Bio


Design and fabrication of sensors and actuators using micro and nanotechnologies, with applications to information processing and energy conversion.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Faculty Director, Stanford Nanofabrication Facility (2009 - 2017)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, National Academy of Engineering (2005 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, UC Berkeley (1984)

2019-20 Courses


Stanford Advisees


  • Doctoral Dissertation Reader (AC)
    John Bartel, Michelle Chen, Xiyuan Chen, Vlad Kesler, Akash Levy, Punnag Padhy, Maryann Tung, Gabrielle Vukasin
  • Doctoral Dissertation Advisor (AC)
    Lina Qiu, Eric Wu
  • Master's Program Advisor
    Joelle Dowling
  • Doctoral (Program)
    Savannah Benbrook, Lina Qiu, Kirstin Schauble, Luke Upton, Sophia Williams, Eric Wu

All Publications


  • Wafer scale encapsulation of large lateral deflection MEMS structures Graham, A., B., Messana, M., Hartwell, P., Provine, J., Yoneoka, S., Kim, B., Howe, R. T.
  • Epitaxial silicon microshell vacuum-encapsulated CMOS-compatible 200 MHz bulk-mode resonator Chen, K, L., Chandrahalim, H., Graham, A., B., Bhave, S., A., Howe, R., T., Kenny, T., W.
  • Anomalous hysteresis and current fluctuations in cyclic voltammograms at microelectrodes due to Ag leaching from Ag/AgCl reference electrodes ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS Chia, C., Jeffrey, S. S., Howe, R. T. 2019; 105
  • ALD HfO2 Films for Defining Microelectrodes for Electrochemical Sensing and Other Applications ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Chia, C., Shulaker, M. M., Provine, J., Jeffrey, S. S., Howe, R. T. 2019; 11 (29): 26082–92

    Abstract

    Microelectrodes are used in a wide range of applications from analytical electrochemistry and biomolecular sensing to in vivo implants. While a variety of insulating materials have been used to define the microelectrode active area, most are not suitable for nanoscale electrodes (<1 μm2) due to the limited robustness of these films when the film thickness is on the order of the nanoelectrode dimension. In this study, we investigate atomic layer deposited hafnium dioxide (ALD HfO2) as an insulating film to coat planar platinum microelectrodes, with the active areas being defined where the HfO2 is etched. Thermally grown films with thicknesses between 10 and 60 nm were deposited by 100 to 550 ALD cycles and were initially characterized by measuring their standard electrical properties and imaging incipient texture development. Electrochemical measurements on the structures were made, including linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which identified the presence of pinholes in films deposited over the range of 100 to 350 cycles, resulting in leakage. These measurements also suggest a lower limit to the size of microelectrodes below which the electrochemical current detected is no longer dominated by that through the exposed active area. A bilayer insulator comprising ALD HfO2 coated with parylene-C was investigated to minimize the pinhole leakage. Steady-state currents were measured for different electrode areas, qualitatively agreeing with the theory for areas down to ∼1 μm2. For sub-square micrometer electrode areas, bilayer-insulated devices with parylene-C apertures that exposed the smallest microelectrode area showed measured currents that were consistent with extrapolations, indicating that it reduces leakage through HfO2.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsami.9b06891

    View details for Web of Science ID 000477787200048

    View details for PubMedID 31305057

  • Micron-gap spacers with ultrahigh thermal resistance and mechanical robustness for direct energy conversion MICROSYSTEMS & NANOENGINEERING Nicaise, S. M., Lin, C., Azadi, M., Bozorg-Grayeli, T., Adebayo-Ige, P., Lilley, D. E., Pfitzer, Y., Cha, W., Van Houten, K., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T., Schwede, J. W., Bargatin, I. 2019; 5
  • Quantum Tunneling Currents in a Nanoengineered Electrochemical System JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Gupta, C., Walker, R. M., Chang, S., Fischer, S. R., Seal, M., Murmann, B., Howe, R. T. 2017; 121 (28): 15085–105
  • Three-dimensional integration of nanotechnologies for computing and data storage on a single chip NATURE Shulaker, M. M., Hills, G., Park, R. S., Howe, R. T., Saraswat, K., Wong, H., Mitra, S. 2017; 547 (7661): 74-+

    Abstract

    The computing demands of future data-intensive applications will greatly exceed the capabilities of current electronics, and are unlikely to be met by isolated improvements in transistors, data storage technologies or integrated circuit architectures alone. Instead, transformative nanosystems, which use new nanotechnologies to simultaneously realize improved devices and new integrated circuit architectures, are required. Here we present a prototype of such a transformative nanosystem. It consists of more than one million resistive random-access memory cells and more than two million carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors-promising new nanotechnologies for use in energy-efficient digital logic circuits and for dense data storage-fabricated on vertically stacked layers in a single chip. Unlike conventional integrated circuit architectures, the layered fabrication realizes a three-dimensional integrated circuit architecture with fine-grained and dense vertical connectivity between layers of computing, data storage, and input and output (in this instance, sensing). As a result, our nanosystem can capture massive amounts of data every second, store it directly on-chip, perform in situ processing of the captured data, and produce 'highly processed' information. As a working prototype, our nanosystem senses and classifies ambient gases. Furthermore, because the layers are fabricated on top of silicon logic circuitry, our nanosystem is compatible with existing infrastructure for silicon-based technologies. Such complex nano-electronic systems will be essential for future high-performance and highly energy-efficient electronic systems.

    View details for PubMedID 28682331

  • Fully differential interal electrostatic transduction of a Lamé-mode resonator Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Elata, D., Hsieh, J., Chen, J., W., Quévy, E., P., Howe, R., T.
  • Back-gated graphene anode for more efficient thermionic energy converters NANO ENERGY Yuan, H., Riley, D. C., Shen, Z., Pianetta, P. A., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T. 2017; 32: 67-72
  • Active control of probability amplitudes in a mesoscale system via feedback-induced suppression of dissipation and noise JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Gupta, C., Perez, A. P., Fischer, S. R., Weinreich, S. B., Murmann, B., Howe, R. T. 2016; 120 (22)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4971867

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391535900013

  • Electropermanent magnet actuation for droplet ferromicrofluidics. Technology Padovani, J. I., Jeffrey, S. S., Howe, R. T. 2016; 4 (2): 110-119

    Abstract

    Droplet actuation is an essential mechanism for droplet-based microfluidic systems. On-demand electromagnetic actuation is used in a ferrofluid-based microfluidic system for water droplet displacement. Electropermanent magnets (EPMs) are used to induce 50 mT magnetic fields in a ferrofluid filled microchannel with gradients up to 6.4 × 10(4) kA/m(2). Short 50 µs current pulses activate the electropermanent magnets and generate negative magnetophoretic forces that range from 10 to 70 nN on 40 to 80 µm water-in-ferrofluid droplets. Maximum droplet displacement velocities of up to 300 µm/s are obtained under flow and no-flow conditions. Electropermanent magnet-activated droplet sorting under continuous flow is demonstrated using a split-junction microfluidic design.

    View details for PubMedID 27583301

  • A Super Stretchable Organic Thin-Film Diodes Network That Can Be Embedded Into Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Sensor Network Applications JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Guo, Z., Aboudi, U., Peumans, P., Howe, R. T., Chang, F. 2016; 25 (3): 524-532
  • Design and fabrication of silicon-tessellated structures for monocentric imagers MICROSYSTEMS & NANOENGINEERING Wu, T., Hamann, S. S., Ceballos, A. C., Chang, C., Solgaard, O., Howe, R. T. 2016; 2
  • Stable Encapsulated Charge-Biased Resonators JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Ng, E. J., Harrison, K. L., Yang, Y., Ahn, C. H., Hong, V. A., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2016; 25 (1): 30-37
  • Design and fabrication of silicon-tessellated structures for monocentric imagers. Microsystems & nanoengineering Wu, T., Hamann, S. S., Ceballos, A. C., Chang, C. E., Solgaard, O., Howe, R. T. 2016; 2: 16019

    Abstract

    Compared with conventional planar optical image sensors, a curved focal plane array can simplify the lens design and improve the field of view. In this paper, we introduce the design and implementation of a segmented, hemispherical, CMOS-compatible silicon image plane for a 10-mm diameter spherical monocentric lens. To conform to the hemispherical focal plane of the lens, we use flexible gores that consist of arrays of spring-connected silicon hexagons. Mechanical functionality is demonstrated by assembling the 20-μm-thick silicon gores into a hemispherical test fixture. We have also fabricated and tested a photodiode array on a silicon-on-insulator substrate for use with the curved imager. Optical testing shows that the fabricated photodiodes achieve good performance; the hemispherical imager enables a compact 160 ° field of view camera with >80% fill factor using a single spherical lens.

    View details for PubMedID 31057822

  • Engineering Ultra-Low Work Function of Graphene NANO LETTERS Yuan, H., Chang, S., Bargatin, I., Wang, N. C., Riley, D. C., Wang, H., Schwede, J. W., Provine, J., Pop, E., Shen, Z., Pianetta, P. A., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T. 2015; 15 (10): 6475-6480

    Abstract

    Low work function materials are critical for energy conversion and electron emission applications. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that an ultralow work function graphene is achieved by combining electrostatic gating with a Cs/O surface coating. A simple device is built from large-area monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition, transferred onto 20 nm HfO2 on Si, enabling high electric fields capacitive charge accumulation in the graphene. We first observed over 0.7 eV work function change due to electrostatic gating as measured by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and confirmed by conductivity measurements. The deposition of Cs/O further reduced the work function, as measured by photoemission in an ultrahigh vacuum environment, which reaches nearly 1 eV, the lowest reported to date for a conductive, nondiamond material.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01916

    View details for PubMedID 26401728

  • Thermionic and photon-enhanced emission energy conversion Melosh, N., Riley, D., Sahasrabuddhe, K., Shen, Z. X., Schwede, J., Howe, R. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2015
  • Partitioning Electrostatic and Mechanical Domains in Nanoelectromechanical Relays JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Shavezipur, M., Harrison, K., Lee, W. S., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Howe, R. T. 2015; 24 (3): 592-598
  • Tunable control of antibody immobilization using electric field. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Emaminejad, S., Javanmard, M., Gupta, C., Chang, S., Davis, R. W., Howe, R. T. 2015; 112 (7): 1995-1999

    Abstract

    The controlled immobilization of proteins on solid-state surfaces can play an important role in enhancing the sensitivity of both affinity-based biosensors and probe-free sensing platforms. Typical methods of controlling the orientation of probe proteins on a sensor surface involve surface chemistry-based techniques. Here, we present a method of tunably controlling the immobilization of proteins on a solid-state surface using electric field. We study the ability to orient molecules by immobilizing IgG molecules in microchannels while applying lateral fields. We use atomic force microscopy to both qualitatively and quantitatively study the orientation of antibodies on glass surfaces. We apply this ability for controlled orientation to enhance the performance of affinity-based assays. As a proof of concept, we use fluorescence detection to indirectly verify the modulation of the orientation of proteins bound to the surface. We studied the interaction of fluorescently tagged anti-IgG with surface immobilized IgG controlled by electric field. Our study demonstrates that the use of electric field can result in more than 100% enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio compared with normal physical adsorption.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1424592112

    View details for PubMedID 25650429

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4343132

  • Integrated atomistic chemical imaging and reactive force field molecular dynamic simulations on silicon oxidation APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Dumpala, S., Broderick, S. R., Khalilov, U., Neyts, E. C., van Duin, A. C., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Rajan, K. 2015; 106 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4905442

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347976900008

  • Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) Fluidic Cell to Study Electrochemistry of Microelectrodes on Silicon Substrate ECS SOLID STATE LETTERS Arun, A., Gupta, C., Howe, R. 2015; 4 (10): P67-P71
  • Microfabricated Thermally Isolated Low Work-Function Emitter JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Vancil, B. K., Gwinn, T. O., Maboudian, R., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T. 2014; 23 (5): 1182-1187
  • Inherent Enhancement of Electronic Emission from Hexaboride Heterostructure PHYSICAL REVIEW APPLIED Voss, J., Vojvodic, A., Chou, S. H., Howe, R. T., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2014; 2 (2)
  • Improved Performance of Bottom-Contact Organic Thin-Film Transistor Using Al Doped HfO2 Gate Dielectric IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Tang, W. M., Aboudi, U., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2014; 61 (7): 2398-2403
  • Optical MEMS: From Micromirrors to Complex Systems JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Solgaard, O., Godil, A. A., Howe, R. T., Lee, L. P., Peter, Y., Zappe, H. 2014; 23 (3): 517-538
  • DFT Study of Atomically-Modified Alkali-Earth Metal Oxide Films on Tungsten JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Chou, S. H., Voss, J., Vojvodic, A., Howe, R. T., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2014; 118 (21): 11303-11309

