Bio


Design and fabrication of sensors and actuators using micro and nanotechnologies, with applications to information processing and energy conversion.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Faculty Director, Stanford Nanofabrication Facility (2009 - Present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, National Academy of Engineering (2005 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, UC Berkeley (1984)

2014-15 Courses


All Publications


  • Microfabricated Thermally Isolated Low Work-Function Emitter JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Vancil, B. K., Gwinn, T. O., Maboudian, R., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T. 2014; 23 (5): 1182-1187
  • Inherent Enhancement of Electronic Emission from Hexaboride Heterostructure PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED Voss, J., Vojvodic, A., Chou, S. H., Howe, R. T., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2014; 2 (2)
  • Improved Performance of Bottom-Contact Organic Thin-Film Transistor Using Al Doped HfO2 Gate Dielectric IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Tang, W. M., Aboudi, U., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2014; 61 (7): 2398-2403
  • Optical MEMS: From Micromirrors to Complex Systems JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Solgaard, O., Godil, A. A., Howe, R. T., Lee, L. P., Peter, Y., Zappe, H. 2014; 23 (3): 517-538
  • DFT Study of Atomically-Modified Alkali-Earth Metal Oxide Films on Tungsten JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Chou, S. H., Voss, J., Vojvodic, A., Howe, R. T., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2014; 118 (21): 11303-11309

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp4120578

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336771700017

  • Double-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber-Tip Temperature Sensors IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Park, B., Jung, I. W., Provine, J., Gellineau, A., Landry, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2014; 26 (9): 900-903
  • Photonic crystal mirrors for free-space communication and fiber-optic sensors Hadzialic, S., Jung, I., W., Kilic, O., Kim, S., Provine, J., Howe, R., T.
  • Epitaxial silicon microshell vacuum-encapsulated CMOS-compatible 200 MHz bulk-mode resonator Chen, K, L., Chandrahalim, H., Graham, A., B., Bhave, S., A., Howe, R., T., Kenny, T., W.
  • Wafer scale encapsulation of large lateral deflection MEMS structures Graham, A., B., Messana, M., Hartwell, P., Provine, J., Yoneoka, S., Kim, B., Howe, R. T.
  • Fully differential interal electrostatic transduction of a Lamé-mode resonator Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Elata, D., Hsieh, J., Chen, J., W., Quévy, E., P., Howe, R., T.
  • Vacuum encapsulated resonators for humidity measurement SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL Hennessy, R. G., Shulaker, M. M., Messana, M., Graham, A. B., Klejwa, N., Provine, J., Kenny, T. W., Howe, R. T. 2013; 185: 575-581
  • Laterally Actuated Platinum-Coated Polysilicon NEM Relays JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Parsa, R., Lee, W. S., Shavezipur, M., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Howe, R. T. 2013; 22 (3): 768-778
  • Thermionic current densities from first principles. journal of chemical physics Voss, J., Vojvodic, A., Chou, S. H., Howe, R. T., Bargatin, I., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2013; 138 (20): 204701-?

    Abstract

    We present a density functional theory-based method for calculating thermionic emission currents from a cathode into vacuum using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach. It does not require semi-classical approximations or crude simplifications of the electronic structure used in previous methods and thus provides quantitative predictions of thermionic emission for adsorbate-coated surfaces. The obtained results match well with experimental measurements of temperature-dependent current densities. Our approach can thus enable computational design of composite electrode materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4805002

    View details for PubMedID 23742494

  • Thermionic current densities from first principles JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Voss, J., Vojvodic, A., Chou, S. H., Howe, R. T., Bargatin, I., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2013; 138 (20)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4805002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320131100049

  • Combinational Logic Design Using Six-Terminal NEM Relays IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Lee, D., Lee, W. S., Chen, C., Fallah, F., Provine, J., Chong, S., Watkins, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2013; 32 (5): 653-666
  • Photon-enhanced thermionic emission from heterostructures with low interface recombination. Nature communications Schwede, J. W., Sarmiento, T., NARASIMHAN, V. K., Rosenthal, S. J., Riley, D. C., Schmitt, F., Bargatin, I., Sahasrabuddhe, K., Howe, R. T., Harris, J. S., Melosh, N. A., Shen, Z. 2013; 4: 1576-?

    Abstract

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission is a method of solar-energy conversion that promises to combine photon and thermal processes into a single mechanism, overcoming fundamental limits on the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. Photon-enhanced thermionic emission relies on vacuum emission of photoexcited electrons that are in thermal equilibrium with a semiconductor lattice, avoiding challenging non-equilibrium requirements and exotic material properties. However, although previous work demonstrated the photon-enhanced thermionic emission effect, efficiency has until now remained very low. Here we describe electron-emission measurements on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure that introduces an internal interface, decoupling the basic physics of photon-enhanced thermionic emission from the vacuum emission process. Quantum efficiencies are dramatically higher than in previous experiments because of low interface recombination and are projected to increase another order of magnitude with more stable, low work-function coatings. The results highlight the effectiveness of the photon-enhanced thermionic emission process and demonstrate that efficient photon-enhanced thermionic emission is achievable, a key step towards realistic photon-enhanced thermionic emission based energy conversion.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2577

    View details for PubMedID 23481384

  • Dual-beam six-terminal nanoelectromechanical relays Harrison, K., L., Lee, W., S., Shavezipur, K., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H., S. P., Howe, R. T. 2013
  • Engineering an electrochemical sensor for the characterization of bond vibration frequencies of a chemical analyte. Gupta, C., Chang, S., Howe, R., T. 2013
  • Serpentine geometry for enhanced performance of nanometer-thin platinum bolometers Purkl, F., English, T., S., Yama, G., Provine, J., Samarao, A., Feyh, A., Howe, R. T. 2013
  • Ultra-thin atomic layer deposition films for corrosion resistance Haemmerli, A., J., Doll, J., C., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Goldhaber-Gordon, D., Pruitt, B., L. 2013
  • Immobilization of antibodies on solid-state surfaces with controlled orientation using electric field Javanmard, M., Emaminjad, S., Gupta, C., Chang, S., Davis, R., W., Howe, R., T. 2013
  • Three stage sample preparation for purificaiton of proteins from complex biological samples IEEE Sensors 2013, Baltimore, Maryland Javanmard, M., Emaminejad, S., Davis, R., W., Gupta, C., Howe, R., T. 2013: 1-4
  • Applications of nanonewton dielectrophoresis forces using atomic layer deposted oxides for microfluidic sample preparation and proteomics Emaminejad, S., Javanmard, M., Gupta, C., Dutton, R., W., Davis, R., W., Howe, R., T. 2013
  • Ultra dielectrophoresis: electrothermal analysis and its applications in microfluidic sample preparation and proteomics Emaminejad, S., Javanmard, M., Gupta, C., Davis, R., W, Howe, R., T. 2013
  • Capacitive Accelerometer Laboratory Using Polymer-Film Rapid Prototyping Technology PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2013 THIRD INTERDISCIPLINARY ENGINEERING DESIGN EDUCATION CONFERENCE (IEDEC 2013) Gellineau, A. A., Rastegar, A. J., Howe, R. T. 2013: 79-82
  • Microbead-separated thermionic energy converter with enhanced emission current PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Littau, K. A., Sahasrabuddhe, K., Barfield, D., Yuan, H., Shen, Z., Howe, R. T., Melosh, N. A. 2013; 15 (34): 14442-14446

    Abstract

    The efficiency of thermionic energy converters is a strong function of the inter-electrode separation due to space-charge limitations. Here we demonstrate vacuum thermionic energy converters constructed using barium dispenser cathodes and thin film tungsten anodes, separated by size specific alumina microbeads for simple device fabrication and inter-electrode gap control. The current and device efficiency at the maximum power point are strongly dependent on the inter-electrode gap, with a maximum device efficiency of 0.61% observed for a gap on the order of 5 μm. Paths to further reductions in space charge and improved anode work function are outlined with potential for over an order of magnitude improvement in output power and efficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3cp52895b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322725000036

  • LATERALLY ACTUATED NANOELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS WITH COMPLIANT, LOW RESISTANCE CONTACT 26TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS 2013) Shavezipur, M., Lee, W. S., Harrison, K. L., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Howe, R. T. 2013: 520-523
  • An orbital-overlap model for minimal work functions of cesiated metal surfaces JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Chou, S. H., Voss, J., Bargatin, I., Vojvodic, A., Howe, R. T., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2012; 24 (44)

