Bio


Fan's research involves the theory and simulations of photonic and solid-state materials and devices; photonic crystals; nano-scale photonic devices and plasmonics; quantum optics; computational electromagnetics; parallel scientific computing.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Fellow, IEEE (2010)
  • Fellow, SPIE (2009)
  • Fellow, American Physical Society (2008)
  • Fellow, Optical Society of America (2007)
  • Award for Initiatives in Research, NAS (2007)
  • David and Lucile Packard Fellowship in Science and Engineering, David and Lucile Packard (2013)
  • David and Lucile Packard Foundation Career Award, David and Lucile Packard (2013)
  • Adolph Lomb Medal, National Science Foundation (2013)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • member, Optical Society of America (2013 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, MIT, Physics (1997)

2016-17 Courses


All Publications


  • Input-output formalism for few-photon transport: A systematic treatment beyond two photons PHYSICAL REVIEW A Xu, S., Fan, S. 2015; 91 (4)
  • Heat-flux control and solid-state cooling by regulating chemical potential of photons in near-field electromagnetic heat transfer PHYSICAL REVIEW B Chen, K., Santhanam, P., Sandhu, S., Zhu, L., Fan, S. 2015; 91 (13)
  • Optical separation of heterogeneous size distributions of microparticles on silicon nitride strip waveguides OPTICS EXPRESS Khan, S. A., Shi, Y., Chang, C., Jan, C., Fan, S., Ellerbee, A. K., Solgaard, O. 2015; 23 (7): 8855-8866

    Abstract

    We demonstrate two complementary optical separation techniques of dielectric particles on the surface of silicon nitride waveguides. Glass particles ranging from 2 μm to 10 μm in diameter are separated at guided powers below 40 mW. The effects of optical, viscous, and frictional forces on the particles are modeled and experimentally shown to enable separation. Particle interactions are investigated and shown to decrease measured particle velocity without interfering with the overall particle separation distribution. The demonstrated separation techniques have the potential to be integrated with microfluidic structures for cell sorting.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.23.008855

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352290000088

    View details for PubMedID 25968723

  • Near-complete violation of detailed balance in thermal radiation PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhu, L., Fan, S. 2014; 90 (22)
  • Accelerating simulation of ensembles of locally differing optical structures via a Schur complement domain decomposition OPTICS LETTERS Verweij, S., Liu, V., Fan, S. 2014; 39 (22): 6458-6461
  • Consideration of enhancement of thermal rectification using metamaterial models JOURNAL OF QUANTITATIVE SPECTROSCOPY & RADIATIVE TRANSFER Iizuka, H., Fan, S. 2014; 148: 156-164
  • Light Guiding by Effective Gauge Field for Photons PHYSICAL REVIEW X Lin, Q., Fan, S. 2014; 4 (3)
  • Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Piper, J. R., Liu, V., Fan, S. 2014; 104 (25)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4885517

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338515900010

  • Optical Fano resonance of an individual semiconductor nanostructure NATURE MATERIALS Fan, P., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2014; 13 (5): 471-475

    Abstract

    Fano resonances with a characteristic asymmetric line shape can be observed in light scattering, transmission and reflection spectra of resonant optical systems. They result from interference between direct and indirect, resonance-assisted pathways. In the nanophotonics field, Fano effects have been observed in a wide variety of systems, including metallic nanoparticle assemblies, metamaterials and photonic crystals. Their unique properties find extensive use in applications, including optical filtering, polarization selectors, sensing, lasers, modulators and nonlinear optics. We report on the observation of a Fano resonance in a single semiconductor nanostructure, opening up opportunities for their use in active photonic devices. We also show that Fano-resonant semiconductor nanostructures afford the intriguing opportunity to simultaneously measure the far-field scattering response and the near-field energy storage by extracting photogenerated charge. Together they can provide a complete experimental characterization of this type of resonance.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT3927

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334845600017

    View details for PubMedID 24747781

  • Total Absorption in a Graphene Mono layer in the Optical Regime by Critical Coupling with a Photonic Crystal Guided Resonance ACS PHOTONICS Piper, J. R., Fan, S. 2014; 1 (4): 347-353

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ph400090p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335805200008

  • Fluctuational electrodynamics calculations of near-field heat transfer in non-planar geometries: A brief overview JOURNAL OF QUANTITATIVE SPECTROSCOPY & RADIATIVE TRANSFER Otey, C. R., Zhu, L., Sandhu, S., Fan, S. 2014; 132: 3-11
  • Light Trapping in Photonic Crystals THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR AND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY VI Wang, K. X., Yu, Z., Liu, V., Raman, A., Cui, Y., Fan, S. 2014; 9177

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2061160

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349362600014

  • Ultrahigh contrast and large-bandwidth thermal rectification in near-field electromagnetic thermal transfer between nanoparticles NANOPHOTONIC MATERIALS XI Zhu, L., Otey, C. R., Fan, S. 2014; 9161

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2061262

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344107800012

  • Efficiency above the Shockley-Queisser Limit by Using Nanophotonic Effects To Create Multiple Effective Bandgaps With a Single Semiconductor NANO LETTERS Yu, Z., Sandhu, S., Fan, S. 2014; 14 (1): 66-70

    Abstract

    We present a pure photonic approach to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit. A single material can show different effective bandgap, set by its absorption spectrum, which depends on its photonic structure. In a tandem cell configuration constructed from a single material, one can achieve two different effective bandgaps, thereby exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl403653j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329586700011

    View details for PubMedID 24279726

  • Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Shuai, Y., Zhao, D., Chadha, A. S., Seo, J., Yang, H., Fan, S., Ma, Z., Zhou, W. 2013; 103 (24)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4846475

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328706500006

  • Deep subwavelength plasmonic waveguide switch in double graphene layer structure APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Iizuka, H., Fan, S. 2013; 103 (23)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4839420

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328634900075

  • Analytic properties of two-photon scattering matrix in integrated quantum systems determined by the cluster decomposition principle. Physical review letters Xu, S., Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2013; 111 (22): 223602-?

    Abstract

    We consider a general class of integrated quantum systems where photon-photon interaction occurs in a quantum device that is localized in space. Using techniques that are closely related to cluster decomposition principles in quantum field theory, we provide a general constraint on the analytic properties of a two-photon S matrix in this class of systems. We also show that the photon-photon interaction in these systems inevitably leads to frequency mixing and entanglement and that frequencies of the single photons cannot be preserved in these systems.

    View details for PubMedID 24329447

  • Analytic Properties of Two-Photon Scattering Matrix in Integrated Quantum Systems Determined by the Cluster Decomposition Principle PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Xu, S., Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2013; 111 (22)
  • Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhu, L., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2013; 103 (22)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4835995

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327696300079

  • Controlling the Flow of Light Using the Inhomogeneous Effective Gauge Field that Emerges from Dynamic Modulation PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Fang, K., Fan, S. 2013; 111 (20)

    Abstract

    We show that the effective gauge field for photons provides a versatile platform for controlling the flow of light. As an example we consider a photonic resonator lattice where the coupling strength between nearest neighbor resonators are harmonically modulated. By choosing different spatial distributions of the modulation phases, and hence imposing different inhomogeneous effective magnetic field configurations, we numerically demonstrate a wide variety of propagation effects including negative refraction, one-way mirror, and on- and off-axis focusing. Since the effective gauge field is imposed dynamically after a structure is constructed, our work points to the importance of the temporal degree of freedom for controlling the spatial flow of light.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.203901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327243300002

    View details for PubMedID 24289686

  • Ultrahigh-contrast and large-bandwidth thermal rectification in near-field electromagnetic thermal transfer between nanoparticles PHYSICAL REVIEW B Zhu, L., Otey, C. R., Fan, S. 2013; 88 (18)
  • Effective magnetic field for photons based on the magneto-optical effect PHYSICAL REVIEW A Fang, K., Fan, S. 2013; 88 (4)
  • A lateral optical equilibrium in waveguide-resonator optical force OPTICS EXPRESS Intaraprasonk, V., Fan, S. 2013; 21 (21): 25257-25270

    Abstract

    We consider the lateral optical force between a resonator and a waveguide, and study the possibility of an equilibrium that occurs solely from the optical force in such system. We prove analytically that a single-resonance system cannot give such an equilibrium in the resonator-waveguide force. We then show that two-resonance systems can provide such an equilibrium. We provide an intuitive way to predict the existence of an equilibrium, and give numerical examples.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.025257

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326085600080

    View details for PubMedID 24150366

  • Double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters OPTICS EXPRESS Shuai, Y., Zhao, D., Tian, Z., Seo, J., Plant, D. V., Ma, Z., Fan, S., Zhou, W. 2013; 21 (21): 24582-24589

    Abstract

    We report ultra-compact surface-normal high-Q optical filters based on single- and double-layer stacked Fano resonance photonic crystal slabs on both Si and quartz substrates. A single layer photonic crystal filter was designed and a Q factor of 1,737 was obtained with 23 dB extinction ratio. With stacked double-layer photonic crystal configuration, the optical filter Q can increase to over 10,000,000 in design. Double-layer filters with quality factor of 9,734 and extinction ratio of 8 dB were experimentally demonstrated, for a filter design with target Q of 22,000.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.024582

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326085600016

    View details for PubMedID 24150302

  • Dissipation in few-photon waveguide transport [Invited] PHOTONICS RESEARCH Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2013; 1 (3): 110-114
  • Accelerated solution of the frequency-domain Maxwell's equations by engineering the eigenvalue distribution of the operator OPTICS EXPRESS Shin, W., Fan, S. 2013; 21 (19): 22578-22595

    Abstract

    We introduce a simple method to accelerate the convergence of iterative solvers of the frequency-domain Maxwell's equations for deep-subwavelength structures. Using the continuity equation, the method eliminates the high multiplicity of near-zero eigenvalues of the operator while leaving the operator nearly positive-definite. The impact of the modified eigenvalue distribution on the accelerated convergence is explained by visualizing residual vectors and residual polynomials.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.022578

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325547200082

    View details for PubMedID 24104147

  • Optical pulling force and conveyor belt effect in resonator-waveguide system OPTICS LETTERS Intaraprasonk, V., Fan, S. 2013; 38 (17): 3264-3267

    Abstract

    We present the theoretical condition and actual numerical design that achieves an optical pulling force in resonator-waveguide systems, where the direction of the force on the resonator is in the opposite direction to the input light in the waveguide. We also show that this pulling force can occur in conjunction with the lateral optical equilibrium effect, such that the resonator is maintained at the fixed distance from the waveguide while experiencing the pulling force.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OL.38.003264

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323758000019

    View details for PubMedID 23988930

  • Photonic de Haas-van Alphen effect OPTICS EXPRESS Fang, K., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2013; 21 (15): 18216-18224

    Abstract

    Based on the recently proposed concept of effective gauge potential and magnetic field for photons, we numerically demonstrate a photonic de Haas-van Alphen effect. We show that in a dynamically modulated photonic resonator lattice exhibiting an effect magnetic field, the trajectories of the light beam at a given frequency have the same shape as the constant energy contour for the photonic band structure of the lattice in the absence of the effective magnetic field.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.018216

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322366300081

    View details for PubMedID 23938692

  • Modeling Coherent Backscattering Errors in Fiber Optic Gyroscopes for Sources of Arbitrary Line Width JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Lloyd, S. W., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2013; 31 (13): 2070-2078
  • Experimental Observation of Low Noise and Low Drift in a Laser-Driven Fiber Optic Gyroscope JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Lloyd, S. W., Fan, S., Digonnet, M. J. 2013; 31 (13): 2079-2085
  • Slow-Light Fiber-Bragg-Grating Strain Sensor With a 280-femtostrain/root Hz Resolution JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Wen, H., Skolianos, G., Fan, S., Bernier, M., Vallee, R., Digonnet, M. J. 2013; 31 (11): 1804-1808
  • Wireless power transfer in the presence of metallic plates: Experimental results AIP ADVANCES Yu, X., Skauli, T., Skauli, B., Sandhu, S., Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2013; 3 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4809665

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321144300002

  • Near-infrared surface plasmon polariton dispersion control with hyperbolic metamaterials OPTICS EXPRESS Luk, T. S., Kim, I., Campione, S., Howell, S. W., Subramania, G. S., Grubbs, R. K., Brener, I., Chen, H., Fan, S., Sinclair, M. B. 2013; 21 (9): 11107-11114

    Abstract

    We demonstrate experimentally signatures and dispersion control of surface plasmon polaritons from 1 to 1.8 µm using periodic multilayer metallo-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials. The fabricated structures are comprised of smooth films with very low metal filling factor. The measured dispersion properties of these hyperbolic metamaterials agree well with calculations using transfer matrix, finite-difference time-domain, and effective medium approximation methods despite using only 2.5 periods. The enhancement factor in the local photonic density of states from the studied samples in the near-infrared wavelength region is determined to be 2.5-3.5. Development of this type of metamaterial is relevant to sub-wavelength imaging, spontaneous emission and thermophotovoltaic applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.011107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318906500099

    View details for PubMedID 23669967

  • Upper bound on the modal material loss rate in plasmonic and metamaterial systems. Physical review letters Raman, A., Shin, W., Fan, S. 2013; 110 (18): 183901-?

    Abstract

    A better understanding of optical loss in plasmonic and metamaterial systems is of increasing importance for both basic and applied research in a broad range of topics including sensors, antennas, optical interconnects, and photovoltaics. In this Letter, we use a photonic band formalism for plasmonics to exactly derive a fundamental upper bound on the nonradiative material loss rate of modes in plasmonic, polaritonic, and metamaterial systems. This bound is purely defined by material properties and cannot be overcome by device design. Moreover it is frequency dependent in the presence of multiple Lorentz poles. We numerically verify this bound through direct calculations for a range of plasmonic systems, including optical antennas where the bound places fundamental performance constraints.

    View details for PubMedID 23683195

  • Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells OPTICS LETTERS Sergeant, N. P., Niesen, B., Liu, A. S., Boman, L., Stoessel, C., Heremans, P., Peumans, P., Rand, B. P., Fan, S. 2013; 38 (9): 1431-1433

    Abstract

    Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) electrodes have the potential to significantly increase the absorption efficiency and photocurrent in flexible organic solar cells. We demonstrate that this enhancement is attributed to a broadband cavity resonance. Silver-based semitransparent DMD electrodes with sheet resistances below 10 ohm/sq. are fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in a high-throughput roll-to-roll sputtering tool. We carefully study the effect of the semitransparent DMD electrode (here composed of Zn(x)Sn(y)O(z)/Ag/In(x)Sn(y)O(z)) on the optical device performance of a copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) bilayer cell and illustrate that a resonant cavity enhanced light trapping effect dominates the optical behavior of the device.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OL.38.001431

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318425600024

    View details for PubMedID 23632508

  • Compact bends for multi-mode photonic crystal waveguides with high transmission and suppressed modal crosstalk OPTICS EXPRESS Liu, V., Fan, S. 2013; 21 (7): 8069-8075

    Abstract

    We demonstrate an extremely compact bend for a photonic crystal waveguide supporting three spatial modes. The bend exhibits nearly 100% transmission over a relative bandwidth of 1% with less than 1% crosstalk. We show that our design is robust with respect to fabrication errors. Our design method is applied to create a structure consisting of dielectric rods, as well as a structure consisting of air holes in a dielectric background.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.008069

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317659300023

    View details for PubMedID 23571897

  • Ultrabroadband Photonic Structures To Achieve High-Performance Daytime Radiative Cooling NANO LETTERS Rephaeli, E., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2013; 13 (4): 1457-1461

    Abstract

    If properly designed, terrestrial structures can passively cool themselves through radiative emission of heat to outer space. For the first time, we present a metal-dielectric photonic structure capable of radiative cooling in daytime outdoor conditions. The structure behaves as a broadband mirror for solar light, while simultaneously emitting strongly in the mid-IR within the atmospheric transparency window, achieving a net cooling power in excess of 100 W/m(2) at ambient temperature. This cooling persists in the presence of significant convective/conductive heat exchange and nonideal atmospheric conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl4004283

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317549300016

    View details for PubMedID 23461597

  • Experimental Assessment of the Accuracy of an Advanced Photonic-Bandgap-Fiber Model JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Aghaie, K. Z., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2013; 31 (7): 1015-1022
  • Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy at High Concentrations using Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas (vol 406C, pg 3, 2012) CHEMICAL PHYSICS Kinkhabwala, A. A., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Moerner, E. 2013; 415: 309-309
  • Temporal coupled mode theory for thermal emission from a single thermal emitter supporting either a single mode or an orthogonal set of modes APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhu, L., Sandhu, S., Otey, C., Fan, S., Sinclair, M. B., Luk, T. S. 2013; 102 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4794981

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316501200067

  • Experimental demonstration of a photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect at radio frequencies PHYSICAL REVIEW B Fang, K., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2013; 87 (6)
  • Highly Tailored Computational Electromagnetics Methods for Nanophotonic Design and Discovery PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE Liu, V., Miller, D. A., Fan, S. 2013; 101 (2): 484-493
  • Transparent and conductive paper from nanocellulose fibers ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Hu, L., Zheng, G., Yao, J., Liu, N., Weil, B., Eskilsson, M., Karabulut, E., Ruan, Z., Fan, S., Bloking, J. T., McGehee, M. D., Wagberg, L., Cui, Y. 2013; 6 (2): 513-518

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ee23635d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313892400013

  • Tight-binding calculation of radiation loss in photonic crystal CROW OPTICS EXPRESS Ma, J., Martinez, L. J., Fan, S., Povinelli, M. L. 2013; 21 (2): 2463-2473

    Abstract

    The tight binding approximation (TBA) is used to relate the intrinsic, radiation loss of a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) to that of a single constituent resonator within a light cone picture. We verify the validity of the TBA via direct, full-field simulation of CROWs based on the L2 photonic crystal cavity. The TBA predicts that the quality factor of the CROW increases with that of the isolated cavity. Moreover, our results provide a method to design CROWs with low intrinsic loss across the entire waveguide band.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315989500110

    View details for PubMedID 23389227

  • Fundamental bounds on decay rates in asymmetric single-mode optical resonators OPTICS LETTERS Wang, K. X., Yu, Z., Sandhu, S., Fan, S. 2013; 38 (2): 100-102

    Abstract

    We derive tight upper and lower bounds of the ratio between decay rates to two ports from a single resonance exhibiting Fano interference, based on a general temporal coupled-mode theory formalism. The photon transport between these two ports involves both direct and resonance-assisted contributions, and the bounds depend only on the direct process. The bounds imply that, in a lossless system, full reflection is always achievable at Fano resonance, even for structures lacking mirror symmetries, while full transmission can only be seen in a symmetric configuration where the two decay rates are equal. The analytic predictions are verified against full-field electromagnetic simulations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313636600007

  • Detailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells OPTICS EXPRESS Sandhu, S., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2013; 21 (1): 1209-1217

    Abstract

    We present a detailed balance based approach for performing current density-voltage characteristic modeling of nanophotonic solar cells. This approach takes into account the intrinsic material non-idealities, and is useful for determining the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency for a given structure. Our approach only requires the cell's absorption spectra over all angles, which can be readily calculated using available simulation tools. Using this approach, we elucidate the physics of open-circuit voltage enhancement over bulk cells in nanoscale thin film structures, by showing that the enhancement is related to the absorption suppression in the immediate spectral region above the bandgap. We also show that with proper design, the use of a grating on a nanoscale thin film can increase its short-circuit current, while preserving its voltage-enhancing capabilities.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.001209

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315988100144

    View details for PubMedID 23389013

  • Routing of Deep-Subwavelength Optical Beams and Images without Reflection and Diffraction Using Infinitely Anisotropic Metamaterials ADVANCED MATERIALS Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2013; 25 (2): 194-198

    Abstract

    Interfaces between media with infinite anisotropy, defined by infinite permittivity or permeability in one direction, offer new opportunities for controlling and manipulating light at the nanoscale. Reflectionless, diffraction-free routing of deep-subwavelength optical beams and images using interfaces between infinitely anisotropic media are demonstrated. It is shown how to achieve extremely large anisotropy using metamaterial designs that can be implemented with existing materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201203528

