Bio


Professor Lee's principal areas of professional interest include analog circuitry of all types, ranging from low-level DC instrumentation to high-speed RF communications systems. His present research focus is on CMOS RF integrated circuit design, and on extending operation into the terahertz realm.

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • ScD, MIT (1990)

2014-15 Courses


All Publications


  • Dark Secrets of RF Design IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society Singapore Chapter, Singapore Lee, T. 2012
  • The Return of the Empty State: Vacuum Nanoelectronics for Terahertz Applications Lee, T. 2010
  • When Silicon Valley was ‘Arc Alley Lee, T. 2009
  • European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Athens, Greece Kiaei, A., Bohsali, M., Bahai, A., Lee, T., H. 2009
  • High-Power Tunable Terahertz Generation based on Photoconductive Antenna Arrays Jarrahi, M., Danielson, J., Lee, T., H. 2008
  • Monolithic integration of GaAs/AlGaAs phase modulator and photodetector for RF photonics Jarrahi, M., Miller, D., A. B., Lee, T., H. 2008
  • A System for Multiplexed Direct Electrical Detection of DNA Synthesis, Sensors & Actuators Anderson, E., P., Daniels, J., S., Yu, H., Karhanek, M., Lee, T., H., Davis, R., W. 2008; B 129: 79–86
  • The Future of Wireless Technology in the Fourth age – The Internet of Things Lee, T. 2008
  • Simultaneous Measurement of Nonlinearity and Electrochemical Impedance for Protein Sensing Using Two-Tone Excitation Daniels, J., S., Anderson, E., Lee, T., H., Pourmand, N. 2008
  • Optical switching based on highspeed phased-array optical beam steering Applied Physics Letters Jarrahi, M., Pease, R., F. W., Miller, D., A. B., Lee, T., H. 2008; 92
  • High-speed optical beam-steering based on phased arrayed waveguides Jarrahi, M., Pease, R., F. W., Miller, D., A. B., Lee, T., H. 2008
  • A Label-free CMOS DNA Microarray based on Charge Sensing Anderson, E., P., Daniels, J., S., Yu, H., Pourmand, N., Lee, T., H. 2008
  • RFIC Design & Implementation: An Introduction Plus IEEE short course, Singapore local Solid-State Circuits Society chapter, Singapore Lee, T. 2008
  • A Low-verhead Fault Tolerance Scheme for TSV-based 3D Network on Chip Links Loi, I., Mitra, S., Lee, T., H., Fujita, S., Benini, L. 2008
  • Phase Noise in Oscillators Lee, T. 2007
  • A 10Gb/s Equalizer with Decision Feedback for High Speed Serial Links Kiaei, A., Matinpour, B., Bahai, A., Lee, T., H. 2007
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit: A Random Walk Lee, T. 2007
  • Engineering Perspectives on Alternative Energy Lee, T. 2007
  • From Oxymoron to Mainstream: The Evolution and Future of RF CMOS Lee, T., H. 2007
  • Optical Spatially Quantized High Performance Analog-to-digital Conversion Jarrahi, M., Miller, D., A. B., Fabian, R., Pease, W., Lee, T., H. 2007
  • RFID: Status, Promise and Challenges Lee, T. 2007
  • Oscillator Phase Noise Santa Clara Valley IEEE Solid State Circuits Society (SSCS) Chapter Program, RFIC Design Short Course, Santa Clara, CA Lee, T. 2007
  • 3D Nanoarchitectures with Carbon Nanotube Mechanical Switches for Future On-Chip Network Beyond CMOS Architecture IEEE TCA S-I Special Issue: Nanoarchitecture Fujita, S., Nomura, K., Abe, K., Lee, T., H. 2007
  • Things about stuff MESA Community Colleges Statewide Day, Noe Lozano Lee, T. 2006
  • The Past and Future of the Integrated Circuit Lee, T. 2006
  • A Programmable 0.18-μm CMOS Electrochemical Sensor Microarray for Biomolecular Detection IEEE Sensors Journal Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H. 2006; 6-6: 1380-1388
  • Candidate THz Sources: The History and Future of Velocity-Modulated Devices Photonics West, San Jose, CA Lee, T. 2006
  • RF ID: Promise and Challenges Lee, T. 2006
  • Novel architecture based on floating gate CNT-NEMS switches and its application to 3D on-chip bus beyond CMOS architecture Fujita, S., Nomura, K., Abe, K., Lee, T., H. 2006
  • 3D on-chip networking technology based on post-Silicon devices for Future Network on Chip Fujita, S., Nomura, K., Abe, K., Lee, T., H. 2006
  • Coupled Inverter Ring I/Q Oscillator for Low Power Frequency Synthesis Xu, J., Verma, S., Lee, T., H. 2006
  • Ordered and Chaotic Electrical Solitons: Communication Perspectives, IEEE Communications Magazine Ham, D., Li, X., Denenberg, S., A., Lee, T., H., Ricketts, D., S. 2006; 44 (12): 126-135
