - Present)
  • Faculty Advisory Board, Introductory Seminar Program, Stanford University (2013 - Present)
  • Faculty Committee, Sustainable Urban Systems initiative, Stanford University (2013 - Present)
  • Search Committee (co-Chair), Coastal Human-Environment Systems, Stanford University (2013 - Present)
  • Director, Goldman Honors Program in Environmental Science, Technology and Policy, Stanford University (2012 - Present)
  • Faculty Mentor, Stanford Leland Scholars Program, Stanford University (2012 - Present)
  • Member, Science Advisory Board, Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (2012 - Present)
  • Co-Term Advisor, Earth Systems Program, Stanford University (2010 - Present)
  • Faculty Mentor, School of Earth Sciences High School Intern Program, Stanford University (2010 - Present)
  • Graduate Admissions Committee, Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER), Stanford University (2010 - Present)
  • Pre-Major Advisor, Stanford University (2010 - Present)
  • Scientific Research Computing Facility Faculty Committee, Stanford University (2010 - Present)
  • Stanford University Member Representative, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (2010 - Present)
  • Adjunct Associate Professor of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University (2009 - Present)
  • Affiliated Faculty, Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER), Stanford University (2009 - Present)
  • Committee of the Whole, Earth Systems Program, Stanford University (2009 - Present)
  • Graduate Admissions Committee, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University (2009 - Present)
  • Executive Committee, Atmospheric Sciences Section, American Geophysical Union (2008 - Present)
  • Proposal Panelist – DOE (National Lab Climate Change Scientific Focus Areas; Regional Models for Climate Change Integrated Assessment); NASA (Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction); NOAA (Climate Prediction Program for the Americas); NSF (CDI-II); U.S. CLIVAR (Drought in Coupled Models Project), DOE, NASA, NOAA, NSF, U.S. CLIVAR (2007 - Present)
  • Short Term Visitor, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (2006 - Present)
  • Journal Manuscript Referee, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, Journal of Hydrometeorology, Limnology and Oceanography, Meteorological Applications, Nature, Paleoceanography (2003 - Present)
  • Journal Manuscript Referee, International Journal of Climatology, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Journal of Climate (2003 - Present)
  • Journal Manuscript Referee, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Quaternary International, Quaternary Research, Quaternary Science Reviews, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Water Resources Management (2003 - Present)
  • Journal Manuscript Referee, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Atmospheric Research, Climate Dynamics, Climate Research, Climatic Change, Earth Interactions, Eos, Geology, Geophysical Research Letters, Global and Planetary Change (2003 - Present)
  • Undergraduate Teaching Recognition, School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University (2014 - 2014)
  • Dean’s Teaching Task Force, School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University (2013 - 2014)
  • Academic Guidance Committee, Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER), Stanford University (2012 - 2013)
  • Faculty Mentor, MUIR Woods Undergraduate Research Program, Stanford University (2012 - 2012)
  • Committee on the Effects of Provisions in the Internal Revenue Code on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, National Academy of Sciences (2011 - 2013)
  • Member, Sustainability 2.0 faculty committee, Stanford University (2011 - 2012)
  • Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill, February 16-17, 2011, American Geophysical Union (2011 - 2011)
  • Organizing Committee, Simulating the Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Anthropogenic Climate Change, Los Alamos Institute for Advanced Studies Workshop (2011 - 2011)
  • Lead Author, Working Group II, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2010 - 2014)
  • Undergraduate Education Committee, School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University (2010 - 2013)
  • Environmental Forum Organizing Committee, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University (2010 - 2011)
  • Co-Director, Fifth ICTP Workshop on the Theory and Use of Regional Climate Models, May, 2010, Trieste, Italy, International Centre for Theoretical Physics (2010 - 2010)
  • Organizing Committee, Climate Change Modeling and Scaling Workshop, U.S. National Climate Assessment (2010 - 2010)
  • Editor, Geophysical Research Letters (2009 - 2014)
  • Co-Chair, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology General Contributions, 2009 Joint Assembly, May 24-29, Toronto, Canada, American Geophysical Union (2009 - 2009)
  • DOE Climate Change Science: Focus Group, July 27-28, Washington, D.C., Department of Energy (2009 - 2009)
  • Atmospheric Science Section Representative, Eos Advisory Board, American Geophysical Union (2008 - 2009)
  • Interim Director, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University (2008 - 2009)
  • Co-Chair, Regional-Scale Forcing of Climate, AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 15-19, American Geophysical Union (2008 - 2008)
  • Co-Chair, Transitioning Out of the Mid-Holocene Climate: An Evaluation of Land-Ocean Proxy Records and Model Simulations, AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 15-19, American Geophysical Union (2008 - 2008)
  • Coordinating Lead Author, Climate Change in Indiana: Initial Analyses of Impacts and Opportunities, an analysis of S.2191, U.S. Senator Richard Lugar’s office (2008 - 2008)
  • Member, Terrestrial Ecosystems and Climate Policy Working Group, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (2007 - 2010)
  • Contributing Author, CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.4, Abrupt Climate Change, Hydrologic Variability and Change, Chapter 3, U.S. Geological Survey (2007 - 2008)
  • Book Chapter Referee – Climate Impact Hotspots: Key Vulnerable Regions and Climate Change, Publishing (2007 - 2007)
  • Report Referee, California Energy Commission, State of Washington (2007 - 2007)
  • Co-Guest Editor, Glacial-Interglacial Climate of the Past 160,000 Years: New Insights from Data and Models, Special Issue, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2006 - 2006)
  • Contributor, Agency Technical Working Group, Potential Effects of Climate Change on New Mexico, State of New Mexico (2006 - 2006)
  • Co-Chair, Climate of the Last Glacial-Interglacial Cycle: New Insights From Models and Data, AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 8-12, American Geophysical Union (2003 - 2003)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz, Earth Sciences (2003)
  • M.S., Stanford University, Earth Systems (1997)
  • B.S., Stanford University, Earth Systems (1997)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