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp4120578

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336771700017

  • Double-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber-Tip Temperature Sensors IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Park, B., Jung, I. W., Provine, J., Gellineau, A., Landry, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2014; 26 (9): 900-903
  • Depletion of cells and abundant proteins from biological samples by enhanced dielectrophoresis 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Javanmard, M., Emaminejad, S., Gupta, C., Provine, J., Davis, R. W., Howe, R. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2014: 918–24

    Abstract

    Platforms that are sensitive and specific enough to assay low-abundance protein biomarkers, in a high throughput multiplex format, within a complex biological fluid specimen, are necessary to enable protein biomarker based diagnostics for diseases such as cancer. The signal from an assay for a low-abundance protein biomarker in a biological fluid sample like blood is typically buried in a background that arises from the presence of blood cells and from high-abundance proteins that make up 90% of the assayed protein mass. We present an automated on-chip platform for the depletion of cells and highly abundant serum proteins in blood. Our platform consists of two components, the first of which is a microfluidic mixer that mixes beads containing antibodies against the highly abundant proteins in the whole blood. This complex mixture (consisting of beads, cells, and serum proteins) is then injected into the second component of our microfluidic platform, which comprises a filter trench to capture all the cells and the beads. The size-based trapping of the cells and beads into the filter trench is significantly enhanced by leveraging additional negative dielectrophoretic forces to push the micron sized particles (cells and beads which have captured the highly abundant proteins) down into the trench, allowing the serum proteins of lower abundance to flow through. In general, dielectrophoresis using bare electrodes is incapable of producing forces beyond the low piconewton range that tend to be insufficient for separation applications. However, by using electrodes passivated with atomic layer deposition, we demonstrate the application of enhanced negative DEP electrodes together with size-based flltration induced by the filter trench, to deplete 100% of the micron sized particles in the mixture.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.snb.2013.11.100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330113600128

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4765371

  • STABLE CHARGE-BIASED CAPACITIVE RESONATORS WITH ENCAPSULATED SWITCHES Ng, E. J., Harrison, K. L., Everhart, C. L., Hong, V. A., Yang, Y., Ahn, C., Heinz, D. B., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W., IEEE IEEE. 2014: 1277–80
  • Analysis of Asperity Dominated Contacts in Nanoelectromechanical Relays Using Thin Films Harrison, K. L., Dalvi, C., Asheghi, M., Howe, R. T., IEEE IEEE. 2014: 1256–60
  • Vacuum encapsulated resonators for humidity measurement SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL Hennessy, R. G., Shulaker, M. M., Messana, M., Graham, A. B., Klejwa, N., Provine, J., Kenny, T. W., Howe, R. T. 2013; 185: 575-581
  • Laterally Actuated Platinum-Coated Polysilicon NEM Relays JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Parsa, R., Lee, W. S., Shavezipur, M., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Howe, R. T. 2013; 22 (3): 768-778
  • Thermionic current densities from first principles. journal of chemical physics Voss, J., Vojvodic, A., Chou, S. H., Howe, R. T., Bargatin, I., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2013; 138 (20): 204701-?

    Abstract

    We present a density functional theory-based method for calculating thermionic emission currents from a cathode into vacuum using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach. It does not require semi-classical approximations or crude simplifications of the electronic structure used in previous methods and thus provides quantitative predictions of thermionic emission for adsorbate-coated surfaces. The obtained results match well with experimental measurements of temperature-dependent current densities. Our approach can thus enable computational design of composite electrode materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4805002

    View details for PubMedID 23742494

  • Thermionic current densities from first principles. journal of chemical physics Voss, J., Vojvodic, A., Chou, S. H., Howe, R. T., Bargatin, I., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2013; 138 (20): 204701-?

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4805002

    View details for PubMedID 23742494

  • Combinational Logic Design Using Six-Terminal NEM Relays IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Lee, D., Lee, W. S., Chen, C., Fallah, F., Provine, J., Chong, S., Watkins, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2013; 32 (5): 653-666
  • Photon-enhanced thermionic emission from heterostructures with low interface recombination. Nature communications Schwede, J. W., Sarmiento, T., NARASIMHAN, V. K., Rosenthal, S. J., Riley, D. C., Schmitt, F., Bargatin, I., Sahasrabuddhe, K., Howe, R. T., Harris, J. S., Melosh, N. A., Shen, Z. 2013; 4: 1576-?

    Abstract

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission is a method of solar-energy conversion that promises to combine photon and thermal processes into a single mechanism, overcoming fundamental limits on the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. Photon-enhanced thermionic emission relies on vacuum emission of photoexcited electrons that are in thermal equilibrium with a semiconductor lattice, avoiding challenging non-equilibrium requirements and exotic material properties. However, although previous work demonstrated the photon-enhanced thermionic emission effect, efficiency has until now remained very low. Here we describe electron-emission measurements on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure that introduces an internal interface, decoupling the basic physics of photon-enhanced thermionic emission from the vacuum emission process. Quantum efficiencies are dramatically higher than in previous experiments because of low interface recombination and are projected to increase another order of magnitude with more stable, low work-function coatings. The results highlight the effectiveness of the photon-enhanced thermionic emission process and demonstrate that efficient photon-enhanced thermionic emission is achievable, a key step towards realistic photon-enhanced thermionic emission based energy conversion.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2577

    View details for PubMedID 23481384

  • SUB-10 NANOMETER UNCOOLED PLATINUM BOLOMETERS VIA PLASMA ENHANCED ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION Purkl, F., English, T., Yama, G., Provine, J., Samarao, A. K., Feyh, A., O'Brien, G., Ambacher, O., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W., IEEE IEEE. 2013: 185–88
  • Photon-enhanced thermionic emission from heterostructures with low interface recombination. Nature communications Schwede, J. W., Sarmiento, T., NARASIMHAN, V. K., Rosenthal, S. J., Riley, D. C., Schmitt, F., Bargatin, I., Sahasrabuddhe, K., Howe, R. T., Harris, J. S., Melosh, N. A., Shen, Z. 2013; 4: 1576-?

    Abstract

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission is a method of solar-energy conversion that promises to combine photon and thermal processes into a single mechanism, overcoming fundamental limits on the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. Photon-enhanced thermionic emission relies on vacuum emission of photoexcited electrons that are in thermal equilibrium with a semiconductor lattice, avoiding challenging non-equilibrium requirements and exotic material properties. However, although previous work demonstrated the photon-enhanced thermionic emission effect, efficiency has until now remained very low. Here we describe electron-emission measurements on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure that introduces an internal interface, decoupling the basic physics of photon-enhanced thermionic emission from the vacuum emission process. Quantum efficiencies are dramatically higher than in previous experiments because of low interface recombination and are projected to increase another order of magnitude with more stable, low work-function coatings. The results highlight the effectiveness of the photon-enhanced thermionic emission process and demonstrate that efficient photon-enhanced thermionic emission is achievable, a key step towards realistic photon-enhanced thermionic emission based energy conversion.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2577

    View details for PubMedID 23481384

  • Engineering an electrochemical sensor for the characterization of bond vibration frequencies of a chemical analyte. Gupta, C., Chang, S., Howe, R., T. 2013
  • Dual-beam six-terminal nanoelectromechanical relays Harrison, K., L., Lee, W., S., Shavezipur, K., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H., S. P., Howe, R. T. 2013
  • Serpentine geometry for enhanced performance of nanometer-thin platinum bolometers Purkl, F., English, T., S., Yama, G., Provine, J., Samarao, A., Feyh, A., Howe, R. T. 2013
  • Ultra-thin atomic layer deposition films for corrosion resistance Haemmerli, A., J., Doll, J., C., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Goldhaber-Gordon, D., Pruitt, B., L. 2013
  • Immobilization of antibodies on solid-state surfaces with controlled orientation using electric field Javanmard, M., Emaminjad, S., Gupta, C., Chang, S., Davis, R., W., Howe, R., T. 2013
  • Ultra dielectrophoresis: electrothermal analysis and its applications in microfluidic sample preparation and proteomics Emaminejad, S., Javanmard, M., Gupta, C., Davis, R., W, Howe, R., T. 2013
  • Applications of nanonewton dielectrophoresis forces using atomic layer deposted oxides for microfluidic sample preparation and proteomics Emaminejad, S., Javanmard, M., Gupta, C., Dutton, R., W., Davis, R., W., Howe, R., T. 2013
  • Three stage sample preparation for purificaiton of proteins from complex biological samples IEEE Sensors 2013, Baltimore, Maryland Javanmard, M., Emaminejad, S., Davis, R., W., Gupta, C., Howe, R., T. 2013: 1-4
  • Capacitive Accelerometer Laboratory Using Polymer-Film Rapid Prototyping Technology 3rd Interdisciplinary Engineering Design Education Conference (IEDEC) Gellineau, A. A., Rastegar, A. J., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2013: 79–82
  • LATERALLY ACTUATED NANOELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS WITH COMPLIANT, LOW RESISTANCE CONTACT 26th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Shavezipur, M., Lee, W. S., Harrison, K. L., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2013: 520–523
  • Microbead-separated thermionic energy converter with enhanced emission current PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Littau, K. A., Sahasrabuddhe, K., Barfield, D., Yuan, H., Shen, Z., Howe, R. T., Melosh, N. A. 2013; 15 (34): 14442-14446

    Abstract

    The efficiency of thermionic energy converters is a strong function of the inter-electrode separation due to space-charge limitations. Here we demonstrate vacuum thermionic energy converters constructed using barium dispenser cathodes and thin film tungsten anodes, separated by size specific alumina microbeads for simple device fabrication and inter-electrode gap control. The current and device efficiency at the maximum power point are strongly dependent on the inter-electrode gap, with a maximum device efficiency of 0.61% observed for a gap on the order of 5 μm. Paths to further reductions in space charge and improved anode work function are outlined with potential for over an order of magnitude improvement in output power and efficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3cp52895b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322725000036

    View details for PubMedID 23881241

  • An orbital-overlap model for minimal work functions of cesiated metal surfaces JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Chou, S. H., Voss, J., Bargatin, I., Vojvodic, A., Howe, R. T., Abild-Pedersen, F. 2012; 24 (44)

    Abstract

    We introduce a model for the effect of cesium adsorbates on the work function of transition metal surfaces. The model builds on the classical point-dipole equation by adding exponential terms that characterize the degree of orbital overlap between the 6s states of neighboring cesium adsorbates and its effect on the strength and orientation of electric dipoles along the adsorbate-substrate interface. The new model improves upon earlier models in terms of agreement with the work function-coverage curves obtained via first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. All the cesiated metal surfaces have optimal coverages between 0.6 and 0.8 monolayers, in accordance with experimental data. Of all the cesiated metal surfaces that we have considered, tungsten has the lowest minimum work function, also in accordance with experiments.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0953-8984/24/44/445007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310571100009

    View details for PubMedID 23018485

  • A model for emission yield from planar photocathodes based on photon-enhanced thermionic emission or negative-electron-affinity photoemission JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Sahasrabuddhe, K., Schwede, J. W., Bargatin, I., Jean, J., Howe, R. T., Shen, Z., Melosh, N. A. 2012; 112 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4764106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311968400139

  • Control of DNA Capture by Nanofluidic Transistors ACS NANO Paik, K., Liu, Y., Tabard-Cossa, V., Waugh, M. J., Huber, D. E., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Dutton, R. W., Davis, R. W. 2012; 6 (8): 6767-6775

    Abstract

    We report the use of an array of electrically gated ~200 nm solid-state pores as nanofluidic transistors to manipulate the capture and passage of DNA. The devices are capable of reversibly altering the rate of DNA capture by over 3 orders of magnitude using sub-1 V biasing of a gate electrode. This efficient gating originates from the counter-balance of electrophoresis and electroosmosis, as revealed by quantitative numerical simulations. Such a reversible electronically tunable biomolecular switch may be used to manipulate nucleic acid delivery in a fluidic circuit, and its development is an important first step toward active control of DNA motion through solid-state nanopores for sensing applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn3014917

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307988900029

    View details for PubMedID 22762282

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3429714

  • Microencapsulation of silicon cavities using a pulsed excimer laser JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Sedky, S., Tawfik, H., Ashour, M., Graham, A. B., Provine, J., Wang, Q., Zhang, X. X., Howe, R. T. 2012; 22 (7)
  • Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Park, J., Milaninia, K. M., Theogarajan, L. S., Sinclair, R., Howe, R. T. 2012; 30 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.4734006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306750700046

  • Single crystal silicon nanopillars, nanoneedles and nanoblades with precise positioning for massively parallel nanoscale device integration NANOTECHNOLOGY Roper, C. S., Gutes, A., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2012; 23 (22)