    Abstract

    We introduce a model for the effect of cesium adsorbates on the work function of transition metal surfaces. The model builds on the classical point-dipole equation by adding exponential terms that characterize the degree of orbital overlap between the 6s states of neighboring cesium adsorbates and its effect on the strength and orientation of electric dipoles along the adsorbate-substrate interface. The new model improves upon earlier models in terms of agreement with the work function-coverage curves obtained via first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. All the cesiated metal surfaces have optimal coverages between 0.6 and 0.8 monolayers, in accordance with experimental data. Of all the cesiated metal surfaces that we have considered, tungsten has the lowest minimum work function, also in accordance with experiments.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0953-8984/24/44/445007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310571100009

    View details for PubMedID 23018485

  • A model for emission yield from planar photocathodes based on photon-enhanced thermionic emission or negative-electron-affinity photoemission JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Sahasrabuddhe, K., Schwede, J. W., Bargatin, I., Jean, J., Howe, R. T., Shen, Z., Melosh, N. A. 2012; 112 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4764106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311968400139

  • Control of DNA Capture by Nanofluidic Transistors ACS NANO Paik, K., Liu, Y., Tabard-Cossa, V., Waugh, M. J., Huber, D. E., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Dutton, R. W., Davis, R. W. 2012; 6 (8): 6767-6775

    Abstract

    We report the use of an array of electrically gated ~200 nm solid-state pores as nanofluidic transistors to manipulate the capture and passage of DNA. The devices are capable of reversibly altering the rate of DNA capture by over 3 orders of magnitude using sub-1 V biasing of a gate electrode. This efficient gating originates from the counter-balance of electrophoresis and electroosmosis, as revealed by quantitative numerical simulations. Such a reversible electronically tunable biomolecular switch may be used to manipulate nucleic acid delivery in a fluidic circuit, and its development is an important first step toward active control of DNA motion through solid-state nanopores for sensing applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn3014917

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307988900029

    View details for PubMedID 22762282

  • Microencapsulation of silicon cavities using a pulsed excimer laser JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Sedky, S., Tawfik, H., Ashour, M., Graham, A. B., Provine, J., Wang, Q., Zhang, X. X., Howe, R. T. 2012; 22 (7)
  • Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Park, J., Milaninia, K. M., Theogarajan, L. S., Sinclair, R., Howe, R. T. 2012; 30 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.4734006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306750700046

  • Single crystal silicon nanopillars, nanoneedles and nanoblades with precise positioning for massively parallel nanoscale device integration NANOTECHNOLOGY Roper, C. S., Gutes, A., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2012; 23 (22)
  • A dry wafer-reconstitution process with zero insertion force by embedded alignment guide tabs JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Chen, J. P., Provine, J., Klejwa, N., Howe, R. T. 2012; 22 (6)
  • A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain NATURE PHOTONICS Jain, J. R., Hryciw, A., Baer, T. M., Miller, D. A., Brongersma, M. L., Howe, R. T. 2012; 6 (6): 398-405
  • Optimal emitter-collector gap for thermionic energy converters APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T. 2012; 100 (17)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4707379

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303340300106

  • Application of principal component analysis to a full profile correlative analysis of FTIR spectra SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS Broderick, S. R., Suh, C., Provine, J., Roper, C. S., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T., Rajan, K. 2012; 44 (3): 365-371

    View details for DOI 10.1002/sia.3813

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303250500014

  • Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Atomic Layer Deposition Nanobridges Down to 7 nm Thickness NANO LETTERS Yoneoka, S., Lee, J., Liger, M., Yama, G., Kodama, T., Gunji, M., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Goodson, K. E., Kennyt, T. W. 2012; 12 (2): 683-686

    Abstract

    While the literature is rich with data for the electrical behavior of nanotransistors based on semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes, few data are available for ultrascaled metal interconnects that will be demanded by these devices. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), which uses a sequence of self-limiting surface reactions to achieve high-quality nanolayers, provides an unique opportunity to study the limits of electrical and thermal conduction in metal interconnects. This work measures and interprets the electrical and thermal conductivities of free-standing platinum films of thickness 7.3, 9.8, and 12.1 nm in the temperature range from 50 to 320 K. Conductivity data for the 7.3 nm bridge are reduced by 77.8% (electrical) and 66.3% (thermal) compared to bulk values due to electron scattering at material and grain boundaries. The measurement results indicate that the contribution of phonon conduction is significant in the total thermal conductivity of the ALD films.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl203548w

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299967800026

    View details for PubMedID 22224582

  • Integration of Nanoelectromechanical Relays With Silicon nMOS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Chong, S., Lee, B., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2012; 59 (1): 255-258
  • CVD hafnium diboride as a contact material for nano-electromechanical switches Lee, W., S., Cloud, A., N., Provine, J., Tayebi, N., Parsa, R., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Nano-electro-mechanical relays for FPGA routing: experimental demonstration and a design technique Chen, C., Lee, W., S., Parsa, R., Chong, S., Provine, J., Watt, J., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Encapsulated thermionic energy converter with stiffened suspension Lee, J., H., Bargatin,  I., Iwami, K., Littau, K., A., Vincent, M., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Sidewall silicon carbide emitters for terahertz vacuum electronics Snapp, J., P., Lee, J., H., Provine, J., Bargatin, I., Maboudian,  R., Lee, T., H., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Electrochemical quantum tunneling for electronic detection and characterization of biological toxins Gupta, C., Walker, R., M., Gharpuray, R., Shulaker, M., M., Zhang, Z., Javanmard, M., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Multiband charge-coupled device Chang, C., E., Siegel, J., D., Kenney, C., J., Roodman, A., J., Howe, R., T. 2012
  • Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass J. Vacuum Sci. Tech. B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures Lee, J., H., Bargatin, Igor, I., Park, J., Milaninia, K., M., Theogarajan, L., S., Sinclair, R., Howe, R. T. 2012; 30: 42001
  • Electrochemical quantum tunneling for electronic detection and characterization of biological toxins MICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGY SENSORS, SYSTEMS, AND APPLICATIONS IV Gupta, C., Walker, R. M., Gharpuray, R., Shulaker, M. M., Zhang, Z., Javanmard, M., Davis, R. W., Murmann, B., Howe, R. T. 2012; 8373