The Climate and Earth System Dynamics Group is led by Prof. Noah S. Diffenbaugh. Our research takes an integrated approach to understanding climate dynamics and climate impacts by probing the interface between physical processes and natural and human vulnerabilities. This interface spans a range of spatial and temporal scales, and a number of climate system processes. Much of the group's work has focused on the role of fine-scale processes in shaping climate change impacts, including studies of extreme weather, water resources, agriculture, human health, and poverty vulnerability.

We use the present vulnerabilities of natural and human systems to identify the climate phenomena that exert the most direct and acute influence on climate-sensitive systems. We then employ a suite of numerical modeling and data analysis techniques to understand why those physical phenomena occur in the current climate, by what mechanisms those physical phenomena are likely to respond to changes in climate “forcing”, and how those physical responses could impact humanity and other life. Employing this approach across a range of climate-sensitive systems has led to insights about (1) the importance of fine-scale climate processes in shaping the pattern and magnitude of climate change, (2) the importance of interactions between physical processes and human dimensions in shaping the impacts of climate change, and (3) the likelihood that high-impact climate change will occur locally and regionally at different levels of global warming.

Our ongoing research activities are directed at answering a suite of specific questions about the interaction of physical climate processes and climate-sensitive systems. These questions include:

- What are the climate phenomena that most impact natural and human systems?

- What physical processes control the frequency and severity of those phenomena at present?

- How do those physical processes respond to changes in forcing of the climate system (such as from changes in greenhouse gas concentrations or variations in Earth’s orbit)?

- How are natural and human systems likely to be impacted by changes in those physical processes?