  • Device Physics: Electrical Solitons Come of Age Nature Lee, T. 2006; 440: 36-37
  • First-Hand Tales of Successful Entrepreneurs MIT Club Semiconductor Program Lee, T. 2005
  • A Programmable Electrochemical Biosensor Array in 0.18µm Standard CMOS Hassibi, A., Lee, T. 2005
  • Biological Shot-noise and Quantum-Limited SNR in Affinity-Based Biosensor Journal of Applied Physics Hassibi, A., Zahedi, S., Navid, R., Dutton, R., W., Lee, T., H. 2005; 97 (84701): 8
  • A 17.1mW, 0.66mm2, Direct Conversion Receiver for 1Mb/s Cable Replacement Verma, S., Xu, J., Hamada, M., Lee, T., H. 2005
  • A 77GHz Monolithic IMPATT Transmitter in Standard CMOS Technology Al-Attar, T., Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H. 2005
  • A Constant-Frequency Method for Improving Light-Load Efficiency in Synchronous Buck Converters IEEE Power Electronics Letters Mulligan, M., D., Broach, B., Lee, T., H. 2005; 3: 24-29
  • Feedback Linearization of RF Power Amplifiers Dawson, J., Lee, T. Kluwer Academic Press. 2004
  • Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) Estimator for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Processes Kakavand, H., O’Brien, D., Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H. 2004
  • Effects of Scaling on the SNR and Speed of Biosensors Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H., Navid, R., Dutton, R., W., Zahedi, S. 2004
  • Planar Microwave Engineering Lee, T. Cambridge University Press. 2004
  • Novel Functional Logic Circuits Based on 3D Emerging Memory Cells 3-D Architectures for Semiconductor Integration and Packaging – Understanding the Impact on Materials, Processes, and Markets, Burlingame, CA Fujita, S., Lee, T. 2004
  • Lateral IMPATT Diodes in Standard CMOS Technology International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, San Francisco, CA Al-Attar, T., Mulligan, M., D., Lee, T., H. 2004
  • Close-in Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators Navid, R., Jungemann, C., Lee, T., H., Dutton, R., W. 2004
  • A Comprehensive Study of Noise Processes in Electrode-electrolyte Interfaces Journal of Applied Physics Hassibi, A., Navid, R., Dutton, R., W., Lee, T., H. 2004; 96: 1074-1082
  • Wireless Transceiver Building Blocks Stanford Engineering & Science Institute short course Lee, T. 2004
  • Effects of Scaling on the SNR and Speed of Biosensors Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H., Navid, R., Dutton, R., W., Zahedi, S. 2004
  • A Stochastic Model and Simulation Algorithm for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Systems Hassibi, A., Kakavand, H., Lee, T., H. 2004
  • High Dynamic Range Programmable CMOS Front-End Filter with a Tuning Range from 1850 to 2400 Mhz Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing Christensen, K., Lee, T., H., Bruun, E. 2004; 42: 55-63
  • A unified model for injection-locked frequency dividers IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Verma, S., Rategh, H. R., Lee, T. H. 2003; 38 (6): 1015-1027
  • A multiply-by-3 coupled-ring oscillator for low-power frequency synthesis 2003 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI CIRCUITS, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS Verma, S., Xu, J. F., Lee, T. H. 2003: 189-192
  • 512-Mb PROM with a Three-dimensional Array of Diode/antifuse Memory Cells IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuit Johnson, M., Al-Shamma, A., Bosch, D., Crowley, M., Farmwald, M., Fasoli, L., Lee, Thomas, H. 2003; 38: 1920-1928
  • Lumped, Inductorless Oscillators: How Far Can They Go? Navid, R., Lee, T., H., Dutton, R., W. 2003
  • Bioluminescence Regenerative Cycle (BRC) system for Nucleic Acid Quantification Assays Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H., Davis, R., W., Pourmand, N. 2003
  • Completely DC-free Direct Sequence Spectrum Spreading Scheme for Low Power, Low Cost, Direct Conversion Transceiver Hamada, M., Verma, S., Xu, J., Lee, T., H. 2003
  • Automatic Phase Alignment for a Fully Integrated CMOS Cartesian Feedback Power Amplifier System Dawson, J., Lee, T. 2003
  • Volumetric Ultrasound Imaging Using 2-D Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays (CMUTs): Initial Results Oralkan, O., Ergun, A., S., Cheng, C., H., Johnson, J., A., Karaman, M., Lee, T., H. 2002
  • Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays for Acoustic Imaging IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectronics and Frequency Control Oralkan, O., Ergun, A., Sanli, Karaman, M., Demirci, U., Kaviani, K., Lee, T. 2002; 49: 1596-1610
  • Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis and Division Rategh, H., Lee, T. Kluwer Academic Press. 2001
  • Bandwidth extension in CMOS with optimized on-chip inductors Mohan, S. S., Hershenson, M. D., Boyd, S. P., Lee, T. H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2000: 346-355
  • The equivalence of van der Ziel and BSIM4 models in modeling the induced gate noise of MOSFETs INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 2000, TECHNICAL DIGEST Goo, J. S., Liu, W., Choi, C. H., Green, K. R., Yu, Z. P., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. 2000: 811-814
  • Measuring and Modeling the Effects of Substrate Noise on the LNS for a CMOS GPS Receiver Xu, M., Su, D., Shaeffer, D., Lee, T., Wooley, B. 2000
  • Automatic Phase Alignment for High Bandwidth Cartesian Feedback Power Amplifiers Dawson, J., Lee, T. 2000
  • Oscillator Phase Noise: A Tutorial IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Lee, T., H., Hajimiri, A. 2000; 35: 326-336
  • Circuit Techniques for CMOS RF ICs Lee, T. 2000
  • CMOS RF Integrated Circuits at 5GHz and Beyond Lee, T., Wong, S. 2000
  • A CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with an Injection-Locked Frequency Divider for a 5-GHz Wireless LAN Receiver IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Rategh, H., Samavati, H., Lee, T. 2000; 35: 780-787
  • Optimal Allocation of Local Feedback in Multistage Amplifiers via Geometric Programming Dawson, J., Boyd, S., Hershenson, M., del Mar, Lee, T. 2000
  • CMOS RF Integrated Circuits at 5GHz and Beyond Lee, T., Wong, S. 2000
  • A 5-GHz CMOS Wireless LAN Receiver Front End IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Lee, T. 2000; 35: 765-772
  • A 0.3-µm CMOS 8-Gb/s 4-PAM Serial Link Transceiver IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C., Horowitz, M., Lee, T. 2000; 35: 757-764
  • Guidelines for the power constrained design of a CMOS tuned LNA 2000 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SIMULATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSES AND DEVICES Goo, J. S., Oh, K. H., Choi, C. H., Yu, Z. P., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. 2000: 269-272
  • Simple accurate expressions for planar spiral inductances IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Mohan, S. S., Hershenson, M. D., Boyd, S. P., Lee, T. H. 1999; 34 (10): 1419-1424
  • A portable digital DLL for high-speed CMOS interface circuits Garlepp, B. W., Donnelly, K. S., Kim, J., Chau, P. S., Zerbe, J. L., Huang, C., Tran, C. V., Portmann, C. L., Stark, D., Chan, Y. F., Lee, T. H., Horowitz, M. A. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1999: 632-644
  • Jitter and Phase Noise in Ring Oscillators IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Hajimiri, A., Limotyrakis, S., Lee, T. 1999; 34: 790-804
  • RF Noise Simulation for Submicron MOSFETs Based on Hydrodynamic Model Goo, J., Choi, C., Morifuji, E., Sasaki, H., Momose, H., Yu, Z., Lee, Thomas, H. 1999
  • A 5GHz, 1mW CMOS Voltage-Controlled Differential Injection-Locked Frequency Divider Rategh, H., Samavati, H., Lee, T. 1999
  • Superharmonic Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Rategh, H., Lee, T. 1999; 34: 813-821
  • Design Issues in CMOS Differential LC Oscillators IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. 1999; 34: 717-724
  • Phase Noise in Oscillators: A Tutorial Lee, T. 1999
  • A Linear, Time-Varying Theory of Phase Noise in Oscillators Lee, T. 1999
  • A 0.3mm CMOS 8Gb/s 4-PAM Serial Link Transceiver Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C., Horowitz, M., Lee, T. 1999
  • Issues in High Frequency Noise Simulation for Deep Submicron MOSFETs Goo, J., Choi, C., Dannerville, F., Yu, Z., Lee, T., Dutton, R. 1999
  • Low-Power Dividerless Frequency Synthesis Using Aperture Phase Detection IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Shahani, D., Shaeffer, Mohan, S., Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Hershnson, M., del Mar, Xu, M., Lee, Thomas, H. 1999; 33: 2232-2239