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313262300005

    View details for PubMedID 23180728

  • Synthetic magnetic field directs photons PHOTONICS SPECTRA Fan, S. 2013; 47 (1): 28-?
  • Photonic structures: advanced thermal control, and effective gauge field for light 2013 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON ADVANCED ELECTROMAGNETIC MATERIALS IN MICROWAVES AND OPTICS (METAMATERIALS 2013) Fan, S., Yu, Z., Fang, K., Rephaeli, E., Raman, A. 2013: 232-233
  • Manipulating Thermal Electromagnetic Fields by Engineering Nanophotonic Resonances 2013 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS PACIFIC RIM (CLEO-PR) Fan, S., Yu, Z., Rephaeli, E., Raman, A. 2013
  • Local density of states of chiral Hall edge states in gyrotropic photonic clusters Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Asatryan, A., A., Botten, L., C., Fang et. al., K., J. 2013; 88 (3)
  • Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling Applied Physics Letters Zhu, L., X., Raman, A., Fan, S., H. 2013; 103 (22)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4835995

  • Effective magnetic field for photons based on the magneto-optical effect Physical Review A Fang, K., J., Fan, S., H. 2013; 88 (4)
  • Deep subwavelength plasmonic waveguide switch in double graphene layer structure Applied Physics Letters Iizuka, H., Fan, S., H. 2013; 103 (23)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4839420

  • What is - and what is not - an optical isolator Nature Photonics Fan, S., H., Jalas, D., Petrov, A., Eich et. al., M. 2013; 7 (8): 579-582

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nphoton.2013.185

  • Upper Bound on the Modal Material Loss Rate in Plasmonic and Metamaterial Systems Physical Review Letters Raman, A., Shin, W., Fan, S., H. 2013; 110 (18)
  • Two-photon transport through a waveguide coupling to a whispering-gallery resonator containing an atom and photon-blockade effect Physical Review A Shi, T., Fan, S., H. 2013; 87 (6)
  • Two-Dimensional Chalcogenide Nanoplates as Tunable Metamaterials via Chemical Intercalation Nano Letters Fan, S., H., Cha, J., J., Koski, K., J., Huang et al., K., C. Y. 2013; 13 (12): 5913-5918

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402937g

  • Metamaterial band theory: fundamentals & applications Science China-Information Sciences Raman, A., P., Shin, W., Fan, S., H. 2013; 56 (12)
  • Experimental demonstration of a photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect at radio frequencies Physical Review B Fang, K., J., Yu, Z., F., Fan, S., H. 2013; 87 (6)
  • Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Shuai, Y., C., Zhao, D., Y., Chadha et al, A., S. 2013; 103 (24)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4846475

  • Analytic Properties of Two-Photon Scattering Matrix in Integrated Quantum Systems Determined by the Cluster Decomposition Principle Physical Review Letters Xu, S., S., Rephaeli, E., Fan, S., H. 2013; 111 (22)
  • A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network Nature Nanotechnology Fan, S., H., Wu, H., Kong, S., D., Ruan et al., C., Z. 2013; 8 (6): 421-425

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2013.84

  • Enhancing far-field thermal emission with thermal extraction Nature Communications Fan, S., H., Yu, Z., Sergeant, N., P., Skauli et al., T. 2013; 4

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2765

  • Broadband Sharp 90-degree Bends and T-Splitters in Plasmonic Coaxial Waveguides Nano Letters Fan, S., H., Shin, W., Cai, W., S., Catrysse et al., P., B. 2013; 13 (10): 4753-4758

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402335x

  • Ultrahigh-contrast and large-bandwidth thermal rectification in near-field electromagnetic thermal transfer between nanoparticles Physical Review B Zhu, L., X., Otey, C., R., Fan, S., H. 2013; 88 (18)
  • Three-dimensional self-assembled photonic crystals with high temperature stability for thermal emission modification Nature Communications Fan, S., H., Arpin, K., A., Losego, M., D., Cloud et. al., A., N. 2013; 4

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms3630

  • Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy at High Concentrations using Gold Bowtie Nanoantennas (vol 406C, pg 3, 2012) Chemical Physics Kinkhabwala, A., A., Yu, Z., F., Fan et. al., S., H. 2013; 415: 309
  • Controlling the Flow of Light Using the Inhomogeneous Effective Gauge Field that Emerges from Dynamic Modulation Physical Review Letters Fang, K., J., Fan, S., H. 2013; 111 (20)
  • Wireless power transfer in the presence of metallic plates: Experimental results Aip Advances Fan, S., H., Yu, X., F., Skauli, T., Skauli et. al., B. 2013; 3 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4809665

  • Temporal coupled mode theory for thermal emission from a single thermal emitter supporting either a single mode or an orthogonal set of modes Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Zhu, L., X., Sandhu, S., Otey et. al., C. 2013; 102 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4794981

  • Optimization of non-periodic plasmonic light-trapping layers for thin-film solar cells Nature Communications Fan, S., H., Pala, R., A., Liu, J., S. Q., Barnard et. al., E., S. 2013; 4

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms3095

  • Modal Source Radiator Model for Arbitrary Two-Dimensional Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures on Metal Films Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics Tanemura, T., Wahl, P., Fan et. al., S., H. 2013; 19 (3)
  • Enhancing far-field thermal emission with thermal extraction. Nature communications Yu, Z., Sergeant, N. P., Skauli, T., Zhang, G., Wang, H., Fan, S. 2013; 4: 1730-?

    Abstract

    The control of thermal radiation is of great current importance for applications such as energy conversions and radiative cooling. Here we show theoretically that the thermal emission of a finite-size blackbody emitter can be enhanced in a thermal extraction scheme, where one places the emitter in optical contact with an extraction device consisting of a transparent object, as long as both the emitter and the extraction device have an internal density of state higher than vacuum, and the extraction device has an area larger than the emitter and moreover has a geometry that enables light extraction. As an experimental demonstration of the thermal extraction scheme, we observe a four-fold enhancement of the far-field thermal emission of a carbon-black emitter having an emissivity of 0.85.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2765

    View details for PubMedID 23591897

  • Enhancing the waveguide-resonator optical force with an all-optical on-chip analog of electromagnetically induced transparency PHYSICAL REVIEW A Intaraprasonk, V., Fan, S. 2012; 86 (6)
  • Ultra-compact photonic crystal waveguide spatial mode converter and its connection to the optical diode effect OPTICS EXPRESS Liu, V., Miller, D. A., Fan, S. 2012; 20 (27): 28388-28397

    Abstract

    We design an extremely compact photonic crystal waveguide spatial mode converter which converts the fundamental even mode to the higher order odd mode with nearly 100% efficiency. We adapt a previously developed design and optimization process that allows these types of devices to be designed in a matter of minutes. We also present an extremely compact optical diode device and clarify its general properties and its relation to spatial mode converters. Finally, we connect the results here to a general theory on the complexity of optical designs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314911400044

    View details for PubMedID 23263074

  • A simple Bayesian decision-theoretic design for dose-finding trials STATISTICS IN MEDICINE Fan, S. K., Lu, Y., Wang, Y. 2012; 31 (28): 3719-3730

    Abstract

    A flexible and simple Bayesian decision-theoretic design for dose-finding trials is proposed in this paper. In order to reduce the computational burden, we adopt a working model with conjugate priors, which is flexible to fit all monotonic dose-toxicity curves and produces analytic posterior distributions. We also discuss how to use a proper utility function to reflect the interest of the trial. Patients are allocated based on not only the utility function but also the chosen dose selection rule. The most popular dose selection rule is the one-step-look-ahead (OSLA), which selects the best-so-far dose. A more complicated rule, such as the two-step-look-ahead, is theoretically more efficient than the OSLA only when the required distributional assumptions are met, which is, however, often not the case in practice. We carried out extensive simulation studies to evaluate these two dose selection rules and found that OSLA was often more efficient than two-step-look-ahead under the proposed Bayesian structure. Moreover, our simulation results show that the proposed Bayesian method's performance is superior to several popular Bayesian methods and that the negative impact of prior misspecification can be managed in the design stage.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/sim.5438

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311402300021

    View details for PubMedID 22763943

  • On the Time to Conclusion of Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials and Its Application in Trial Designs STATISTICS IN BIOPHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH 2012; 4 (4): 324-335
  • Few-Photon Single-Atom Cavity QED With Input-Output Formalism in Fock Space IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2012; 18 (6): 1754-1762
  • Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation NATURE PHOTONICS Fang, K., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2012; 6 (11): 782-787
  • Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Yu, Z., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2012; 109 (17)

    Abstract

    The coupling between free space radiation and optical media critically influences the performance of optical devices. We show that, for any given photonic structure, the sum of the external coupling rates for all its optical modes are subject to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar absorbers.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.173901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310200100011

    View details for PubMedID 23215189

  • Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy at high concentrations using gold bowtie nanoantennas CHEMICAL PHYSICS Kinkhabwala, A. A., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Moerner, W. E. 2012; 406: 3-8
  • Optical Absorption Enhancement in Freestanding GaAs Thin Film Nanopyramid Arrays ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Liang, D., Huo, Y., Kang, Y., Wang, K. X., Gu, A., Tan, M., Yu, Z., Li, S., Jia, J., Bao, X., Wang, S., Yao, Y., Wong, H. P., Fan, S., Cui, Y., Harris, J. S. 2012; 2 (10): 1254-1260
  • S-4: A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures COMPUTER PHYSICS COMMUNICATIONS Liu, V., Fan, S. 2012; 183 (10): 2233-2244
  • Design for broadband on-chip isolator using stimulated Brillouin scattering in dispersion-engineered chalcogenide waveguides OPTICS EXPRESS Poulton, C. G., Pant, R., Byrnes, A., Fan, S., Steel, M. J., Eggleton, B. J. 2012; 20 (19): 21235-21246

    Abstract

    We propose a scheme for on-chip isolation in chalcogenide (As?S?) rib waveguides, in which Stimulated Brillouin Scattering is used to induce non-reciprocal mode conversion within a multi-moded waveguide. The design exploits the idea that a chalcogenide rib buried in a silica matrix acts as waveguide for both light and sound, and can also be designed to be multi-moded for both optical and acoustic waves. The enhanced opto-acoustic coupling allows significant isolation (> 20 dB) within a chip-scale (cm-long) device (< 10 cm). We also show that the bandwidth of this device can be dramatically increased by tuning the dispersion of the waveguide to match the group velocity between optical modes: we find that 20 dB isolation can be extended over a bandwidth of 25 nm.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308865600066

    View details for PubMedID 23037247

  • Near-Field Radiative Cooling of Nanostructures NANO LETTERS Guha, B., Otey, C., Poitras, C. B., Fan, S., Lipson, M. 2012; 12 (9): 4546-4550

    Abstract

    We measure near-field radiative cooling of a thermally isolated nanostructure up to a few degrees and show that in principle this process can efficiently cool down localized hotspots by tens of degrees at submicrometer gaps. This process of cooling is achieved without any physical contact, in contrast to heat transfer through conduction, thus enabling novel cooling capabilities. We show that the measured trend of radiative cooling agrees well theoretical predictions and is limited mainly by the geometry of the probe used here as well as the minimum separation that could be achieved in our setup. These results also pave the way for realizing other new effects based on resonant heat transfer, like thermal rectification and negative thermal conductance.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl301708e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308576000021

    View details for PubMedID 22891815

  • Photonic chip based tunable and reconfigurable narrowband microwave photonic filter using stimulated Brillouin scattering OPTICS EXPRESS Byrnes, A., Pant, R., Li, E., Choi, D., Poulton, C. G., Fan, S., Madden, S., Luther-Davies, B., Eggleton, B. J. 2012; 20 (17): 18836-18845

    Abstract

    We report the first demonstration of a photonic chip based dynamically reconfigurable, widely tunable, narrow pass-band, high Q microwave photonic filter (MPF). We exploit stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a 6.5 cm long chalcogenide (As2S3) photonic chip to demonstrate a MPF that exhibited a high quality factor of ~520 and narrow bandwidth and was dynamically reconfigurable and widely tunable. It maintained a stable 3 dB bandwidth of 23 ± 2MHz and amplitude of 20 ± 2 dB over a large frequency tuning range of 2-12 GHz. By tailoring the pump spectrum, we reconfigured the 3 dB bandwidth of the MPF from ~20 MHz to ~40 MHz and tuned the shape factor from 3.5 to 2 resulting in a nearly flat-topped filter profile. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing for RADAR and analogue communications.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307873600033

    View details for PubMedID 23038523

  • Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Lira, H., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Lipson, M. 2012; 109 (3)

    Abstract

    We demonstrate electrically driven nonreciprocity on a silicon chip. By achieving an indirect interband photonic transition, we show that the transmission coefficients between two single-mode waveguides become dependent on the propagation directions only in the presence of the electrical drive. Our structure is characterized by a nonsymmetric scattering matrix identical to a linear magneto-optical device.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.033901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306417600002

    View details for PubMedID 22861851

  • Rectification of evanescent heat transfer between dielectric-coated and uncoated silicon carbide plates JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Iizuka, H., Fan, S. 2012; 112 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4737465

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308424500087

  • Hybrid Silicon Nanocone-Polymer Solar Cells NANO LETTERS Jeong, S., Garnett, E. C., Wang, S., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L., McGehee, M. D., Cui, Y. 2012; 12 (6): 2971-2976

    Abstract

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 ?m thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm(2), which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl300713x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305106400054

    View details for PubMedID 22545674

  • High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell on a Periodic Nanocone Back Reflector ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Hsu, C., Battaglia, C., Pahud, C., Ruan, Z., Haug, F., Fan, S., Ballif, C., Cui, Y. 2012; 2 (6): 628-633
  • Instantaneous electric energy and electric power dissipation in dispersive media JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA B-OPTICAL PHYSICS Shin, W., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2012; 29 (5): 1048-1054
  • Choice of the perfectly matched layer boundary condition for frequency-domain Maxwell's equations solvers JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS Shin, W., Fan, S. 2012; 231 (8): 3406-3431
  • Temporal coupled-mode theory for light scattering by an arbitrarily shaped object supporting a single resonance PHYSICAL REVIEW A Ruan, Z., Fan, S. 2012; 85 (4)
  • Photonic Aharonov-Bohm Effect Based on Dynamic Modulation PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Fang, K., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2012; 108 (15)

    Abstract

    We show that when the refractive index of a photonic system is harmonically modulated, the phase of the modulation introduces an effective gauge potential for photons. This effective gauge potential can be used to create a photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. We show that the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect provides the optimal mechanism for achieving complete on-chip nonmagnetic optical isolation.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.153901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302703600004

    View details for PubMedID 22587255

  • Stimulated Emission from a Single Excited Atom in a Waveguide PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2012; 108 (14)

    Abstract

    We study stimulated emission from an excited two-level atom coupled to a waveguide containing an incident single-photon pulse. We show that the strong photon correlation, as induced by the atom, plays a very important role in stimulated emission. Additionally, the temporal duration of the incident photon pulse is shown to have a marked effect on stimulated emission and atomic lifetime.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.143602

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302293500010

    View details for PubMedID 22540793

  • Resonant Fiber Optic Gyroscope Using an Air-Core Fiber JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Terrel, M. A., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2012; 30 (7): 931-937
  • Absorption Enhancement in Ultrathin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflection and Light-Trapping Nanocone Gratings NANO LETTERS Wang, K. X., Yu, Z., Liu, V., Cui, Y., Fan, S. 2012; 12 (3): 1616-1619

    Abstract

    Enhancing the light absorption in ultrathin-film silicon solar cells is important for improving efficiency and reducing cost. We introduce a double-sided grating design, where the front and back surfaces of the cell are separately optimized for antireflection and light trapping, respectively. The optimized structure yields a photocurrent of 34.6 mA/cm(2) at an equivalent thickness of 2 ?m, close to the Yablonovitch limit. This approach is applicable to various thicknesses and is robust against metallic loss in the back reflector.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl204550q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301406800086

    View details for PubMedID 22356436

  • From Electromagnetically Induced Transparency to Superscattering with a Single Structure: A Coupled-Mode Theory for Doubly Resonant Structures PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Verslegers, L., Yu, Z., Ruan, Z., Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2012; 108 (8)

    Abstract

    We observe from simulations that a doubly resonant structure can exhibit spectral behavior analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency, as well as superscattering, depending on the excitation. We develop a coupled-mode theory that explains this behavior in terms of the orthogonality of the radiation patterns of the eigenmodes. These results provide insight in the general electromagnetic properties of photonic nanostructures and metamaterials.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.083902

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300576000010

    View details for PubMedID 22463532

  • Resonance fluorescence in a waveguide geometry PHYSICAL REVIEW A Kocabas, S. E., Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2012; 85 (2)
  • Lossless intensity modulation in integrated photonics OPTICS EXPRESS Sandhu, S., Fan, S. 2012; 20 (4): 4280-4290

    Abstract

    We present a dynamical analysis of lossless intensity modulation in two different ring resonator geometries. In both geometries, we demonstrate modulation schemes that result in a symmetrical output with an infinite on/off ratio. The systems behave as lossless intensity modulators where the time-averaged output optical power is equal to the time-averaged input optical power.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301041900093

    View details for PubMedID 22418187

  • Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Yao, Y., Yao, J., Narasimhan, V. K., Ruan, Z., Xie, C., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2012; 3

    Abstract

    Light trapping across a wide band of frequencies is important for applications such as solar cells and photodetectors. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to light management by forming whispering-gallery resonant modes inside a spherical nanoshell structure. The geometry of the structure gives rise to a low quality-factor, facilitating the coupling of light into the resonant modes and substantial enhancement of the light path in the active material, thus dramatically improving absorption. Using nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) as a model system, we observe broadband absorption enhancement across a large range of incident angles. The absorption of a single layer of 50-nm-thick spherical nanoshells is equivalent to a 1-?m-thick planar nc-Si film. This light-trapping structure could enable the manufacturing of high-throughput ultra-thin film absorbers in a variety of material systems that demand shorter deposition time, less material usage and transferability to flexible substrates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1664

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302060100005

    View details for PubMedID 22314360

  • Negative differential thermal conductance through vacuum APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhu, L., Otey, C. R., Fan, S. 2012; 100 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3679694

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300064500085

  • Comment on "Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit" SCIENCE Fan, S., Baets, R., Petrov, A., Yu, Z., Joannopoulos, J. D., Freude, W., Melloni, A., Popovic, M., Vanwolleghem, M., Jalas, D., Eich, M., Krause, M., Renner, H., Brinkmeyer, E., Doerr, C. R. 2012; 335 (6064)

    Abstract

    We show that the structure demonstrated by Feng et al. (Reports, 5 August 2011, p. 729) cannot enable optical isolation because it possesses a symmetric scattering matrix. Moreover, one cannot construct an optical isolator by incorporating this structure into any system as long as the system is linear and time-independent and is described by materials with a scalar dielectric function.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1216682

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298846200036

    View details for PubMedID 22223793

  • Temperature dependence of surface phonon polaritons from a quartz grating (vol 110, 043517, 2011) JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Hafeli, A. K., Rephaeli, E., Fan, S., Cahill, D. G., Tiwald, T. E. 2012; 111 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3665444

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299127200132

  • From Electromagnetically Induced Transparency to Superscattering with a Single Structure: A Coupled-Mode Theory for Doubly Resonant Structures Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Verslegers, L., Yu, Z., F., Ruan et al., Z., C. 2012; 108 (8)
  • Temporal coupled-mode theory for light scattering by an arbitrarily shaped object supporting a single resonance Physical Review A Ruan, Z., C., Fan, S., H. 2012; 85 (4)
  • Resonance fluorescence in a waveguide geometry Physical Review A Kocabas, S., E., Rephaeli, E., Fan, S., H. 2012; 85 (2)
  • Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures Physical Review Letters Yu, Z., F., Raman, A., Fan, S., H. 2012; 109 (17)
  • Temperature dependence of surface phonon polaritons from a quartz grating (vol 110, 043517, 2011) Journal of Applied Physics Hafeli, A., K., Rephaeli, E., Fan et. al., S., H. 2012; 111 (1)