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.920692

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306560400002

  • Double-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Temperature Sensor 2012 IEEE PHOTONICS CONFERENCE (IPC) Park, B., Jung, I. W., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2012: 550-551
  • Multiband Charge-Coupled Device 2012 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM AND MEDICAL IMAGING CONFERENCE RECORD (NSS/MIC) Chang, C., Segal, J. D., Roodman, A. J., Howe, R. T., Kenney, C. J. 2012: 743-746
  • Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relays and their Application to FPGA Routing 2012 17TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC) Chen, C., Lee, S., Provine, J., Chong, S., Parsa, R., Lee, D., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2012: 639-639
  • MICROFABRICATED SILICON CARBIDE THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERTER FOR SOLAR ELECTRICITY GENERATION Lee, J. H., Bargatin, I., Gwinn, T. O., Vincent, M., Littau, K. A., Maboudian, R., Shen, Z., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2012
  • Electrical Properties of CuPc-based OTFTs with Atomic Layer Deposited HfAlO Gate Dielectric 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRON DEVICES AND SOLID STATE CIRCUIT (EDSSC) Tang, W. M., Aboudi, U., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2012
  • Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for High-Temperature Measurement IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Park, B., Provine, J., Jung, I. W., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 11 (11): 2643-2648
  • Tensile-strained germanium-on-insulator substrate fabrication for silicon-compatible optoelectronics OPTICAL MATERIALS EXPRESS Jain, J. R., Ly-Gagnon, D., Balram, K. C., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L., Miller, D. A., Howe, R. T. 2011; 1 (6): 1121-1126
  • Multilayered Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystals IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Mallick, S. B., Jung, I. W., Meisner, A. M., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 23 (11): 730-732
  • Highly Sensitive Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Jung, I. W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 29 (9): 1367-1374
  • AC Polarization for Charge-Drift Elimination in Resonant Electrostatic MEMS and Oscillators JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Bahl, G., Salvia, J. C., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2011; 20 (2): 355-364
  • Wafer-Level Epitaxial Silicon Packaging for Out-of-Plane RF MEMS Resonators with Integrated Actuation Electrodes IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY Chen, K., Wang, S., Salvia, J. C., Melamud, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2011; 1 (3): 310-317
  • Electromechanical Sensing of Charge Retention on Floating Electrodes JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Elata, D., Leus, V., Provine, J., Hirshberg, A., Howe, R. T. 2011; 20 (1): 150-156
  • Magnetic, Mechanical, and Optical Characterization of a Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer for Microactuation JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Tsai, K. L., Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Candler, R. N., Hu, W., Brand, V., Klejwa, N., Wang, S. X., Howe, R. T. 2011; 20 (1): 65-72
  • NANOELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS WITH DECOUPLED ELECTRODE AND SUSPENSION 2011 IEEE 24TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) Parsa, R., Shavezipur, M., Lee, W. S., Chong, S., Lee, D., Wong, H. P., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2011: 1361-1364
  • A reel-to-reel printed accelerometer Klejwa, N., Hennessy, R., G., Chen, J., W. P., Howe, R., T. 2011
  • Low thermal-budget silicon sealed-cavity microencapsulation process Sedky, S., Tawfik, H., Aziz, A., Abdel, ElSaegh, S., Graham, A., B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. 2011
  • Spacer technique for low-voltage, high-aspect-ratio lateral electrostatic actuators Lee, D., Mitra, S., Howe, R., T., Wong, H., S. P. 2011
  • Vacuum microsystems for energy conversion and other applications Howe, R., T. 2011
  • Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 to protect carbon nanotubes for integration with top-down fabrication Shulaker, M., M., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Mitra, S. 2011
  • Effect of illumination on thermionic emission of microfabricated silicon carbide structures Lee, J., H., Bargatin, I., Provine, J., Liu, F., Seo, M., K., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2011
  • Dual sidewall lateral nanoelectromechanical relays with beam isolation Lee, W., S., Chong, S., Parsa, R., Provine, J., Lee, D., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T. 2011
  • Suppression of wear in cyclically loaded polycrystalline silicon via a thin silicon carbide coating Laboriante, I., Klejwa, N., Suwandi, A., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2011
  • Temperature dependence of vacuum encapsulated resonators for humidity measurement Hennessy, R., G., Shulaker, M., M., Messana, M., W., Graham, A., B., Klejwa, N., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. 2011
  • Double-layered monolithic silicon photonic crystal fiber tip sensor Park, B., Jung, I., W., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2011
  • ALD-METAL UNCOOLED BOLOMETER 2011 IEEE 24TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) Yoneoka, S., Liger, M., Yama, G., Schuster, R., Purkl, F., Provine, J., Prinz, F. B., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2011: 676-679
  • Double-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor OMN2011: 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL MEMS AND NANOPHOTONICS Park, B., Jung, I. W., Provine, J., Shambat, G., Vuckovic, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011: 97-98
  • Integration of Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) Relays with Silicon CMOS with Functional CMOS-NEM Circuit 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Chong, S., Lee, B., Parizi, K. B., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2011
  • Experimental Demonstration and Analysis of DNA Passage in Nanopore-based Nanofluidic Transistors 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Paik, K., Liu, Y., Tabard-Cossa, V., Huber, D. E., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Davis, R. W., Dutton, R. W. 2011
  • Differential internal dielectric transduction of a Lame-mode resonator JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Elata, D., Quevy, E. P., Howe, R. T. 2010; 20 (11)
  • Photon-enhanced thermionic emission for solar concentrator systems NATURE MATERIALS Schwede, J. W., Bargatin, I., Riley, D. C., Hardin, B. E., Rosenthal, S. J., Sun, Y., Schmitt, F., Pianetta, P., Howe, R. T., Shen, Z., Melosh, N. A. 2010; 9 (9): 762-767

    Abstract

    Solar-energy conversion usually takes one of two forms: the 'quantum' approach, which uses the large per-photon energy of solar radiation to excite electrons, as in photovoltaic cells, or the 'thermal' approach, which uses concentrated sunlight as a thermal-energy source to indirectly produce electricity using a heat engine. Here we present a new concept for solar electricity generation, photon-enhanced thermionic emission, which combines quantum and thermal mechanisms into a single physical process. The device is based on thermionic emission of photoexcited electrons from a semiconductor cathode at high temperature. Temperature-dependent photoemission-yield measurements from GaN show strong evidence for photon-enhanced thermionic emission, and calculated efficiencies for idealized devices can exceed the theoretical limits of single-junction photovoltaic cells. The proposed solar converter would operate at temperatures exceeding 200 degrees C, enabling its waste heat to be used to power a secondary thermal engine, boosting theoretical combined conversion efficiencies above 50%.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT2814

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281178400029

    View details for PubMedID 20676086

  • Characterization of Encapsulated Micromechanical Resonators Sealed and Coated With Polycrystalline SiC JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Yoneoka, S., Roper, C. S., Candler, R. N., Chandorkar, S. A., Graham, A. B., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2010; 19 (2): 357-366
  • Model and Observations of Dielectric Charge in Thermally Oxidized Silicon Resonators JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Bahl, G., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Chandorkar, S. A., Salvia, J. C., Hopcroft, M. A., Elata, D., Hennessy, R. G., Candler, R. N., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2010; 19 (1): 162-174
  • A Method for Wafer-Scale Encapsulation of Large Lateral Deflection MEMS Devices JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Graham, A. B., Messana, M. W., Hartwell, P. G., Provine, J., Yoneoka, S., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2010; 19 (1): 28-37
  • CHARGE-DRIFT ELIMINATION IN RESONANT ELECTROSTATIC MEMS MEMS 2010: 23RD IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, TECHNICAL DIGEST Bahl, G., Salvia, J., Bargatin, I., Yoneoka, S., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Chandorkar, S., Hopcroft, M. A., Bahl, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2010: 108-111
  • Time evolution of released hole arrays into membranes via vacuum silicon migration Provine, J., Ferralis, N., Graham, A., B., Messana, M., W., Kang, R., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2010
  • Packaging of large lateral deflection MEMS using a combination of fusion bonding and epitaxial reactor sealing Messana, M., W., Graham, A., B., Yoneoka, S., Howe, R., T., Kenny, T., W. 2010
  • Four-mask process based on spacer technology for scaled-down electrostatic actuators Lee, D., Lee, W., S., Mitra, S., Howe, R., T., Wong, H., S. P. 2010
  • Vacuum encapsulated resonators for humidity measurement Hennessy, R., G., Shulaker, M., M., Melamud, R., Klejwa, N., Chandorkar, S., Kim, B., Howe, R. T. 2010
  • Heterodyned electrostatic transduction oscillators evade low frequency noise aliasing Bahl, G., Salvia, J., Lee, H., K., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Howe, R., T. 2010
  • Single-step, wafer-scale, hermetic sealing using silicon migration, to be presented at the Kant, R., Choo, H., Howe, R., T. 2010
  • Composite polysilicon-platinum lateral nanoelectromechanical relays Parsa, R., Akarvardar, K., Provine, J., Lee, D., Elata, D., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T. 2010
  • 2D analytical model for the study of NEM relay device scaling Shen, X., Chong, S., Lee, D., Parsa, R., Howe, R., T., Wong, H., S. P. 2010
  • Non-adiabatic electronic relaxation events at monolayer-modified electrode-electrolyte interfaces: physics and applications Gupta, C., Howe, R., T., Shannon, M., A. 2010
  • High Temperature Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor 2010 IEEE SENSORS Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O., Jung, I. W. 2010: 970-974
  • Higher-order Dielectrically Transduced Bulk-mode Ring Resonator with Low Motional Resistance 2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL FREQUENCY CONTROL SYMPOSIUM (FCS) Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Howe, R. T. 2010: 19-24
  • EFFICIENT INTERNAL ELECTROSTATIC TRANSDUCTION OF THE 41(ST) RADIAL MODE OF A RING RESONATOR MEMS 2010: 23RD IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, TECHNICAL DIGEST Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Quevy, E. P., Hsieh, J., Howe, R. T. 2010: 711-714
  • Efficient FPGAs using Nanoelectromechanical Relays FPGA 10 Chen, C., Parsa, R., Patil, N., Chong, S., Akarvardar, K., Provine, J., Lewis, D., Watt, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2010: 273-282
  • TITANIUM NITRIDE SIDEWALL STRINGER PROCESS FOR LATERAL NANOELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS MEMS 2010: 23RD IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, TECHNICAL DIGEST Lee, D., Lee, W. S., Provine, J., Lee, J., Yoon, J., Howe, R. T., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2010: 456-459
  • Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Sensing 2010 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (QELS) Park, B., Jung, I. W., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • pH Sensor Demonstrating a Layout Programmable Squeeze Pumped Microfluidic Platform 2010 IEEE SENSORS Klejwa, N., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. 2010: 936-939
  • Laser print patterning of planar spiral inductors and interdigitated capacitors JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Klejwa, N., Misra, R., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Klejwa, S. J. 2009; 27 (6): 2745-2749