2014-15 Courses


Journal Articles


  • Joint bias correction of temperature and precipitation in climate model simulations JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Li, C., Sinha, E., Horton, D. E., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Michalak, A. M. 2014; 119 (23): 13153-13162
  • THE EXTRAORDINARY CALIFORNIA DROUGHT OF 2013/2014: CHARACTER, CONTEXT, AND THE ROLE OF CLIMATE CHANGE BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Swain, D. L., Tsiang, M., Haugen, M., Singh, D., Charland, A., Rajaratnam, B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2014; 95 (9): S3-S7
  • SEVERE PRECIPITATION IN NORTHERN INDIA IN JUNE 2013: CAUSES, HISTORICAL CONTEXT, AND CHANGES IN PROBABILITY BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Singh, D., Horton, D. E., Tsiang, M., Haugen, M., Ashfaq, M., Mei, R., Rastogi, D., Johnson, N. C., Charland, A., Rajaratnam, B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2014; 95 (9): S58-S61
  • Occurrence and persistence of future atmospheric stagnation events NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Horton, D. E., Skinner, C. B., Singh, D., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2014; 4 (8): 698-703
  • Uncertainties in the timing of unprecedented climates. Nature Hawkins, E., Anderson, B., Diffenbaugh, N., Mahlstein, I., Betts, R., Hegerl, G., Joshi, M., Knutti, R., McNeall, D., Solomon, S., Sutton, R., Syktus, J., Vecchi, G. 2014; 511 (7507): E3-5

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature13523

    View details for PubMedID 24990757

  • Observed changes in extreme wet and dry spells during the South Asian summer monsoon season NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Singh, D., Tsiang, M., Rajaratnam, B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2014; 4 (6): 456-461
  • Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Verma, M., Hertel, T., Diffenbaugh, N. 2014; 9 (6)
  • Projected changes in African easterly wave intensity and track in response to greenhouse forcing PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Skinner, C. B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2014; 111 (19): 6882-6887

    Abstract

    Synoptic-scale African easterly waves (AEWs) impact weather throughout the greater Atlantic basin. Over the African continent, AEWs are instrumental in initiating and organizing precipitation in the drought-vulnerable Sahel region. AEWs also serve as the precursors to the most intense Atlantic hurricanes, and contribute to the global transport of Saharan dust. Given the relevance of AEWs for the climate of the greater Atlantic basin, we investigate the response of AEWs to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Using an ensemble of general circulation models, we find a robust increase in the strength of the winds associated with AEWs along the Intertropical Front in West Africa by the late 21st century of the representative concentration pathway 8.5. AEW energy increases directly due to an increase in baroclinicity associated with an enhanced meridional temperature gradient between the Sahara and Guinea Coast. Further, the pattern of low-level warming supports AEW development by enhancing monsoon flow, resulting in greater convergence and uplift along the Intertropical Front. These changes in energetics result in robust increases in the occurrence of conditions that currently produce AEWs. Given relationships observed in the current climate, such changes in the location of AEW tracks and the magnitude of AEW winds carry implications for the relationship between AEWs and precipitation in the Sahel, the mobilization of Saharan dust, and the likelihood of cyclogenesis in the Atlantic. Our results therefore suggest that changes in AEW characteristics could play a critical role in shaping the response of Atlantic basin climate to future increases in greenhouse gas concentrations.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1319597111

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335798000042

  • Transient twenty-first century changes in daily-scale temperature extremes in the United States CLIMATE DYNAMICS Scherer, M., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2014; 42 (5-6): 1383-1404
  • Near-term acceleration of hydroclimatic change in the western US JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Ashfaq, M., Ghosh, S., Kao, S., Bowling, L. C., Mote, P., Touma, D., Rauscher, S. A., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2013; 118 (19): 10676-10693
  • Nonhydrostatic nested climate modeling: A case study of the 2010 summer season over the western United States JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Lebassi-Habtezion, B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2013; 118 (19): 10944-10962
  • Robust increases in severe thunderstorm environments in response to greenhouse forcing PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Diffenbaugh, N. S., Scherer, M., Trapp, R. J. 2013; 110 (41): 16361-16366