    View details for DOI 019902 10.1063/1.3665444

  • Photonic Aharonov-Bohm Effect Based on Dynamic Modulation Physical Review Letters Fang, K., J., Yu, Z., F., Fan, S., H. 2012; 108 (15)
  • Negative differential thermal conductance through vacuum Applied Physics Letters Zhu, L., Otey, C., R., Fan, S., H. 2012; 100 (4)

    View details for DOI 044104 10.1063/1.3679694

  • Comment on "Nonreciprocal Light Propagation in a Silicon Photonic Circuit Science Fan, S., H., Baets, R., Petrov et. al., A. 2012; 335 (6064)

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1216682

  • Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells Nature Communications Fan, S., H., Yao, Y., Yao, J., Narasimhan et. al., V., K. 2012; 3

    View details for DOI 664 10.1038/ncomms1664

  • Stimulated Emission from a Single Excited Atom in a Waveguide Physical Review Letters Rephaeli, E., Fan, S., H. 2012; 108 (14)
  • Enhancing the waveguide-resonator optical force with an all-optical on-chip analog of electromagnetically induced transparency Physical Review A Intaraprasonk, V., Fan, S., H. 2012; 86 (6)
  • Electrically Driven Nonreciprocity Induced by Interband Photonic Transition on a Silicon Chip Physical Review Letters Lira, H., Yu, Z., F., Fan et. al., S., H. 2012; 109 (3)
  • Rectification of evanescent heat transfer between dielectric-coated and uncoated silicon carbide plates Journal of Applied Physics Iizuka, H., Fan, S., H. 2012; 112 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4737465

  • Extraordinarily high spectral sensitivity in refractive index sensors using multiple optical modes 2012 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2012
  • Deep sub-wavelength beam propagation, beam manipulation and imaging with extreme anisotropic meta-materials 2012 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2012
  • Photonic transitions can induce non-reciprocity and effective gauge field for photons FIFTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THEORETICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL NANO-PHOTONICS (TACONA-PHOTONICS 2012) Fan, S., Fang, K., Yu, Z. 2012; 1475: 16-17

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4750080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309602000005

  • Choice of the Perfectly Matched Layer boundary condition for iterative solvers of the frequency-domain Maxwell's equations PHYSICS AND SIMULATION OF OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES XX Shin, W., Fan, S. 2012; 8255

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.906869

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302993700016

  • Improving fiber optic gyroscope performance using a laser and photonic-bandgap fiber 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS, PTS 1-3 Lloyd, S., Fan, S., Digonnet, M. J. 2012; 8421

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2000380

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313011500009

  • Optical Transmission through Arbitrarily Located Subwavelength Apertures on Metal Films 2012 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) Tanemura, T., Wahl, P., Fan, S., Miller, D. A. 2012
  • Sensing With Slow Light in Fiber Bragg Gratings IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Wen, H., Terrel, M., Fan, S., Digonnet, M. 2012; 12 (1): 156-163
  • Numerically exact calculation of electromagnetic heat transfer between a dielectric sphere and plate PHYSICAL REVIEW B Otey, C., Fan, S. 2011; 84 (24)
  • Few-photon transport in a waveguide coupled to a pair of colocated two-level atoms PHYSICAL REVIEW A Rephaeli, E., Kocabas, S. E., Fan, S. 2011; 84 (6)
  • Two-photon transport in a waveguide coupled to a cavity in a two-level system PHYSICAL REVIEW A Shi, T., Fan, S., Sun, C. P. 2011; 84 (6)
  • Wireless energy transfer with the presence of metallic planes APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, X., Sandhu, S., Beiker, S., Sassoon, R., Fan, S. 2011; 99 (21)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3663576

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297471000055

  • Ultracompact nonreciprocal optical isolator based on guided resonance in a magneto-optical photonic crystal slab OPTICS LETTERS Fang, K., Yu, Z., Liu, V., Fan, S. 2011; 36 (21): 4254-4256

    Abstract

    We design an ultracompact optical isolator with normal incident geometry that operates with a bandwidth that is substantial for a device of this size. For operation in a telecommunication wavelength of 1.55??m, the thickness of the device is less than 1??m and the device supports an operating bandwidth of 400?GHz over which the minimum contrast ratio exceeds 25?dB. Our design utilizes guided resonance in a photonic crystal slab to enhance magneto-optical effects, and exploits interference effects among multiple resonances to create desired transmission spectral line shapes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296734700045

    View details for PubMedID 22048382

  • Nanophotonic light-trapping theory for solar cells APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING Yu, Z., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2011; 105 (2): 329-339
  • Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells OPTICS EXPRESS Raman, A., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2011; 19 (20): 19015-19026

    Abstract

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next-generation photovoltaic systems. However, carrier extraction limitations necessitate thin active layers that sacrifice absorption for internal quantum efficiency or vice versa. Motivated by recent theoretical developments, we show that dielectric wavelength-scale grating structures can produce significant absorption resonances in a realistic organic cell architecture. We numerically demonstrate that 1D, 2D and multi-level ITO-air gratings lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model organic solar cell where PCDTBT:PC(71)BM is the organic semiconductor. Specific to this approach, the active layer itself remains untouched yet receives the benefit of light trapping by nanostructuring the top surface below which it lies. The techniques developed here are broadly applicable to organic semiconductors in general, and enable partial decoupling between active layer thickness and photocurrent generation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295373800026

    View details for PubMedID 21996842

  • OPTICAL ISOLATION A non-magnetic approach NATURE PHOTONICS Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2011; 5 (9): 517-519
  • Temperature dependence of surface phonon polaritons from a quartz grating JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Hafeli, A. K., Rephaeli, E., Fan, S., Cahill, D. G., Tiwald, T. E. 2011; 110 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3624603

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294484300037

  • Microscopic theory of photonic one-way edge mode PHYSICAL REVIEW B Fang, K., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2011; 84 (7)
  • Efficient computation of equifrequency surfaces and density of states in photonic crystals using Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA B-OPTICAL PHYSICS Liu, V., Fan, S. 2011; 28 (8): 1837-1843
  • Complete All-Optical Silica Fiber Isolator via Stimulated Brillouin Scattering JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Huang, X., Fan, S. 2011; 29 (15): 2267-2275
  • Nonvolatile bistable all-optical switch from mechanical buckling APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Intaraprasonk, V., Fan, S. 2011; 98 (24)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3600335

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291803600004

  • Transverse Electromagnetic Modes in Aperture Waveguides Containing a Metamaterial with Extreme Anisotropy PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2011; 106 (22)

    Abstract

    We use metamaterials with extreme anisotropy to solve the fundamental problem of light transport in deep subwavelength apertures. By filling a simply connected aperture with an anisotropic medium, we decouple the cutoff frequency and the group velocity of modes inside apertures. In the limit of extreme anisotropy, all modes become purely transverse electromagnetic modes, free from geometrical dispersion, propagate with a velocity controlled by the transverse permittivity and permeability, and have zero cutoff frequency. We analyze physically realizable cases for a circular aperture and show a metamaterial design using existing materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.223902

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291199000006

    View details for PubMedID 21702600

  • Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing PHYSICAL REVIEW B Raman, A., Fan, S. 2011; 83 (20)
  • Extraordinarily high spectral sensitivity in refractive index sensors using multiple optical modes OPTICS EXPRESS Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2011; 19 (11): 10029-10040

    Abstract

    The extraordinary spectral sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors is commonly attributed to the modal overlap or unique dispersion of surface plasmons. In contrast to this belief, we show that such high sensitivity is due to the multi-mode nature of the sensing scheme. This concept of multi-mode sensing can be applied to dielectric systems as well in order to achieve similar extraordinary spectral sensitivity. We also show that there is a fundamental constraint between the spectral sensitivity and quality factor in such multi-mode sensing approach.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290852800001

    View details for PubMedID 21643261

  • Image transfer with subwavelength resolution to metal-dielectric interface JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA B-OPTICAL PHYSICS Intaraprasonk, V., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2011; 28 (5): 1335-1338
  • Experimental demonstration of two methods for controlling the group delay in a system with photonic-crystal resonators coupled to a waveguide OPTICS LETTERS Huo, Y., Sandhu, S., Pan, J., Stuhrmann, N., Povinelli, M. L., Kahn, J. M., Harris, J. S., Fejer, M. M., Fan, S. 2011; 36 (8): 1482-1484

    Abstract

    We measure the group delay in an on-chip photonic-crystal device with two resonators side coupled to a waveguide. We demonstrate that such a group delay can be controlled by tuning either the propagation phase of the waveguide or the frequency of the resonators.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290034500059

    View details for PubMedID 21499397

  • Design methodology for compact photonic-crystal-based wavelength division multiplexers OPTICS LETTERS Liu, V., Jiao, Y., Miller, D. A., Fan, S. 2011; 36 (4): 591-593

    Abstract

    We present an extremely compact wavelength division multiplexer design, as well as a general framework for designing and optimizing frequency selective devices embedded in photonic crystals satisfying arbitrary design constraints. Our method is based on the Dirichlet-to-Neumman simulation method and uses low rank updates to the system to efficiently scan through many device designs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287395500055

    View details for PubMedID 21326466

  • Design of subwavelength superscattering nanospheres APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Ruan, Z., Fan, S. 2011; 98 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3536475

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286676600041

  • Low Reflectivity and High Flexibility of Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Nanofiber Transparent Electrodes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Wu, H., Hu, L., Carney, T., Ruan, Z., Kong, D., Yu, Z., Yao, Y., Cha, J. J., Zhu, J., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2011; 133 (1): 27-29

    Abstract

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) has found widespread use in solar cells, displays, and touch screens as a transparent electrode; however, two major problems with ITO remain: high reflectivity (up to 10%) and insufficient flexibility. Together, these problems severely limit the applications of ITO films for future optoelectronic devices. In this communication, we report the fabrication of ITO nanofiber network transparent electrodes. The nanofiber networks show optical reflectivity as low as 5% and high flexibility; the nanofiber networks can be bent to a radius of 2 mm with negligible changes in the sheet resistance.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja109228e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286351100009

    View details for PubMedID 21142042

  • Angular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2011; 98 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3532099

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286009800007

  • Tight Binding Model Study of Photonic One-Way Edge Mode 2011 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) Fang, K., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2011
  • Wireless energy transfer with the presence of metallic planes Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Yu, X., F., Sandhu, S., Beiker et. al., S. 2011; 99 (21)

    View details for DOI 214102 10.1063/1.3663576

  • Nanophotonic light-trapping theory for solar cells Applied Physics a-Materials Science & Processing Yu, Z., F., Raman, A., Fan, S., H. 2011; 2: 105
  • Angular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells Applied Physics Letters Yu, Z., F., Fan, S., H. 2011; 98 (1)

    View details for DOI 011106 10.1063/1.3532099

  • Two-photon transport in a waveguide coupled to a cavity in a two-level system Physical Review A Shi, T., Fan, S., H., Sun, C., P. 2011; 84 (6)
  • Temperature dependence of surface phonon polaritons from a quartz grating ournal of Applied Physics Hafeli, A., K., Rephaeli, E., Fan et. al., S., H. 2011; 110 (4)

    View details for DOI 043517 10.1063/1.3624603

  • Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing Physical Review B Raman, A., Fan, S., H. 2011; 83 (20)
  • Few-photon transport in a waveguide coupled to a pair of colocated two-level atoms Physical Review A Rephaeli, E., Kocabas, S., E., Fan, S., H. 2011; 84 (6)
  • Nonvolatile bistable all-optical switch from mechanical buckling Applied Physics Letters Intaraprasonk, V., Fan, S., H. 2011; 98 (24)

    View details for DOI 241104 10.1063/1.3600335

  • Transverse Electromagnetic Modes in Aperture Waveguides Containing a Metamaterial with Extreme Anisotropy Physical Review Letters Catrysse, P., B., Fan, S., H. 2011; 106 (22)
  • Numerically exact calculation of electromagnetic heat transfer between a dielectric sphere and plate Physical Review B Otey, C., Fan, S., H. 2011; 84 (24)
  • Microscopic theory of photonic one-way edge mode Physical Review B Fang, K., J., Yu, Z., F., Fan, S., H. 2011; 84 (7)
  • Design of subwavelength superscattering nanospheres Applied Physics Letters Ruan, Z., C., Fan, S., H. 2011; 98 (4)

    View details for DOI 043101 10.1063/1.3536475

  • Transverse electro-magnetic modes in apertures filled with an extreme anisotropic meta-material 2011 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2011
  • Temporal Coupled-Mode Theory for Resonant Apertures 2011 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) Verslegers, L., Yu, Z., Catrysse, P. B., Ruan, Z., Fan, S. 2011
  • Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells 2011 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) Raman, A., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2011
  • Tactical-grade interferometric fiber optic gyroscope driven with a narrow-linewidth laser 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS Lloyd, S. W., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2011; 7753

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.886025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293567800067

  • Slow Light in Fiber Bragg Gratings ADVANCES IN SLOW AND FAST LIGHT IV Wen, H., Skolianos, G., Fan, S., Digonnet, M. 2011; 7949

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.880795

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293700300010

  • Integrated photonic structures for parallel fluorescence and refractive index biosensing PHOTONIC MICRODEVICES/MICROSTRUCTURES FOR SENSING III Lee, M. M., O'Sullivan, T. D., Cerruto, A., Liu, V., Zhang, J., Levi, O., Lee, H., Brueck, S. R., Fan, S., Harris, J. S. 2011; 8034

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.884228

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294154700005

  • Input-output formalism for few-photon transport in one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguides coupled to a qubit PHYSICAL REVIEW A Fan, S., Kocabas, S. E., Shen, J. 2010; 82 (6)
  • Elements for Plasmonic Nanocircuits with Three-Dimensional Slot Waveguides ADVANCED MATERIALS Cai, W., Shin, W., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 22 (45): 5120-?

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201001440

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285396400010

    View details for PubMedID 20859937

  • Nanostructured photon management for high performance solar cells MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING R-REPORTS Zhu, J., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2010; 70 (3-6): 330-340
  • Sensitivity enhancement in photonic crystal slab biosensors OPTICS EXPRESS El Beheiry, M., Liu, V., Fan, S., Levi, O. 2010; 18 (22): 22702-22714

    Abstract

    Refractive index sensitivity of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs is analyzed. We show that modal properties of guided resonances strongly affect spectral sensitivity and quality factors, resulting in substantial enhancement of refractive index sensitivity. A three-fold spectral sensitivity enhancement is demonstrated for suspended slab designs, in contrast to designs with a slab resting over a substrate. Spectral sensitivity values are additionally shown to be unaffected by quality factor reductions, which are common to fabricated photonic crystal nano-structures. Finally, we determine that proper selection of photonic crystal slab design parameters permits biosensing of a wide range of analytes, including proteins, antigens, and cells. These photonic crystals are compatible with large-area biosensor designs, permitting direct access to externally incident optical beams in a microfluidic device.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283560400009

    View details for PubMedID 21164609

  • Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Yu, Z., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2010; 107 (41): 17491-17496

    Abstract

    Establishing the fundamental limit of nanophotonic light-trapping schemes is of paramount importance and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping demonstrated that absorption enhancement in a medium cannot exceed a factor of 4n(2)/sin(2)?, where n is the refractive index of the active layer, and ? is the angle of the emission cone in the medium surrounding the cell. This theory, however, is not applicable in the nanophotonic regime. Here we develop a statistical temporal coupled-mode theory of light trapping based on a rigorous electromagnetic approach. Our theory reveals that the conventional limit can be substantially surpassed when optical modes exhibit deep-subwavelength-scale field confinement, opening new avenues for highly efficient next-generation solar cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1008296107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282809700012

    View details for PubMedID 20876131

  • The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-II study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models PHARMACOGENOMICS JOURNAL Shi, L., Campbell, G., Jones, W. D., Campagne, F., Wen, Z., Walker, S. J., Su, Z., Chu, T., Goodsaid, F. M., Pusztai, L., Shaughnessy, J. D., Oberthuer, A., Thomas, R. S., Paules, R. S., Fielden, M., Barlogie, B., Chen, W., Du, P., Fischer, M., Furlanello, C., Gallas, B. D., Ge, X., Megherbi, D. B., Symmans, W. F., Wang, M. D., Zhang, J., Bitter, H., Brors, B., Bushel, P. R., Bylesjo, M., Chen, M., Cheng, J., Cheng, J., Chou, J., Davison, T. S., Delorenzi, M., Deng, Y., Devanarayan, V., Dix, D. J., Dopazo, J., Dorff, K. C., Elloumi, F., Fan, J., Fan, S., Fan, X., Fang, H., Gonzaludo, N., Hess, K. R., Hong, H., Huan, J., Irizarry, R. A., Judson, R., Juraeva, D., Lababidi, S., Lambert, C. G., Li, L., Li, Y., Li, Z., Lin, S. M., Liu, G., Lobenhofer, E. K., Luo, J., Luo, W., McCall, M. N., Nikolsky, Y., Pennello, G. A., Perkins, R. G., Philip, R., Popovici, V., Price, N. D., Qian, F., Scherer, A., Shi, T., Shi, W., Sung, J., Thierry-Mieg, D., Thierry-Mieg, J., Thodima, V., Trygg, J., Vishnuvajjala, L., Wang, S. J., Wu, J., Wu, Y., Xie, Q., Yousef, W. A., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Zhong, S., Zhou, Y., Zhu, S., Arasappan, D., Bao, W., Lucas, A. B., Berthold, F., Brennan, R. J., Buness, A., Catalano, J. G., Chang, C., Chen, R., Cheng, Y., Cui, J., Czika, W., Demichelis, F., Deng, X., Dosymbekov, D., Eils, R., Feng, Y., Fostel, J., Fulmer-Smentek, S., Fuscoe, J. C., Gatto, L., Ge, W., Goldstein, D. R., Guo, L., Halbert, D. N., Han, J., Harris, S. C., Hatzis, C., Herman, D., Huang, J., Jensen, R. V., Jiang, R., Johnson, C. D., Jurman, G., Kahlert, Y., Khuder, S. A., Kohl, M., Li, J., Li, L., Li, M., Li, Q., Li, S., Li, Z., Liu, J., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Meng, L., Madera, M., Martinez-Murillo, F., Medina, I., Meehan, J., Miclaus, K., Moffitt, R. A., Montaner, D., Mukherjee, P., Mulligan, G. J., Neville, P., Nikolskaya, T., Ning, B., Page, G. P., Parker, J., Parry, R. M., Peng, X., Peterson, R. L., Phan, J. H., Quanz, B., Ren, Y., Riccadonna, S., Roter, A. H., Samuelson, F. W., Schumacher, M. M., Shambaugh, J. D., Shi, Q., Shippy, R., Si, S., Smalter, A., Sotiriou, C., Soukup, M., Staedtler, F., Steiner, G., Stokes, T. H., Sun, Q., Tan, P., Tang, R., Tezak, Z., Thorn, B., Tsyganova, M., Turpaz, Y., Vega, S. C., Visintainer, R., von Frese, J., Wang, C., Wang, E., Wang, J., Wang, W., Westermann, F., Willey, J. C., Woods, M., Wu, S., Xiao, N., Xu, J., Xu, L., Yang, L., Zeng, X., Zhang, J., Zhang, L., Zhang, M., Zhao, C., Puri, R. K., Scherf, U., Tong, W., Wolfinger, R. D. 2010: S5-S16

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1665

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285268700003

  • Temporal coupled-mode theory for resonant apertures JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA B-OPTICAL PHYSICS Verslegers, L., Yu, Z., Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2010; 27 (10): 1947-1956
  • Exponential suppression of thermal conductance using coherent transport and heterostructures PHYSICAL REVIEW B Lau, W. T., Shen, J., Fan, S. 2010; 82 (11)
  • Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures OPTICS EXPRESS Yu, Z., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2010; 18 (19): A366-A380

    Abstract

    We use a rigorous electromagnetic approach to analyze the fundamental limit of light-trapping enhancement in grating structures. This limit can exceed the bulk limit of 4n², but has significant angular dependency. We explicitly show that 2D gratings provide more enhancement than 1D gratings. We also show the effects of the grating profile's symmetry on the absorption enhancement limit. Numerical simulations are applied to support the theory. Our findings provide general guidance for the design of grating structures for light-trapping solar cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285263500004