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.3264673

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272803400084

  • Performance Evaluation and Equivalent Model of Silicon Interconnects for Fully-Encapsulated RF MEMS Devices IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING Chen, K., Salvia, J., Potter, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2009; 32 (2): 402-409
  • Electrical and Mechanical Characterization of Doped and Annealed Polycrystalline 3C-SiC Thin Films JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Roper, C. S., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2009; 156 (1): D5-D10

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3000002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261209800048

  • Magnetic nanoparticle-driven pumping in microchannels Tsai, K., L., Pickard, D., Kao, J., Yin, X., Leen, B., Knutson, K., Howe, R. T. 2009
  • Thermionic emission from microfabricated silicon carbide filaments Lee, J., H., Bargatin, I., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Clay, W., A., Melosh, N., A. 2009
  • Structural transformation of silicon due to hydrogen ambient during germanium epitaxy on silicon nano-pillars Thareja, G., Kant, R., Howe, R., Nishi, Y. 2009
  • WAFER SCALE ENCAPSULATION OF LARGE LATERAL DEFLECTION MEMS STRUCTURES IEEE 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS 2009) Graham, A. B., Messana, M., Hartwell, P., Provine, J., Yoneoka, S., Kim, B., Melamud, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2009: 745-748
  • FULLY DIFFERENTIAL INTERNAL ELECTROSTATIC TRANSDUCTION OF A LAME-MODE RESONATOR IEEE 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS 2009) Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Elata, D., Hsieh, J., Chen, J. P., Quevy, E. P., Howe, R. T. 2009: 931-934
  • EPITAXIAL SILICON MICROSHELL VACUUM-ENCAPSULATED CMOS-COMPATIBLE 200 MHz BULK-MODE RESONATOR IEEE 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS 2009) Chen, K., Chandrahalim, H., Graham, A. B., Bhave, S. A., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2009: 23-26
  • Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) relays integrated with SRAM for improved stability and low leakage Chong, S., Akarvardar, K., Parsa, R., Yoon, J., B., Howe, R., T., Mitra, S. 2009
  • Laser print patterning of planar spiral inductors Klejwa, N., Misra, R., Klejwa, S., J., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Suspended microstructures made using silicon microstructures Kant, R., Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Simultaneous wafer-scale vacuum encapsulation and microstructure cladding with LPCVD polycrystalline 3C-SiC Roper, C., S., Candler, R., Yoneoka, S., Kenny, T., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2009
  • Encapsulated out-of-plane differential square-plate resonators with integrated actuation electrodes Chen, K., L., Wang, S., Salvia, J., Howe, R., T., Kenny, T., W. 2009
  • Wafer reconstitution with precision dry front-to-front registration Chen, J., W. P., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Microfluidic device with integrated nanopores for protein detection Zangle, T., A., Kant, R., Howe, R., T., Santiago, J., G. 2009
  • Laser-printed magnetic-polymer microstructures Klejwa, N., Misra, R., Provine, J., Klejwa, S., J., Zhang, M., Wang, S., X., Howe, R. T. 2009
  • Epitaxial growth of graphene on high topology SiC structures patterned by focused ion beam Provine, J., Ferralis, N., Klejwa, N., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Higher-order mode internal electrostatic transduction of a bulk-mode ring resonator on a quartz substrate Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Hsieh, J., Chen, J., W. P., Quévy, E., P., Elata, D., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Slab Fiber Tip Sensor Jung, I., W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for Precision Temperature Sensing 2009 IEEE LEOS ANNUAL MEETING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1AND 2 Jung, I. W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2009: 761-762
  • Room-Temperature Wet Etching of Polycrystalline and Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide Thin Films with HF and HNO3 JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Roper, C. S., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2009; 156 (3): D104-D107

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3061944

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265837900044

  • Experimental Investigation of Silicon Surface Migration in Low Pressure Nonreducing Gas Environments ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SOLID STATE LETTERS Kant, R., Ferralis, N., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2009; 12 (12): H437-H440

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3236781

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270915300022

  • Characterization of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films deposited from the precursors 1,3-disilabutane and dichlorosilane JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Roper, C. S., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2008; 103 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2907871

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255456200180

  • Technologies for cofabricating MEMS and electronics PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE Fedder, G. K., Howe, R. T., Liu, T. K., Quevy, E. P. 2008; 96 (2): 306-322
  • Effects of annealing on residual stress and strain gradient of doped polycrystalline SiC thin films ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SOLID STATE LETTERS Roper, C. S., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2008; 11 (4): D35-D37

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.2831906

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253238000009

  • Obserations of fixed and mobile charge in composite MEMS resonators Bahl, G., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Chandorkar, S., Salvia, J., Hopcroft, M., A., Howe, R. T. 2008
  • Characterization of magnetic nanoparticle-embedded SU8 for microactuation Tsai, K., L., Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Klejwa, N., Candler, R., N., Hu, W., Wang, S., X., Howe, R. T. 2008
  • Measuring charge and charge-decay in floating electrode electrostatic MEMS actuators Elata, D., Hennessy, R., Leus, V., Klejwa, N., Hirshberg, A., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. 2008
  • Nanowire coupled micro-resonators Arellano, N., Quévy, E., P., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 2008
  • Energy-reversible complementary NEM logic gates Arkarvardar, K., Elata, D., Howe, R., T., Wong, H., S. P. 2008
  • Characterization of boron-doped micro- and nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by wafer-scale hot filament chemical vapor deposition for MEMS applications DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS Zhang, J., Zimmer, J. W., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2008; 17 (1): 23-28
  • The Dependence of Poly-crystalline SiC Mid-Infrared Optical Properties on Deposition Conditions 2008 IEEE/LEOS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL MEMS AND NANOPHOTONICS Provine, J., Roper, C., Schuller, J. A., Brongersma, M. L., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2008: 182-183
  • Interface Quality Control of Monolithic Photonic Crystals by Hydrogen Annealing 2008 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS & QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9 Kim, S., Kant, R., Hadzialic, S., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2008: 316-317
  • Analytical modeling of the suspended-gate FET and design insights for low-power logic IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Akarvardar, K., Eggimann, C., Tsamados, D., Chauhan, Y. S., Wan, G. C., Lonescu, A. M., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2008; 55 (1): 48-59
  • Electrical, mechanical and metal contact properties of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films for MEMS in harsh environments Zhang, J., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2007: 8893-8898
  • Nickel and platinum ohmic contacts to polycrystalline 3C-silicon carbide MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Zhang, J., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2007; 139 (2-3): 235-239
  • Mode shape imaging of out-of-plane and in-plane vibrating RF micromechanical resonators by atomic force microscopy San Paulo, A., Quevy, E., Black, J., Howe, R. T., White, R., Bokor, J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2007: 1354-1357
  • Extraordinary transmission through a poly-SiC membrane with subwavelength hole arrays 2007 IEEE/LEOS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL MEMS AND NANOPHOTONICS Provine, J., Catrysse, P. B., Roper, C., Maboudian, R., Fan, S., Howe, R. T. 2007: 157-158
  • Suspended mechanical structures based on elastic silicon nanowire arrays Nano Letters Paulo, A., San, Arellano, N., Plaza, J., A., He, R., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2007; 7: 1100-1104
  • Aqueous transduction of poly-SiGe disk resonators Chandrahalim, H., Bhave, S., A., Quévy, E., P., Howe, R., T. 2007
  • Characterization of polycrystalline silicon-germanium film deposition for modularly integrated MEMS applications IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechanical Systems Low, C., W., King Liu, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2007; 16: 68-77
  • Design considerations for complementary nanoelectromechanical logic gates 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, VOLS 1 AND 2 Akarvardar, K., Elata, D., Parsa, R., WAN, G. C., Yoo, K., Provine, J., Peurnans, P., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2007: 299-302
  • Effect of a vertical stack of aligned subwavelength metal hole arrays on extraordinary transmission spectra 2007 IEEE/LEOS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL MEMS AND NANOPHOTONICS Provine, J., Kant, R., Horsley, D. A., Howe, R. T. 2007: 117-118
  • Phonon polariton reflectance spectra in a silicon carbide membrane hole array 2007 IEEE LEOS ANNUAL MEETING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1 AND 2 Provine, J., Catrysse, P. B., Roper, C. S., Maboudian, R., Fan, S., Howe, R. T. 2007: 466-467
  • Stress control of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films in a large-scale LPCVD reactor using 1,3-disilabutane and dichlorosilane as precursors JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Roper, C. S., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 16 (12): 2736-2739
  • Control of strain gradient in doped polycrystalline silicon carbide films through tailored doping JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Zhang, J., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 16 (10): L1-L5
  • Modal coupling in micromechanical vibratory rate gyroscopes IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Phani, A. S., Seshia, A. A., Palaniapan, M., Howe, R. T., Yasaitis, J. A. 2006; 6 (5): 1144-1152
  • Polycrystalline silicon carbide as a substrate material for reducing adhesion in MEMS TRIBOLOGY LETTERS Gao, D., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 21 (3): 226-232
  • Single-source chemical vapor deposition of SiC films in a large-scale low-pressure CVD growth, chemical, and mechanical characterization reactor JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Roper, C. S., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 153 (8): C562-C566