    Abstract

    Although severe thunderstorms are one of the primary causes of catastrophic loss in the United States, their response to elevated greenhouse forcing has remained a prominent source of uncertainty for climate change impacts assessment. We find that the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5, global climate model ensemble indicates robust increases in the occurrence of severe thunderstorm environments over the eastern United States in response to further global warming. For spring and autumn, these robust increases emerge before mean global warming of 2 °C above the preindustrial baseline. We also find that days with high convective available potential energy (CAPE) and strong low-level wind shear increase in occurrence, suggesting an increasing likelihood of atmospheric conditions that contribute to the most severe events, including tornadoes. In contrast, whereas expected decreases in mean wind shear have been used to argue for a negative influence of global warming on severe thunderstorms, we find that decreases in shear are in fact concentrated in days with low CAPE and therefore do not decrease the total occurrence of severe environments. Further, we find that the shift toward high CAPE is most concentrated in days with low convective inhibition, increasing the occurrence of high-CAPE/low-convective inhibition days. The fact that the projected increases in severe environments are robust across a suite of climate models, emerge in response to relatively moderate global warming, and result from robust physical changes suggests that continued increases in greenhouse forcing are likely to increase severe thunderstorm occurrence, thereby increasing the risk of thunderstorm-related damage.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1307758110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325395600031

    View details for PubMedID 24062439

  • EXPLAINING EXTREME EVENTS OF 2012 FROM A CLIMATE PERSPECTIVE BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Peterson, T. C., Hoerling, M. P., Stott, P. A., Herring, S. C., Alexander, L. V., Allen, M. R., Anel, J., Barriopedro, D., Black, M. T., Carey-Smith, T., Castillo, R., Cattiaux, J., Chen, X., Chen, X., Chevallier, M., Christidis, N., Ciavarella, A., de Vries, H., Dean, S. M., Deans, K., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Doblas-Reyes, F., Donat, M. G., Dong, B., Eilerts, G., Funk, C., Galu, G., Garcia-Herrera, R., Germe, A., Gill, S., Gimeno, L., Guemas, V., Herring, S. C., Hoell, A., Hoerling, M. P., Huntingford, C., Husak, G., Imada, Y., Ishii, M., Karoly, D. J., Kimoto, M., King, A. D., Knutson, T. R., Lewis, S. C., Lin, R., Lyon, B., Massey, N., Mazza, E., Michaelsen, J., Michaelsen, J., Mori, M., Mote, P. W., Nieto, R., Otto, F. E., Park, J., Perkins, S. E., Peterson, T. C., Rosier, S., Rowland, J., Rupp, D. E., Salas y Melia, D., Scherer, M., Shiogama, H., Shukla, S., Song, F., Sparrow, S., Scott, P. A., Sutton, R., Sweet, W., Tett, S. F., Trigo, R. M., van Oldenborgh, G. J., van Westrhenen, R., Verdin, J., Watanabe, M., Wittenberg, A. T., Woollings, T., Yiou, P., Zeng, F., Zervas, C., Zhang, R., Zhou, T. 2013; 94 (9)
  • Changes in Ecologically Critical Terrestrial Climate Conditions SCIENCE Diffenbaugh, N. S., Field, C. B. 2013; 341 (6145): 486-492

    Abstract

    Terrestrial ecosystems have encountered substantial warming over the past century, with temperatures increasing about twice as rapidly over land as over the oceans. Here, we review the likelihood of continued changes in terrestrial climate, including analyses of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project global climate model ensemble. Inertia toward continued emissions creates potential 21st-century global warming that is comparable in magnitude to that of the largest global changes in the past 65 million years but is orders of magnitude more rapid. The rate of warming implies a velocity of climate change and required range shifts of up to several kilometers per year, raising the prospect of daunting challenges for ecosystems, especially in the context of extensive land use and degradation, changes in frequency and severity of extreme events, and interactions with other stresses.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1237123

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322586700039

    View details for PubMedID 23908225

  • Precipitation extremes over the continental United States in a transient, high-resolution, ensemble climate model experiment JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Singh, D., Tsiang, M., Rajaratnam, B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2013; 118 (13): 7063-7086