    Abstract

    Arrays of precisely positioned single crystal silicon nanopillars, nanoneedles, and nanoblades with minimum feature sizes as small as 30 nm are fabricated using entirely scalable top-down fabrication techniques. Using the same scalable technologies, devices consisting of electrically connected silicon nanopillars with multiple addressable electrodes for each nanostructure are realized. The arrays of nanopillars, nanoneedles, and nanoblades are shown to exhibit Raman signal enhancement on 1,2-benzenedithiol monolayers, opening a path to nanodevices that manipulate, position, detect and analyze molecules.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/23/22/225303

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305160300005

  • A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain NATURE PHOTONICS Jain, J. R., Hryciw, A., Baer, T. M., Miller, D. A., Brongersma, M. L., Howe, R. T. 2012; 6 (6): 398-405
  • A dry wafer-reconstitution process with zero insertion force by embedded alignment guide tabs JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Chen, J. P., Provine, J., Klejwa, N., Howe, R. T. 2012; 22 (6)
  • Optimal emitter-collector gap for thermionic energy converters APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lee, J., Bargatin, I., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T. 2012; 100 (17)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4707379

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303340300106

  • Application of principal component analysis to a full profile correlative analysis of FTIR spectra SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS Broderick, S. R., Suh, C., Provine, J., Roper, C. S., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T., Rajan, K. 2012; 44 (3): 365-371

    View details for DOI 10.1002/sia.3813

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303250500014

  • Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Atomic Layer Deposition Nanobridges Down to 7 nm Thickness NANO LETTERS Yoneoka, S., Lee, J., Liger, M., Yama, G., Kodama, T., Gunji, M., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Goodson, K. E., Kennyt, T. W. 2012; 12 (2): 683-686

    Abstract

    While the literature is rich with data for the electrical behavior of nanotransistors based on semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes, few data are available for ultrascaled metal interconnects that will be demanded by these devices. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), which uses a sequence of self-limiting surface reactions to achieve high-quality nanolayers, provides an unique opportunity to study the limits of electrical and thermal conduction in metal interconnects. This work measures and interprets the electrical and thermal conductivities of free-standing platinum films of thickness 7.3, 9.8, and 12.1 nm in the temperature range from 50 to 320 K. Conductivity data for the 7.3 nm bridge are reduced by 77.8% (electrical) and 66.3% (thermal) compared to bulk values due to electron scattering at material and grain boundaries. The measurement results indicate that the contribution of phonon conduction is significant in the total thermal conductivity of the ALD films.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl203548w

    View details for PubMedID 22224582

  • Electrical Properties of CuPc-based OTFTs with Atomic Layer Deposited HfAlO Gate Dielectric 8th IEEE International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid State Circuit (EDSSC) Tang, W. M., Aboudi, U., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. IEEE. 2012
  • Nano-Electro-Mechanical Relays for FPGA Routing: Experimental Demonstration and a Design Technique Chen, C., Lee, W., Parsa, R., Chong, S., Provine, J., Watt, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H., Mitra, S., IEEE IEEE. 2012: 1361–66
  • Encapsulated thermionic energy converter with stiffened suspension Lee, J., H., Bargatin,  I., Iwami, K., Littau, K., A., Vincent, M., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Sidewall silicon carbide emitters for terahertz vacuum electronics Snapp, J., P., Lee, J., H., Provine, J., Bargatin, I., Maboudian,  R., Lee, T., H., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • CVD hafnium diboride as a contact material for nano-electromechanical switches Lee, W., S., Cloud, A., N., Provine, J., Tayebi, N., Parsa, R., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Electrochemical quantum tunneling for electronic detection and characterization of biological toxins Gupta, C., Walker, R., M., Gharpuray, R., Shulaker, M., M., Zhang, Z., Javanmard, M., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Multiband charge-coupled device Chang, C., E., Siegel, J., D., Kenney, C., J., Roodman, A., J., Howe, R., T. 2012
  • Nano-electro-mechanical relays for FPGA routing: experimental demonstration and a design technique Chen, C., Lee, W., S., Parsa, R., Chong, S., Provine, J., Watt, J., Howe, R. T. 2012
  • Smart-cut layer transfer of single-crystal SiC using spin-on-glass J. Vacuum Sci. Tech. B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures Lee, J., H., Bargatin, Igor, I., Park, J., Milaninia, K., M., Theogarajan, L., S., Sinclair, R., Howe, R. T. 2012; 30: 42001
  • Multiband Charge-Coupled Device IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium / Medical Imaging Conference Record (NSS/MIC) / 19th Room-Temperature Semiconductor X-ray and Gamma-ray Detector Workshop Chang, C., Segal, J. D., Roodman, A. J., Howe, R. T., Kenney, C. J. IEEE. 2012: 743–746
  • Electrochemical quantum tunneling for electronic detection and characterization of biological toxins Conference on Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications IV Gupta, C., Walker, R. M., Gharpuray, R., Shulaker, M. M., Zhang, Z., Javanmard, M., Davis, R. W., Murmann, B., Howe, R. T. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2012

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.920692

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306560400002

  • Double-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Temperature Sensor 25th IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) Park, B., Jung, I. W., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. IEEE. 2012: 550–551
  • Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relays and their Application to FPGA Routing 17th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC) Chen, C., Lee, S., Provine, J., Chong, S., Parsa, R., Lee, D., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. IEEE. 2012: 639–639
  • MICROFABRICATED SILICON CARBIDE THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERTER FOR SOLAR ELECTRICITY GENERATION 25th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Lee, J. H., Bargatin, I., Gwinn, T. O., Vincent, M., Littau, K. A., Maboudian, R., Shen, Z., Melosh, N. A., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2012
  • Integration of Nanoelectromechanical Relays With Silicon nMOS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Chong, S., Lee, B., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2012; 59 (1): 255-258
  • Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for High-Temperature Measurement IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Park, B., Provine, J., Jung, I. W., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 11 (11): 2643-2648
  • Tensile-strained germanium-on-insulator substrate fabrication for silicon-compatible optoelectronics OPTICAL MATERIALS EXPRESS Jain, J. R., Ly-Gagnon, D., Balram, K. C., White, J. S., Brongersma, M. L., Miller, D. A., Howe, R. T. 2011; 1 (6): 1121-1126
  • Multilayered Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystals IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Mallick, S. B., Jung, I. W., Meisner, A. M., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 23 (11): 730-732
  • Highly Sensitive Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Jung, I. W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 29 (9): 1367-1374
  • AC Polarization for Charge-Drift Elimination in Resonant Electrostatic MEMS and Oscillators JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Bahl, G., Salvia, J. C., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2011; 20 (2): 355-364
  • Wafer-Level Epitaxial Silicon Packaging for Out-of-Plane RF MEMS Resonators with Integrated Actuation Electrodes IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS PACKAGING AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY Chen, K., Wang, S., Salvia, J. C., Melamud, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2011; 1 (3): 310-317
  • Magnetic, Mechanical, and Optical Characterization of a Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer for Microactuation JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Tsai, K. L., Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Candler, R. N., Hu, W., Brand, V., Klejwa, N., Wang, S. X., Howe, R. T. 2011; 20 (1): 65-72
  • Electromechanical Sensing of Charge Retention on Floating Electrodes JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Elata, D., Leus, V., Provine, J., Hirshberg, A., Howe, R. T. 2011; 20 (1): 150-156
  • Double-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor 16th International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) Park, B., Jung, I. W., Provine, J., Shambat, G., Vuckovic, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. IEEE. 2011: 97–98
  • Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 to protect carbon nanotubes for integration with top-down fabrication Shulaker, M., M., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Mitra, S. 2011
  • Effect of illumination on thermionic emission of microfabricated silicon carbide structures Lee, J., H., Bargatin, I., Provine, J., Liu, F., Seo, M., K., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2011
  • Dual sidewall lateral nanoelectromechanical relays with beam isolation Lee, W., S., Chong, S., Parsa, R., Provine, J., Lee, D., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T. 2011
  • Suppression of wear in cyclically loaded polycrystalline silicon via a thin silicon carbide coating Laboriante, I., Klejwa, N., Suwandi, A., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2011
  • Temperature dependence of vacuum encapsulated resonators for humidity measurement Hennessy, R., G., Shulaker, M., M., Messana, M., W., Graham, A., B., Klejwa, N., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. 2011
  • Double-layered monolithic silicon photonic crystal fiber tip sensor Park, B., Jung, I., W., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2011
  • Low thermal-budget silicon sealed-cavity microencapsulation process Sedky, S., Tawfik, H., Aziz, A., Abdel, ElSaegh, S., Graham, A., B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. 2011
  • Spacer technique for low-voltage, high-aspect-ratio lateral electrostatic actuators Lee, D., Mitra, S., Howe, R., T., Wong, H., S. P. 2011
  • A reel-to-reel printed accelerometer Klejwa, N., Hennessy, R., G., Chen, J., W. P., Howe, R., T. 2011
  • Vacuum microsystems for energy conversion and other applications Howe, R., T. 2011
  • NANOELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS WITH DECOUPLED ELECTRODE AND SUSPENSION 24th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Parsa, R., Shavezipur, M., Lee, W. S., Chong, S., Lee, D., Wong, H. P., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2011: 1361–1364
  • Integration of Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) Relays with Silicon CMOS with Functional CMOS-NEM Circuit IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Chong, S., Lee, B., Parizi, K. B., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. IEEE. 2011
  • Experimental Demonstration and Analysis of DNA Passage in Nanopore-based Nanofluidic Transistors IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Paik, K., Liu, Y., Tabard-Cossa, V., Huber, D. E., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Davis, R. W., Dutton, R. W. IEEE. 2011
  • ALD-METAL UNCOOLED BOLOMETER 24th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Yoneoka, S., Liger, M., Yama, G., Schuster, R., Purkl, F., Provine, J., Prinz, F. B., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. IEEE. 2011: 676–679
  • Differential internal dielectric transduction of a Lame-mode resonator JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Elata, D., Quevy, E. P., Howe, R. T. 2010; 20 (11)
  • Photon-enhanced thermionic emission for solar concentrator systems NATURE MATERIALS Schwede, J. W., Bargatin, I., Riley, D. C., Hardin, B. E., Rosenthal, S. J., Sun, Y., Schmitt, F., Pianetta, P., Howe, R. T., Shen, Z., Melosh, N. A. 2010; 9 (9): 762-767

    Abstract

    Solar-energy conversion usually takes one of two forms: the 'quantum' approach, which uses the large per-photon energy of solar radiation to excite electrons, as in photovoltaic cells, or the 'thermal' approach, which uses concentrated sunlight as a thermal-energy source to indirectly produce electricity using a heat engine. Here we present a new concept for solar electricity generation, photon-enhanced thermionic emission, which combines quantum and thermal mechanisms into a single physical process. The device is based on thermionic emission of photoexcited electrons from a semiconductor cathode at high temperature. Temperature-dependent photoemission-yield measurements from GaN show strong evidence for photon-enhanced thermionic emission, and calculated efficiencies for idealized devices can exceed the theoretical limits of single-junction photovoltaic cells. The proposed solar converter would operate at temperatures exceeding 200 degrees C, enabling its waste heat to be used to power a secondary thermal engine, boosting theoretical combined conversion efficiencies above 50%.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT2814