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.2208911

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238470100043

  • Back-end-of-line poly-SiGe disk resonators Quévy, E., P., Paulo, A., San, Basol, E., Howe, R., T., King, T., J., Bokor, J. 2006
  • Electrical characterization of n-type polycrystalline 3C-silicon carbide thin films deposited by 1,3-disilabutane J. Electrochem. Soc. Zhang, J., C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 153: G548-G551
  • Reconstituted wafer technology for heterogeneous integration Quévy, E., P., Howe, R., T., King, T., J. 2006
  • Microfluidic generation of tunable monodisperse double emulsions for templated silica particles Zendejas, F., J., Srinivasan, U., Holtz, W., J., Keasling, J., D., Howe, R., T. 2006
  • A new nano-electro-mechanical field effect transistor (NEMFET) design for low-power electronics IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 2005, TECHNICAL DIGEST Kam, H., Lee, D. T., Howe, R. T., King, T. J. 2005: 477-480
  • Microfluidic generation of tunable emulsions for templated monodisperse silica Zendejas, F., J., Srinivasan, U., Holtz, W., J., Keasling, J., D., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Anchor loss simulation in resonators Bindel, D., S., Quévy, E., Govinjee, S., Demmel, J., W., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Silicon nitride-on-silicon bar resonator using internal electrostatic transduction Bhave, S., A., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Selective growth of Si nanowire arrays via galvanic displacement processes in water-in-oil microemulsions Journal of the Americal Chemical Society Gao, D., He, R., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Yang, P., Maboudian, R. 2005; 127: 4574-4575
  • Mechanical elasticity of single and double clamped silicon nanobeams fabricated by the vapor-liquid-solid method Applied Physics Letters Paulo, A., San, Bokor, J., Howe, R., T., He, R., Yang, P., Gao, D. 2005; 87: 53111-13
  • Fully differential poly-SiC Lamé-mode resonator and checkerboard filter Bhave, S., A., Gao, D., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Redundant MEMS resonators for precise reference oscillators Quévy, E., P., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Simulation tools for damping in high frequency resonators Koyama, T., Bindel, D., S., He, W., Quévy, E., P., Govindjee, S., Demmel, J., W., Howe, R. T. 2005
  • Thermal budget limits of quarter-micrometer foundry CMOS for post-processing MEMS devices IEEE Trans. Electron Devices Takeuchi, H., Wun, A., Sun, X., Howe, R., T., King, T., J. 2005; 52: 2081-2086
  • Pulsed Laser Annealing, a Low Thermal Budget Technique for Eliminating Stress Gradient in Poly-SiGe MEMS Structures IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Sedky, S., Howe, R., T., King, T., J. 2004; 13: 669-675
  • Stress Stability of Poly-SiGe and Various Oxide Films in Humid Environments Low, C., W., Bircumshaw, B., L., Dorofeeva, T., Solomon, G., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Fatigue of Polycrystalline Silicon for Microelectromechanical Systems: Crack Growth and Stability under Resonant Loading Conditions Mechanics of Materials Muhlstein, C., L., Howe, R., T., Ritchie, R., O. 2004; 36: 13-33
  • Transformer coupled plasma etching of 3C-SiC films using fluorinated chemistry for MEMS applications J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B Gao, D., Howe, R., T., Mabouidan, R. 2004; 22: 513-518
  • Fracture of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films in microelectromechanical systems IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Gao, D., Carraro, C., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2004; 13: 972-976
  • Effects of boron concentration on Si1-xGex properties for integrated MEMS technology Eyoum, M., A. N., Su, Y., R., Bircumshaw, B., L., Kouzimov, D., Takeuchi, H., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Internal electrostatic transduction for bulk-mode MEMS resonators Bhave, S., A., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Effect of eximer laser annealing on the structural propoerties of silicon germanium films J. Materials Research Sedky, S., Schroeder, J., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004; 19: 3503-3511
  • Single-source chemical vapor deposition of 3C-SiC films in a LPCVD reactor, part I: Growth, Structure, and Chemical Characterization Journal of the Electrochemical Society Wijesundara, M., B. J., Valente, G., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R. 2004; 151: 210-214
  • High performance inductors using capillary based fluidic self-assembly IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Scott, K., L., Hirano, T., Yang, H., Singh, H., Howe, R., T., Niknejad, A., M. 2004; 13: 300-309
  • Poly-SiGe high frequency resonators based on lithographic definition of nano-gap lateral transducers Quévy, E., P., Bhave, S., A., Takeuchi, H., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Hydrogen peroxide etching and stability of p-type poly-SiGe films Bircumshaw, B., L., Wasilik, M., L., Kim, E., B., Su, Y., R., Takeuchi, H., Low, C., W., Howe, R. T. 2004
  • In-situ doped poly-SiGe LPCVD process using BCl3 for post-CMOS integration of MEMS devices Low, C., W., Wasilik, M., L., Takeuchi, H., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Ge-blade damascene process for post-CMOS integration of nano-mechanical resonators IEEE Electron Device Lett. Takeuchi, H., Quevy, E., Bhave, S., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004; 25: 529-531
  • Coupling of resonant modes in micromechanical vibratory rate gyroscopes Phani, A., S., Seshia, A., A., Palaniapan, M., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Silicon carbide for enhanced MEMS reliability Gao, D., Ashurst, W., R., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2004
  • Microbioreactor arrays with parametric control for high-throughput experimentation Biotechnology and Bioengineering Maharbiz, M., M., Holtz, W., J., Howe, R., T., Keasling, J., D. 2004; 85: 376-381
  • Recent progress toward a manufacturable polycrystalline SiC surface micromachining technology IEEE Sensors Journal Gao, D., Wijesundara, M., B. J., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2004; 4: 441-448
  • Electrostatic charge and field sensors based on micromechanical resonators IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Riehl, P., S., Scott, K., L., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T., Yasaitis, J., A. 2003; 12: 577-589
  • A modular process for integrating thick polysilicon MEMS devices with sub-micron CMOS Yasaitis, J., Judy, M., Brosnihan, T., Garone, P., Pokrovskiy, N., Sniderman, D., Howe, R. T. 2003
  • High modulus polycrystalline 3C-SiC technology for RF MEMS Gao, D., Wijesundara, B., J., Carraro, C., Low, C., W., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2003
  • Properties of phosphorus-doped poly-SiGe films for MEMS applications Journal of the Electrochemical Society Jeon, Y., C., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2003; 150: H1-H6
  • Model for micropart planarization in capillary-based microassembly Scott, K., L., Howe, R., T., Radke, C., J. 2003
  • Integrated Z-axis frame microgyroscope with ISOD design Palaniapan, M., Howe, R., T., Yasaitis, J. 2003
  • The radial bulk annular resonator: towards a 50W RF MEMS filter Bircumshaw, B., Liu, G., Takeuchi, H., King, T., J., Howe, R., O’Reilly, O. 2003
  • Optimization of poly-SiGe deposition processes for modular MEMS integration Lin, B., C. Y., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2003
  • Polycrystalline silicon germanium films for integrated microsystems IEEE/ASME Journal of Micro-electromechanical Systems Franke, A., E., Heck, J., M., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2003; 12: 160-171
  • Characterization of residual strain in SiC films deposited using 1,3-disilabutane for MEMS applications J. Microlith. Gao, D., Wijesundara, M., B. J., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2003; 2: 259-264
  • Nitrogen doping of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films using 1,3-disilabutane in a conventional LPCVD reactor J. Crystal Growth Wijesundara, M., B. J., Gao, D., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2003; 259: 18-25
  • An integrated, vertical drive, in-plane-sense microgyroscope Bhave, S., A., Seeger, J., I., Jiang, X., Boser, B., E., Howe, R., T., Yasaitis, J. 2003
  • A microfabricated electrochemical oxygen generator for high-density cell culture arrays IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Maharbiz, M., M., Holtz, W., J., Sharifzadeh, S., Keasling, J., D., Howe, R., T. 2003; 12: 590-599
  • High-selectivity etching of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films using HBr-based transformer coupled plasma Applied Physics Letters Gao, D., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2003; 82: 1742-1744
  • Microsystems Research in Japan WTEC, Baltimore, Maryland Howe, R., Allen, M., Berlin, A., Hui, E., Monk, D., Najafi, K. 2002
  • Fluidic self-assembly of micromirrors onto microactuators using capillary forces (invited) IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics Srinivasan, U., Helmbrecht, M., A., Rembe, C., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 2002; 8: 4-11
  • Capacitive Interface for a Vertically Driven X&Y-Axis Rate Gyroscope Jiang, X., Bhave, S., A., Seeger, J., I., Howe, R., T., Boser, B., E., Yasaitis, J. 2002
  • Interconnect issues for integrated MEMS technologies King, T., J., Howe, R., T., Eyoum, M., A., Bhave, S., A. 2002
  • A low-temperature CVD process for silicon carbide MEMS Sensors and Actuators A Stoldt, C., R., Carraro, C., Ashurst, W., R., Gao, D., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2002; 97-98: 410-415