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgrd.50543

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322192200013

  • MONITORING AND UNDERSTANDING CHANGES IN HEAT WAVES, COLD WAVES, FLOODS, AND DROUGHTS IN THE UNITED STATES: State of Knowledge BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Peterson, T. C., Heim, R. R., Hirsch, R., Kaiser, D. P., Brooks, H., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Dole, R. M., Giovannettone, J. P., Guirguis, K., Karl, T. R., Katz, R. W., Kunkel, K., Lettenmaier, D., McCabe, G. J., Paciorek, C. J., Ryberg, K. R., Schubert, S., Silva, V. B., Stewart, B. C., Vecchia, A. V., Villarini, G., Vose, R. S., Walsh, J., Wehner, M., Wolock, D., Wolter, K., Woodhouse, C. A., Wuebbles, D. 2013; 94 (6): 821-834
  • The contribution of African easterly waves to monsoon precipitation in the CMIP3 ensemble JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Skinner, C. B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2013; 118 (9): 3590-3609

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgrd.50363

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319744700011

  • Response of snow-dependent hydrologic extremes to continued global warming NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Diffenbaugh, N. S., Scherer, M., Ashfaq, M. 2013; 3 (4): 379-384
  • Using climate impacts indicators to evaluate climate model ensembles: temperature suitability of premium winegrape cultivation in the United States CLIMATE DYNAMICS Diffenbaugh, N. S., Scherer, M. 2013; 40 (3-4): 709-729
  • Human well-being, the global emissions debt, and climate change commitment SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2013; 8 (1): 135-141
  • Near-term acceleration of hydroclimatic change in the western U.S. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres Ashfaq, M., Ghosh, S., Kao, S., Bowling, L., Mote, P., Touma, D., Rauscher, S., Diffenbaugh, N. 2013; 118: 10,676–10,693

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgrd.50816

  • Nonhydrostatic nested climate modeling: A case study of the 2010 summer season over the western United States Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres Lebassi-Habtezion, B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2013; 118: 10,944–10,962

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgrd.50773

  • Transient 21st century changes in daily-scale temperature extremes in the United States Climate Dynamics Scherer, M., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2013: 1829
  • Response of air stagnation frequency to anthropogenically enhanced radiative forcing ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Horton, D. E., Harshvardhan, Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2012; 7 (4)
  • Climate change hotspots in the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble CLIMATIC CHANGE Diffenbaugh, N. S., Giorgi, F. 2012; 114 (3-4): 813-822
  • Out of the Tropics: The Pacific, Great Basin Lakes, and Late Pleistocene Water Cycle in the Western United States SCIENCE Lyle, M., Heusser, L., Ravelo, C., Yamamoto, M., Barron, J., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Herbert, T., Andreasen, D. 2012; 337 (6102): 1629-1633

    Abstract

    The water cycle in the western United States changed dramatically over glacial cycles. In the past 20,000 years, higher precipitation caused desert lakes to form which have since dried out. Higher glacial precipitation has been hypothesized to result from a southward shift of Pacific winter storm tracks. We compared Pacific Ocean data to lake levels from the interior west and found that Great Basin lake high stands are older than coastal wet periods at the same latitude. Westerly storms were not the source of high precipitation. Instead, air masses from the tropical Pacific were transported northward, bringing more precipitation into the Great Basin when coastal California was still dry. The changing climate during the deglaciation altered precipitation source regions and strongly affected the regional water cycle.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1218390

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309215400038

    View details for PubMedID 23019644

  • Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Change REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Ahmed, S. A., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Hertel, T. W., Martin, W. J. 2012; 16 (3): 429-447
  • Response of corn markets to climate volatility under alternative energy futures NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Diffenbaugh, N. S., Hertel, T. W., Scherer, M., Verma, M. 2012; 2 (7): 514-518

    Abstract

    Recent price spikes(1,2) have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades(3,4). However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors(5,6), which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the US, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected over the next three decades. Closer integration of agriculture and energy markets moderates the effects of climate change, unless the biofuels mandate becomes binding, in which case corn price volatility is instead exacerbated. However, in spite of the substantial impact on US corn price volatility, we find relatively small impact on food prices. Our findings highlight the critical importance of interactions between energy policies, energy-agriculture linkages, and climate change.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NCLIMATE1491