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281178400029

    View details for PubMedID 20676086

  • Characterization of Encapsulated Micromechanical Resonators Sealed and Coated With Polycrystalline SiC JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Yoneoka, S., Roper, C. S., Candler, R. N., Chandorkar, S. A., Graham, A. B., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2010; 19 (2): 357-366
  • A Method for Wafer-Scale Encapsulation of Large Lateral Deflection MEMS Devices JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Graham, A. B., Messana, M. W., Hartwell, P. G., Provine, J., Yoneoka, S., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2010; 19 (1): 28-37
  • Model and Observations of Dielectric Charge in Thermally Oxidized Silicon Resonators JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Bahl, G., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Chandorkar, S. A., Salvia, J. C., Hopcroft, M. A., Elata, D., Hennessy, R. G., Candler, R. N., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2010; 19 (1): 162-174
  • TITANIUM NITRIDE SIDEWALL STRINGER PROCESS FOR LATERAL NANOELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS 23rd IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2010) Lee, D., Lee, W. S., Provine, J., Lee, J., Yoon, J., Howe, R. T., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. IEEE. 2010: 456–459
  • Electromechanical Sensing of Charge Retention on Floating Electrodes 2010 IEEE Sensors Conference Elata, D., Leus, V., Hirshberg, A., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2010: 1395–1398
  • Heterodyned electrostatic transduction oscillators evade low frequency noise aliasing Bahl, G., Salvia, J., Lee, H., K., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Howe, R., T. 2010
  • Composite polysilicon-platinum lateral nanoelectromechanical relays Parsa, R., Akarvardar, K., Provine, J., Lee, D., Elata, D., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T. 2010
  • Non-adiabatic electronic relaxation events at monolayer-modified electrode-electrolyte interfaces: physics and applications Gupta, C., Howe, R., T., Shannon, M., A. 2010
  • Vacuum encapsulated resonators for humidity measurement Hennessy, R., G., Shulaker, M., M., Melamud, R., Klejwa, N., Chandorkar, S., Kim, B., Howe, R. T. 2010
  • Time evolution of released hole arrays into membranes via vacuum silicon migration Provine, J., Ferralis, N., Graham, A., B., Messana, M., W., Kang, R., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2010
  • Packaging of large lateral deflection MEMS using a combination of fusion bonding and epitaxial reactor sealing Messana, M., W., Graham, A., B., Yoneoka, S., Howe, R., T., Kenny, T., W. 2010
  • Single-step, wafer-scale, hermetic sealing using silicon migration, to be presented at the Kant, R., Choo, H., Howe, R., T. 2010
  • 2D analytical model for the study of NEM relay device scaling Shen, X., Chong, S., Lee, D., Parsa, R., Howe, R., T., Wong, H., S. P. 2010
  • Four-mask process based on spacer technology for scaled-down electrostatic actuators Lee, D., Lee, W., S., Mitra, S., Howe, R., T., Wong, H., S. P. 2010
  • EFFICIENT INTERNAL ELECTROSTATIC TRANSDUCTION OF THE 41(ST) RADIAL MODE OF A RING RESONATOR 23rd IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2010) Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Quevy, E. P., Hsieh, J., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2010: 711–714
  • CHARGE-DRIFT ELIMINATION IN RESONANT ELECTROSTATIC MEMS 23rd IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2010) Bahl, G., Salvia, J., Bargatin, I., Yoneoka, S., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Chandorkar, S., Hopcroft, M. A., Bahl, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. IEEE. 2010: 108–111
  • pH Sensor Demonstrating a Layout Programmable Squeeze Pumped Microfluidic Platform 2010 IEEE Sensors Conference Klejwa, N., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2010: 936–939
  • Higher-order Dielectrically Transduced Bulk-mode Ring Resonator with Low Motional Resistance 2010 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2010: 19–24
  • High Temperature Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor 2010 IEEE Sensors Conference Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O., Jung, I. W. IEEE. 2010: 970–974
  • Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Sensing Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (QELS) Park, B., Jung, I. W., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. IEEE. 2010
  • Efficient FPGAs using Nanoelectromechanical Relays 18th ACM International Symposium on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays Chen, C., Parsa, R., Patil, N., Chong, S., Akarvardar, K., Provine, J., Lewis, D., Watt, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2010: 273–282
  • Laser print patterning of planar spiral inductors and interdigitated capacitors JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Klejwa, N., Misra, R., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Klejwa, S. J. 2009; 27 (6): 2745-2749

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.3264673

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272803400084

  • Performance Evaluation and Equivalent Model of Silicon Interconnects for Fully-Encapsulated RF MEMS Devices IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING Chen, K., Salvia, J., Potter, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. 2009; 32 (2): 402-409
  • Room-Temperature Wet Etching of Polycrystalline and Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide Thin Films with HF and HNO3 JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Roper, C. S., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2009; 156 (3): D104-D107

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3061944

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265837900044

  • WAFER SCALE ENCAPSULATION OF LARGE LATERAL DEFLECTION MEMS STRUCTURES 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Graham, A. B., Messana, M., Hartwell, P., Provine, J., Yoneoka, S., Kim, B., Melamud, R., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. IEEE. 2009: 745–748
  • FULLY DIFFERENTIAL INTERNAL ELECTROSTATIC TRANSDUCTION OF A LAME-MODE RESONATOR 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Elata, D., Hsieh, J., Chen, J. P., Quevy, E. P., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2009: 931–934
  • EPITAXIAL SILICON MICROSHELL VACUUM-ENCAPSULATED CMOS-COMPATIBLE 200 MHz BULK-MODE RESONATOR 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Chen, K., Chandrahalim, H., Graham, A. B., Bhave, S. A., Howe, R. T., Kenny, T. W. IEEE. 2009: 23–26
  • Structural transformation of silicon due to hydrogen ambient during germanium epitaxy on silicon nano-pillars Thareja, G., Kant, R., Howe, R., Nishi, Y. 2009
  • Laser print patterning of planar spiral inductors Klejwa, N., Misra, R., Klejwa, S., J., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Epitaxial growth of graphene on high topology SiC structures patterned by focused ion beam Provine, J., Ferralis, N., Klejwa, N., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Laser-printed magnetic-polymer microstructures Klejwa, N., Misra, R., Provine, J., Klejwa, S., J., Zhang, M., Wang, S., X., Howe, R. T. 2009
  • Suspended microstructures made using silicon microstructures Kant, R., Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Simultaneous wafer-scale vacuum encapsulation and microstructure cladding with LPCVD polycrystalline 3C-SiC Roper, C., S., Candler, R., Yoneoka, S., Kenny, T., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2009
  • Encapsulated out-of-plane differential square-plate resonators with integrated actuation electrodes Chen, K., L., Wang, S., Salvia, J., Howe, R., T., Kenny, T., W. 2009
  • Higher-order mode internal electrostatic transduction of a bulk-mode ring resonator on a quartz substrate Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Hsieh, J., Chen, J., W. P., Quévy, E., P., Elata, D., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Wafer reconstitution with precision dry front-to-front registration Chen, J., W. P., Howe, R., T. 2009
  • Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Slab Fiber Tip Sensor Jung, I., W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Microfluidic device with integrated nanopores for protein detection Zangle, T., A., Kant, R., Howe, R., T., Santiago, J., G. 2009
  • Magnetic nanoparticle-driven pumping in microchannels Tsai, K., L., Pickard, D., Kao, J., Yin, X., Leen, B., Knutson, K., Howe, R. T. 2009
  • Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) relays integrated with SRAM for improved stability and low leakage Chong, S., Akarvardar, K., Parsa, R., Yoon, J., B., Howe, R., T., Mitra, S. 2009
  • Thermionic emission from microfabricated silicon carbide filaments Lee, J., H., Bargatin, I., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Clay, W., A., Melosh, N., A. 2009
  • Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for Precision Temperature Sensing 22nd Annual Meeting of the IEEE-Photonics-Society Jung, I. W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. IEEE. 2009: 761–762
  • Electrical and Mechanical Characterization of Doped and Annealed Polycrystalline 3C-SiC Thin Films JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Roper, C. S., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2009; 156 (1): D5-D10

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3000002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261209800048

  • Experimental Investigation of Silicon Surface Migration in Low Pressure Nonreducing Gas Environments ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SOLID STATE LETTERS Kant, R., Ferralis, N., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2009; 12 (12): H437-H440

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3236781

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270915300022

  • Characterization of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films deposited from the precursors 1,3-disilabutane and dichlorosilane JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Roper, C. S., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2008; 103 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2907871

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255456200180

  • Technologies for cofabricating MEMS and electronics PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE Fedder, G. K., Howe, R. T., Liu, T. K., Quevy, E. P. 2008; 96 (2): 306-322
  • Analytical modeling of the suspended-gate FET and design insights for low-power logic IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Akarvardar, K., Eggimann, C., Tsamados, D., Chauhan, Y. S., Wan, G. C., Lonescu, A. M., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2008; 55 (1): 48-59
  • Silicon nanowire coupled micro-resonators 21st IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2008) Arellano, N., Quevy, E. P., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2008: 721–724
  • Characterization of magnetic nanoparticle-embedded SU8 for microactuation Tsai, K., L., Ziaei-Moayyed, M., Klejwa, N., Candler, R., N., Hu, W., Wang, S., X., Howe, R. T. 2008
  • Measuring charge and charge-decay in floating electrode electrostatic MEMS actuators Elata, D., Hennessy, R., Leus, V., Klejwa, N., Hirshberg, A., Provine, J., Howe, R. T. 2008
  • Obserations of fixed and mobile charge in composite MEMS resonators Bahl, G., Melamud, R., Kim, B., Chandorkar, S., Salvia, J., Hopcroft, M., A., Howe, R. T. 2008
  • Nanowire coupled micro-resonators Arellano, N., Quévy, E., P., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 2008
  • Energy-reversible complementary NEM logic gates Arkarvardar, K., Elata, D., Howe, R., T., Wong, H., S. P. 2008
  • Effects of annealing on residual stress and strain gradient of doped polycrystalline SiC thin films ELECTROCHEMICAL AND SOLID STATE LETTERS Roper, C. S., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2008; 11 (4): D35-D37

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.2831906

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253238000009

  • The Dependence of Poly-crystalline SiC Mid-Infrared Optical Properties on Deposition Conditions IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics Provine, J., Roper, C., Schuller, J. A., Brongersma, M. L., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2008: 182–183
  • Interface Quality Control of Monolithic Photonic Crystals by Hydrogen Annealing Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2008) Kim, S., Kant, R., Hadzialic, S., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. IEEE. 2008: 316–317
  • Characterization of boron-doped micro- and nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by wafer-scale hot filament chemical vapor deposition for MEMS applications DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS Zhang, J., Zimmer, J. W., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2008; 17 (1): 23-28
  • Electrical, mechanical and metal contact properties of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films for MEMS in harsh environments 16th European Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition Zhang, J., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2007: 8893–98
  • Nickel and platinum ohmic contacts to polycrystalline 3C-silicon carbide MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Zhang, J., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2007; 139 (2-3): 235-239
  • Mode shape imaging of out-of-plane and in-plane vibrating RF micromechanical resonators by atomic force microscopy 32nd International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Engineering San Paulo, A., Quevy, E., Black, J., Howe, R. T., White, R., Bokor, J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2007: 1354–57
  • Suspended mechanical structures based on elastic silicon nanowire arrays NANO LETTERS San Paulo, A., Arellano, N., Plaza, J. A., He, R., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T., Bokor, J., Yang, P. 2007; 7 (4): 1100-1104

    Abstract

    We demonstrate a bottom-up/top-down combined method for the fabrication of horizontally suspended, well-oriented and size-controlled Si nanowire arrays. Mechanical beamlike structures composed of multiple ordered arrays consecutively linked by transversal microspacers are obtained by this method. Such structures are used to investigate the mechanical elasticity of the nanowire arrays by atomic force microscopy. Our results point out important differences in the morphology and mechanical behavior of the fabricated nanowire-based structures with respect to equivalent bulk material structures.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl062877n

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245600500047

    View details for PubMedID 17375964

  • Characterization of polycrystalline silicon-germanium film deposition for modularly integrated MEMS applications JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Low, C. W., Liu, T. K., Howe, R. T. 2007; 16 (1): 68-77
  • Design considerations for complementary nanoelectromechanical logic gates IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Akarvardar, K., Elata, D., Parsa, R., WAN, G. C., Yoo, K., Provine, J., Peurnans, P., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. IEEE. 2007: 299–302
  • WetFET - A novel fluidic gate-dielectric transistor for sensor applications International Symposium on VLSI Technology, Systems and Applications Lee, D., Sun, X., Quevy, E., Howe, R. T., Liu, T. K. IEEE. 2007: 124–125
  • Aqueous transduction of poly-sige disk resonators 14th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems/21st European Conference on Solid-State Transducers Chandrahalim, H., Bhave, S. A., Quevy, E. P., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2007
  • Aqueous transduction of poly-SiGe disk resonators Chandrahalim, H., Bhave, S., A., Quévy, E., P., Howe, R., T. 2007
  • Characterization of polycrystalline silicon-germanium film deposition for modularly integrated MEMS applications IEEE/ASME J. Microelectromechanical Systems Low, C., W., King Liu, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2007; 16: 68-77
  • Suspended mechanical structures based on elastic silicon nanowire arrays Nano Letters Paulo, A., San, Arellano, N., Plaza, J., A., He, R., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 2007; 7: 1100-1104
  • Effect of a vertical stack of aligned subwavelength metal hole arrays on extraordinary transmission spectra IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics Provine, J., Kant, R., Horsley, D. A., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2007: 117–118
  • Phonon polariton reflectance spectra in a silicon carbide membrane hole array 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE-Lasers-and-Electro-Optics-Society Provine, J., Catrysse, P. B., Roper, C. S., Maboudian, R., Fan, S., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2007: 466–467
  • Extraordinary transmission through a poly-SiC membrane with subwavelength hole arrays IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics Provine, J., Catrysse, P. B., Roper, C., Maboudian, R., Fan, S., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2007: 157–158
  • Stress control of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films in a large-scale LPCVD reactor using 1,3-disilabutane and dichlorosilane as precursors JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Roper, C. S., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 16 (12): 2736-2739
  • Control of strain gradient in doped polycrystalline silicon carbide films through tailored doping JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING Zhang, J., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 16 (10): L1-L5
  • Modal coupling in micromechanical vibratory rate gyroscopes IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Phani, A. S., Seshia, A. A., Palaniapan, M., Howe, R. T., Yasaitis, J. A. 2006; 6 (5): 1144-1152
  • Polycrystalline silicon carbide as a substrate material for reducing adhesion in MEMS TRIBOLOGY LETTERS Gao, D., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 21 (3): 226-232
  • Single-source chemical vapor deposition of SiC films in a large-scale low-pressure CVD growth, chemical, and mechanical characterization reactor JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Roper, C. S., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 153 (8): C562-C566