    View details for PubMedID 21165067

  • Full inversion of a two-level atom with a single-photon pulse in one-dimensional geometries PHYSICAL REVIEW A Rephaeli, E., Shen, J., Fan, S. 2010; 82 (3)
  • Tuning the coherent interaction in an on-chip photonic-crystal waveguide-resonator system APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Pan, J., Huo, Y., Sandhu, S., Stuhrmann, N., Povinelli, M. L., Harris, J. S., Fejer, M. M., Fan, S. 2010; 97 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3486686

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282478800002

  • Quantum critical coupling conditions for zero single-photon transmission through a coupled atom-resonator-waveguide system PHYSICAL REVIEW A Shen, J., Fan, S. 2010; 82 (2)
  • Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices NANO LETTERS Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2010; 10 (8): 2944-2949

    Abstract

    We investigate the use of nanopatterned metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics of nanopatterned electrodes, which are often optically thin metallic films, differs from that of optically thick metallic films. We analyze the optical properties when performing a geometrical transformation that maintains the electrical properties. For one-dimensional patterns of metallic wires, the analysis favors tall and narrow wires. Our design principles remain valid for oblique incidence and readily carry over to two-dimensional patterns.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl1011239

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280728900035

    View details for PubMedID 20698607

  • The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-IIII study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Shi, L., Campbell, G., Jones, W. D., Campagne, F., Wen, Z., Walker, S. J., Su, Z., Chu, T., Goodsaid, F. M., Pusztai, L., Shaughnessy, J. D., Oberthuer, A., Thomas, R. S., Paules, R. S., Fielden, M., Barlogie, B., Chen, W., Du, P., Fischer, M., Furlanello, C., Gallas, B. D., Ge, X., Megherbi, D. B., Symmans, W. F., Wang, M. D., Zhang, J., Bitter, H., Brors, B., Bushel, P. R., Bylesjo, M., Chen, M., Cheng, J., Cheng, J., Chou, J., Davison, T. S., Delorenzi, M., Deng, Y., Devanarayan, V., Dix, D. J., Dopazo, J., Dorff, K. C., Elloumi, F., Fan, J., Fan, S., Fan, X., Fang, H., Gonzaludo, N., Hess, K. R., Hong, H., Huan, J., Irizarry, R. A., Judson, R., Juraeva, D., Lababidi, S., Lambert, C. G., Li, L., Li, Y., Li, Z., Lin, S. M., Liu, G., Lobenhofer, E. K., Luo, J., Luo, W., McCall, M. N., Nikolsky, Y., Pennello, G. A., Perkins, R. G., Philip, R., Popovici, V., Price, N. D., Qian, F., Scherer, A., Shi, T., Shi, W., Sung, J., Thierry-Mieg, D., Thierry-Mieg, J., Thodima, V., Trygg, J., Vishnuvajjala, L., Wang, S. J., Wu, J., Wu, Y., Xie, Q., Yousef, W. A., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Zhong, S., Zhou, Y., Zhu, S., Arasappan, D., Bao, W., Lucas, A. B., Berthold, F., Brennan, R. J., Buness, A., Catalano, J. G., Chang, C., Chen, R., Cheng, Y., Cui, J., Czika, W., Demichelis, F., Deng, X., Dosymbekov, D., Eils, R., Feng, Y., Fostel, J., Fulmer-Smentek, S., Fuscoe, J. C., Gatto, L., Ge, W., Goldstein, D. R., Guo, L., Halbert, D. N., Han, J., Harris, S. C., Hatzis, C., Herman, D., Huang, J., Jensen, R. V., Jiang, R., Johnson, C. D., Jurman, G., Kahlert, Y., Khuder, S. A., Kohl, M., Li, J., Li, L., Li, M., Li, Q., Li, S., Li, Z., Liu, J., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Meng, L., Madera, M., Martinez-Murillo, F., Medina, I., Meehan, J., Miclaus, K., Moffitt, R. A., Montaner, D., Mukherjee, P., Mulligan, G. J., Neville, P., Nikolskaya, T., Ning, B., Page, G. P., Parker, J., Parry, R. M., Peng, X., Peterson, R. L., Phan, J. H., Quanz, B., Ren, Y., Riccadonna, S., Roter, A. H., Samuelson, F. W., Schumacher, M. M., Shambaugh, J. D., Shi, Q., Shippy, R., Si, S., Smalter, A., Sotiriou, C., Soukup, M., Staedtler, F., Steiner, G., Stokes, T. H., Sun, Q., Tan, P., Tang, R., Tezak, Z., Thorn, B., Tsyganova, M., Turpaz, Y., Vega, S. C., Visintainer, R., von Frese, J., Wang, C., Wang, E., Wang, J., Wang, W., Westermann, F., Willey, J. C., Woods, M., Wu, S., Xiao, N., Xu, J., Xu, L., Yang, L., Zeng, X., Zhang, J., Zhang, L., Zhang, M., Zhao, C., Puri, R. K., Scherf, U., Tong, W., Wolfinger, R. D. 2010; 28 (8): 827-U109

    Abstract

    Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, >30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1665

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280757500023

    View details for PubMedID 20676074

  • Superscattering of Light from Subwavelength Nanostructures PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Ruan, Z., Fan, S. 2010; 105 (1)

    Abstract

    We provide a theoretical discussion of the scattering cross section of individual subwavelength structures. We show that, in principle, an arbitrarily large total cross section can be achieved, provided that one maximizes contributions from a sufficiently large number of channels. As a numerical demonstration, we present a subwavelength nanorod with a plasmonic-dielectric-plasmonic layer structure, where the scattering cross section far exceeds the single-channel limit, even in the presence of loss.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.013901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279273600001

    View details for PubMedID 20867445

  • Optimization of the splice loss between photonic-bandgap fibers and conventional single-mode fibers OPTICS LETTERS Aghaie, K. Z., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2010; 35 (12): 1938-1940

    Abstract

    To understand the loss limitations of a splice between a hollow-core fiber and a conventional fiber, we use a numerical model to calculate the expected coupling loss between the NKT Photonics' HC-1550-02 fiber and a single-mode fiber (SMF) of arbitrary step-index profile. When the SMF parameters are optimized, the splice loss is predicted to be as low as approximately 0.6 dB. This minimum is believed to be largely due to mode-shape mismatch. These predictions are confirmed experimentally by optimizing the splice loss between this photonic-bandgap fiber and five SMFs with different mode-field diameters (MFDs) and V numbers. With the SMF-28 fiber, the measured loss is 1.3 dB, in excellent agreement with theory. Using a SMF with parameters close to the optimum values (MFD=7.2 microm and V=2.16), this loss was reduced to a new record value of 0.79 dB.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279435800004

    View details for PubMedID 20548345

  • Enhancing optical switching with coherent control APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S. 2010; 96 (23)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3449572

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278695900008

  • Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning NANO LETTERS Zhu, J., Hsu, C., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2010; 10 (6): 1979-1984

    Abstract

    Here for the first time, we demonstrate novel nanodome solar cells, which have periodic nanoscale modulation for all layers from the bottom substrate, through the active absorber to the top transparent contact. These devices combine many nanophotonic effects to both efficiently reduce reflection and enhance absorption over a broad spectral range. Nanodome solar cells with only a 280 nm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer can absorb 94% of the light with wavelengths of 400-800 nm, significantly higher than the 65% absorption of flat film devices. Because of the nearly complete absorption, a very large short-circuit current of 17.5 mA/cm(2) is achieved in our nanodome devices. Excitingly, the light management effects remain efficient over a wide range of incident angles, favorable for real environments with significant diffuse sunlight. We demonstrate nanodome devices with a power efficiency of 5.9%, which is 25% higher than the flat film control. The nanodome structure is not in principle limited to any specific material system and its fabrication is compatible with most solar manufacturing; hence it opens up exciting opportunities for a variety of photovoltaic devices to further improve performance, reduce materials usage, and relieve elemental abundance limitations. Lastly, our nanodome devices when modified with hydrophobic molecules present a nearly superhydrophobic surface and thus enable self-cleaning solar cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl9034237

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278449200002

    View details for PubMedID 19891462

  • Birefringence Analysis of Photonic-Bandgap Fibers Using the Hexagonal Yee's Cell IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Aghaie, K. Z., Fan, S., Digonnet, M. J. 2010; 46 (6): 920-930
  • Combining radiationless interference with evanescent field amplification OPTICS LETTERS Intaraprasonk, V., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2010; 35 (10): 1659-1661

    Abstract

    The conventional approach for radiationless interference exploits the interference of evanescent components for the purpose of deep-subwavelength focusing and image formation. As a result, deep subwavelength feature size is achieved at the price of severe exponential decay of the field strength. We propose to overcome the limitation of the conventional approach by combining radiationless interference with evanescent field amplification as provided by the surface polaritons at the interface between positive- and negative-dielectric materials. Our approach removes the exponential decay and, moreover, allows a much wider range of wave vectors, including both propagating and evanescent field components, to participate in the image-formation process.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277773400056

    View details for PubMedID 20479841

  • Temporal Coupled-Mode Theory for Fano Resonance in Light Scattering by a Single Obstacle JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Ruan, Z., Fan, S. 2010; 114 (16): 7324-7329

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp9089722

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276889300018

  • Thermal Rectification through Vacuum PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Otey, C. R., Lau, W. T., Fan, S. 2010; 104 (15)

    Abstract

    We propose a mechanism for photon mediated thermal rectification through vacuum relying only on the temperature dependence of electromagnetic resonances. We also propose an example implementation consisting of two polytypes of silicon carbide, which exploits the interaction of temperature dependent surface phonon polaritons to achieve significant rectification.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.154301

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277001700021

    View details for PubMedID 20481993

  • Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Min, C., Li, J., Veronis, G., Lee, J., Fan, S., Peumans, P. 2010; 96 (13)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3377791

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276275300059

  • Phase front design with metallic pillar arrays OPTICS LETTERS Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., Shin, W., Ruan, Z., Fan, S. 2010; 35 (6): 844-846

    Abstract

    We demonstrate numerically, using a three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain method, the ability to design a phase front using an array of metallic pillars. We show that in such structures, the local phase delay upon transmission can be tuned by local geometry. We apply this knowledge to demonstrate a metallic microlens. The presented design principles apply to a wider range of wavelength-size integrated photonic components.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275827000017

    View details for PubMedID 20237618

  • Integrated Nonmagnetic Optical Isolators Based on Photonic Transitions IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2010; 16 (2): 459-466
  • Multiplexed Five-Color Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells and Tumor Tissues with Carbon Nanotube Raman Tags in the Near-Infrared NANO RESEARCH Liu, Z., Tabakman, S., Sherlock, S., Li, X., Chen, Z., Jiang, K., Fan, S., Dai, H. 2010; 3 (3): 222-233
  • Transmission Through a Scalar Wave Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Metamaterial and the Implication for Polarization Control JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY Shin, J., Shen, J., Fan, S. 2010; 10 (3): 1737-1740

    Abstract

    An interweaving-conductor metamaterial (ICM) is a metamaterial composed of multiple, interlocking, conducting networks. It exhibits unusual optical properties in the low-frequency linear-dispersion regime. In particular, two-network ICM supports only one, non-dispersive mode in the low frequency range, and is best described as an effective medium supporting a scalar wave in full three dimensions. We explore the light transmission properties of such a metamaterial, and the implications of a scalar wave medium for polarization control. Polarizers and polarization rotators with subwavelength sizes are numerically demonstrated.

    View details for DOI 10.1166/jnn.2010.2036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273984800036

    View details for PubMedID 20355567

  • Mapping local optical densities of states in silicon photonic structures with nanoscale electron spectroscopy PHYSICAL REVIEW B Cha, J. J., Yu, Z., Smith, E., Couillard, M., Fan, S., Muller, D. A. 2010; 81 (11)
  • Photonic Band Structure of Dispersive Metamaterials Formulated as a Hermitian Eigenvalue Problem PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Raman, A., Fan, S. 2010; 104 (8)

    Abstract

    We formulate the photonic band structure calculation of any lossless dispersive photonic crystal and optical metamaterial as a Hermitian eigenvalue problem. We further show that the eigenmodes of such lossless systems provide an orthonormal basis, which can be used to rigorously describe the behavior of lossy dispersive systems in general.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.087401

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275060000043

    View details for PubMedID 20366963

  • Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers NANO LETTERS Cao, L., Fan, P., Vasudev, A. P., White, J. S., Yu, Z., Cai, W., Schuller, J. A., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2010; 10 (2): 439-445

    Abstract

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells can serve as a virtually unlimited clean source of energy by converting sunlight into electrical power. Their importance is reflected in the tireless efforts that have been devoted to improving the electrical and structural properties of PV materials. More recently, photon management (PM) has emerged as a powerful additional means to boost energy conversion efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new PM strategy that capitalizes on strong broad band optical antenna effects in one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures to dramatically enhance absorption of sunlight. We show that the absorption of sunlight in Si nanowires (Si NWs) can be significantly enhanced over the bulk. The NW's optical properties also naturally give rise to an improved angular response. We propose that by patterning the silicon layer in a thin film PV cell into an array of NWs, one can boost the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250% increase in the light absorption per unit volume of material). These results significantly advance our understanding of the way sunlight is absorbed by one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures and provide a clear, intuitive guidance for the design of efficient NW solar cells. The presented approach is universal to any semiconductor and a wide range of nanostructures; as such, it provides a new PV platform technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl9036627

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274338800013

    View details for PubMedID 20078065

  • NANOPHOTONICS Magnet-controlled plasmons NATURE PHOTONICS Fan, S. 2010; 4 (2): 76-77
  • Measurement of reduced backscattering noise in laser-driven fiber optic gyroscopes OPTICS LETTERS Lloyd, S. W., Dangui, V., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S., Kino, G. S. 2010; 35 (2): 121-123

    Abstract

    We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of a laser-driven fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) built with an air-core fiber. Its phase noise is measured to be 130 murad/ radicalHz. When the sensing fiber is replaced with a conventional fiber, this figure drops to 12 murad/ radicalHz. Comparison between these values suggests that the air-core fiber gyro is most likely not limited solely by backscattering noise but by reflections at the solid-core/air-core interface. By minimizing additional noise sources and reducing the air-core fiber loss to its theoretical limit (approximately 0.1 dB/km), we predict that the backscattering noise of the laser-driven air-core FOG will drop below the level of current FOGs. Compared with commercial FOGs, this FOG will exhibit a lower noise, improved thermal and mean-wavelength stability, and reduced magnetic-field sensitivity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273879200010

    View details for PubMedID 20081941

  • Optical resonances created by photonic transitions APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2010; 96 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3279130

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273473200008

  • Directional Photofluidization Lithography for Nanoarchitectures with Controlled Shapes and Sizes NANO LETTERS Lee, S., Shin, J., Lee, Y., Fan, S., Park, J. 2010; 10 (1): 296-304

    Abstract

    Highly ordered metallic nanostructures have attracted an increasing interest in nanoscale electronics, photonics, and spectroscopic imaging. However, methods typically used for fabricating metallic nanostructures, such as direct writing and template-based nanolithography, have low throughput and are, moreover, limited to specific fabricated shapes such as holes, lines, and prisms, respectively. Herein, we demonstrate directional photofluidization lithography (DPL) as a new method to address the aforementioned problems of current nanolithography. The key idea of DPL is the use of photoreconfigurable polymer arrays to be molded in metallic nanostructures instead of conventional colloids or cross-linked polymer arrays. The photoreconfiguration of polymers by directional photofluidization allows unprecedented control over the sizes and shapes of metallic nanostructures. Besides the capability for precise control of structural features, DPL ensures scalable, parallel, and cost-effective processing, highly compatible with high-throughput fabrication. Therefore, DPL can expand not only the potential for specific metallic nanostructure applications but also large-scale innovative nanolithography.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl903570c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273428700050

    View details for PubMedID 20017565

  • Absorber and emitter for solar thermophotovoltaic systems to achieve efficiency exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit Optics Express Rephaeli, E., Fan, S., H. 2010; 17 (17): 15145-15159
  • Full inversion of a two-level atom with a single-photon pulse in one-dimensional geometries Physical Review A Rephaeli, E., Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2010; 82 (3)
  • Experimental demonstration of an all-optical analogue to the superradiance effect in an on-chip photonic crystal resonator system Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Pan, J., Sandhu, S., Huo et. al., Y., J. 2010; 81 (4)
  • Exponential suppression of thermal conductance using coherent transport and heterostructures Physical Review B Lau, W., T., Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2010; 82 (11)
  • Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Min, C., J., Li, J., Veronis et. al., G. 2010; 96 (13)

    View details for DOI 133302 10.1063/1.3377791

  • Tuning the coherent interaction in an on-chip photonic-crystal waveguide-resonator system Applied Physics Letters Pan, J., Huo, Y., J., Sandhu et. al., S. 2010; 97 (10)

    View details for DOI 101102 10.1063/1.3486686

  • Input-output formalism for few-photon transport in one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguides coupled to a qubit Physical Review A Fan, S., H., Kocabas, S., E., shen, J., T. 2010; 82 (6)
  • Thermal Rectification through Vacuum Physical Review Letters Otey, C., R., Lau, W., T., Fan, S., H. 2010; 104 (15)
  • Superscattering of Light from Subwavelength Nanostructures Physical Review Letters Ruan, Z., C., Fan, S., H. 2010; 105 (1)
  • Elements for Plasmonic Nanocircuits with Three-Dimensional Slot Waveguides Advanced Materials Cai, W., S., Shin, W., Fan et. al., S., H. 2010; 22 (45): 5120-+

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201001440

  • Quantum critical coupling conditions for zero single-photon transmission through a coupled atom-resonator-waveguide system Physical Review A Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2010; 82 (2)
  • Photonic Band Structure of Dispersive Metamaterials Formulated as a Hermitian Eigenvalue Problem Physical Review Letters Raman, A., Fan, S., H. 2010; 104 (8)
  • Optical resonances created by photonic transitions Applied Physics Letters Yu, Z., F., Fan, S., H. 2010; 96 (1)

    View details for DOI 011108 10.1063/1.3279130

  • Mapping local optical densities of states in silicon photonic structures with nanoscale electron spectroscopy Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Cha, J., J., Yu, Z., F., Smith et. al., E. 2010; 81 (11)
  • Enhancing optical switching with coherent control Applied Physics Letters Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M., L., Fan, S., H. 2010; 96 (23)

    View details for DOI 231108 10.1063/1.3449572

  • Deep-subwavelength focusing and steering of light in an aperiodic metallic waveguide array INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XIV Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2010; 7604

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.842692

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284398000020

  • Optimizing Nano-patterned Metal Films for Use as Transparent Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices 2010 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (QELS) Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2010
  • Dynamic Photonic Structure for Integrated Photonics OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS XII Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2010; 7605

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.846032

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284396700018

  • Temporal coupled-mode theory for the Fano resonance in light scattering and its applications 2010 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (QELS) Ruan, Z., Fan, S. 2010
  • LIMIT OF NANOPHOTONIC LIGHT-TRAPPING IN SOLAR CELLS 35TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE Yu, Z., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2010: 76-78
  • Fundamental Limit of Nanophotonic Light-trapping in Solar Cells 2010 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (QELS) Yu, Z., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2010
  • Fundamental Limit of Nanophotonic Light-trapping in Solar Cells NEXT GENERATION (NANO) PHOTONIC AND CELL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION Yu, Z., Raman, A., Fan, S. 2010; 7772

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.861457

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285841900015

  • Phase Front Design with Metallic Pillar Arrays 2010 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO) AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (QELS) Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., Shin, W., Ruan, Z., Fan, S. 2010
  • Experimental demonstration of an all-optical analogue to the superradiance effect in an on-chip photonic crystal resonator system PHYSICAL REVIEW B Pan, J., Sandhu, S., Huo, Y., Stuhrmann, N., Povinelli, M. L., Harris, J. S., Fejer, M. M., Fan, S. 2010; 81 (4)
  • Resonance-enhanced optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs OPTICS EXPRESS Liu, V., Povinelli, M., Fan, S. 2009; 17 (24): 21897-21909