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306249500015

    View details for PubMedID 23243468

  • Amplification of wet and dry month occurrence over tropical land regions in response to global warming JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Lintner, B. R., Biasutti, M., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Lee, J., Niznik, M. J., Findell, K. L. 2012; 117
  • Influence of Twenty-First-Century Atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature Forcing on West African Climate JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Skinner, C. B., Ashfaq, M., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2012; 25 (2): 527-542
  • Transient regional climate change: Analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale ensemble experiment over the continental United States JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Diffenbaugh, N. S., Ashfaq, M., Scherer, M. 2011; 116
  • Higher Hydroclimatic Intensity with Global Warming JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Giorgi, F., Im, E., Coppola, E., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Gao, X. J., Mariotti, L., Shi, Y. 2011; 24 (20): 5309-5324
  • Regional climate of hazardous convective weather through high-resolution dynamical downscaling CLIMATE DYNAMICS Trapp, R. J., Robinson, E. D., Baldwin, M. E., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Schwedler, B. R. 2011; 37 (3-4): 677-688
  • Observational and model evidence of global emergence of permanent, unprecedented heat in the 20th and 21st centuries CLIMATIC CHANGE Diffenbaugh, N. S., Scherer, M. 2011; 107 (3-4): 615-624
  • Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium wine in the western United States ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Diffenbaugh, N. S., White, M. A., Jones, G. V., Ashfaq, M. 2011; 6 (2)
  • Influence of SST biases on future climate change projections CLIMATE DYNAMICS Ashfaq, M., Skinner, C. B., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2011; 36 (7-8): 1303-1319
  • Biophysical considerations in forestry for climate protection FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Anderson, R. G., Canadell, J. G., Randerson, J. T., Jackson, R. B., Hungate, B. A., Baldocchi, D. D., Ban-Weiss, G. A., Bonan, G. B., Caldeira, K., Cao, L., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Gurney, K. R., Kueppers, L. M., Law, B. E., Luyssaert, S., O'Halloran, T. L. 2011; 9 (3): 174-182

    View details for DOI 10.1890/090179

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289377800019

  • Climate volatility and poverty vulnerability in Tanzania GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS Ahmed, S. A., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Hertel, T. W., Lobell, D. B., Ramankutty, N., Rios, A. R., Rowhani, P. 2011; 21 (1): 46-55
  • Implications of the permanent El Nino teleconnection "blueprint" for past global and North American hydroclimatology CLIMATE OF THE PAST Goldner, A., Huber, M., Diffenbaugh, N., Caballero, R. 2011; 7 (3): 723-743
  • Pleistocene water cycle and eastern boundary current processes along the California continental margin PALEOCEANOGRAPHY Lyle, M., Heusser, L., Ravelo, C., Andreasen, D., Lyle, A. O., Diffenbaugh, N. 2010; 25
  • Temperature and equivalent temperature over the United States (1979-2005) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY Fall, S., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Niyogi, D., Pielke, R. A., Rochon, G. 2010; 30 (13): 2045-2054

    View details for DOI 10.1002/joc.2094

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284211300013

  • Intensification of hot extremes in the United States GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS Diffenbaugh, N. S., Ashfaq, M. 2010; 37
  • Influence of climate model biases and daily-scale temperature and precipitation events on hydrological impacts assessment: A case study of the United States JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES Ashfaq, M., Bowling, L. C., Cherkauer, K., Pal, J. S., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2010; 115
  • Rapid, time-transgressive, and variable responses to end-Pleistocene/early Holocene midcontinental drying in North America Geology Williams, J. W., Shuman, B. N., Bartlein, P. J., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Webb, T. 2010; 38: 135-138
  • Geophysical Research Letters: New Policies Improve Top-Cited Geosciences Journal Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union Calais, E., Diffenbaugh, N., D'Odorico, P., Harris, R., Knorr, W., Lavraud, B., Mueller, A., Peterson, W., Rignot, E., Srokosz, M., Strutton, P., Tyndall, G., Wysession, M., Williams, P. 2010; 91: 337

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2010EO380008

  • Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Ahmed, S. A., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Hertel, T. W. 2009; 4 (3)
  • Land surface coupling in regional climate simulations of the west African monsoon Climate Dynamics Steiner, A. L., Pal, J. S., Rauscher, S. A., Bell, J. L., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Giorgi, F., Sloan, L. C. 2009
  • Suppression of South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in the 21st century Geophysical Research Letters Ashfaq, M., Shi, Y., Tung, W. W., Trapp, R. J., Gao, X., Pal, J. S., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2009; 36