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.2208911

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238470100043

  • Back-end-of-line poly-SiGe disk resonators 19th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2006) Quevy, E. P., Paulo, A., Basol, E., Howe, R. T., King, T. J., Bokor, G. IEEE. 2006: 234–237
  • Reconstituted wafer technology for heterogeneous integration 19th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2006) Quevy, E. P., Howe, R. T., King, T. J. IEEE. 2006: 302–305
  • Electrical characterization of n-type polycrystalline 3C-silicon carbide thin films deposited by 1,3-disilabutane JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Zhang, J. C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 153 (6): G548-G551

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.2188327

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237229300078

  • Reconstituted wafer technology for heterogeneous integration Quévy, E., P., Howe, R., T., King, T., J. 2006
  • Microfluidic generation of tunable monodisperse double emulsions for templated silica particles Zendejas, F., J., Srinivasan, U., Holtz, W., J., Keasling, J., D., Howe, R., T. 2006
  • Back-end-of-line poly-SiGe disk resonators Quévy, E., P., Paulo, A., San, Basol, E., Howe, R., T., King, T., J., Bokor, J. 2006
  • Electrical characterization of n-type polycrystalline 3C-silicon carbide thin films deposited by 1,3-disilabutane J. Electrochem. Soc. Zhang, J., C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2006; 153: G548-G551
  • Thermal budget limits of quarter-micrometer foundry CMOS for post-processing MEMS devices IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Takeuchi, H., Wung, A., Sun, X., Howe, R. T., King, T. J. 2005; 52 (9): 2081-2086
  • Mechanical elasticity of single and double clamped silicon nanobeams fabricated by the vapor-liquid-solid method APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS San Paulo, A., Bokor, J., Howe, R. T., He, R., Yang, P., Gao, D., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R. 2005; 87 (5)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2008364

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230886100057

  • Selective growth of Si nanowire arrays via galvanic displacement processes in water-in-oil microemulsions JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Gao, D., He, R. R., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Yang, P. D., Maboudian, R. 2005; 127 (13): 4574-4575

    Abstract

    Galvanic displacement processes are employed in water-in-oil microemulsions to deposit gold nanoclusters selectively on Si surfaces and sidewalls. The gold clusters then serve as catalysts to achieve selective growth of vertically and laterally aligned Si nanowire arrays by chemical vapor deposition via the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. The size of the gold clusters is shown to have a good correlation with the microemulsion parameters, which in turn controls the size of the synthesized nanowires.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja043645y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228089300016

    View details for PubMedID 15796513

  • A new nano-electro-mechanical field effect transistor (NEMFET) design for low-power electronics IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Kam, H., Lee, D. T., Howe, R. T., King, T. J. IEEE. 2005: 477–480
  • Anchor loss simulation in resonators 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Bindel, D. S., Quevy, E., Koyama, T., Govindjee, S., Demmel, J. W., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2005: 133–136
  • Simulation tools for damping in high frequency resonators 4th IEEE Conference on Sensors Koyama, T., Bindel, D. S., He, W., Quevy, E. P., Govindjee, S., Demmel, J. W., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2005: 349–352
  • Silicon nitride-on-silicon bar resonator using internal electrostatic transduction 13th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Bhave, S. A., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2005: 2139–2142
  • Fully-differential poly-SiC Lame-mode resonator and checkerboard filter 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Bhave, S. A., Gao, D., Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2005: 223–226
  • Redundant MEMS resonators for precise reference oscillators IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC) Quevy, E. P., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 2005: 113–116
  • Anchor loss simulation in resonators Bindel, D., S., Quévy, E., Govinjee, S., Demmel, J., W., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Fully differential poly-SiC Lamé-mode resonator and checkerboard filter Bhave, S., A., Gao, D., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Silicon nitride-on-silicon bar resonator using internal electrostatic transduction Bhave, S., A., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Redundant MEMS resonators for precise reference oscillators Quévy, E., P., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Simulation tools for damping in high frequency resonators Koyama, T., Bindel, D., S., He, W., Quévy, E., P., Govindjee, S., Demmel, J., W., Howe, R. T. 2005
  • Microfluidic generation of tunable emulsions for templated monodisperse silica Zendejas, F., J., Srinivasan, U., Holtz, W., J., Keasling, J., D., Howe, R., T. 2005
  • Thermal budget limits of quarter-micrometer foundry CMOS for post-processing MEMS devices IEEE Trans. Electron Devices Takeuchi, H., Wun, A., Sun, X., Howe, R., T., King, T., J. 2005; 52: 2081-2086
  • Selective growth of Si nanowire arrays via galvanic displacement processes in water-in-oil microemulsions Journal of the Americal Chemical Society Gao, D., He, R., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Yang, P., Maboudian, R. 2005; 127: 4574-4575
  • Mechanical elasticity of single and double clamped silicon nanobeams fabricated by the vapor-liquid-solid method Applied Physics Letters Paulo, A., San, Bokor, J., Howe, R., T., He, R., Yang, P., Gao, D. 2005; 87: 53111-13
  • Effect of excimer laser annealing on the structural properties of silicon germanium films JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Sedky, S., Schroeder, J., Sands, T., King, T. J., Howe, R. T. 2004; 19 (12): 3503-3511
  • Fracture of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films in microelectromechanical systems JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Gao, D., Carraro, C., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2004; 13 (6): 972-976
  • Pulsed-laser annealing, a low-thermal-budget technique for eliminating stress gradient in poly-SiGe MEMS structures JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Sedky, S., Howe, R. T., King, T. J. 2004; 13 (4): 669-675
  • Ge-blade damascene process for post-CMOS integration of nano-mechanical resonators IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Takeuchi, H., Quevy, E., Bhave, S. A., King, T. J., Howe, R. T. 2004; 25 (8): 529-531
  • Recent progress toward a manufacturable polycrystalline SiC surface micromachining technology IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Gao, D., Wijesundara, M. B., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2004; 4 (4): 441-448
  • Transformer coupled plasma etching of 3C-SiC films using fluorinated chemistry for microelectromechanical systems applications JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Gao, D., Wijesundara, M. B., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2004; 22 (2): 513-518

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.1648067

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221092300009

  • Single-source chemical vapor deposition of 3C-SiC films in a LPCVD reactor - I. Growth, structure, and chemical characterization JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Wijesundara, M. B., Valente, G., Ashurst, W. R., Howe, R. T., Pisano, A. P., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R. 2004; 151 (3): C210-C214

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.1646141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188943800043

  • Fracture of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films in microelectromechanical systems IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Gao, D., Carraro, C., Radmilovic, V., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2004; 13: 972-976
  • Optimization of poly-SiGe deposition processes for modular MEMS integration Symposium on Micro- and Nanosystems held at the 2003 MRS Fall Meeting Lin, B. C., King, T. J., Howe, R. T. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 2004: 43–48
  • Integrated poly-SiGe nanomechanical resonators for wireless sensor nodes Conference on Nanosensing Quevy, E. P., King, T. J., Howe, R. T. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2004: 368–377

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.573034

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226789700038

  • Ashing technique for nano-gap fabrication of electrostatic transducers Symposium on Nontraditional Approaches to Patterning held at the 2003 MRS Fall Meeting Eyoum, M. A., Quevy, E., Takeuchi, H., King, T. J., Howe, R. T. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 2004: 145–147
  • Coupling of resonant modes in micromechanical vibratory rate gyroscopes Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (Nanotech 2004) Phani, A. S., Seshia, A. A., Palaniapan, M., Howe, R. T., Yasaitis, J. NANO SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY INST. 2004: 335–338
  • Coupling of resonant modes in micromechanical vibratory rate gyroscopes Phani, A., S., Seshia, A., A., Palaniapan, M., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Poly-SiGe high frequency resonators based on lithographic definition of nano-gap lateral transducers Quévy, E., P., Bhave, S., A., Takeuchi, H., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Silicon carbide for enhanced MEMS reliability Gao, D., Ashurst, W., R., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2004
  • Effects of boron concentration on Si1-xGex properties for integrated MEMS technology Eyoum, M., A. N., Su, Y., R., Bircumshaw, B., L., Kouzimov, D., Takeuchi, H., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Internal electrostatic transduction for bulk-mode MEMS resonators Bhave, S., A., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Hydrogen peroxide etching and stability of p-type poly-SiGe films Bircumshaw, B., L., Wasilik, M., L., Kim, E., B., Su, Y., R., Takeuchi, H., Low, C., W., Howe, R. T. 2004
  • In-situ doped poly-SiGe LPCVD process using BCl3 for post-CMOS integration of MEMS devices Low, C., W., Wasilik, M., L., Takeuchi, H., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Stress Stability of Poly-SiGe and Various Oxide Films in Humid Environments Low, C., W., Bircumshaw, B., L., Dorofeeva, T., Solomon, G., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004
  • Fatigue of Polycrystalline Silicon for Microelectromechanical Systems: Crack Growth and Stability under Resonant Loading Conditions Mechanics of Materials Muhlstein, C., L., Howe, R., T., Ritchie, R., O. 2004; 36: 13-33
  • Transformer coupled plasma etching of 3C-SiC films using fluorinated chemistry for MEMS applications J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B Gao, D., Howe, R., T., Mabouidan, R. 2004; 22: 513-518
  • Ge-blade damascene process for post-CMOS integration of nano-mechanical resonators IEEE Electron Device Lett. Takeuchi, H., Quevy, E., Bhave, S., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004; 25: 529-531
  • Microbioreactor arrays with parametric control for high-throughput experimentation Biotechnology and Bioengineering Maharbiz, M., M., Holtz, W., J., Howe, R., T., Keasling, J., D. 2004; 85: 376-381
  • Recent progress toward a manufacturable polycrystalline SiC surface micromachining technology IEEE Sensors Journal Gao, D., Wijesundara, M., B. J., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2004; 4: 441-448
  • Pulsed Laser Annealing, a Low Thermal Budget Technique for Eliminating Stress Gradient in Poly-SiGe MEMS Structures IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Sedky, S., Howe, R., T., King, T., J. 2004; 13: 669-675
  • Single-source chemical vapor deposition of 3C-SiC films in a LPCVD reactor, part I: Growth, Structure, and Chemical Characterization Journal of the Electrochemical Society Wijesundara, M., B. J., Valente, G., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P., Carraro, C., Maboudian, R. 2004; 151: 210-214
  • High performance inductors using capillary based fluidic self-assembly IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Scott, K., L., Hirano, T., Yang, H., Singh, H., Howe, R., T., Niknejad, A., M. 2004; 13: 300-309
  • Effect of eximer laser annealing on the structural propoerties of silicon germanium films J. Materials Research Sedky, S., Schroeder, J., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2004; 19: 3503-3511
  • Nitrogen doping of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films grown using 1,3-disilabutane in a conventional LPCVD reactor JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH Wijesundara, M. B., Gao, D., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2003; 259 (1-2): 18-25
  • Electrostatic charge and field sensors based on micromechanical resonators JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Riehl, P. S., Scott, K. L., Muller, R. S., Howe, R. T., Yasaitis, J. A. 2003; 12 (5): 577-589
  • High-selectivity etching of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films using HBr-based transformer coupled plasma APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Gao, D., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2003; 82 (11): 1742-1744