    Abstract

    The behaviors of lateral and normal optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs are analyzed. We show that the optical force is periodic with displacement, resulting in stable and unstable equilibrium positions. Moreover, the forces are strongly enhanced by guided resonances of the coupled slabs. Such enhancement is particularly prominent near dark states of the system, and the enhancement effect is strongly dependent on the types of guided resonances involved. These structures lead to enhancement of light-induced pressure over larger areas, in a configuration that is directly accessible to externally incident, free-space optical beams.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272229400061

    View details for PubMedID 19997434

  • Two-electron transport in a quantum waveguide having a single Anderson impurity NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS Shen, J., Fan, S. 2009; 11
  • Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna NATURE PHOTONICS Kinkhabwala, A., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Avlasevich, Y., Muellen, K., Moerner, W. E. 2009; 3 (11): 654-657
  • Wave-vector space picture for radiationless focusing and beaming OPTICS LETTERS Intaraprasonk, V., Fan, S. 2009; 34 (19): 2967-2969

    Abstract

    Radiationless interference of an electromagnetic wave occurs in the near field when the feature sizes of the waves are at the deep subwavelength scale. We present the propagation in such a regime using a wave-vector space picture. Using this picture, we reproduce the condition to achieve near-field focusing. We also design the initial field distribution needed for near-field beaming, where an intensity distribution maintains its shape as it propagates. We conclude the discussion by proposing a possible implementation of the near-field beaming scheme.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270366800030

    View details for PubMedID 19794784

  • Universal features of coherent photonic thermal conductance in multilayer photonic band gap structures PHYSICAL REVIEW B Lau, W. T., Shen, J., Fan, S. 2009; 80 (15)
  • Side-coupled cavity model for surface plasmon-polariton transmission across a groove OPTICS EXPRESS Liu, J. S., White, J. S., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 17 (20): 17837-17848

    Abstract

    We demonstrate that the transmission properties of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) across a rectangular groove in a metallic film can be described by an analytical model that treats the groove as a side-coupled cavity to propagating SPPs on the metal surface. The coupling efficiency to the groove is quantified by treating it as a truncated metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide. Finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) simulations and mode orthogonality relations are employed to derive the basic scattering coefficients that describe the interaction between the relevant modes in the system. The modeled SPP transmission and reflection intensities show excellent agreement with full-field simulations over a wide range of groove dimensions, validating this intuitive model. The model predicts the sharp transmission minima that occur whenever an incident SPP resonantly couples to the groove. We also for the first time show the importance of evanescent, reactive MDM SPP modes to the transmission behavior. SPPs that couple to this mode are resonantly enhanced upon reflection from the bottom of the groove, leading to high field intensities and sharp transmission minima across the groove. The resonant behavior exhibited by the grooves has a number of important device applications, including SPP mirrors, filters, and modulators.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270295300065

    View details for PubMedID 19907571

  • Ring-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer optimized for sensing APPLIED OPTICS Terrel, M., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2009; 48 (26): 4874-4879

    Abstract

    We demonstrate numerically that the theoretical maximum sensitivity of a ring-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optimized as a sensor is about 30% greater than the optimized sensitivity of a conventional single-bus ring sensor with an identical ring perimeter and loss. The ring-coupled MZI sensor also achieves its greater sensitivity with a 25% lower circulating power, which is useful for the suppression of undesirable nonlinear effects.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270117600004

    View details for PubMedID 19745847

  • Performance comparison of slow-light coupled-resonator optical gyroscopes LASER & PHOTONICS REVIEWS Terrel, M., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2009; 3 (5): 452-465
  • Classification of the Core Modes of Hollow-Core Photonic-Bandgap Fibers IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Aghaie, K. Z., Dangui, V., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S., Kino, G. S. 2009; 45 (9): 1192-1200
  • Overcoming gain-bandwidth product constraint in slow light Raman amplification with the use of light-stopping schemes APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S. 2009; 95 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3211126

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269723200003

  • Planar metallic nanoscale slit lenses for angle compensation APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2009; 95 (7)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3211875

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269288300012

  • Absorber and emitter for solar thermophotovoltaic systems to achieve efficiency exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit OPTICS EXPRESS Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2009; 17 (17): 15145-15159

    Abstract

    We present theoretical considerations as well as detailed numerical design of absorber and emitter for Solar Thermophotovoltaics (STPV) applications. The absorber, consisting of an array of tungsten pyramids, was designed to provide near-unity absorptivity over all solar wavelengths for a wide angular range, enabling it to absorb light effectively from solar sources regardless of concentration. The emitter, a tungsten slab with Si/SiO(2) multilayer stack, provides a sharp emissivity peak at the solar cell band-gap while suppressing emission at lower frequencies. We show that, under a suitable light concentration condition, and with a reasonable area ratio between the emitter and absorber, a STPV system employing such absorber-emitter pair and a single-junction solar cell can attain efficiency that exceeds the Shockley-Queisser limit.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269232800069

    View details for PubMedID 19687992

  • Enhancement of optics-to-THz conversion efficiency by metallic slot waveguides OPTICS EXPRESS Ruan, Z., Veronis, G., Vodopyanov, K. L., Fejer, M. M., Fan, S. 2009; 17 (16): 13502-13515

    Abstract

    A metallic slot waveguide, with a dielectric strip embedded within, is investigated for the purpose of enhancing the optics-to-THz conversion efficiency using the difference-frequency generation (DFG) process. To describe the frequency conversion process in such lossy waveguides, a fully-vectorial coupled-mode theory is developed. Using the coupled-mode theory, we outline the basic theoretical requirements for efficient frequency conversion, which include the needs to achieve large coupling coefficients, phase matching, and low propagation loss for both the optical and THz waves. Following these requirements, a metallic waveguide is designed by considering the trade-off between modal confinement and propagation loss. Our numerical calculation shows that the conversion efficiency in these waveguide structures can be more than one order of magnitude larger than what has been achieved using dielectric waveguides. Based on the distinct impact of the slot width on the optical and THz modal dispersion, we propose a two-step method to realize the phase matching for general pump wavelengths.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268843700027

    View details for PubMedID 19654758

  • Modeling of Plasmonic Waveguide Components and Networks JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND THEORETICAL NANOSCIENCE Veronis, G., Kocabas, S. E., Miller, D. A., Fan, S. 2009; 6 (8): 1808-1826
  • Measurements of the Birefringence and Verdet Constant in an Air-Core Fiber JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Wen, H., Terrel, M. A., Kim, H. K., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2009; 27 (15): 3194-3201
  • Deep-Subwavelength Focusing and Steering of Light in an Aperiodic Metallic Waveguide Array PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2009; 103 (3)

    Abstract

    We consider an aperiodic array of coupled metallic waveguides with varying subwavelength widths. For an incident plane wave, we numerically demonstrate that a focus of as small as one-hundredth of a wavelength can be achieved for a focal distance that is much longer than the wavelength. Moreover, the focusing behavior can be controlled by changing either the incident wavelength or the angle of incidence, thus providing the capability of nanoscale beam steering. We show that the behavior of such subwavelength focusing can be understood using Hamiltonian optics.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.033902

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268088300027

    View details for PubMedID 19659280

  • Understanding the dispersion of coaxial plasmonic structures through a connection with the planar metal-insulator-metal geometry APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2009; 94 (23)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3148692

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266977100011

  • Capturing light pulses into a pair of coupled photonic crystal cavities APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Otey, C. R., Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S. 2009; 94 (23)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3141485

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266977100009

  • Optical isolation based on nonreciprocal phase shift induced by interband photonic transitions APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2009; 94 (17)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3127531

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265738700016

  • Three-Dimensional Metamaterials with an Ultrahigh Effective Refractive Index over a Broad Bandwidth PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Shin, J., Shen, J., Fan, S. 2009; 102 (9)

    Abstract

    The authors introduce a general mechanism, based on electrostatic and magnetostatic considerations, for designing three-dimensional isotropic metamaterials that possess an enhanced refractive index over an extremely large frequency range. The mechanism allows nearly independent control of effective electric permittivity and magnetic permeability without the use of resonant elements.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.093903

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263911900022

    View details for PubMedID 19392520

  • Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits OPTICS LETTERS White, J. S., Veronis, G., Yu, Z., Barnard, E. S., Chandran, A., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2009; 34 (5): 686-688

    Abstract

    We report on the ability of resonant plasmonic slits to efficiently concentrate electromagnetic energy into a nanoscale volume of absorbing material placed inside or directly behind the slit. This gives rise to extraordinary optical absorption characterized by an absorption enhancement factor that well exceeds the enhancements seen for extraordinary optical transmission through slits. A semianalytic Fabry-Perot model for the resonant absorption is developed and shown to quantitatively agree with full-field simulations. We show that absorption enhancements of nearly 1000% can be realized at 633 nm for slits in aluminum films filled with silicon. This effect can be utilized in a wide range of applications, including high-speed photodetectors, optical lithography and recording, and biosensors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264522400046

    View details for PubMedID 19252593

  • Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions NATURE PHOTONICS Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2009; 3 (2): 91-94
  • Theory of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide. II. Coupling to a whispering-gallery resonator containing a two-level atom PHYSICAL REVIEW A Shen, J., Fan, S. 2009; 79 (2)
  • Theory of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide. I. Coupling to a cavity containing a two-level atom PHYSICAL REVIEW A Shen, J., Fan, S. 2009; 79 (2)
  • Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays NANO LETTERS Zhu, J., Yu, Z., Burkhard, G. F., Hsu, C., Connor, S. T., Xu, Y., Wang, Q., McGehee, M., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2009; 9 (1): 279-282

    Abstract

    Hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) is an important solar cell material. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a-Si:H nanowires (NWs) and nanocones (NCs), using an easily scalable and IC-compatible process. We also investigate the optical properties of these nanostructures. These a-Si:H nanostructures display greatly enhanced absorption over a large range of wavelengths and angles of incidence, due to suppressed reflection. The enhancement effect is particularly strong for a-Si:H NC arrays, which provide nearly perfect impedance matching between a-Si:H and air through a gradual reduction of the effective refractive index. More than 90% of light is absorbed at angles of incidence up to 60 degrees for a-Si:H NC arrays, which is significantly better than NW arrays (70%) and thin films (45%). In addition, the absorption of NC arrays is 88% at the band gap edge of a-Si:H, which is much higher than NW arrays (70%) and thin films (53%). Our experimental data agree very well with simulation. The a-Si:H nanocones function as both absorber and antireflection layers, which offer a promising approach to enhance the solar cell energy conversion efficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl802886y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262519100052

    View details for PubMedID 19072061

  • Theory of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide. II. Coupling to a whispering-gallery resonator containing a two-level atom Physical Review A Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2009; 79 (2)
  • Overcoming gain-bandwidth product constraint in slow light Raman amplification with the use of light-stopping schemes Applied Physics Letters Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M., L., Fan et. al., S., H. 2009; 95 (8)

    View details for DOI 081103 10.1063/1.3211126

  • Two-electron transport in a quantum waveguide having a single Anderson impurity New Journal of Physics Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2009; 11
  • Planar metallic nanoscale slit lenses for angle compensation Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P., B., Yu et. al., Z., F. 2009; 95 (7)

    View details for DOI 071112 10.1063/1.3211875

  • Deep-Subwavelength Focusing and Steering of Light in an Aperiodic Metallic Waveguide Array Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P., B., Yu et. al., Z., F. 2009; 103 (3)
  • Universal features of coherent photonic thermal conductance in multilayer photonic band gap structures Physical Review B Lau, W., T., Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2009; 80 (15)
  • Understanding the dispersion of coaxial plasmonic structures through a connection with the planar metal-insulator-metal geometry Applied Physics Letters Catrysse, P., B., Fan, S., H. 2009; 94 (23)

    View details for DOI 231111 10.1063/1.3148692

  • Modal analysis and coupling in metal-insulator-metal waveguides Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Kocabas, S., E., Veronis, G., Miller et. al., D., A. B. 2009; 79 (3)
  • Three-Dimensional Metamaterials with an Ultrahigh Effective Refractive Index over a Broad Bandwidth Physical Review Letters Shin, J., Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2009; 102 (9)
  • Theory of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide. I. Coupling to a cavity containing a two-level atom Physical Review A Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2009; 79 (2)
  • Optical isolation based on nonreciprocal phase shift induced by interband photonic transitions Applied Physics Letters Yu, Z., F., Fan, S., H. 2009; 94 (17)

    View details for DOI 171116 10.1063/1.3127531

  • Capturing light pulses into a pair of coupled photonic crystal cavities Applied Physics Letters Otey, C., R., Povinelli, M., L., Fan, S., H. 2009; 94 (23)

    View details for DOI 231109 10.1063/1.3141485

  • Dynamics of optical modes in modulated photonic structures 2009 IEEE/LEOS WINTER TOPICALS MEETING SERIES (WTM 2009) Fan, S., Yu, Z., Otey, C., Povinelli, M. 2009: 106-107
  • Optical Resonances Created by Photonic Transitions 2009 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (CLEO/QELS 2009), VOLS 1-5 Yu, Z., Fan, S. 2009: 1327-1328
  • Planar Lenses Based on Nanoscale Slit Arrays in a Metallic Film 2009 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (CLEO/QELS 2009), VOLS 1-5 Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., White, J. S., Barnard, E. S., Brongersma, M. L., Fan, S. 2009: 3224-3225
  • Simple Analytical Expression for the Dispersion of Plasmonic Structures with Coaxial Geometry 2009 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (CLEO/QELS 2009), VOLS 1-5 Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2009: 1838-1839
  • Integrated nanophotonics: dynamic optical isolation, and nanoscale far-field focusing in aperiodic plasmonic waveguide array 2009 IEEE LEOS ANNUAL MEETING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1AND 2 Fan, S., Yu, Z., Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. 2009: 646-647
  • Light Trapping With a Few Cavities ADVANCES IN SLOW AND FAST LIGHT II Otey, C. R., Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S. 2009; 7226

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.816328

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285377800018

  • Minimizing Coherent Thermal Conductance Using Multi-Layer Photonic Crystal Heterostructures 2009 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (CLEO/QELS 2009), VOLS 1-5 Lau, W. T., Shen, J., Fan, S. 2009: 2035-2036
  • Performance Limitation of a Coupled Resonant Optical Waveguide Gyroscope JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Terrel, M. A., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2009; 27 (1-4): 47-54
  • Modal analysis and coupling in metal-insulator-metal waveguides PHYSICAL REVIEW B Kocabas, S. E., Veronis, G., Miller, D. A., Fan, S. 2009; 79 (3)
  • Planar Lenses Based on Nanoscale Slit Arrays in a Metallic Film NANO LETTERS Verslegers, L., Catrysse, P. B., Yu, Z., White, J. S., Barnard, E. S., Brongersma, M. L., Fan, S. 2009; 9 (1): 235-238

    Abstract

    We experimentally demonstrate planar lenses based on nanoscale slit arrays in a metallic film. Our lens structures consist of optically thick gold films with micron-size arrays of closely spaced, nanoscale slits of varying widths milled using a focused ion beam. We find excellent agreement between electromagnetic simulations of the design and confocal measurements on manufactured structures. We provide guidelines for lens design and show how actual lens behavior deviates from simple theory.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl802830y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262519100044

    View details for PubMedID 19053795

  • Analysis of guided-resonance-based polarization beam splitting in photonic crystal slabs JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION Kilic, O., Fan, S., Solgaard, O. 2008; 25 (11): 2680-2692

    Abstract

    We present an analysis of the phase and amplitude responses of guided resonances in a photonic crystal slab. Through this analysis, we obtain the general rules and conditions under which a photonic crystal slab can be employed as a general elliptical polarization beam splitter, separating an incoming beam equally into its two orthogonal constituents, so that half the power is reflected in one polarization state, and half the power is transmitted in the other state. We show that at normal incidence a photonic crystal slab acts as a dual quarter-wave retarder in which the fast and slow axes are switched for reflection and transmission. We also analyze the case where such a structure operates at oblique incidences. As a result we show that the effective dielectric constant of the photonic crystal slab imposes the Brewster angle as a boundary, separating two ranges of angles with different mechanisms of polarization beam splitting. We show that the diattenuation can be tuned from zero to one to make the structure a circular or linear polarization beam splitter. We verify our analytical analysis through finite-difference time-domain simulations and experimental measurements at infrared wavelengths.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261520700008

    View details for PubMedID 18978845

  • Completely Capturing Light Pulses in a Few Dynamically Tuned Microcavities JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Otey, C. R., Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S. 2008; 26 (21-24): 3784-3793
  • Protein microarrays with carbon nanotubes as multicolor Raman labels NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Chen, Z., Tabakman, S. M., Goodwin, A. P., Kattah, M. G., Daranciang, D., Wang, X., Zhang, G., Li, X., Liu, Z., Utz, P. J., Jiang, K., Fan, S., Dai, H. 2008; 26 (11): 1285-1292

    Abstract

    The current sensitivity of standard fluorescence-based protein detection limits the use of protein arrays in research and clinical diagnosis. Here, we use functionalized, macromolecular single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as multicolor Raman labels for highly sensitive, multiplexed protein detection in an arrayed format. Unlike fluorescence methods, Raman detection benefits from the sharp scattering peaks of SWNTs with minimal background interference, affording a high signal-to-noise ratio needed for ultra-sensitive detection. When combined with surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates, the strong Raman intensity of SWNT tags affords protein detection sensitivity in sandwich assays down to 1 fM--a three-order-of-magnitude improvement over most reports of fluorescence-based detection. We use SWNT Raman tags to detect human autoantibodies against proteinase 3, a biomarker for the autoimmune disease Wegener's granulomatosis, diluted up to 10(7)-fold in 1% human serum. SWNT Raman tags are not subject to photobleaching or quenching. By conjugating different antibodies to pure (12)C and (13)C SWNT isotopes, we demonstrate multiplexed two-color SWNT Raman-based protein detection.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1501

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260832200024

    View details for PubMedID 18953353

  • Transmission Line and Equivalent Circuit Models for Plasmonic Waveguide Components IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Kocabas, S. E., Veronis, G., Miller, D. A., Fan, S. 2008; 14 (6): 1462-1472
  • Multiplexed multicolor Raman imaging of live cells with isotopically modified single walled carbon nanotubes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Liu, Z., Li, X., Tabakman, S. M., Jiang, K., Fan, S., Dai, H. 2008; 130 (41): 13540-?