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2008GL036500

  • Evaluation of high-resolution simulations of daily-scale temperature and precipitation over the United States Climate Dynamics Walker, M. D., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2009
  • Influence of modern land cover on the climate of the United States Climate Dynamics Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2009
  • Transient response of severe thunderstorm forcing to elevated greenhouse gas concentrations Geophysical Research Letters Trapp, R. J., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Gluhovsky, A. 2009; 36 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2008GL036203

  • Protecting climate with forests ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Jackson, R. B., Randerson, J. T., Canadell, J. G., Anderson, R. G., Avissar, R., Baldocchi, D. D., Bonan, G. B., Caldeira, K., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Field, C. B., Hungate, B. A., Jobbagy, E. G., Kueppers, L. M., Nosetto, M. D., Pataki, D. E. 2008; 3 (4)
  • Extension and intensification of the Meso-American mid-summer drought in the 21st century Climate Dynamics Rauscher, S. A., Giorgi, F., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Seth, A. 2008
  • Developing regional climate change scenarios for use in assessment of effects on human health and disease Climate Research Giorgi, F., Diffenbaugh, N. 2008; 36: 141-151
  • Future changes in runoff timing over the western United States Geophysical Research Letters Rauscher, S. A., Pal, J. S., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Benedetti, M. 2008; 35

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2008GL034424

  • The regional climate change hyper-matrix framework Eos Giorgi, F., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Gao, X. J., Coppola, E., Dash, S. K., Frumento, O., Sanda, I. S., Rauscher, S., Remedio, A., Steiner, A., Sylla, B., Zakey, A. 2008; 89: 445-446
  • Does global warming influence tornado activity? Eos Diffenbaugh, N. S., Trapp, R. J., Brooks, H. E. 2008; 89: 553-554
  • Climate change hotspots in the United States Geophysical Research Letters Diffenbaugh, N. S., Giorgi, F., Pal, J. S. 2008; 35

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2008GL035075

  • Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management Environmental Research Letters Diffenbaugh, N. S., Krupke, C. H., White, M. A., Alexander, C. E. 2008
  • Changes in severe thunderstorm environment frequency in the 21st century due to anthropogenically enhanced global radiative forcing Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Trapp, R. J., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Brooks, H. E., Baldwin, M., Robinson, E. D., Pal, J. S. 2007; 104: 19719-19723
  • Heat stress intensification in the Mediterranean climate change hotspot Geophysical Research Letters Diffenbaugh, N. S., Pal, J. S., Giorgi, F., Gao, X. 2007; 34

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2007GL030000

  • Response of California Current forcing to mid-Holocene changes in insolation and sea surface temperature Paleoceanography Diffenbaugh , N. S., Ashfaq, M. 2007; 22

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2006PA001382

  • Regional climate modeling for the developing world: The ICTP RegCM3 and RegCNET Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Pal, J. S., Giorgi, F., Bi, X., Elguindi, N., Solmon, F., Gao, X., Rauscher, S. A., Francisco, R., Zakey, A., Winter, J., Ashfaq, M., Syed, F. S., , Bell, J. L.,, J. L., Diffenbaugh, N. S., , N. S., Karmacharya, J., , J., Konare, A., , A., Martinez, D., , D., da Rocha, R.P., , R. P., Sloan, L.C., , L. C., Steiner, A., A. 2007; 88: 1395-1409
  • Telescoping, multi-model approaches to evaluate extreme convective weather under future climates Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres Trapp, R. J., Halvorson, B. A., Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2007; 112

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2006JD008345

  • Indicators of 21st century socioclimatic exposure Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Diffenbaugh, N. S., Giorgi, F., Raymond, L., Bi, X. 2007; 104: 20195-20198
  • Diffenbaugh Receives 2006 James R. Holton Junior Scientist Award Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union Harshvardhan, G., Diffenbaugh, N. 2007; 111: 111