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1560561

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181442300032

  • Properties of phosphorus-doped poly-SiGe films for MEMS applications Journal of the Electrochemical Society Jeon, Y., C., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2003; 150: H1-H6
  • Model for micropart planarization in capillary-based microassembly BOSTON TRANSDUCERS'03: DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS, VOLS 1 AND 2 Scott, K. L., Howe, R. T., RADKE, C. J. 2003: 1319-1322
  • Pulsed laser annealing of silicon-germanium films Symposium on Nano- and Microelectromechanical Systems (NEMS and MEMS) and Molecular Machines held at the 2002 MRS Fall Meeting Sedky, S., Schroeder, J., Sands, T., Howe, R., King, T. J. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 2003: 61–66
  • The radial bulk annular resonator: Towards a 50 Omega RF MEMS filter 12th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS 03) Bircumshaw, B., Liu, G., Takeuchi, H., King, T. J., Howe, R., O'Reilly, O., Pisano, A. IEEE. 2003: 875–878
  • An integrated, vertical-drive, in-plane-sense microgyroscope 12th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS 03) Bhave, S. A., Seeger, J. I., Jiang, X., Boser, B. E., Howe, R. T., Yasaitis, J. IEEE. 2003: 171–174
  • Temporal variation of angular momentum in the convection zone Meeting on Local and Global Helioseismology Komm, R., Howe, R., Durney, B. R., Hill, F. ESA PUBLICATIONS DIVISION C/O ESTEC. 2003: 97–102
  • Performance comparison of integrated z-axis frame microgyroscopes 16th IEEE Annual International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Palaniapan, M., Howe, R. T., Yasaitis, J. IEEE. 2003: 482–485
  • High modulus polycrystalline 3C-SiC technology for RF MEMS 12th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS 03) Gao, D., Wijesundara, M. B., Carraro, C., Low, C. W., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. IEEE. 2003: 1160–1163
  • A modular process for integrating thick polysilicon MEMS devices with sub-micron CMOS Yasaitis, J., Judy, M., Brosnihan, T., Garone, P., Pokrovskiy, N., Sniderman, D., Howe, R. T. 2003
  • Model for micropart planarization in capillary-based microassembly Scott, K., L., Howe, R., T., Radke, C., J. 2003
  • High modulus polycrystalline 3C-SiC technology for RF MEMS Gao, D., Wijesundara, B., J., Carraro, C., Low, C., W., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2003
  • Integrated Z-axis frame microgyroscope with ISOD design Palaniapan, M., Howe, R., T., Yasaitis, J. 2003
  • The radial bulk annular resonator: towards a 50W RF MEMS filter Bircumshaw, B., Liu, G., Takeuchi, H., King, T., J., Howe, R., O’Reilly, O. 2003
  • Optimization of poly-SiGe deposition processes for modular MEMS integration Lin, B., C. Y., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2003
  • High-selectivity etching of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films using HBr-based transformer coupled plasma Applied Physics Letters Gao, D., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2003; 82: 1742-1744
  • Electrostatic charge and field sensors based on micromechanical resonators IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Riehl, P., S., Scott, K., L., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T., Yasaitis, J., A. 2003; 12: 577-589
  • Polycrystalline silicon germanium films for integrated microsystems IEEE/ASME Journal of Micro-electromechanical Systems Franke, A., E., Heck, J., M., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2003; 12: 160-171
  • Characterization of residual strain in SiC films deposited using 1,3-disilabutane for MEMS applications J. Microlith. Gao, D., Wijesundara, M., B. J., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2003; 2: 259-264
  • Nitrogen doping of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films using 1,3-disilabutane in a conventional LPCVD reactor J. Crystal Growth Wijesundara, M., B. J., Gao, D., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2003; 259: 18-25
  • An integrated, vertical drive, in-plane-sense microgyroscope Bhave, S., A., Seeger, J., I., Jiang, X., Boser, B., E., Howe, R., T., Yasaitis, J. 2003
  • A microfabricated electrochemical oxygen generator for high-density cell culture arrays IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Maharbiz, M., M., Holtz, W., J., Sharifzadeh, S., Keasling, J., D., Howe, R., T. 2003; 12: 590-599
  • A vacuum packaged surface micromachined resonant accelerometer JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Seshia, A. A., Palaniapan, M., Roessig, T. A., Howe, R. T., Gooch, R. W., Schimert, T. R., Montague, S. 2002; 11 (6): 784-793
  • Nitrogen doping of polycrystalline 3C-SiC films grown by single-source chemical vapor deposition THIN SOLID FILMS Wijesundara, M. B., Stoldt, C. R., Carraro, C., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 2002; 419 (1-2): 69-75
  • A low-temperature CVD process for silicon carbide MEMS Transducers 2001 Conference/Eurosensor XVth Conference Stoldt, C. R., Carraro, C., Ashurst, W. R., Gao, D., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2002: 410–415
  • Nitrogen doping of 3C-SiC films grown by single-source chemical vapor deposition Thin Solid Films Wijesundara, M., B. J., Stoldt, C., R., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2002; 419: 69-75
  • Fluidic self-assembly of micromirrors onto microactuators using capillary forces IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Srinivasan, U., Helmbrecht, M. A., Rembe, C., Muller, R. S., Howe, R. T. 2002; 8 (1): 4-11
  • Low-temperature LPCVD MEMS technologies Symposium on MEMS and BioMEMS held at the 2002 MRS Spring Meeting Howe, R. T., King, T. J. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 2002: 205–213
  • Recent progress in modularly integrated MEMS technologies IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting King, T. J., Howe, R. T., Sedky, S., Liu, G., Lin, B. C., Wasilik, M., Duenn, C. IEEE. 2002: 199–202
  • An integrated microelectromechanical resonant output gyroscope 15th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2002) Seshia, A. A., Howe, R. T., Montague, S. IEEE. 2002: 722–726
  • Integrated surface-micromachined z-axis frame microgyroscope IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Palaniapan, M., Howe, R. T., Yasaitis, J. IEEE. 2002: 203–206
  • Micromechanical Pierce oscillator for resonator sensor applications Seshia, A., A., Low, W., Z., Bhave, S., A., Howe, R., T. 2002
  • High-resolution electrometer with micromechanical variable capacitor Riehl, P., Scott, K., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 2002
  • A microfabricated electrochemical oxygen generator for high-density cell culture arrays Maharbiz, M., M., Holtz, W., J., Keasling, J., D., Howe, R., T. 2002
  • Poly-SiGe: a high-Q structural material for integrated RF MEMS Bhave, S., A., Bircumshaw, B., L., Kim, Y., S., Low, W., Z., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2002
  • Integrated surface-micromachined Z-axis frame microgyroscope Palaniapan, M., Howe, R., T., Yasaitis, J. 2002
  • Recent progress in modularly integrated MEMS technologies King, T., J., Howe, R., T., Sedky, S., Liu, G., Lin, B., C.-Y., Wasilik, M. 2002
  • Capacitive Interface for a Vertically Driven X&Y-Axis Rate Gyroscope Jiang, X., Bhave, S., A., Seeger, J., I., Howe, R., T., Boser, B., E., Yasaitis, J. 2002
  • Interconnect issues for integrated MEMS technologies King, T., J., Howe, R., T., Eyoum, M., A., Bhave, S., A. 2002
  • An integrated microelectromechanical resonant-output gyroscope Seshia, A., A., Howe, R., T., Montague, S. 2002
  • Low-temperature LPCVD MEMS technologies Howe, R., T., King, T., J. 2002
  • Pulsed laser annealing of silicon germanium films Sedky, S., Schroeder, J., Sands, T., Howe, R., King, T., J. 2002
  • MEMS: Some Self-Assembly Required Optics & Photonics News Srinivasan, U., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2002: 26-30
  • Microsystems Research in Japan WTEC, Baltimore, Maryland Howe, R., Allen, M., Berlin, A., Hui, E., Monk, D., Najafi, K. 2002
  • Fluidic self-assembly of micromirrors onto microactuators using capillary forces (invited) IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics Srinivasan, U., Helmbrecht, M., A., Rembe, C., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 2002; 8: 4-11
  • A low-temperature CVD process for silicon carbide MEMS Sensors and Actuators A Stoldt, C., R., Carraro, C., Ashurst, W., R., Gao, D., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2002; 97-98: 410-415
  • A vacuum packaged surface micromachined resonant accelerometer IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems Seshia, A., A., Palaniapan, M., Roessig, T., A., Howe, R., T., Gooch, R., W., Schimert, T., R. 2002; 11: 784-793
  • Alkene based monolayer films as anti-stiction coatings for polysilicon MEMS Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop Ashurst, W. R., Yau, C., Carraro, C., Lee, C., Kluth, G. J., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2001: 239–48
  • Alkene based monolayer films as anti-stiction coatings for polysilicon MEMS Sensors and Actuators A Ashurst, W., R., Yau, C., Carraro, C., Lee, C., Kluth, G., J., Howe, R., T. 2001; 91: 239-248
  • Modeling of capillary forces and binding sites for fluidic self-assembly Böhringer, K., F., Srinivasan, U., Howe, R., T. 2001
  • Full three-dimensional motion characterization of a gimballed electrostatic microactuator Rembe, C., Muller, L., Muller, R., S., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 2001
  • Micromirrors for adaptive optics Helmbrecht, M., A., Srinivasan, U., Rembe, C., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 2001
  • Integrated MEMS technologies (invited) MRS Bulletin Franke, A., E., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2001
  • Microstructure to substrate self-assembly using capillary forces IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Srinivasan, U., Liepmann, D., Howe, R., T. 2001; 10: 17-24
  • Microgimbal torsion beam design using open, thin-walled cross sections IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Muller, L., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 2001; 10: 550-560
  • High-aspect-ratio, molded microstructures with electrical isolation and embedded interconnects Microsystem Technologies Muller, L., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 2001; 7: 47-54
  • Silicon microbial bioreactor arrays Maharbiz, M., Howe, R., T., Keasling, J., D. 2000
  • Post-CMOS modular integration of poly-SiGe microstructures using poly-Ge sacrificial layers Franke, A., E., Jiao, Y., Wu, M., T., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 2000
  • Alkene based monolayer films as anti-stiction coatings for polysilicon MEMS Ashurst, W., R., Yao, C., Carraro, C., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 2000
  • Single-step assembly of complex 3-D microstructures Hui, E., E., Howe, R., T., Rodgers, M., S. 2000
  • Stroboscropic interferometer with variable magnification to measure dynamics in an adaptive-optics micromirror Rembe, C., Hart, M., Helmbrecht, M., A., Srinivasan, U., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y., Howe, R. T. 2000
  • Fluidic self-assembly of micromirrors onto surface micromachined actuators Srinivasan, U., Helmbrecht, M., Rembe, C., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 2000
  • Electrical isolation process for molded, high-aspect-ratio polysilicon microstructures Muller, L., Heck, J., M., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 2000
  • An integrated CMOS micromechanical resonator high-Q oscillator IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1999; 34: 440-455
  • Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures 12th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 99) Franke, A. E., BILIC, D., Chang, D. T., Jones, P. T., King, T. J., Howe, R. T., Johnson, G. C. IEEE. 1999: 630–637
  • Batch micropackaging by compression-bonded wafer-wafer transfer MEMS '99: TWELFTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, TECHNICAL DIGEST Maharbiz, M. M., Cohn, M. B., Howe, R. T., Horowitz, R., Pisano, A. P. 1999: 482-489
  • Batch micropackaging by compression-bonded wafer-wafer transfer Maharbiz, M., M., Cohn, M., B., Howe, R., T., Horowitz, R., Pisano, A., P. 1999
  • Vacuum encapsulation of resonant devices using permeable polysilicon Lebouitz, K., S., Mazaheri, A., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1999
  • Post-CMOS integration of germanium microstructures Franke, A., E., Bilic, D., Chang, D., T., Jones, P., T., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Modeling and simulation of micromachined gyroscopes in the presence of imperfections Shkel, A., M., Howe, R., T., Horowitz, R. 1999
  • Dynamics and control of micromachined gyroscopes Shkel, A., M., Horowitz, R., Seshia, A., A., Park, S., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Fluidic microassembly using patterned self-assembled monolayers and shape matching Srinivasan, U., Howe, R., T., Liepmann, D. 1999
  • Mechanical performance of an integrated microgimbal / microactuators for disk drives Muller, L., Noworolski, J., M., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1999
  • High aspect ratio poly-silicon-germanium microstructures Heck, J., M., Keller, C., G., Franke, A., E., Muller, L., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Optimization of poly-silicon-germanium as a microstructural material Franke, A., E., Bilic, D., Chang, D., T., Jones, P., T., King, T., J., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Third harmonic double-ended tuning fork resonator Bilic, D., Howe, R., T., Clark, W., A., Roessig, T., A. 1999
  • Performance evaluation of batch-transferred surface micromachined resonators Singh, A., Bilic, D., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Statistical characterization of fracture of brittle MEMS materials Jones, P., T., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Materials characterization for MEMS - a comparison of uniaxial and bending tests Jones, P., T., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Batch transfer assembly of micro-components onto surface and SOI MEMS Maharbiz, M., Howe, R., T., Pister, K., S. J. 1999
  • Integrated resonant accelerometer based on rigidity change Tabata, O., Yamamoto, T., Seshia, A., A., Howe, R., T. 1999