    Abstract

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with different isotope compositions exhibit distinct Raman G-band peaks and can be used for multiplexed multicolor Raman imaging of biological systems. Cancer cells with specific receptors are selectively labeled with three differently "colored" SWNTs conjugated with various targeting ligands including Herceptin (anti-Her2), Erbitux (anti-Her1), and RGD peptide, allowing for multicolor Raman imaging of cells in a multiplexed manner. SWNT Raman signals are highly robust against photobleaching, allowing long-term imaging and tracking. With narrow peak features, SWNT Raman signals are easily differentiated from the autofluorescence background. The SWNT Raman excitation and scattering photons are in the near-infrared region, which is the most transparent optical window for biological systems in vitro and in vivo. Thus, SWNTs are novel Raman tags promising for multiplexed biological detection and imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja806242t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259924000017

    View details for PubMedID 18803379

  • Tungsten black absorber for solar light with wide angular operation range APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2008; 92 (21)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2936997

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256303500007

  • Tuning coherent radiative thermal conductance in multilayer photonic crystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lau, W. T., Shen, J., Veronis, G., Fan, S., Braun, P. V. 2008; 92 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2890433

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253989300106

  • Aligning microcavity resonances in silicon photonic-crystal slabs using laser-pumped thermal tuning APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Pan, J., Huo, Y., Yamanaka, K., Sandhu, S., Scaccabarozzi, L., Timp, R., Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S., Fejer, M. M., Harris, J. S. 2008; 92 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2896615

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253989300114

  • Crosstalk between three-dimensional plasmonic slot waveguides OPTICS EXPRESS Veronis, G., Fan, S. 2008; 16 (3): 2129-2140

    Abstract

    We investigate in detail the crosstalk between plasmonic slot waveguides. We show that the coupling behavior of deep subwavelength three-dimensional (3-D) plasmonic slot waveguides is very different from the one of two-dimensional (2-D) metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) plasmonic waveguides. While in the 2-D case the coupling occurs only through the metal, in the 3-D case the coupling occurs primarily through the dielectric, in which the evanescent tail is much larger compared to the one in the metal. Thus, in most cases the coupling between 3-D plasmonic slot waveguides is much stronger than the coupling between the corresponding 2-D MDM plasmonic waveguides. Such strong coupling can be exploited to form directional couplers using plasmonic slot waveguides. On the other hand, with appropriate design, the crosstalk between 3-D plasmonic slot waveguides can be reduced even below the crosstalk levels of 2-D MDM plasmonic waveguides, without significantly affecting their modal size and attenuation length. Thus, 3-D plasmonic slot waveguides can be used for ultradense integration of optoelectronic components.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252932500081

    View details for PubMedID 18542293

  • Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2008; 92 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2839324

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252860400017

  • One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Wang, Z., Fan, S. 2008; 100 (2)

    Abstract

    We demonstrate theoretically the existence of one-way electromagnetic modes in a waveguide formed between a semi-infinite photonic crystal structure and a semi-infinite metal region under a static magnetic field. Such a waveguide provides a frequency range where only one propagating direction is allowed. In this frequency range, disorder-induced scattering is completely suppressed. Such a waveguide also modifies the basic properties of waveguide-cavity interaction.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.023902

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252471200031

    View details for PubMedID 18232868

  • GaN-based two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers with AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lu, T., Chen, S., Lin, L., Kao, T., Kao, C., Yu, P., Kuo, H., Wang, S., Fan, S. 2008; 92 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2831716

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252284200029

  • Propagating plasmonic mode in nanoscale apertures and its implications for extraordinary transmission JOURNAL OF NANOPHOTONICS Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2008; 2

    View details for DOI 10.1117/1.2890424

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262931600013

  • Tungsten black absorber for solar light with wide angular operation range Applied Physics Letters Rephaeli, E., Fan, S. 2008; 92 (21)

    View details for DOI 211107 10.1063/1.2936997

  • Propagating plasmonic mode in nanoscale apertures and its implications for extraordinary transmission Journal of Nanophotonics Catrysse, P., B., Fan, S., H. 2008; 2

    View details for DOI 021790 10.1117/1.2890424

  • Gain-induced switching in metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides Applied Physics Letters Yu, Z., F., Veronis, G., Fan et. al., S., H. 2008; 92 (4)

    View details for DOI 041117 10.1063/1.2839324

  • GaN-based two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers with AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Lu, T., C., Chen, S., W., Lin et. al., L., F. 2008; 92 (1)

    View details for DOI 011129 10.1063/1.2831716

  • Aligning microcavity resonances in silicon photonic-crystal slabs using laser-pumped thermal tuning Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Pan, J., Huo, Y., Yamanaka et. al., K. 2008; 92 (10)

    View details for DOI 103114 10.1063/1.2896615

  • One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Yu, Z., F., Veronis, G., Wang et. al., Z. 2008; 100 (2)
  • Tuning coherent radiative thermal conductance in multilayer photonic crystals Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Lau, W., T., Shen, J., T., Veronis et. al., G. 2008; 92 (10)

    View details for DOI 103106 10.1063/1.2890433

  • Dispersionless Three-dimensional Metamaterial with a Very High Refractive Index 2008 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS & QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9 Shin, J., Shen, J., Fan, S. 2008: 3131-3132
  • Stopping and time-reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss-tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines LASER RESONATORS AND BEAM CONTROL X Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S. 2008; 6872

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.773815

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255510400011

  • Crosstalk between three-dimensional plasmonic slot waveguides 2008 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS & QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9 Veronis, G., Fan, S. 2008: 3571-3572
  • Deep-Subwavelength Coaxial Waveguides with a Hollow Core 2008 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS & QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9 Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2008: 3567-3568
  • Tuning Coherent Radiative Thermal Conductance in Multilayer Photonic Crystals 2008 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS & QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9 Lau, W. T., Shen, J., Veronis, G., Fan, S. 2008: 3026-3027
  • Strongly correlated multiparticle transport in one dimension through a quantum impurity PHYSICAL REVIEW A Shen, J., Fan, S. 2007; 76 (6)
  • Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines OPTICS LETTERS Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S. 2007; 32 (22): 3333-3335

    Abstract

    We introduce a light-stopping process that uses dynamic loss tuning in coupled-resonator delay lines. We demonstrate via numerical simulations that increasing the loss of selected resonators traps light in a zero group velocity mode concentrated in the low-loss portions of the delay line. The large dynamic range achievable for loss modulation should increase the light-stopping bandwidth relative to previous approaches based on refractive index tuning.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251747600037

    View details for PubMedID 18026298

  • Enlarging the bandwidth of nanoscale propagating plasmonic modes in deep-subwavelength cylindrical holes APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2007; 91 (18)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2803849

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250643600018

  • Three-dimensional electromagnetic metamaterials that homogenize to uniform non-Maxwellian media PHYSICAL REVIEW B Shin, J., Shen, J., Fan, S. 2007; 76 (11)
  • Modes of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Veronis, G., Fan, S. 2007; 25 (9): 2511-2521
  • Spatial coherence of the thermal electromagnetic field in the vicinity of a dielectric slab PHYSICAL REVIEW E Lau, W. T., Shen, J., Veronis, G., Fan, S. 2007; 76 (1)

    Abstract

    We present the analytic calculation of the cross-spectral density tensor of a thermally radiative planar dielectric slab in extreme near-field, intermediate near-field, and far-field zones. We show that the spatial coherence of the thermal field exhibits distinct features in these zones. At a given wavelength lambda , the coherence length is many orders of magnitude smaller than lambda in the extreme near-field zone, and is roughly lambda/2 in the far-field zone. In the intermediate near-field zone, the coherence length can be much longer than lambda/2 if the loss is small. The physical origin of the short-ranged spatial coherence in the extreme near-field zone is the spatially fluctuating surface charges at the air-dielectric interface. We also demonstrate that in the intermediate near-field zone, the long-ranged spatial coherence is induced by the waveguide modes of the dielectric slab. When the loss is small, the long-ranged coherence falls off approximately as 1/square root x , in contrast to 1/x for a blackbody radiator, where x refers to displacement parallel to the slab surface.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevE.76.016601

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248552600058

    View details for PubMedID 17677579

  • Polarization controller for hollow-core fiber OPTICS LETTERS Terrel, M., Digonnet, M. J., Fan, S. 2007; 32 (11): 1524-1526

    Abstract

    We demonstrate a universal polarization controller for hollow-core fibers, a simple device consisting of three twisted fiber sections that makes use of the inherent birefringence of the air-core fiber. The device 5% bandwidth at 1550 nm is calculated from measured data to be approximately 13 nm.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247756600060

    View details for PubMedID 17546176

  • Manipulating light with photonic crystals PHYSICA B-CONDENSED MATTER Fan, S. 2007; 394 (2): 221-228
  • Enhancing or suppressing self-focusing in nonlinear photonic crystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, X., Jiang, X., Fan, S. 2007; 90 (16)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2724905

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245870400024

  • Strongly correlated two-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide coupled to a two-level system PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Shen, J., Fan, S. 2007; 98 (15)

    Abstract

    We show that two-photon transport is strongly correlated in one-dimensional waveguide coupled to a two-level system. The exact S matrix is constructed using a generalized Bethe-ansatz technique. We show that the scattering eigenstates of this system include a two-photon bound state that passes through the two-level system as a composite single particle. Also, the two-level system can induce effective attractive or repulsive interactions in space for photons. This general procedure can be applied to the Anderson model as well.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.153003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245691400023

    View details for PubMedID 17501344

  • One-way total reflection with one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, Z., Wang, Z., Fan, S. 2007; 90 (12)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2716359

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245135800033

  • Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides OPTICS EXPRESS Veronis, G., Fan, S. 2007; 15 (3): 1211-1221

    Abstract

    We theoretically investigate the properties of compact couplers between high-index contrast dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides. We show that a coupler created by simply placing a dielectric waveguide terminated flat at the exit end of a plasmonic waveguide can be designed to have a transmission efficiency of ~70% at the optical communication wavelength. We also show that the transmission efficiency of the couplers can be further increased by using optimized multisection tapers. In both cases the transmission response is broadband. In addition, we investigate the properties of a Fabry-Perot structure in which light is coupled in and out of a plasmonic waveguide sandwiched between dielectric waveguides. Finally, we discuss potential fabrication processes for structures that demonstrate the predicted effects.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244682200051

    View details for PubMedID 19532350

  • Near-complete transmission through subwavelength hole arrays in phonon-polaritonic thin films PHYSICAL REVIEW B Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2007; 75 (7)
  • Overexpression of NDRG1 is an indicator of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma MODERN PATHOLOGY Chua, M., Sun, H., Cheung, S. T., Mason, V., Higgins, J., Ross, D. T., Fan, S. T., So, S. 2007; 20 (1): 76-83

    Abstract

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly lethal cancer that typically has poor prognosis. Prognostic markers can help in its clinical management and in understanding the biology of poor prognosis. Through an earlier gene expression study, we identified N-Myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) to be significantly highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma compared to nontumor liver. As NDRG1 is a differentiation-related gene with putative metastasis suppressor activity, we investigated the clinical significance of its overexpression. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using an independent set of patient samples confirmed the significant overexpression of NDRG1 in hepatocellular carcinoma compared to nontumor liver samples (P<0.001). Additionally, high levels of NDRG1 transcript correlated with shorter overall survival (P<0.001), late tumor stage (P=0.001), vascular invasion (P=0.003), large tumor size (P=0.011), and high Edmondson-Steiner histological grade (P=0.005). Using immunohistochemistry, NDRG1 protein was found to be significantly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma samples compared to nontumor liver or cirrhotic and benign liver lesions (P<0.001). Among the hepatocellular carcinoma samples, those which are moderately and poorly differentiated express higher levels of NDRG1 protein than those which are well-differentiated (P<0.005). Additionally, hepatocellular carcinomas with vascular invasion also express elevated levels of NDRG1 protein compared to those without vascular invasion (significant at P<0.005). Our results suggest NDRG1 to be a likely tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, the overexpression of which is correlated with tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, and overall survival. Its significantly elevated expression in hepatocellular carcinoma could be a useful indicator of tumor aggressiveness and therefore patient prognosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.3800711

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243005000010

    View details for PubMedID 17170744

  • Three-dimensional electromagnetic metamaterials that homogenize to uniform non-Maxwellian media Physical Review B Shin, J., Shen, J., T., Fan, S. 2007; 76 (11)
  • The nonlinear effect from the interplay between the nonlinearity and the supercollimation of photonic crystal Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Jiang, X., Y., Zhou, C., H., Yu et. al., X., F. 2007; 91 (3)

    View details for DOI 031105 10.1063/1.2739413

  • Enhancing or suppressing self-focusing in nonlinear photonic crystals Applied Physics Letters Yu, X., F., Jiang, X., Y., Fan, S. 2007; 90 (16)

    View details for DOI 161124 10.1063/1.2724905

  • Stopping single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Shen, J., T., Povinelli, M., L., Sandhu et. al., S. 2007; 75 (3)
  • Strongly correlated multiparticle transport in one dimension through a quantum impurity Physical Review A Shen, J., T., Fan, S. 2007; 76 (6)
  • Slow light - Dynamic photon storage Nature Physics Yanik, M., F., Fan, S. 2007; 3 (6): 372-374

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nphys630

  • One-way total reflection with one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals Applied Physics Letters Yu, Z., F., Wang, Z., Fan, S., H. 2007; 90 (12)

    View details for DOI 121133 10.1063/1.2716359

  • Spatial coherence of the thermal electromagnetic field in the vicinity of a dielectric slab Physical Review E Fan, S., H., Lau, W., T., Shen, J., T., Veronis et. al., G. 2007; 76 (1)
  • Modeling nonlinear optical phenomena in nanophotonics Journal of Lightwave Technology Bravo-Abad, J., Fan, S., Johnson et. al., S., G. 2007; 25 (9): 2539-2546

    View details for DOI 10.1109/jlt.2007.903547

  • Enlarging the bandwidth of nanoscale propagating plasmonic modes in deep-subwavelength cylindrical holes Applied Physics Letters Catrysse, P., B., Fan, S., H. 2007; 91 (18)

    View details for DOI 181118 10.1063/1.2803849

  • A germanium inverse woodpile structure with a large photonic band gap Advanced Materials Fan, S., H., Garcia-Santamaria, F., Xu, M., J., Lousse, V. 2007; 19 (12): 1567-+

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.200602906

  • Near-complete transmission through subwavelength hole arrays in phonon-polaritonic thin films Physical Review B Catrysse, P., B., Fan, S., H. 2007; 75 (7)
  • Strongly correlated two-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide coupled to a two-level system Physical Review Letters Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2007; 98 (15)
  • Compact couplers between dielectric and plasmonic slot waveguides INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XI Veronis, G., Fan, S. 2007; 6475

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.701562

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246061700024

  • One-way electromagnetic waveguide 2007 IEEE LEOS ANNUAL MEETING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1 AND 2 Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Wang, Z., Fan, S. 2007: 278-279
  • Phonon polariton reflectance spectra in a silicon carbide membrane hole array 2007 IEEE LEOS ANNUAL MEETING CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1 AND 2 Provine, J., Catrysse, P. B., Roper, C. S., Maboudian, R., Fan, S., Howe, R. T. 2007: 466-467
  • Compact couplers between dielectric and metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides 2007 CONFERENCE ON LASERS & ELECTRO-OPTICS/QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (CLEO/QELS 2007), VOLS 1-5 Veronis, G., Shin, W., Fan, S. 2007: 895-896
  • Stopping single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems PHYSICAL REVIEW B Shen, J., Povinelli, M. L., Sandhu, S., Fan, S. 2007; 75 (3)
  • Optical Characterization and Sensitivity Evaluation of Guided-Resonances in Photonic Crystal Slabs for Biosensing Applications 2007 CONFERENCE ON LASERS & ELECTRO-OPTICS/QUANTUM ELECTRONICS AND LASER SCIENCE CONFERENCE (CLEO/QELS 2007), VOLS 1-5 Levi, O., Lee, M. M., Zhang, J., Lousse, V., Brueck, S. R., Fan, S., Harris, J. S. 2007: 993-994
  • Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing NANOSCALE IMAGING, SPECTROSCOPY, SENSING, AND ACTUATION FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS IV Levi, O., Lee, M. M., Zhang, J., Lousse, V., Brueck, S. R., Fan, S., Harris, J. S. 2007; 6447

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.705670

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245976200016

  • Design of mid-infrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XI Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Brongersma, M. L., Fan, S. 2007; 6475

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.698016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246061700022

  • Transmission enhancement and suppression by subwavelength hole arrays in polaritonic films PHOTONIC CRYSTAL MATERIALS AND DEVICES VI Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2007; 6480

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.702917

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246368900003

  • One-way waveguide and strong photon-photon interaction in nanophotonic structures 2007 IEEE/LEOS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL MEMS AND NANOPHOTONICS Fan, S., Shen, J., Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Wang, Z. 2007: 181-182
  • Coherent few-photon quantum transport in one-dimensional systems ADVANCED OPTICAL AND QUANTUM MEMORIES AND COMPUTING IV Shen, J., Fan, S. 2007; 6482

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.716467

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246396000016

  • Radiation loss of coupled-resonator waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs PHOTONIC CRYSTAL MATERIALS AND DEVICES VI Povinelli, A. L., Fan, S. 2007; 6480

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.704597

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246368900014

  • Extraordinary transmission through a poly-SiC membrane with subwavelength hole arrays 2007 IEEE/LEOS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL MEMS AND NANOPHOTONICS Provine, J., Catrysse, P. B., Roper, C., Maboudian, R., Fan, S., Howe, R. T. 2007: 157-158
  • New properties of light in metamaterials METAMATERIALS II Fan, S., Shin, J., Shen, J. 2007; 6581

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.724178

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250370100006

  • Dynamically-tuned microresonator complexes LASER RESONATORS AND BEAM CONTROL IX Povinelli, M. L., Sandhu, S., Shen, J., Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. 2007; 6452

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.714597

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245978400002

  • Enhanced second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs/AlxOy tightly confining waveguides and resonant cavities OPTICS LETTERS Scaccabarozzi, L., Fejer, M. M., Huo, Y., Fan, S., Yu, X., Harris, J. S. 2006; 31 (24): 3626-3628

    Abstract

    We demonstrate second-harmonic generation (SHG) from sub-micrometer-sized AlGaAs/AlxOy artificially birefringent waveguides. The normalized conversion efficiency is the highest ever reported. We further enhanced the SHG using a waveguide-embedded cavity formed by dichroic mirrors. Resonant enhancements as high as approximately 10x were observed. Such devices could be potentially used as highly efficient, ultracompact frequency converters in integrated photonic circuits.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242560400022

    View details for PubMedID 17130925

  • Advances in theory of photonic crystals JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Fan, S., Yanik, M. F., Wang, Z., Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M. L. 2006; 24 (12): 4493-4501
  • Dichroic mirror embedded in a submicrometer waveguide for enhanced resonant nonlinear optical devices OPTICS LETTERS Scaccabarozzi, L., Fejer, M. M., Huo, Y., Fan, S., Yu, X., Harris, J. S. 2006; 31 (22): 3285-3287

    Abstract

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of novel dichroic mirrors embedded in a tightly confining AlGaAs/Al(x)O(y) waveguide. Reflection at the first-harmonic wavelength as high as 93% is achieved, while high transmission is maintained at the second-harmonic wavelength. The measured cavity spectrum is in excellent agreement with finite-difference time-domain simulations. Such a mirror is essential for achieving resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241799700022

    View details for PubMedID 17072398

  • Radiation loss of coupled-resonator waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Povinelli, M. L., Fan, S. 2006; 89 (19)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2387131

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241960400014

  • Cut-through metal slit array as an anisotropic metamaterial film IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Shin, J., Shen, J., Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. 2006; 12 (6): 1116-1122
  • Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lousse, V., Shin, J., Fan, S. 2006; 89 (16)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2362983

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241405200003

  • Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, Z., Veronis, G., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L. 2006; 89 (15)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2360896

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241247900016

  • All-angle negative refraction and evanescent wave amplification using one-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Shin, H., Fan, S. 2006; 89 (15)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2360187

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241247900002

  • Suppressing the effect of disorders using time-reversal symmetry breaking in magneto-optical photonic crystals: An illustration with a four-port circulator PHOTONICS AND NANOSTRUCTURES-FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS Wang, Z., Fan, S. 2006; 4 (3): 132-140
  • Dynamically tuned coupled-resonator delay lines can be nearly dispersion free OPTICS LETTERS Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M. L., Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. 2006; 31 (13): 1985-1987

    Abstract

    We investigate dispersion effects in dynamically tuned, coupled-resonator delay lines. Provided that the system is tuned to a zero-bandwidth state, a signal can be delayed indefinitely with almost no dispersion. We present a theoretical analysis of such a light-stopping system and verify the results using numerical simulations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238494600015

    View details for PubMedID 16770407

  • Anomalous modal structure in a waveguide with a photonic crystal core OPTICS LETTERS Yu, X. F., Lau, W. T., Fan, S. H. 2006; 31 (6): 742-744

    Abstract

    We analyze a dielectric waveguide with a photonic crystal core. Using constant frequency contour analysis, we show that the modal behavior of this structure is drastically different from that of a conventional slab waveguide. In particular, at a given frequency the lowest-order guided mode can have an odd symmetry or can have more than one nodal plane in its field distribution. Also, there exist several single-mode regions with a different modal profile in each region. Finally, a single-mode waveguide for the fundamental mode with a large core and strong confinement can be realized. All these behaviors are confirmed by our three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235833400022

    View details for PubMedID 16544609

  • Model dispersive media in finite-difference time-domain method with complex-conjugate pole-residue pairs IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS Han, M. H., DUTTON, R. W., Fan, S. H. 2006; 16 (3): 119-121
  • Systematic photonic crystal device design: Global and local optimization and sensitivity analysis IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Jiao, Y., Fan, S. H., Miller, D. A. 2006; 42 (3-4): 266-279
  • All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Shin, H., Fan, S. H. 2006; 96 (7)