  • A vacuum packaged surface micromachined resonant accelerometer IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems Seshia, A., A., Palaniapan, M., Roessig, T., A., Howe, R., T., Gooch, R., W., Schimert, T., R. 2002; 11: 784-793
  • Nitrogen doping of 3C-SiC films grown by single-source chemical vapor deposition Thin Solid Films Wijesundara, M., B. J., Stoldt, C., R., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2002; 419: 69-75
  • High-resolution electrometer with micromechanical variable capacitor Riehl, P., Scott, K., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 2002
  • Recent progress in modularly integrated MEMS technologies King, T., J., Howe, R., T., Sedky, S., Liu, G., Lin, B., C.-Y., Wasilik, M. 2002
  • Low-temperature LPCVD MEMS technologies Howe, R., T., King, T., J. 2002
  • Pulsed laser annealing of silicon germanium films Sedky, S., Schroeder, J., Sands, T., Howe, R., King, T., J. 2002
  • A microfabricated electrochemical oxygen generator for high-density cell culture arrays Maharbiz, M., M., Holtz, W., J., Keasling, J., D., Howe, R., T. 2002
  • Poly-SiGe: a high-Q structural material for integrated RF MEMS Bhave, S., A., Bircumshaw, B., L., Kim, Y., S., Low, W., Z., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2002
  • Integrated surface-micromachined Z-axis frame microgyroscope Palaniapan, M., Howe, R., T., Yasaitis, J. 2002
  • MEMS: Some Self-Assembly Required Optics & Photonics News Srinivasan, U., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2002: 26-30
  • Micromechanical Pierce oscillator for resonator sensor applications Seshia, A., A., Low, W., Z., Bhave, S., A., Howe, R., T. 2002
  • An integrated microelectromechanical resonant-output gyroscope Seshia, A., A., Howe, R., T., Montague, S. 2002
  • Integrated MEMS technologies (invited) MRS Bulletin Franke, A., E., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2001
  • High-aspect-ratio, molded microstructures with electrical isolation and embedded interconnects Microsystem Technologies Muller, L., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 2001; 7: 47-54
  • Modeling of capillary forces and binding sites for fluidic self-assembly Böhringer, K., F., Srinivasan, U., Howe, R., T. 2001
  • Full three-dimensional motion characterization of a gimballed electrostatic microactuator Rembe, C., Muller, L., Muller, R., S., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 2001
  • Microstructure to substrate self-assembly using capillary forces IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Srinivasan, U., Liepmann, D., Howe, R., T. 2001; 10: 17-24
  • Microgimbal torsion beam design using open, thin-walled cross sections IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Muller, L., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 2001; 10: 550-560
  • Alkene based monolayer films as anti-stiction coatings for polysilicon MEMS Sensors and Actuators A Ashurst, W., R., Yau, C., Carraro, C., Lee, C., Kluth, G., J., Howe, R., T. 2001; 91: 239-248
  • Micromirrors for adaptive optics Helmbrecht, M., A., Srinivasan, U., Rembe, C., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 2001
  • Single-step assembly of complex 3-D microstructures Hui, E., E., Howe, R., T., Rodgers, M., S. 2000
  • Alkene based monolayer films as anti-stiction coatings for polysilicon MEMS Ashurst, W., R., Yao, C., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2000
  • Electrical isolation process for molded, high-aspect-ratio polysilicon microstructures Muller, L., Heck, J., M., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 2000
  • Silicon microbial bioreactor arrays Maharbiz, M., Howe, R., T., Keasling, J., D. 2000
  • Post-CMOS modular integration of poly-SiGe microstructures using poly-Ge sacrificial layers Franke, A., E., Jiao, Y., Wu, M., T., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2000
  • Stroboscropic interferometer with variable magnification to measure dynamics in an adaptive-optics micromirror Rembe, C., Hart, M., Helmbrecht, M., A., Srinivasan, U., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y., Howe, R. T. 2000
  • Fluidic self-assembly of micromirrors onto surface micromachined actuators Srinivasan, U., Helmbrecht, M., Rembe, C., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 2000
  • High aspect ratio poly-silicon-germanium microstructures Heck, J., M., Keller, C., G., Franke, A., E., Muller, L., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Batch transfer assembly of micro-components onto surface and SOI MEMS Maharbiz, M., Howe, R., T., Pister, K., S. J. 1999
  • Integrated resonant accelerometer based on rigidity change Tabata, O., Yamamoto, T., Seshia, A., A., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • An integrated CMOS micromechanical resonator high-Q oscillator IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1999; 34: 440-455
  • Batch micropackaging by compression-bonded wafer-wafer transfer Maharbiz, M., M., Cohn, M., B., Howe, R., T., Horowitz, R., Pisano, A., P. 1999
  • Vacuum encapsulation of resonant devices using permeable polysilicon Lebouitz, K., S., Mazaheri, A., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1999
  • Modeling and simulation of micromachined gyroscopes in the presence of imperfections Shkel, A., M., Howe, R., T., Horowitz, R. 1999
  • Fluidic microassembly using patterned self-assembled monolayers and shape matching Srinivasan, U., Howe, R., T., Liepmann, D. 1999
  • Optimization of poly-silicon-germanium as a microstructural material Franke, A., E., Bilic, D., Chang, D., T., Jones, P., T., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Third harmonic double-ended tuning fork resonator Bilic, D., Howe, R., T., Clark, W., A., Roessig, T., A. 1999
  • Materials characterization for MEMS - a comparison of uniaxial and bending tests Jones, P., T., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Performance evaluation of batch-transferred surface micromachined resonators Singh, A., Bilic, D., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Statistical characterization of fracture of brittle MEMS materials Jones, P., T., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures Franke, A., E., Bilic, D., Chang, D., T., Jones, P., T., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Dynamics and control of micromachined gyroscopes Shkel, A., M., Horowitz, R., Seshia, A., A., Park, S., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Mechanical performance of an integrated microgimbal / microactuators for disk drives Muller, L., Noworolski, J., M., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1999
  • Carbonized parylene as a conformal sacrificial layer for high aspect ratio molded polysilicon Hui, E., E., Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1998
  • Microassembly technologies for MEMS Cohn, M., B., Bohringer, K., F., Noworolski, J., M., Singh, A., Keller, C., G., Goldberg, K., Y., Howe, R. T. 1998
  • Parallel microassembly with electrostatic force fields Bohringer, K., F., Goldberg, K., Cohn, M., Howe, R., Pisano, A. 1998
  • Lubrication of polysilicon micromechanisms with self-assembled monolayers Srinivasan, U., Foster, J., D., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T., Senft, D., C., Dugger, M., D. 1998
  • Surface-micromachined 1 MHz oscillator with low-noise Pierce configuration Roessig, T., A., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P., Smith, J., H. 1998
  • Commercialization of precision inertial sensors with integrated signal conditioning Sensors Expo West, San Jose, California Juneau, T., N., Lemkin, M., A., Roessig, T., A., Clark, W., A., Howe, R., T., Bustillo, J., M. 1998
  • Fracture strength of polycrystalline silicon Jones, P., T., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1998
  • Alkyltrichlorosilane-based self-assembled monolayer films for stiction reduction IEEE/ASME J. of Micro-electromechanical Systems Srinivasan, U., Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 1998; 7: 252-260
  • Surface micromachining for micro-electro-mechanical systems Proc. of the IEEE Bustillo, J., M., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1998; 86: 1552-1574
  • Microelectromechanical filters for signal processing IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Lin, L., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1998; 7: 286-294
  • Stiction reduction processes for surface micromachines Tribology Letters Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 1997; 3: 215-221
  • Nonlinear mixing in surface-micromachined tuning fork oscillators Roessig, T., A., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1997
  • Effect of hydrogen termination on the work of adhesion between rough polycrystalline silicon surfaces J. of Applied Physics Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 1997; 81: 3474-3483
  • Batch transfer of microstructures using flip-chip solder bump bonding Singh, A., Horsley, D., A., Cohn, M., B., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1997
  • Hexsil tweezers for teleoperated micro-assembly Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1997
  • Self-assembled fluorocarbon films for enhanced stiction reduction Srinivasan, U., Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 1997
  • Embedded interconnect and electrical isolation for high-aspect-ratio, SOI inertial instruments Brosnihan, T., J., Bustillo, J., M., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1997
  • Experiments in micromanipulation and CAD-driven microassembly Feddema, J., T., Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1997
  • A micro strain gauge with mechanical amplifier IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Lin, L., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1997; 6: 313-321