  • Surface micromachining for microelectromechanical systems PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE Bustillo, J. M., Howe, R. T., Muller, R. S. 1998; 86 (8): 1552-1574
  • Alkyltrichlorosilane-based self-assembled monolayer films for stiction reduction in silicon micromachines JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Srinivasan, U., Houston, M. R., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 1998; 7 (2): 252-260
  • Alkyltrichlorosilane-based self-assembled monolayer films for stiction reduction IEEE/ASME J. of Micro-electromechanical Systems Srinivasan, U., Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 1998; 7: 252-260
  • Microassembly technologies for MEMS Micromachined Devices amd Components IV Cohn, M. B., Bohringer, K. F., NOWOROLSKI, J. M., Singh, A., Keller, C. G., Goldberg, K. Y., Howe, R. T. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1998: 2–16
  • Microassembly technologies for MEMS Conference on Microelectronic Structures and MEMS for Optical Processing IV Cohn, M. B., Bohringer, K. F., NOWOROLSKI, J. M., Singh, A., Keller, C. G., Goldberg, K. Y., Howe, R. T. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1998: 2–16
  • Microassembly technologies for MEMS SPIE Conference on Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology IV Cohn, M. B., Bohringer, K. F., NOWOROLSKI, J. M., Singh, A., Keller, C. G., Goldberg, K. Y., Howe, R. T. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1998: 2–16
  • Microassembly technologies for MEMS Materials and Device Characterization in Micromachining Cohn, M. B., Bohringer, K. F., NOWOROLSKI, J. M., Singh, A., Keller, C. G., Goldberg, K. Y., Howe, R. T. SPIE - INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1998: 2–16
  • Microassembly technologies for MEMS Microfluidic Devices and Systems Cohn, M. B., Bohringer, K. F., NOWOROLSKI, J. M., Singh, A., Keller, C. G., Goldberg, K. Y., Howe, R. T. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 1998: 2–16
  • Fracture strength of polycrystalline silicon Jones, P., T., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1998
  • Parallel microassembly with electrostatic force fields Bohringer, K., F., Goldberg, K., Cohn, M., Howe, R., Pisano, A. 1998
  • Lubrication of polysilicon micromechanisms with self-assembled monolayers Srinivasan, U., Foster, J., D., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T., Senft, D., C., Dugger, M., D. 1998
  • Surface-micromachined 1 MHz oscillator with low-noise Pierce configuration Roessig, T., A., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P., Smith, J., H. 1998
  • Carbonized parylene as a conformal sacrificial layer for high aspect ratio molded polysilicon Hui, E., E., Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1998
  • Microassembly technologies for MEMS Cohn, M., B., Bohringer, K., F., Noworolski, J., M., Singh, A., Keller, C., G., Goldberg, K., Y., Howe, R. T. 1998
  • Commercialization of precision inertial sensors with integrated signal conditioning Sensors Expo West, San Jose, California Juneau, T., N., Lemkin, M., A., Roessig, T., A., Clark, W., A., Howe, R., T., Bustillo, J., M. 1998
  • Microelectromechanical filters for signal processing IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Lin, L., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1998; 7: 286-294
  • Surface micromachining for micro-electro-mechanical systems Proc. of the IEEE Bustillo, J., M., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1998; 86: 1552-1574
  • Stiction reduction processes for surface micromachines TRIBOLOGY LETTERS Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 1997; 3 (3): 215-221
  • Effect of hydrogen termination on the work of adhesion between rough polycrystalline silicon surfaces JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Houston, M. R., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. 1997; 81 (8): 3474-3483
  • A micro strain gauge with mechanical amplifier IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Lin, L., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1997; 6: 313-321
  • Embedded interconnect and electrical isolation for high-aspect-ratio, SOI inertial instruments 9th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Brosnihan, T. J., Bustillo, J. M., Pisano, A. P., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 1997: 637–640
  • Surface-micromachined resonant accelerometer 9th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Roessig, T. A., Howe, R. T., Pisano, A. P., Smith, J. H. IEEE. 1997: 859–862
  • Batch transfer of microstructures using flip-chip solder bump bonding 9th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Singh, A., Horsley, D. A., Cohn, M. B., Pisano, A. P., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 1997: 265–268
  • Self-assembled fluorocarbon films for enhanced stiction reduction 9th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Srinivasan, U., Houston, M. R., Howe, R. T., Maboudian, R. IEEE. 1997: 1399–1402
  • Critical review: Adhesion in surface micromechanical structures JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Maboudian, R., Howe, R. T. 1997; 15 (1): 1-20
  • Hexsil tweezers for teleoperated micro-assembly Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1997
  • Self-assembled fluorocarbon films for enhanced stiction reduction Srinivasan, U., Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 1997
  • Surface-micromachined resonant accelerometer Roessig, T., A., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1997
  • Embedded interconnect and electrical isolation for high-aspect-ratio, SOI inertial instruments Brosnihan, T., J., Bustillo, J., M., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1997
  • Experiments in micromanipulation and CAD-driven microassembly Feddema, J., T., Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1997
  • Nonlinear mixing in surface-micromachined tuning fork oscillators Roessig, T., A., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1997
  • Batch transfer of microstructures using flip-chip solder bump bonding Singh, A., Horsley, D., A., Cohn, M., B., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1997
  • Microelectronics: an Integrated Approach Howe, R., T., Sodini, C., G. Prentice Hall. 1997
  • Effect of hydrogen termination on the work of adhesion between rough polycrystalline silicon surfaces J. of Applied Physics Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 1997; 81: 3474-3483
  • Critical review: stiction in surface micromechanical structures J. Vacuum Science and Technology B Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 1997; B15: 1-19
  • Stiction reduction processes for surface micromachines Tribology Letters Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 1997; 3: 215-221
  • Multimode digital control of a suspended polysilicon microstructure JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Fedder, G. K., Howe, R. T. 1996; 5 (4): 283-297
  • Polysilicon integrated microsystems: Technologies and applications SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL Howe, R. T., Boser, B. E., Pisano, A. P. 1996; 56 (1-2): 167-177
  • Surface micromachined accelerometers IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Boser, B. E., Howe, R. T. 1996; 31 (3): 366-375
  • Multi-mode digital control of suspended polysilicon microstructures IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Fedder, G., K., Howe, R., T. 1996; 5: 283-297
  • Wafer-to-wafer microstructure transfer for vacuum packaging Cohn, M., B., Liang, Y., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1996
  • Surface micromachined Z-axis vibratory rate gyroscope Clark, W., A., Howe, R., T., Horowitz, R. 1996
  • Self-assembled monolayers as permanent anti-stiction coatings for polysilicon microstructures Houston, M., R., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 1996
  • Micromechanical structures for fracture testing of brittle thin films Jones, P., T., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1996
  • Z-axis vibratory rate gyroscope Clark, W., A., Howe, R., T., Horowitz, R. 1996
  • Hexsil tweezers with polysilicon piezoresistive strain gauges Late News Digest, 7th Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, S. C. Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1996: 31-32
  • Design, fabrication, position sensing, and control of an electrostatically driven polysilicon microactuator IEEE Trans. on Magnetics Cheung, P., Horowitz, R., Howe, R., T. 1996; 32: 122-128
  • Surface micromachined accelerometers IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits Boser, B., E., Howe, R., T. 1996; 31: 366-375
  • Polysilicon integrated microsystems: technologies and applications (invited) Sensors and Actuators A Howe, R., T., Boser, B., E., Pisano, A., P. 1996; 56: 167-177
  • Self-assembly of microsystems using non-contact electrostatic traps Cohn, M., B., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1995
  • Surface micromachined accelerometers IEEE 1995 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference Boser, B. E., Howe, R. T. IEEE. 1995: 337–344
  • Diamond-like carbon films for silicon passivation in microelectromechanical devices Symposium on Mechanical Behavior of Diamond and Other Forms of Carbon Houston, M. R., Howe, R. T., Komvopoulos, K., Maboudian, R. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1995: 391–402
  • High aspect ratio molded CVD silicon MEMS Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Ammonium Fluoride Surface Treatments for Reducing In-Use Stiction in Polysilicon Microstructures Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Maboudian, R. 1995
  • Polysilicon Integrated Microsystems: Technologies and Applications Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Surface micromachined resonant force sensors Roessig, T., A., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Surface Micromachining: from Vision to Reality to Vision Payne, R., S., Sherman, S., Lewis, S., Howe, R., T. edited by Drory, M., D., Bogy, D., B., Donley, M., S. 1995
  • Surface Micromachined Accelerometers Boser, B., E., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Recent Advances in Surface Micromachining Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Nickel-filled thermally actuated hexsil tweezers Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Hexsil bimorphs for vertical actuation Keller, C., G., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • An integrated force-balanced capacitive accelerometer for low-G applications Chau, K., H.-L., Lewis, S., R., Zhao, Y., Howe, R., T., Bart, S., F., Marcheselli, R., G. 1995
  • Young's Modulus of in-situ Phophorus-Doped Polysilicon Biebl, M., Brandl, G., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Surface micromachined angular accelerometer with force feedback Brosnihan, T., J., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Diamond-like carbon for silicon passivation in micromechanical devices Houston, M., R., Howe, R., T., Komvopoulos, K., Maboudian, R. 1995
  • Permeable Polysilicon Microshell Etch-Access Windows Lebouitz, K., S., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1995
  • In Situ Phosphorus Doped Polysilicon for Integrated MEMS Biebl, M., Mulhern, G., T., Howe, R., T. 1995
  • Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer hydrofluoric acid etching: Part II -- modeling J. of the Electrochemical Society Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1994; 141: 271-274
  • Integrated Testbed for Multi-Mode Digital Control of Suspended Microstructures Fedder, G., K., Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Micromechanical Resonators for Frequency References and Signal Processing Howe, R., T., Nguyen, C., T.-C. 1994
  • Design and Performance of CMOS Micromechanical Resonator Oscillators Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Polysilicon Integrated Mechatronics: Applications and Recent Developments Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Polysilicon microresonators for signal processing Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Silicon Micromachining for Resonator Fabrication Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Silicon Surface Treatments for Stiction Reduction in Silicon Micromachining : A Surface Science Approach Houston, M., R., Maboudian, R., Howe, R., T. 1994
  • Slide film damping in laterally driven microstructures Sensors and Actuators A Cho, Y., H., Kwak, B., M., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1994; 40: 31-39
  • Self-assembled monolayer film for enhanced imaging of rough surfaces with atomic force microscopy J. of Applied Physics Alley, R., L., Komvopoulos, K., Howe, R., T. 1994; 76: 5731-5737
  • Process Technology for the Modular Integration of CMOS and Microstructures (invited) Microsystem Technology Bustillo, J., M., Fedder, G., K., Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1994; 1: 30-41
  • Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer hydrofluoric acid etching: Part I - experimental observations J. of the Electrochemical Society Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1994; 141: 264-269
  • Viscous damping model for laterally oscillating microstructures IEEE/ASME J. of Microelectromechanical Systems Cho, Y., H., Kwak, B., M., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1994; 3: 81-87
  • Determination of the etching kinetics for the hydrofluoric acid/silicon dioxide system J. of the Electrochemical Society Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1993; 140: 2339-2346
  • A PASSIVE, INSITU MICRO STRAIN-GAUGE 1993 IEEE WORKSHOP ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ( MEMS 93 ) Lin, L. W., Howe, R. T., Pisano, A. P. I E E E. 1993: 201–206
  • POLYSILICON HOLLOW BEAM LATERAL RESONATORS 1993 IEEE WORKSHOP ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ( MEMS 93 ) JUDY, M. W., Howe, R. T. I E E E. 1993: 265–271
  • VISCOUS ENERGY-DISSIPATION IN LATERALLY OSCILLATING PLANAR MICROSTRUCTURES - A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY 1993 IEEE WORKSHOP ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ( MEMS 93 ) Cho, Y. H., Kwak, B. M., Pisano, A. P., Howe, R. T. I E E E. 1993: 93–98
  • STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING AND BLISTERING OF THIN POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON FILMS IN HYDROFLUORIC-ACID Symposium on Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties IV, at the 1993 Spring Meeting of the Materials-Research-Society Monk, D. J., Krulevitch, P., Howe, R. T., Johnson, G. C. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOC. 1993: 641–646
  • Viscous energy dissipation in laterally oscillating planar microstructures: a theoretical and experimental study Cho, Y., H., Kwak, B., M., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • CMOS Micromechanical Resonator Oscillator Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Polysilicon hollow beam lateral resonators Judy, M., W., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Stress-corrosion cracking and blistering of thin polycrystalline silicon films in hydrofluoric acid Monk, D., J., Krulevitch, P., Howe, R., T., Johnson, G., C. 1993
  • Microresonator frequency control using an integrated micro oven Nguyen, C., T., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide drying of microstructures Mulhern, G., T., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Enhanced removal of sacrificial layers for silicon surface micromachining Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Highly compliant lateral suspensions using sidewall beams Judy, M., W., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • Surface roughness modification of interfacial contacts in polysilicon microstructures Alley, R., L., Mai, P., Komvopoulos, K., Howe, R., T. 1993
  • A novel micro in situ strain gauge Lin, L., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1993
  • Vacuum encapsulated lateral microresonators Lin, L., McNair, K., M., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1993
  • S-D Modulator interfacing with silicon microsensors Sensors Yun, W., Howe, R., T. 1993: 11-18
  • A Chemical Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics for Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of Silicon Dioxide Thin Films (invited review) Thin Solid Films Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1993; 232 (1): 1-12
  • Sigma-Delta modulator interfacing with microsensors Sensors Expo West, San Jose, California Yun, W., Howe, R., T. 1993: 159-164
  • Recent developments in silicon microaccelerometers Sensors Yun, W., Howe, R., T. 1992: 31-41
  • MICRO ELECTROMECHANICAL FILTERS FOR SIGNAL-PROCESSING 5TH WORKSHOP ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ( MEMS 92 ) Lin, L. W., Nguyen, C. T., Howe, R. T., Pisano, A. P. I E E E. 1992: 226–231
  • The effect of release-etch processing on surface microstructure stiction Alley, R., L., Howe, R., T., Komvopoulos, K. 1992
  • Sacrificial layer etching model for surface micromachining applications Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Quality factor control for micromechanical resonators Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Surface micromachined, digitally force-balanced accelerometer with integrated CMOS detection circuitry Yun, W., Howe, R., T., Gray, P., R. 1992
  • Thermal microassembly of narrow-gap electrostatic comb-drive structures Fedder, G., K., Chang, J., C., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Stress and microstructure in LPCVD polysilicon films: experimental results and closed form modeling of stresses Krulevitch, P., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Micro Electromechanical Filters Lin, L., Nguyen, C., T.-C., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1992
  • Characterization of thin films using micromechanical structures Pratt, R., I., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T., Nikkel Jr., D., J. 1992
  • Sacrificial layer Si02 wet etching for micromachining applications Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Stress and microstructure in phosphorus doped polycrystalline silicon Krulevitch, P., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1992
  • Silicon microfabricated accelerometers: a perspective on recent developments (invited paper), Sensors Expo, Chicago, Ill. Yun, W., Howe, R., T., Gabriel, K., J., Trimmer, W., S. N. 1992: 204A-1 - 204A-8.
  • Electrostatic comb drive levitation and control method IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems Tang, W., C., Lim, M., G., Howe, R., T. 1992; 1 (4): 170-178
  • Micromechanical Structures for Thin Film Characterization Pratt, R., I., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • SELF-ADJUSTING MICROSTRUCTURES (SAMS) 4TH IEEE WORKSHOP ON MICRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ( MEMS 91 ) JUDY, M. W., Cho, Y. H., Howe, R. T., Pisano, A. P. I E E E. 1991: 51–56
  • THERMAL ASSEMBLY OF POLYSILICON MICROSTRUCTURES 4TH IEEE WORKSHOP ON MICRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ( MEMS 91 ) Fedder, G. K., Howe, R. T. I E E E. 1991: 63–68
  • Modeling and Position-Detection of a Polysilicon Linear Microactuator Cheung, P., Horowitz, R., Howe, R. 1991
  • Ultrasonically Induced Microtransport with Cylindrical Geometry Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • LPCVD Polysilicon Thin Films: The Evolution of Structure, Texture, and Stress Krulevitch, P., A., Nguyen, T., D., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T., Wenk, H., R., Gronsky, R. 1991
  • Self-Adjusting Microstructures Judy, M., W., Cho, Y., H., Howe, R., T., Pisano, A., P. 1991
  • Ultrasonically Induced Microtransport Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • Design and Modeling of a Linear Microactuator Cheung, P., Horowitz, R., Howe, R. 1991
  • Stress in Undoped LPCVD Polycrystalline Silicon Krulevitch, P., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • Sacrificial Silicon Dioxide Wet Etching for Micromachining Applications Monk, D., J., Soane, D., S., Howe, R., T. 1991
  • ELECTROSTATIC-COMB DRIVE OF LATERAL POLYSILICON RESONATORS 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONF ON SOLID-STATE SENSORS AND ACTUATORS AND EUROSENSORS 3 ( TRANSDUCERS 89 ) Tang, W. C., NGUYEN, T. C., JUDY, M. W., Howe, R. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 1990: 328–31
  • Resonant-Bridge Two-Axis Microaccelerometer Sensors and Actuators Chang, S., C., Putty, M., W., Hicks, D., B., Li, C., H., Howe, R., T. 1990; A21-A23: 342-345
  • Lamb-Wave Interactions with the Chemical, Biological and Physical Environment White, R., M., Wenzel, S., W., Martin, B., A., Moroney, R., M., Costello, B., J., Straub, M., A., Howe, R. T. 1990
  • Electrostatically Balanced Comb Drive for Controlled Levitation Tang, W., C., Lim, M., G., Howe, R., T. 1990
  • Ultrasonic Micromotors: Physics and Applications Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1990
  • Fluid Motion Produced by Ultrasonic Lamb waves Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1990
  • A Planar Air-Levitated Electrostatic Actuator System Pister, K., S. J., Fearing, R., S., Howe, R., T. 1990
  • Polysilicon Microstructures to Characterize Static Friction Lim, M., G., Chang, J., Schultz, D., P., Howe, R., T., White, R., M. 1990
  • Spiral Microstructures for the Measurement of Average Strain Gradients in Thin Films Fan, L., S., Yun, W., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T., Huang, J. 1990
  • Investigation of texture and stress in undoped polysilicon films Huang, J., Krulevitch, P., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T., Wenk, H., R. edited by Kamins, T., Thompson, C., V., Raicu, B. 1990
  • Fabrication Technologies for Integrated Microdynamic Systems (invited paper), Integrated Micro-Motion Systems Micromachining, Control and Applications Yun, W., Tang, W., C., Howe, R., T. edited by Harashima, F. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. 1990: 297–312
  • Silicon micromechanics: sensors and actuators on a chip IEEE Spectrum Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S., Gabriel, K., J., Trimmer, W., S. N. 1990: 29-35
  • Electrostatic-Comb Drive of Lateral Polysilicon Resonators Sensors and Actuators A Tang, W., C., Nguyen, T., C. H., Judy, M., W., Howe, R., T. 1990; A21-A23: 328-331
  • Fracture-Toughness Characterization of Brittle Thin Films Sensors and Actuators Fan, L., S., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1990; A21-A23: 872-874
  • Microsensors for heat transfer and fluid flow measurements Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science Udell, K., S., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T., White, R., M., Muller, R., S. 1990; 3: 52-59
  • Technologies for microdynamic devices Nanotechnology Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 1990; 1: 8-12
  • missing title J. of Applied Physics Wenk, H., R., Sintubin, M., Huang, J., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R., T. 1990; 67: 572-574
  • Laterally driven polysilicon resonant microstructures Sensors and Actuators Tang, W., C., Nguyen, T., C. H., Howe, R., T. 1989; 20: 25-32
  • Texture of Undoped LPCVD Polycrystalline Silicon Films Huang, J., Lin, K., K., Lau, J., Hodges, D., A., Spanos, C., Johnson, G., C., Howe, R. T. 1989
  • Electrostatic-Comb Drive of Lateral Polysilicon Resonators Tang, W., C., Nguyen, T., C. H., Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Fracture-Toughness Characterization of Brittle Thin Films Fan, L., S., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1989
  • Resonant-Bridge Two-Axis Microaccelerometer Chang, S., C., Putty, M., W., Hicks, D., B., Li, C., H., Howe, R., T. 1989
  • One-Port Active Polysilicon Resonant Microstructures Putty, M., W., Chang, S., C., Howe, R., T., Robinson, A., L., Wise, K., D. 1989
  • Microsensor and Microactuator Applications of Thin Films Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Laterally Driven Polysilicon Resonant Microstructures Tang, W., C., Nguyen, T., C. H., Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Microstructures for Fracture Toughness Characterization of Brittle Thin Films Fan, L., S., Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1989
  • Ultrasonic micromotor Moroney, R., M., White, R., M., Howe, R., T. 1989
  • Silicon Microdynamic Systems: Recent Developments in Microactuators and Micromachinery (invited paper), IEEE WESCON, San Francisco, California Howe, R., T. 1989: 202-204
  • Process integration for active polysilicon resonant microstructures Sensors and Actuators Putty, M., W., Chang, S., C., Howe, R., T., Robinson, A., L., Wise, K., D. 1989; 20: 143-151
  • Vacuum-insulated field-effect transistor Electronics Letters Huang, J., Howe, R., T., Lee, H., S. 1989; 25: 1571-1573
  • Microsensor and microactuator applications of thin films Thin Solid Films Howe, R., T. 1989; 181: 235-243
  • Design considerations for microfabricated electric actuators Sensors and Actuators Bart, S., F., Lober, T., A., Lang, J., H., Howe, R., T., Schlecht, M., F. 1988; 14: 269-292
  • Surface Micromachining Processes for Electrostatic Motor Fabrication Lober, T., A., Howe, R., T. 1988
  • A Thermally Isolated Microstructure Suitable for Gas Sensing Applications Huff, M., A., Senturia, S., D., Howe, R., T. 1988
  • Microsensors for heat transfer and fluid flow measurements Udell, K., S., Pisano, A., P., Howe, R., T., White, R., M., Muller, R., S. 1988
  • Surface Micromachining for Microsensors and Microactuators Howe, R., T. 1988
  • Design and calibration of a microfabricated floating-element shear-stress sensor IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D., Haritonidis, J., H. 1988; 35: 750-757
  • A digital readout technique for capacitive sensor applications IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits Kung, J., T., Lee, H., S., Howe, R., T. 1988; 23: 972-977
  • Surface micromachining for microsensors and microactuators J. of Vacuum Science and Technology, Part B Howe, R., T. 1988; 6: 1809-1813
  • Novel microstructures for the in-situ measurement of mechanical properties of thin films J. of Applied Physics Mehregany, M., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D. 1987; 62: 3579-3584
  • Surface micromachining of polyimide/metal composites for a shear-stress sensor Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D., Haritonidis, J., H. 1987
  • Electric micromotors: electromechanical characteristics Lang, J., H., Schlecht, M., F., Howe, R., T. 1987
  • Fabrication and testing of a micromachined shear sensor Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D., Haritonidis, J., H. 1987
  • A micromachined floating-element shear sensor Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D., Haritonidis, J., H. 1987
  • Applications of polysilicon films in microsensors and microactuators Howe, R., T. 1987
  • Resonant microsensors Howe, R., T. 1987
  • Silicon resonant microsensors Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T. 1987
  • Microfabricated structures for the in-situ measurement of residual stress, Young’s modulus, and ultimate strain in polyimide films Applied Physics Letters Allen, M., G., Mehregany, M., Howe, R., T., Senturia, S., D. 1987; 51: 241-243
  • Resonant-microbridge vapor sensor IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1986; ED-33: 499-506
  • Resonant structures for integrated sensors Schmidt, M., A., Howe, R., T. 1986
  • Polycrystalline silicon micromachining: a new technology for integrated sensors Annals of Biomedical Engineering Howe, R., T. 1986; 14: 187-197
  • Polycrystalline silicon microstructures (invited), Micromachining and Micropackaging of Transducers Howe, R., T. edited by Fung, C., F., Cheung, P., W., Ko, W., H. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. 1985: 169–187
  • Polysilicon bridges for anemometer applications Tai, Y., C., Muller, R., S., Howe, R., T. 1985
  • Frequency response of polycrystalline silicon microbridges Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. edited by Fung, C., F., Cheung, P., W., Ko, W., H. 1985
  • Integrated resonant-microbridge vapor sensor Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1984
  • Resonant polysilicon microbridge with integrated NMOS detection circuitry Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1984
  • Polycrystalline silicon micromechanical beams J. of the Electrochemical Society Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1983; 130: 1420-1423
  • Polycrystalline and amorphous silicon micromechanical beams: annealing and mechanical properties Sensors and Actuators Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1983; 4: 447-454
  • Polycrystalline Silicon Micromechanical Beams Howe, R., T., Muller, R., S. 1982