    Abstract

    We show that a metal-dielectric-metal structure can function as a negative refraction lens for surface plasmon waves on a metal surface. The structure is uniform with respect to a plane of incidence and operates at the optical frequency range. Using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, we demonstrate the imaging operation of the structure with realistic material parameters including dispersions and losses. Our design should facilitate the demonstration of many novel effects associated with negative refraction on chip at optical wavelength ranges. In addition, this structure provides a new way of controlling the propagation of surface plasmons, which are important for nanoscale manipulation of optical waves.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.073907

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235554100034

    View details for PubMedID 16606095

  • Photonic crystals for communications: Stopping light and miniaturized non-reciprocal devices 2006 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION CONFERENCE/NATIONAL FIBER OPTIC ENGINEERS CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-6 Fan, S., Yanik, M. F., Wang, Z., Povinelle, M., Sandhu, S. 2006: 2119-2121
  • Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures Advanced Materials Fan, S., H., Gratson, G., M., Garcia-Santamaria, F., Lousse et. al., V. 2006; 18 (4): 461-+

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.200501447

  • Radiation loss of coupled-resonator waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs Applied Physics Letters Povinelli, M., L., Fan, S., H. 2006; 89 (19)

    View details for DOI 191114 10.1063/1.2387131

  • All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure Physical Review Letters Shin, H., Fan, S., H. 2006; 96 (7)
  • Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures Applied Physics Letters Yu, Z., F., Veronis, G., Fan et. al., S., H. 2006; 89 (15)

    View details for DOI 151116 10.1063/1.2360896

  • Cut-through metal slit array as an anisotropic metamaterial film Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics Fan, S., H., Shin, J., Shen, J., T., Catrysse et. al., P., B. 2006; 12 (6)
  • Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals Applied Physics Letters Lousse, V., Shin, J., Fan, S., H. 2006; 89 (16)

    View details for DOI 161103 10.1063/1.2362983

  • Waveguides in inverted opal photonic crystals Optics Express Lousse, V., Fan, S., H. 2006; 14 (2): 866-878

    View details for DOI 10.1364/opex.14.000866

  • Guided modes supported by plasmonic films with a periodic arrangement of subwavelength slits Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Catrysse, P., B., Veronis, G., Shin et. al., H. 2006; 88 (3)

    View details for DOI 031101 10.1063/1.2164905

  • Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Crozier, K., B., Lousse, V., Kilic et. al., O. 2006; 73 (11)
  • Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Xu, Q., F., Sandhu, S., Povinelli et. al., M., L. 2006; 96 (12)
  • All-angle negative refraction and evanescent wave amplification using one-dimensional metallodielectric photonic crystals Applied Physics Letters Shin, H., C., Fan, S., H. 2006; 89 (15)

    View details for DOI 151102 10.1063/1.2360187

  • A polarization controller for air-core photonic-bandgap fiber 2006 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION CONFERENCE/NATIONAL FIBER OPTIC ENGINEERS CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-6 Terrel, M., Digonnet, M., Fan, S. 2006: 681-683
  • Dynamically-tuned coupled-resonator delay lines can be nearly dispersion free ADVANCED OPTICAL AND QUANTUM MEMORIES AND COMPUTING III Sandhu, S., Povinelli, M. L., Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. 2006; 6130
  • Controlling diffraction and waveguide modes by exploiting spatial dispersions in photonic crystals PHOTONIC CRYSTAL MATERIALS AND DEVICES IV Fan, S., Yu, X., Shin, J., Lau, W. T. 2006; 6128

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.649564

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238247900025

  • Magneto-optical circulator in two-dimensional photonic crystals PHOTONIC CRYSTAL MATERIALS AND DEVICES IV Wang, Z., Fan, S. 2006; 6128

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.646874

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238247900009

  • Integrated biomedical nanosensor using guided resonance in photonic crystal structures NANOBIOPHOTONICS AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS III Levi, O., Suh, W., Lee, M. M., Zhang, J., Brueck, S. R., Fan, S., Harris, J. S. 2006; 6095

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.647312

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237699500014

  • Guided subwavelength plasmonic mode supported by a slot in a thin metal film OPTICS LETTERS Veronis, G., Fan, S. H. 2005; 30 (24): 3359-3361

    Abstract

    We demonstrate the existence of a bound optical mode supported by a slot in a thin metallic film deposited on a substrate, with slot dimensions much smaller than the wavelength. The modal size is almost completely dominated by the near field of the slot. Consequently, the size is very small compared with the wavelength, even when the dispersion relation of the mode approaches the light line of the surrounding media. In addition, the group velocity of this mode is close to the speed of light in the substrate, and its propagation length is tens of micrometers at the optical communication wavelength.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233827000033

    View details for PubMedID 16389831

  • Understanding air-core photonic-bandgap fibers: Analogy to conventional fibers JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Digonnet, M. J., Kim, H. K., Kino, G. S., Fan, S. H. 2005; 23 (12): 4169-4177
  • Coherent single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide coupled with superconducting quantum bits PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Shen, J. T., Fan, S. H. 2005; 95 (21)

    Abstract

    A recent theoretical analysis and experimental results show that interesting transport properties of a single microwave photon emerge when a quantum bit in a cavity is coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide. Here we adopt a real-space model Hamiltonian to give a unified approach which accounts for the experimental results, and make new predictions on the properties of single photon transport, such as the general Fano line shape, symmetric vacuum Rabi splitting for a leaky cavity at resonance, and a one-photon switching capability.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.213001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233362100018

    View details for PubMedID 16384136

  • Propagating modes in subwavelength cylindrical holes JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B Catrysse, P. B., Shin, H., Fan, S. H. 2005; 23 (6): 2675-2678

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.2130344

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234613200077

  • Conditions for self-collimation in three-dimensional photonic crystals OPTICS LETTERS Shin, J. W., Fan, S. H. 2005; 30 (18): 2397-2399

    Abstract

    We introduce the theoretical criterion for achieving three-dimensional self-collimation of light in a photonic crystal. Based on this criterion, we numerically demonstrate a body-center-cubic structure that supports wide-angle self-collimation and is directly compatible with the recently developed holographic fabrication technique. We further show that both bends and beam splitters can be introduced into this structure by the use of interfaces.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231964600017

    View details for PubMedID 16196331

  • Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Jiao, Y., Mingaleev, S. F., Schillinger, M., Miller, D. A., Fan, S., Busch, K. 2005; 17 (9): 1875-1877
  • Coherent photon transport from spontaneous emission in one-dimensional waveguides OPTICS LETTERS Shen, J. T., Fan, S. H. 2005; 30 (15): 2001-2003

    Abstract

    A two-level system coupled to a one-dimensional continuum is investigated. By using a real-space model Hamiltonian, we show that spontaneous emission can coherently interfere with the continuum modes and gives interesting transport properties. The technique is applied to various related problems with different configurations, and analytical solutions are given.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230714400029

    View details for PubMedID 16092246

  • Optical circulators in two-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals OPTICS LETTERS Wang, Z., Fan, S. H. 2005; 30 (15): 1989-1991

    Abstract

    We propose an optical circulator formed of a magneto-optical cavity in a 2D photonic crystal. With spatially engineered magnetic domain structures, the cavity can be designed to support a pair of counterrotating states at different frequencies. By coupling the cavity to three waveguides, and by proper matching of the frequency split of the cavity modes with the coupling strength between the cavity and the waveguide, ideal three-port circulators with complete isolation and transmission can be created. We present a guideline for domain design needed to maximize the modal coupling and the operational bandwidth for any given magneto-optical constant.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230714400025

    View details for PubMedID 16092242

  • Mode-locking of monolithic laser diodes incorporating coupled-resonator optical waveguides OPTICS EXPRESS Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Han, M. H., Fan, S. H., Dutton, R. 2005; 13 (12): 4539-4553

    Abstract

    We investigate the operational principle of mode-locking in monolithic semiconductor lasers incorporating coupled-resonator optical waveguides. The size of mode-locked lasers operating at tens of GHz repetition frequencies can be drastically reduced owing to the significantly decreased group velocity of light. The dynamics of such devices are analyzed numerically based on a coupled-oscillator model with the gain, loss, spontaneous emission, nearest-neighbor coupling and amplitude phase coupling (as described by the linewidth enhancement factor alpha) taken into account. It is demonstrated that active mode-locking can be achieved for moderate alpha parameter values. Simulations also indicate that large alpha parameters may destabilize the mode-locking behavior and result in irregular pulsations, which nevertheless can be effectively suppressed by incorporating detuning of individual cavity resonant frequencies in the device design.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229799200018

    View details for PubMedID 19495368

  • Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Shen, J. T., Catrysse, P. B., Fan, S. H. 2005; 94 (19)

    Abstract

    We introduce a mechanism for creating artificial high refractive index metamaterials by exploiting the existence of subwavelength propagating modes in metallic systems. As an example, we investigate analytically and numerically metal films with a periodic arrangement of cut-through slits. Because of the presence of TEM modes in the slits, for TM polarization such a system can be rigorously mapped into a high refractive index dielectric slab when the features are smaller than the wavelength of light. The effective refractive index is entirely controlled by the geometry of the metal films, is positive, frequency independent, and can be made arbitrarily large.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.197401

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229277000055

    View details for PubMedID 16090208

  • Photonic crystal device sensitivity analysis with Wannier basis gradients OPTICS LETTERS Jiao, Y., Fan, S. H., Miller, D. A. 2005; 30 (3): 302-304

    Abstract

    We present a powerful sensitivity analysis method for devices in a photonic crystal. The method is based on a Wannier basis field expansion and efficient matrix analysis techniques for finding eigenvalue and transmission gradients with respect to the perturbation. The method permits fast analysis of a large number of dielectric perturbation situations for multiple devices in a photonic crystal. We verify the method with finite-difference time-domain and plane-wave expansion calculations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226678300028

    View details for PubMedID 15751892

  • Principal modes in multimode waveguides OPTICS LETTERS Fan, S. H., Kahn, J. M. 2005; 30 (2): 135-137

    Abstract

    We generalize the concept of principal states of polarization and prove the existence of principal modes in multimode waveguides. Principal modes do not suffer from modal dispersion to first order of frequency variation and form orthogonal bases at both the input and the output ends of the waveguide. We show that principal modes are generally different from eigenmodes, even in uniform waveguides, unlike the special case of a single-mode fiber with uniform birefringence. The difference is most pronounced when different eigenmodes possess similar group velocities and when their field patterns vary as a function of frequency. This work may provide a new basis for analysis and control of dispersion in multimode fiber systems.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226218500007

    View details for PubMedID 15675691

  • Demonstration of systematic photonic crystal device design and optimization by low-rank adjustments: an extremely compact mode separator OPTICS LETTERS Jiao, Y., Fan, S. H., Miller, D. A. 2005; 30 (2): 141-143

    Abstract

    We present a powerful design and optimization method for devices in a photonic crystal. The method is based on a Wannier basis field expansion and efficient matrix analysis techniques for searching through a vast number of designs. The method permits the design of many compact optical devices with complex and novel functions. We present a design example of a very compact mode separator that is 8.2 microm x 13.3 microm in size that demultiplexes the three modes of an input photonic crystal multimode waveguide into three single-mode output waveguides. We verify the method with finite-difference time-domain calculations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226218500009

    View details for PubMedID 15675693

  • Magneto-optical defects in two-dimensional photonic crystals Applied Physics B-Lasers and Optics Wang, Z., Fan, S. 2005; 81 (2-3): 369-375
  • Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction Physical Review Letters Shen, J., T., Catrysse, P., B., Fan, S., H. 2005; 94 (19)
  • Effect of the plasmonic dispersion relation on the transmission properties of subwavelength cylindrical holes Physical Review B Shin, H., Catrysse, P., B., Fan, S. 2005; 72 (8)
  • Displacement sensing using evanescent tunneling between guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs Journal of Applied Physics Suh, W., Solgaard, O., Fan, S. 2005; 98 (3)

    View details for DOI 033102 10.1063/1.1999031

  • Tunable terahertz Bloch oscillations in chirped photonic crystals Physical Review B Lousse, V., Fan, S. 2005; 72 (7)
  • Dynamic photonic structures: Stopping, storage, and time reversal of light Studies in Applied Mathematics Yanik, M., F., Fan, S., H. 2005; 115 (2): 233-253
  • Coupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based light-emitting diodes Journal of Applied Physics Fan, S., H., Veronis, G., Suh, W., Liu et. al., Y. 2005; 97 (4)

    View details for DOI 044503 10.1063/1.1848194

  • Coherent single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide coupled with superconducting quantum bits Physical Review Letters Shen, J., T., Fan, S., H. 2005; 95 (21)
  • Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides Applied Physics Letters Veronis, G., Fan, S., H. 2005; 87 (13)

    View details for DOI 131102 10.1063/1.2056594

  • Stopping and storing light coherently Physical Review A Yanik, M., F., Fan, S., H. 2005; 71 (1)
  • Metallic photonic crystals with strong broadband absorption at optical frequencies over wide angular range Journal of Applied Physics Veronis, G., Dutton, R., W., Fan, S., H. 2005; 97 (9)

    View details for DOI 093104 10.1063/1.1889248

  • Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Yanik, M. F., Suh, W., Wang, Z., Fan, S. H. 2004; 93 (23)

    Abstract

    We introduce a new all-optical mechanism that can compress the bandwidth of light pulses to absolute zero, and bring them to a complete stop. The mechanism can be realized in a system consisting of a waveguide side coupled to tunable resonators, which generates a photonic band structure that represents a classical analogue of the electromagnetically induced transparency. The same system can also achieve a time-reversal operation. We demonstrate the operation of such a system by finite-difference time-domain simulations of an implementation in photonic crystals.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.233903

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225508000035

    View details for PubMedID 15601162

  • Photonic crystal slabs demonstrating strong broadband suppression of transmission in the presence of disorders OPTICS LETTERS Kilic, O., Kim, S., Suh, W., Peter, Y. A., Sudbo, A. S., Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. H., Solgaard, O. 2004; 29 (23): 2782-2784

    Abstract

    We characterize the transmission spectra of out-of-plane, normal-incidence light of two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal slabs and observe excellent agreement between the measured data and finite-difference time-domain simulations over the 1050-1600-nm wavelength range. Crystals that are 340 nm thick and have holes of 330-nm radius on a square lattice of 998-nm pitch show 20-dB extinction in transmission from 1220 to 1255 nm. Increasing the hole radius to 450 nm broadens the extinction band further, and we obtain >85% extinction from 1310 to 1550 nm. Discrepancies between simulation and measurement are ascribed to disorder in the photonic lattice, which is measured through image processing on high-resolution scanning electron micrographs. Analysis of crystal imperfections indicates that they tend to average out narrowband spectral features, while having relatively small effects on broadband features.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225280700028

    View details for PubMedID 15605504

  • Anomalous reflections at photonic crystal surfaces PHYSICAL REVIEW E Yu, X. F., Fan, S. H. 2004; 70 (5)

    Abstract

    We explore the reflection phenomena when a light beam propagating in a photonic crystal is incident upon the interfaces between the crystal and a uniform dielectric. We prove that a generalized wave-vector conservation relation still applies even when the interface is not aligned with special crystal directions. Using this conservation relation, we show that neither the phase velocity nor the group velocity directions of the reflected beam satisfies Snell's law. Rather, the system exhibits remarkable and unusual reflection effects. In particular, total internal reflection is absent except at discrete angular values. The direction of the reflected beam can also be pinned along special crystal directions, independent of the orientation of the interface. And finally, at glancing incidences, strong backward reflections may occur. These effects may be important for creating integrated photonic circuits, and for on-chip image transfer.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevE.70.055601

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225970700010

    View details for PubMedID 15600683

  • Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. H. 2004; 93 (17)

    Abstract

    We introduce a new physical process that can perform a complete time-reversal operation on any electromagnetic pulse. The process uses only small refractive index modulations of linear optical elements. No nonlinear multiphoton effects such as four-wave mixing are required. The introduced process can be implemented on chip with standard semiconductor materials. Furthermore, the same process can be used to compress or expand the spectrum of electromagnetic waves while completely preserving the coherent information. We exhibit the time-reversal process by first-principles simulations of microcavity complexes in photonic crystals.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.173903

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224662700030

    View details for PubMedID 15525079

  • Method for sensitivity analysis of photonic crystal devices OPTICS LETTERS Veronis, G., DUTTON, R. W., Fan, S. H. 2004; 29 (19): 2288-2290

    Abstract

    We present a new method for sensitivity analysis of photonic crystal devices. The algorithm is based on a finite-difference frequency-domain model and uses the adjoint variable method and perturbation theory techniques. We show that our method is highly efficient and accurate and can be applied to calculation of the sensitivity of transmission parameters of resonant nanophotonic devices.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224193500026

    View details for PubMedID 15524383

  • Submicrometer all-optical digital memory and integration of nanoscale photonic devices without isolators JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Yanik, M. F., Altug, H., Vuckovic, J., Fan, S. H. 2004; 22 (10): 2316-2322
  • Designing for beam propagation in periodic and nonperiodic photonic nanostructures: Extended Hamiltonian method PHYSICAL REVIEW E Jiao, Y., Fan, S. H., Miller, D. A. 2004; 70 (3)

    Abstract

    We use Hamiltonian optics to design and analyze beam propagation in two-dimensional (2D) periodic structures with slowly varying nonuniformities. We extend a conventional Hamiltonian method, adding equations for calculating the width of a beam propagating in such structures, and quantify the range of validity of the extended Hamiltonian equations. For calculating the beam width, the equations are more than 10(3) times faster than finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. We perform FDTD simulations of beam propagation in large 2D periodic structures with slowly varying nonuniformities to validate our method. Beam path and beam width calculated using the extended Hamiltonian method show good agreement with FDTD simulations. By contrasting the method with ray tracing of the bundle of rays, we highlight and explain the limitations of the extended Hamiltonian method. Finally, we use a frequency demultiplexing device optimization example to demonstrate the potential applications of the method.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevE.70.036612

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224302300097

    View details for PubMedID 15524661

  • Simulations of the effect of the core ring on surface and air-core modes in photonic bandgap fibers OPTICS EXPRESS Kim, H. K., Digonnet, M. J., Kino, G. S., Shin, J. W., Fan, S. H. 2004; 12 (15): 3436-3442

    Abstract

    We show through computer simulations that the thin silica ring that surrounds the air core of a photonic-bandgap fiber introduces surface modes. The intensity profile and dispersion of these modes indicate that they are the modes of the waveguide formed by the ring surrounded by air on one side and the photonic crystal cladding on the other. The ring also induces small perturbations of the fundamental core mode. Coupling to those surface modes, which have propagation constants close to that of the core mode, are likely to induce substantial loss to the core mode. By reducing the thickness of the ring and/or by suitably selecting its radius the propagation constants of the surface modes can be moved farther from that of the core mode and the loss reduced.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222908900016

    View details for PubMedID 19483869

  • Design of polarization beam splitter in two-dimensional triangular photonic crystals CHINESE PHYSICS LETTERS Chen, X. Y., Yao, P. J., Chen, B., Li, F., Zhang, J. Y., Xie, J. P., Ming, H., Fan, S. H. 2004; 21 (7): 1285-1288
  • Omnidirectional resonance in a metal-dielectric-metal geometry APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Shin, H., Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. H., Zia, R., Brongersma, M. L. 2004; 84 (22): 4421-4423

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1758306

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221537500021

  • Simple geometric criterion to predict the existence of surface modes in air-core photonic-bandgap fibers OPTICS EXPRESS Digonnet, M. J., Kim, H. K., Shin, J., Fan, S. H., Kino, G. S. 2004; 12 (9): 1864-1872

    Abstract

    We propose a simple geometric criterion based on the size of the core relative to the photonic crystal to quickly determine whether an air-core photonic-bandgap fiber with a given geometry supports surface modes. Comparison to computer simulations show that when applied to fibers with a triangular-pattern cladding and a circular air core, this criterion accurately predicts the existence of a finite number of discrete ranges of core radii that support no surface modes. This valuable tool obviates the need for time-consuming and costly simulations, and it can be easily applied to fibers with an arbitrary photonic-crystal structure and core profile.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221423300011