  • Microelectronics: an Integrated Approach Howe, R., T., Sodini, C., G. Prentice Hall. 1997
  • Surface-micromachined resonant accelerometer Roessig, T., A., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1997
  • Critical review: stiction in surface micromechanical structures J. Vacuum Science and Technology B Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 1997; B15: 1-19
  • Surface micromachined accelerometers IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits Boser, B., E., Howe, R., T. 1996; 31: 366-375
  • Self-assembled monolayers as permanent anti-stiction coatings for polysilicon microstructures Houston, M., R., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 1996
  • Wafer-to-wafer microstructure transfer for vacuum packaging Cohn, M., B., Liang, Y., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1996
  • Z-axis vibratory rate gyroscope Clark, W., A., Howe, R., T., Horowitz, R. 1996
  • Design, fabrication, position sensing, and control of an electrostatically driven polysilicon microactuator IEEE Trans. on Magnetics Cheung, P., Horowitz, R., Howe, R., T. 1996; 32: 122-128
  • Multi-mode digital control of suspended polysilicon microstructures IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Fedder, G., K., Howe, R., T. 1996; 5: 283-297
  • Polysilicon integrated microsystems: technologies and applications (invited) Sensors and Actuators A Howe, R., T., Boser, B., E., Pisano, A., P. 1996; 56: 167-177
  • Micromechanical structures for fracture testing of brittle thin films Jones, P., T., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1996
  • Hexsil tweezers with polysilicon piezoresistive strain gauges Late News Digest, 7th Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S. C. Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1996: 31-32
  • Surface micromachined Z-axis vibratory rate gyroscope Clark, W., A., Howe, R., T., Horowitz, R. 1996
  • Young's Modulus of in-situ Phophorus-Doped Polysilicon Biebl, M., Brandl, G., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Permeable Polysilicon Microshell Etch-Access Windows Lebouitz, K., S., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1995
  • Self-assembly of microsystems using non-contact electrostatic traps Cohn, M., B., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1995
  • High aspect ratio molded CVD silicon MEMS Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Diamond-like carbon for silicon passivation in micromechanical devices Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Komvopoulos, K., Maboudian, R. 1995
  • In Situ Phosphorus Doped Polysilicon for Integrated MEMS Biebl, M., Mulhern, G., T., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Ammonium Fluoride Surface Treatments for Reducing In-Use Stiction in Polysilicon Microstructures Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 1995
  • Polysilicon Integrated Microsystems: Technologies and Applications Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Surface micromachined resonant force sensors Roessig, T., A., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Surface micromachined angular accelerometer with force feedback Brosnihan, T., J., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Surface Micromachining: from Vision to Reality to Vision Payne, R., S., Sherman, S., Lewis, S., Howe, R., T. edited by Drory, M., D., Bogy, D., B., Donley, M., S. 1995
  • Recent Advances in Surface Micromachining Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Hexsil bimorphs for vertical actuation Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • An integrated force-balanced capacitive accelerometer for low-G applications Chau, K., H.-L., Lewis, S., R., Zhao, Y., Howe, R., T., Bart, S., F., Marcheselli, R., G. 1995
  • Surface Micromachined Accelerometers Boser, B., E., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Nickel-filled thermally actuated hexsil tweezers Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Silicon Micromachining for Resonator Fabrication Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Silicon Surface Treatments for Stiction Reduction in Silicon Micromachining : A Surface Science Approach Houston, M., R., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer hydrofluoric acid etching: Part II -- modeling J. of the Electrochemical Society Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1994; 141: 271-274
  • Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer hydrofluoric acid etching: Part I - experimental observations J. of the Electrochemical Society Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1994; 141: 264-269
  • Integrated Testbed for Multi-Mode Digital Control of Suspended Microstructures Fedder, G., K., Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Design and Performance of CMOS Micromechanical Resonator Oscillators Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Polysilicon Integrated Mechatronics: Applications and Recent Developments Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Polysilicon microresonators for signal processing Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Viscous damping model for laterally oscillating microstructures IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Cho, Y., H., Kwak, B., M., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1994; 3: 81-87
  • Process Technology for the Modular Integration of CMOS and Microstructures (invited) Microsystem Technology Bustillo, J., M., Fedder, G., K., Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1994; 1: 30-41
  • Micromechanical Resonators for Frequency References and Signal Processing Howe, R., T., Nguyen, C., T.-C. 1994
  • Slide film damping in laterally driven microstructures Sensors and Actuators A Cho, Y., H., Kwak, B., M., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1994; 40: 31-39
  • Self-assembled monolayer film for enhanced imaging of rough surfaces with atomic force microscopy J. of Applied Physics Alley, R., L., Komvopoulos, K., Howe, R., T. 1994; 76: 5731-5737
  • S-D Modulator interfacing with silicon microsensors Sensors Yun, W., Howe, R., T. 1993: 11-18
  • Vacuum encapsulated lateral microresonators Lin, L., McNair, K., M., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1993
  • Sigma-Delta modulator interfacing with microsensors Sensors Expo West, San Jose, California Yun, W., Howe, R., T. 1993: 159-164
  • Determination of the etching kinetics for the hydrofluoric acid/silicon dioxide system J. of the Electrochemical Society Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1993; 140: 2339-2346
  • A novel micro in situ strain gauge Lin, L., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1993
  • CMOS Micromechanical Resonator Oscillator Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Polysilicon hollow beam lateral resonators Judy, M., W., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Stress-corrosion cracking and blistering of thin polycrystalline silicon films in hydrofluoric acid Monk, D., J., Krulevitch, P., Howe, R., T., Johnson, G., C. 1993
  • A Chemical Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics for Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of Silicon Dioxide Thin Films (invited review) Thin Solid Films Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1993; 232 (1): 1-12
  • Microresonator frequency control using an integrated micro oven Nguyen, C., T., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide drying of microstructures Mulhern, G., T., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Highly compliant lateral suspensions using sidewall beams Judy, M., W., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Surface roughness modification of interfacial contacts in polysilicon microstructures Alley, R., L., Mai, P., Komvopoulos, K., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Viscous energy dissipation in laterally oscillating planar microstructures: a theoretical and experimental study Cho, Y., H., Kwak, B., M., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Enhanced removal of sacrificial layers for silicon surface micromachining Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Characterization of thin films using micromechanical structures Pratt, R., I., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T., Nikkel Jr., D., J. 1992
  • Stress and microstructure in phosphorus doped polycrystalline silicon Krulevitch, P., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Electrostatic comb drive levitation and control method IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems Tang, W., C., Lim, M., G., Howe, R., T. 1992; 1 (4): 170-178
  • Surface micromachined, digitally force-balanced accelerometer with integrated CMOS detection circuitry Yun, W., Howe, R., T., Gray, P., R. 1992
  • Thermal microassembly of narrow-gap electrostatic comb-drive structures Fedder, G., K., Chang, J., C., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Micro Electromechanical Filters Lin, L., Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1992
  • Silicon microfabricated accelerometers: a perspective on recent developments (invited paper), Sensors Expo, Chicago, Ill. Yun, W., Howe, R., T., Gabriel, K., J., Trimmer, W., S. N. 1992: 204A-1 - 204A-8.
  • Recent developments in silicon microaccelerometers Sensors Yun, W., Howe, R., T. 1992: 31-41
  • The effect of release-etch processing on surface microstructure stiction Alley, R., L., Howe, R., T., Komvopoulos, K. 1992