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2007EO090011

  • Summer aridity in the United States: Response to mid-Holocene changes in insolation and sea surface temperature Geophysical Research Letters Diffenbaugh, N. S., Ashfaq, M., Shuman, B., Williams, J. W., Bartlein, P. J. 2006; 33

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2006GL028012

  • Introduction to the special issue "Glacial-Interglacial Climate of the Past 160,000 Years: New Insights from Data and Models" Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology Diffenbaugh, N. S., Eakin, C. M., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Zhao, M. 2006; 236: 1-4
  • Simulated changes in extreme temperature and precipitation events at 6 ka Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology Diffenbaugh, N. S., Bell, J. L., Sloan, L. C. 2006; 236: 151-168
  • Extreme heat reduces and shifts United States premium wine production in the 21st century Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences White, M. A., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Jones, G. V., Pal, J. S., Giorgi, F. 2006; 103: 11217-11222
  • Fine-scale processes regulate the response of extreme events to global climate change Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Diffenbaugh, N. S., Pal, J. S., Trapp, R. J., Giorgi, F. 2005; 102: 15774-15778
  • Sensitivity of extreme climate events to CO2-induced biophysical atmosphere-vegetation feedbacks in the western United States Geophysical Research Letters Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2005; 32

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2004GL022184

  • Atmosphere-land cover feedbacks alter the response of surface temperature to CO2 forcing in the western United States Climate Dynamics Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2005; 24: 237-251
  • Response of large-scale eastern boundary current forcing in the 21st century Geophysical Research Letters Diffenbaugh, N. S. 2005; 32

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2005GL023905

  • The effects of late Quaternary climate and pCO(2) change on C-4 plant abundance in the south-central United States PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY Koch, P. L., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Hoppe, K. A. 2004; 207 (3-4): 331-357
  • Mid-Holocene orbital forcing of regional-scale climate: a case study of western North America using a high-resolution RCM Journal of Climate Diffenbaugh, N. S., Sloan, L. C. 2004; 17: 2927-2937
  • Could CO2-induced land cover feedbacks alter near-shore upwelling regimes? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Diffenbaugh, N. S., Snyder, M. A., Sloan, L. C. 2004; 101: 27-31
  • Vegetation sensitivity to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a topographically complex region Global Biogeochemical Cycles Diffenbaugh, N. S., Sloan, L. C., Snyder, M. A., Bell, J. L., Kaplan, J. O., Shafer, S. L., Bartlein, P. J. 2003; 18: 1067

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2002GB001974

  • Future climate change and upwelling in the California Current Geophysical Research Letters Snyder, M. A., Sloan, L. C., Diffenbaugh, N. S., Bell, J. L. 2003; 30: 1823

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2003GL017647

  • Orbital suppression of wind driven upwelling in the California Current at 6 ka Paleoceanography Diffenbaugh, N. S., Sloan, L. C., Snyder, M. A. 2003; 18: 1051

    View details for DOI 10.1019/2002PA000865

  • Global climate sensitivity to land surface change: The Mid Holocene revisited Geophysical Research Letters Diffenbaugh, N. S., Sloan, L. C. 2002; 29: 1476

    View details for DOI 10.1029/2002GL014880

Books and Book Chapters


  • Effects of U.S. Tax Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Norhaus, W. D., Cropoper, M. L., de la Chesnaye, F., Diffenbaugh, N., Hawkins, D. G., Mann, R. F., Murray, B. C., Reilly, J. M., Shindell, D., Toder, E., Williams, R. C., Wolfram, C. The National Academies Press. 2013
  • Climate variability, climate change, and wine production in the western United States Climate Change in Western North America: Evidence and Environmental Effects White, M. A., Jones, G. V., Diffenbaugh, N. S. edited by Wagner, F. H. University of Utah Press. 2009
  • Hydrological variability and change Abrupt Climate Change. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research Cook, E. R., Bartlein, P. J., Diffenbaugh, N., Seager, R., Shuman, B. N., Webb, R. S., Williams, J. W., Woodhouse, C. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. 2008: 143–257