    View details for PubMedID 19475017

  • One-mode model for patterned metal layers inside integrated color pixels OPTICS LETTERS Catrysse, P. B., Suh, W. J., Fan, S. H., Peeters, M. 2004; 29 (9): 974-976

    Abstract

    Optimized design of the optical filters inside integrated color pixels (ICPs) for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensors requires analytical models. ICP optical filters consist of subwavelength patterned metal layers. We show that a one-mode model, in which subwavelength gaps in the metal layer are described in terms of single-mode waveguides, suffices to predict the salient features of measured ICP wavelength selectivity. The Airy-like transmittance formula, derived for transverse-electric polarization, predicts an angle-independent cutoff wavelength, which is in good agreement with predictions made with a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221016200020

    View details for PubMedID 15143645

  • Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Kim, H. K., Shin, J., Fan, S. H., Digonnet, M. J., Kino, G. S. 2004; 40 (5): 551-556
  • Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Ziebarth, J. M., Saafir, A. K., Fan, S., McGehee, M. D. 2004; 14 (5): 451-456
  • Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror Lousse, V., Suh, W., Kilic, O., Kim, S., Solgaard, O., Fan, S. H. OPTICAL SOC AMER. 2004: 1575-1582

    Abstract

    It was recently demonstrated that a photonic crystal slab can function as a mirror for externally incident light along a normal direction with near-complete reflectivity over a broad wavelength range. We analyze the angular and polarization properties of such photonic crystal slab mirror, and show such reflectivity occurs over a sizable angular range for both polarizations. We also show that such mirror can be designed to reflect one polarization completely, while allowing 100% transmission for the other polarization, thus behaving as a polarization splitter with a complete contrast. The theoretical analysis is validated by comparing with experimental measurements.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220908100012

    View details for PubMedID 19474983

  • Stopping light all optically PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. H. 2004; 92 (8)

    Abstract

    We show that light pulses can be stopped and stored coherently, with an all-optical adiabatic and reversible pulse bandwidth compression process. Such a process overcomes the fundamental bandwidth-delay constraint in optics and can generate arbitrarily small group velocities for any light pulse with a given bandwidth, without any coherent or resonant light-matter interactions. We exhibit this process in optical resonators, where the bandwidth compression is accomplished only by small refractive-index modulations performed at moderate speeds.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.083901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189266100013

    View details for PubMedID 14995773

  • Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators Physical Review Letters Yanik, M., F., Fan, S., H. 2004; 93 (17)
  • Temporal coupled-mode theory and the presence of non-orthogonal modes in lossless multimode cavities Ieee Journal of Quantum Electronics Suh, W., Wang, Z., Fan, S., H. 2004; 40 (10): 1511-1518

    View details for DOI 10.1109/jqe.2004.834773

  • Field expulsion and reconfiguration in polaritonic photonic crystals (vol 90, art no 196402, 2003) Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Huang, K., C., Bienstman, P., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 2004; 92 (16)
  • Stopping light all optically Physical Review Letters Yanik, M., F., Fan, S., H. 2004; 92 (8)
  • Nature of lossy Bloch states in polaritonic photonic crystals Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Huang, K., C., Lidorikis, E., Jiang, X., Y. 2004; 69 (19)
  • Designing for beam propagation in periodic and nonperiodic photonic nanostructures: Extended Hamiltonian method Physical Review E Jiao, Y., Fan, S., H., Miller, D., A. B. 2004; 70 (3)
  • Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Yanik, M., F., Suh, W., Wang et. al., Z. 2004; 93 (23)
  • Phonon-polariton excitations in photonic crystals (vol 68, art no 075209, 2003) Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Huang, K., C., Bienstman, P., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 2004; 69 (15)
  • Anomalous reflections at photonic crystal surfaces Physical Review E Yu, X., F., Fan, S., H. 2004; 70 (5)
  • All-pass transmission or flattop reflection filters using a single photonic crystal slab Applied Physics Letter Suh, W., Fan, S., H. 2004; 84 (24): 4905-4907

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1763221

  • All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry OPTICS LETTERS Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. H., Soljacic, M., Joannopoulos, J. D. 2003; 28 (24): 2506-2508

    Abstract

    We demonstrate all-optical switching action in a nonlinear photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry with instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity, in which the transmission of a signal can be reversibly switched on and off by a control input. Our geometry accomplishes both spatial and spectral separation between the signal and the control in the nonlinear regime. The device occupies a small footprint of a few micrometers squared and requires only a few milliwatts of power at a 10-Gbit/s switching rate by use of Kerr nonlinearity in AlGaAs below half the electronic bandgap. We also show that the switching dynamics, as revealed by both coupled-mode theory and finite-difference time domain simulations, exhibits collective behavior that can be exploited to generate high-contrast logic levels and all-optical memory.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187075300024

    View details for PubMedID 14690129

  • Compact all-pass filters in photonic crystals as the building block for high-capacity optical delay lines PHYSICAL REVIEW E Wang, Z., Fan, S. H. 2003; 68 (6)

    Abstract

    Optical all-pass filters, which generate strong on-resonance optical delay while maintaining a unity transmission coefficient throughout the entire resonant bandwidth, are of great importance for constructing delay lines in optical buffer applications. We provide an analysis of optical delay lines based upon cascading multiple stages of all-pass filter structures. We show that the maximum capacity of such delay lines is determined primarily by the dimensions of each stage. Motivated by this analysis, we describe compact optical all-pass filters in two-dimensional photonic crystals. The accidental degeneracy of the cavity modes introduces a strong group delay and dispersion while maintaining total transmission.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.066616

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188316700098

    View details for PubMedID 14754345

  • Mechanically switchable photonic crystal filter with either all-pass transmission or flat-top reflection characteristics OPTICS LETTERS Suh, W., Fan, S. H. 2003; 28 (19): 1763-1765

    Abstract

    We theoretically introduce a new type of optical all-pass filter based on guided resonance in coupled photonic crystal slabs. The filter exhibits near-complete transmission for both on- and off-resonant frequencies and yet generates large resonant group delay. We further show that such a filter can be mechanically switched into a flat-top band rejection filter.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185436500011

    View details for PubMedID 14514093

  • Displacement-sensitive photonic crystal structures based on guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Suh, W., Yanik, M. F., Solgaard, O., Fan, S. H. 2003; 82 (13): 1999-2001

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1563739

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181801100001

  • Temporal coupled-mode theory for the Fano resonance in optical resonators JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION Fan, S. H., Suh, W., Joannopoulos, J. D. 2003; 20 (3): 569-572

    Abstract

    We present a theory of the Fano resonance for optical resonators, based on a temporal coupled-mode formalism. This theory is applicable to the general scheme of a single optical resonance coupled with multiple input and output ports. We show that the coupling constants in such a theory are strongly constrained by energy-conservation and time-reversal symmetry considerations. In particular, for a two-port symmetric structure, Fano-resonant line shape can be derived by using only these symmetry considerations. We validate the analysis by comparing the theoretical predictions with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations of guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs. Such a theory may prove to be useful for response-function synthesis in filter and sensor applications.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181226100018

    View details for PubMedID 12630843

  • Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystals Applied Physics Letters Yu, X., F., Fan, S., H. 2003; 83 (16): 3251-3253

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1621736

  • High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities Applied Physics Letters Yanik, M., F., Fan, S., H., Soljacic, M. 2003; 83 (14): 2739-2741

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1615835

  • Phonon-polariton excitations in photonic crystals Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Huang, K., C., Bienstman, P., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 2003; 68 (7)
  • Compact all-pass filters in photonic crystals as the building block for high-capacity optical delay lines Physical Review E Wang, Z., Fan, S., H. 2003; 68 (6)
  • Reflectionless multichannel wavelength demultiplexer in a transmission resonator configuration IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Jin, C. J., Fan, S. H., Han, S. Z., Zhang, D. Z. 2003; 39 (1): 160-165
  • Field expulsion and reconfiguration in polaritonic photonic crystals Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Huang, K., C., Bienstman, P., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 2003; 90 (19)
  • Design of a nanoelectromechanical high-index-contrast guided-wave optical switch for single-mode operation at 1.55 mu m Ieee Photonics Technology Letters Fan, S., H., Povinelli, M., L., Bryant, R., E., Assefa et. al., S. 2003; 15 (9): 1207-1209

    View details for DOI 10.1109/lpt.2003.816706

  • Nonlinear photonic crystal microdevices for optical integration Optics Letters Fan, S., H., Soljacic, M., Luo, C., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 2003; 28 (8): 637-639

    View details for DOI 10.1364/ol.28.000637

  • Creating large bandwidth line defects by embedding dielectric waveguides into photonic crystal slabs APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lau, W. T., Fan, S. H. 2002; 81 (21): 3915-3917

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1523637

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179207300001

  • Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL Chen, X., Cheung, S. T., So, S., Fan, S. T., Barry, C., Higgins, J., Lai, K. M., Ji, J. F., Dudoit, S., Ng, I. O., van de Rijn, M., Botstein, D., Brown, P. O. 2002; 13 (6): 1929-1939

    Abstract

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Using cDNA microarrays to characterize patterns of gene expression in HCC, we found consistent differences between the expression patterns in HCC compared with those seen in nontumor liver tissues. The expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguished from those associated with tumors metastatic to liver. The global gene expression patterns intrinsic to each tumor were sufficiently distinctive that multiple tumor nodules from the same patient could usually be recognized and distinguished from all the others in the large sample set on the basis of their gene expression patterns alone. The distinctive gene expression patterns are characteristic of the tumors and not the patient; the expression programs seen in clonally independent tumor nodules in the same patient were no more similar than those in tumors from different patients. Moreover, clonally related tumor masses that showed distinct expression profiles were also distinguished by genotypic differences. Some features of the gene expression patterns were associated with specific phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the tumors, including growth rate, vascular invasion, and p53 overexpression.

    View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.02-02-0023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176418800012

    View details for PubMedID 12058060

  • Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity Journal of the Optical Society of America B-Optical Physics Soljacic, M., Johnson, S., G., Fan et. al., S., H. 2002; 19 (9): 2052-2059

    View details for DOI 10.1364/josab.19.002052

  • Wide bandwidth, large, and tunable polarization mode dispersions in multilayered omnidirectional reflectors Applied Physics Letters Wang, Z., Miller, D., A. B., Fan, S., H. 2002; 81 (2): 187-189

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1491284

  • Sharp asymmetric line shapes in side-coupled waveguide-cavity systems Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H. 2002; 80 (6): 908-910

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1448174

  • Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Joannopoulos, J., D. 2002; 65 (23)
  • Waveguide branches in photonic crystals Journal of the Optical Society of America B-Optical Physics Fan, S., H., Johnson, S., G., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 2001; 18 (2): 162-165

    View details for DOI 10.1364/josab.18.000162

  • Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode Applied Physics Letters Erchak, A., A., Ripin, D., J., Fan et. al., S. 2001; 78 (5): 563-565

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1342048

  • Can silicon dimers form logic gates? Nanotechnology Appelbaum, I., Wang, T., R., Fan et. al., S., H. 2001; 12 (3): 391-393
  • Multipole-cancellation mechanism for high-Q cavities in the absence of a complete photonic band gap Applied Physics Letters Johnson, S., G., Fan, S., Mekis et. al., A. 2001; 78 (22): 3388-3390

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1375838

  • Molding the flow of light Computing in Science & Engineering Johnson, S., G., Mekis, A., Fan et. al., S., H. 2001; 3 (6): 38-47

    View details for DOI 10.1109/5992.963426

  • Loss-induced on/off switching in a channel add/drop filter Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Villenueve, P., R., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 2001; 64 (24)
  • Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap Physical Review B Povinelli, M., L., Johnson, S., G., Fan et. al., S., H. 2001; 64 (7): art. no.-075313
  • An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide Science Ibanescu, M., Fink, Y., Fan et. al., S. 2000; 289 (5478): 415-419
  • Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs Physical Review B Johnson, S., G., Villenueve, P., R., Fan et. al., S. 2000; 62 (12): 8212-8222

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.8212

  • Rate-equation analysis of output efficiency and modulation rate of photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes : Ieee Journal of Quantum Electronics Fan, S., H., Villenueve, P., R., Joannopoulos, J., D. 2000; 36 (10): 1123-1130

    View details for DOI 10.1109/3.880652

  • Photonic band gap airbridge microcavity resonances in GaAs/AlxOy waveguides Journal of Applied Physics Fan, S., H., Ripin, D., J., Lim, K., Y., Petrich et. al., G., S. 2000; 87 (3): 1578-1580

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.372055

  • Self-oriented regular arrays of carbon nanotubes and their field emission properties Science (New York, N.Y.) Fan, S., Chapline, M. G., Franklin, N. R., Tombler, T. W., Cassell, A. M., Dai, H. 1999; 283 (5401): 512-4

    Abstract

    The synthesis of massive arrays of monodispersed carbon nanotubes that are self-oriented on patterned porous silicon and plain silicon substrates is reported. The approach involves chemical vapor deposition, catalytic particle size control by substrate design, nanotube positioning by patterning, and nanotube self-assembly for orientation. The mechanisms of nanotube growth and self-orientation are elucidated. The well-ordered nanotubes can be used as electron field emission arrays. Scaling up of the synthesis process should be entirely compatible with the existing semiconductor processes, and should allow the development of nanotube devices integrated into silicon technology.

    View details for PubMedID 9915692

  • Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Villeneuve, P., R., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 1999; 59 (24): 15882-15892
  • Interband transitions in photonic crystals Physical Review B Winn, J., N., Fan, S., H., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 1999; 59 (3): 1551-1554

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.59.1551

  • The role of the thermal oxide in GaAs-based photonic bandgap waveguide microcavities Advanced Materials Fan, S., H., Lim, K., Y., Ripin, D., J., Petrich et. al., G., S. 1999; 11 (6): 501-+
  • Absorbing boundary conditions for FDTD simulations of photonic crystal waveguides Ieee Microwave and Guided Wave Letters Mekis, A., Fan, S., H., Joannopoulos, J., D. 1999; 9 (12): 502-504

    View details for DOI 10.1109/75.819374

  • One-dimensional photonic bandgap microcavities for strong optical confinement in GaAs and GaAs/AlxOy semiconductor waveguides Journal of Lightwave Technology Fan, S., H., Ripin, D., J., Lim, K., Y., Petrich et. al., G., S. 1999; 17 (11): 2152-2160

    View details for DOI 10.1109/50.803006

  • Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters Ieee Journal of Quantum Electronics Manolatou, C., Khan, M., J., Fan et. al., S., H. 1999; 35 (9): 1322-1331

    View details for DOI 10.1109/3.784592

  • Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: A computational study Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Appelbaum, I., Joannopoulos, J., D. 1999; 75 (22): 3461-3463

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.125296

  • High-density integrated optics Journal of Lightwave Technology Manolatou, C., Johnson, S., G., Fan et. al., S., H. 1999; 17 (9): 1682-1692

    View details for DOI 10.1109/50.788575

  • Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs Physical Review B Johnson, S., G., Fan, S., H., Villenueve et al., P., R. 1999; 60 (8): 5751-5758

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.60.5751

  • Photonic band-gap waveguide microcavities: Monorails and air bridges Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B Fan, S., H., Lim, K., Y., Ripin, D., J., Petrich et. al., G., S. 1999; 17 (3): 1171-1174

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.590717

  • Mode-coupling analysis of multipole symmetric resonant add/drop filters Ieee Journal of Quantum Electronics Khan, M., J., Manolatou, C., Fan et. al., S., H. 1999; 35 (10): 1451-1460

    View details for DOI 10.1109/3.792565

  • Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure Journal of Lightwave Technology Fink, Y., Ripin, D., J., Fan et. al., S., H. 1999; 17 (11): 2039-2041

    View details for DOI 10.1109/50.802992

  • Channel drop filters in photonic crystals Optics Expres Fan, S., H., Villeneuve, P., R., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 1998; 3 (1): 4-11
  • Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal Optics Letters Winn, J., N., Fink, Y., Fan et. al., S., H. 1998; 23 (20): 1573-1575

    View details for DOI 10.1364/ol.23.001573

  • Channel drop tunneling through localized states Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Villeneuve, P., R., Joannopoulos, J., D. 1998; 80 (5): 960-963
  • Three-dimensional photon confinement in photonic crystals of low-dimensional periodicity Villeneuve, P., R., Fan, S., Johnson et al., S., G. 1998

    View details for DOI 10.1049/ip-opt:19982467

  • Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections Optics Letters Johnson, S., G., Manolatou, C., Fan et. al., S., H. 1998; 23 (23): 1855-1857

    View details for DOI 10.1364/ol.23.001855

  • Bound states in photonic crystal waveguides and waveguide bends Physical Review B Mekis, A., Fan, S., H., Joannopoulos, J., D. 1998; 58 (8): 4809-4817

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.58.4809

  • A dielectric omnidirectional reflector Science Fink, Y., Winn, J., N., Fan et. al., S., H. 1998; 282 (5394): 1679-1682
  • 3D metallo-dielectric photonic crystals with strong capacitive coupling between metallic islands Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Sievenpiper, D., F., Yablonovitch, E., Winn et. al., J., N. 1998; 80 (13): 2829-2832
  • Photonic crystals Solid State Communications Joannopoulos, J., D., Villeneuve, P., R., Fan, S., H. 1997; 102 (2-3): 165-173
  • Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light (vol 386, pg 143, 1997) Nature Joannopoulos, J., D., Villeneuve, P., R., Fan, S., H. 1997; 387 (6635): 830

    View details for DOI 10.1038/42999

  • Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides Nature Fan, S., H., Foresi, J., S., Villeneuve, P., R., Ferrera et. al., J. 1997; 390 (6656): 143-145
  • Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light Nature Joannopoulos, J., D., Villeneuve, P., R., Fan, S., H. 1997; 386 (6621): 143-149

    View details for DOI 10.1038/386143a0

  • High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Villeneuve, P., R., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 1997; 78 (17): 3294-3297
  • High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides Physical Review Letters Fan, S., H., Mekis, A., Chen, J., C., Kurland et. al., I. 1996; 77 (18): 3787-3790
  • Optical filters from photonic band gap air bridges Journal of Lightwave Technology Chen, J., C., Haus, H., A., Fan et. al., S., H. 1996; 14 (11): 2575-2580

    View details for DOI 10.1109/50.548157

  • Single-mode waveguide microcavity for fast optical switching Optics Letters Villeneuve, P., R., Abrams, D., S., Fan et. al., S., H. 1996; 21 (24): 2017-2019

    View details for DOI 10.1364/ol.21.002017

  • Large omnidirectional band gaps in metallodielectric photonic crystals Physical Review B Fan, S., H., Villeneuve, P., R., Joannopoulos, J., D. 1996; 54 (16): 11245-11251
  • Microcavities in photonic crystals: Mode symmetry, tunability, and coupling efficiency Physical Review B Villeneuve, P., R., Fan, S., H., Joannopoulos, J., D. 1996; 54 (11): 7837-7842

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.7837

  • AIR-BRIDGE MICROCAVITIES Applied Physics Letters Villeneuve, P., R., Fan, S., H., Joannopoulos et. al., J., D. 1995; 67 (2): 167-169

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.114655

  • GUIDED AND DEFECT MODES IN PERIODIC DIELECTRIC WAVE-GUIDES Journal of the Optical Society of America B-Optical Physics Fan, S., H., Winn, J., N., Devenyi et. al., A. 1995; 12 (7): 1267-1272

    View details for DOI 10.1364/josab.12.001267

  • THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF FABRICATION-RELATED DISORDER ON THE PROPERTIES OF PHOTONIC CRYSTALS Journal of Applied Physics Fan, S., H., Villeneuve, P., R., Joannopoulos, J., D. 1995; 78 (3): 1415-1418

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.360298

  • DESIGN OF 3-DIMENSIONAL PHOTONIC CRYSTALS AT SUBMICRON LENGTH SCALES Applied Physics Letters Fan, S., H., Villeneuve, P., R., Meade et. al., R., D. 1994; 65 (11): 1466-1468

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.112017