  • Quality factor control for micromechanical resonators Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Stress and microstructure in LPCVD polysilicon films: experimental results and closed form modeling of stresses Krulevitch, P., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Sacrificial layer etching model for surface micromachining applications Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Sacrificial layer Si02 wet etching for micromachining applications Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Sacrificial Silicon Dioxide Wet Etching for Micromachining Applications Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • Stress in Undoped LPCVD Polycrystalline Silicon Krulevitch, P., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • Design and Modeling of a Linear Microactuator Cheung, P., Horowitz, R., Howe, R. 1991
  • Ultrasonically Induced Microtransport Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • Modeling and Position-Detection of a Polysilicon Linear Microactuator Cheung, P., Horowitz, R., Howe, R. 1991
  • Ultrasonically Induced Microtransport with Cylindrical Geometry Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • LPCVD Polysilicon Thin Films: The Evolution of Structure, Texture, and Stress Krulevitch, P., A., Nguyen, T., D., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T., Wenk, H., R., Gronsky, R. 1991
  • Micromechanical Structures for Thin Film Characterization Pratt, R., I., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • Self-Adjusting Microstructures Judy, M., W., Cho, Y., H., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1991
  • Ultrasonic Micromotors: Physics and Applications Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1990
  • Resonant-Bridge Two-Axis Microaccelerometer Sensors and Actuators Chang, S., C., Putty, M., W., Hicks, D., B., Li, C., H., Howe, R., T. 1990; A21-A23: 342-345
  • Electrostatically Balanced Comb Drive for Controlled Levitation Tang, W., C., Lim, M., G., Howe, R., T. 1990
  • A Planar Air-Levitated Electrostatic Actuator System Pister, K., S. J., Fearing, R., S., Howe, R., T. 1990
  • Polysilicon Microstructures to Characterize Static Friction Lim, M., G., Chang, J., Schultz, D., P., Howe, R., T., White, R., M. 1990
  • Spiral Microstructures for the Measurement of Average Strain Gradients in Thin Films Fan, L., S., Yun, W., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T., Huang, J. 1990
  • missing title J. of Applied Physics Wenk, H., R., Sintubin, M., Huang, J., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1990; 67: 572-574
  • Fabrication Technologies for Integrated Microdynamic Systems (invited paper), Integrated Micro-Motion Systems Micromachining, Control and Applications Yun, W., Tang, W., C., Howe, R., T. edited by Harashima, F. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. 1990: 297-312
  • Silicon micromechanics: sensors and actuators on a chip IEEE Spectrum Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S., Gabriel, K., J., Trimmer, W., S. N. 1990: 29-35
  • Electrostatic-Comb Drive of Lateral Polysilicon Resonators Sensors and Actuators A Tang, W., C., Nguyen, T., C. H., Judy, M., W., Howe, R., T. 1990; A21-A23: 328-331
  • Investigation of texture and stress in undoped polysilicon films Huang, J., Krulevitch, P., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T., Wenk, H., R. edited by Kamins, T., Thompson, C., V., Raicu, B. 1990
  • Fracture-Toughness Characterization of Brittle Thin Films Sensors and Actuators Fan, L., S., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1990; A21-A23: 872-874
  • Microsensors for heat transfer and fluid flow measurements Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science Udell, K., S., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T., White, R., M., Muller, R., S. 1990; 3: 52-59
  • Technologies for microdynamic devices Nanotechnology Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 1990; 1: 8-12
  • Lamb-Wave Interactions with the Chemical, Biological and Physical Environment White, R., M., Wenzel, S., W., Martin, B., A., Moroney, R., M., Costello, B., J., Straub, M., A., Howe, R. T. 1990
  • Fluid Motion Produced by Ultrasonic Lamb waves Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1990
  • Texture of Undoped LPCVD Polycrystalline Silicon Films Huang, J., Lin, K., K., Lau, J., Hodges, D., A., Spanos, C., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R. T. 1989
  • Microstructures for Fracture Toughness Characterization of Brittle Thin Films Fan, L., S., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1989
  • Laterally Driven Polysilicon Resonant Microstructures Tang, W., C., Nguyen, T., C. H., Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Ultrasonic micromotor Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Electrostatic-Comb Drive of Lateral Polysilicon Resonators Tang, W., C., Nguyen, T., C. H., Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Fracture-Toughness Characterization of Brittle Thin Films Fan, L., S., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1989
  • Resonant-Bridge Two-Axis Microaccelerometer Chang, S., C., Putty, M., W., Hicks, D., B., Li, C., H., Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Vacuum-insulated field-effect transistor Electronics Letters Huang, J., Howe, R., T., Lee, H., S. 1989; 25: 1571-1573
  • Microsensor and microactuator applications of thin films Thin Solid Films Howe, R., T. 1989; 181: 235-243
  • One-Port Active Polysilicon Resonant Microstructures Putty, M., W., Chang, S., C., Howe, R., T., Robinson, A., L., Wise, K., D. 1989
  • Microsensor and Microactuator Applications of Thin Films Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Laterally driven polysilicon resonant microstructures Sensors and Actuators Tang, W., C., Nguyen, T., C. H., Howe, R., T. 1989; 20: 25-32
  • Silicon Microdynamic Systems: Recent Developments in Microactuators and Micromachinery (invited paper), IEEE WESCON, San Francisco, California Howe, R., T. 1989: 202-204
  • Process integration for active polysilicon resonant microstructures Sensors and Actuators Putty, M., W., Chang, S., C., Howe, R., T., Robinson, A., L., Wise, K., D. 1989; 20: 143-151
  • A digital readout technique for capacitive sensor applications IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits Kung, J., T., Lee, H., S., Howe, R., T. 1988; 23: 972-977
  • Surface Micromachining Processes for Electrostatic Motor Fabrication Lober, T., A., Howe, R., T. 1988
  • Surface Micromachining for Microsensors and Microactuators Howe, R., T. 1988
  • Design considerations for microfabricated electric actuators Sensors and Actuators Bart, S., F., Lober, T., A., Lang, J., H., Howe, R., T., Schlecht, M., F. 1988; 14: 269-292
  • A Thermally Isolated Microstructure Suitable for Gas Sensing Applications Huff, M., A., Senturia, S., D., Howe, R., T. 1988
  • Microsensors for heat transfer and fluid flow measurements Udell, K., S., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T., White, R., M., Muller, R., S. 1988
  • Design and calibration of a microfabricated floating-element shear-stress sensor IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D., Haritonidis, J., H. 1988; 35: 750-757
  • Surface micromachining for microsensors and microactuators J. of Vacuum Science and Technology, Part B Howe, R., T. 1988; 6: 1809-1813
  • Microfabricated structures for the in-situ measurement of residual stress, Young’s modulus, and ultimate strain in polyimide films Applied Physics Letters Allen, M., G., Mehregany, M., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D. 1987; 51: 241-243
  • Silicon resonant microsensors Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T. 1987
  • Resonant microsensors Howe, R., T. 1987
  • Surface micromachining of polyimide/metal composites for a shear-stress sensor Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D., Haritonidis, J., H. 1987
  • Novel microstructures for the in-situ measurement of mechanical properties of thin films J. of Applied Physics Mehregany, M., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D. 1987; 62: 3579-3584
  • Fabrication and testing of a micromachined shear sensor Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D., Haritonidis, J., H. 1987
  • A micromachined floating-element shear sensor Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D., Haritonidis, J., H. 1987
  • Applications of polysilicon films in microsensors and microactuators Howe, R., T. 1987
  • Electric micromotors: electromechanical characteristics Lang, J., H., Schlecht, M., F., Howe, R., T. 1987
  • Polycrystalline silicon micromachining: a new technology for integrated sensors Annals of Biomedical Engineering Howe, R., T. 1986; 14: 187-197
  • Resonant-microbridge vapor sensor IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1986; ED-33: 499-506
  • Resonant structures for integrated sensors Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T. 1986
  • Polycrystalline silicon microstructures (invited), Micromachining and Micropackaging of Transducers Howe, R., T. edited by Fung, C., F., Cheung, P., W., Ko, W., H. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. 1985: 169-187
  • Polysilicon bridges for anemometer applications Tai, Y., C., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 1985
  • Frequency response of polycrystalline silicon microbridges Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. edited by Fung, C., F., Cheung, P., W., Ko, W., H. 1985
  • Resonant polysilicon microbridge with integrated NMOS detection circuitry Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1984
  • Integrated resonant-microbridge vapor sensor Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1984
  • Polycrystalline and amorphous silicon micromechanical beams: annealing and mechanical properties Sensors and Actuators Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1983; 4: 447-454
  • Polycrystalline silicon micromechanical beams J. of the Electrochemical Society Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1983; 130: 1420-1423
  • Polycrystalline Silicon Micromechanical Beams Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1982