  • Monolithic CMOS Distributed Amplifier and Oscillator Kleveland, C., Diaz, Vook, D., Madden, L., Lee, T., Wong, S. 1999
  • GPCAD: A Tool for CMOS Op-Amp Synthesis Hershenson, M., del Mar, Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1999
  • CMOS RF: (Still) No Longer an Oxymoron Lee, T. 1999
  • A 2.125 Gbaud 1.6kΩ Transimpedance Preamplifier in 0.5µm CMOS Mohan, S., Lee, T. 1999
  • A 12.4mW CMOS Front-End for a 5GHz Wireless-LAN Receiver Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Lee, T. 1999
  • Design and Optimization of LC Oscillators Hershenson, M., del Mar, Hajimiri, A., Mohan, S., Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1999
  • RF Passive IC Components in The VLSI Handbook Lee, T. edited by Chen, W. CRC Press. 1999: 1
  • A 0.4-µm CMOS 10-Gb/s 4-PAM Pre-emphasis Serial Link Transmitter IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C., Horowitz, M., Lee, T. 1999; 34: 580-585
  • A 5GHz, 32mW CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with an Injection-Locked Frequency Divider Rategh, H., Samavati, H., Lee, T. 1999
  • Optimal Design of a CMOS Op-amp via Geometric Programming Applied and Computational Control, Signals and Circuits Lee, T. Birkhauser. 1999: 1
  • Optimization of Inductor Circuits via Geometric Programming Hershenson, M., del Mar, Mohan, S., Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1999
  • The Design of Low Noise Oscillators Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. Kluwer Academic Press. 1999
  • The Design and Implementation of Low-Power CMOS Radio Receivers Shaeffer, D., K., Lee, T. Kluwer Academic Press. 1999
  • Modeling and characterization of on-chip transformers INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 1998 - TECHNICAL DIGEST Mohan, S. S., Yue, C. P., Hershenson, M. D., Wong, S. S., Lee, T. H. 1998: 531-534
  • Ultra-Low Resistance, Through-Wafer Via (TWV) Technology and its Applications in Three Dimensional Structures on Silicon Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1, Hiroshima, Japan Soh, H., Yu, C., McCarthy, A., Ryu, C., Lee, T., Wong, S. 1998; 38: 2393-2396
  • A Portable Digital DLL Architecture for CMOS Interface Circuits Garlepp, Donnelly, K., Kim, J., Chau, P., Zerbe, J., Huang, C., Lee, Thomas, H. 1998
  • Superharmonic Injection Locked Oscillators as Low Power Frequency Dividers Rategh, H., Lee, T. 1998
  • The Design of CMOS Low-Noise Amplifiers Lee, T. 1998
  • A General Theory of Phase Noise in Oscillators IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Hajimir, A., Lee, T. 1998; 33: 179-194
  • Automated Design of Folded-Cascode Op-Amps with Sensitivity Analysis Hershenson, M., del Mar, Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1998
  • Fractal Capacitors IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Samavati, H., Hajimiri, A., Shahani, A., Nasserbakht, G., Lee, T. 1998; 33: 2035-2041
  • A 115mW, 0.5-µm CMOS GPS Receiver with Wide Dynamic-Range Active Filters IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Shaeffer, D., Shahani, A., Mohan, S., Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Hershenson, M., del Mar, Lee, Thomas, H. 1998; 33: 2219-2231
  • Analysis and Optimization of Accumulation-Mode Varactor for RF ICs Soorapanth, T., Yue, C., Shaeffer, D., Lee, T., Wong, S. 1998
  • Low Phase Noise Ring Oscillators for Frequency Synthesis Betancourt-Zamora, R., Lee, T. 1998
  • Fractal Capacitors Samavati, H., Hajimiri, A., Shahani, A., Nasserbakht, G., Lee, T. 1998
  • A 115mW CMOS GPS Receiver Shaeffer, Shahani, A., Mohan, S., Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Hershenson, M., del Mar, Lee, Thomas, H. 1998
  • 50-GHz Interconnect Design in Standard Silicon Technology Kleveland, S., Wong, Lee, T. 1998
  • A 0.4µm CMOS 10-Gb/s 4-PAM Pre-Emphasis Serial Link Transmitter Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C., Horowitz, M., Lee, T. 1998
  • A 1.4-GHz 3-mW CMOS LC Low Phase Noise VCO Using Tapped Bond Wire Inductances Ahrens, T., Lee, T. 1998
  • CMOS VCOs for Frequency Synthesis in Wireless Biotelemetry Betancourt-Zamora, R., Lee, T. 1998
  • Recent Progress in CMOS RF Integrated Circuits Lee, T. 1998
  • Phase Noise in CMOS Differential LC Oscillators Hajimiri, Lee, T. 1998
  • Circuit Techniques in a 266-MHz MMX-Enabled Processor IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Draper, M., Crowley, Holst, J., Favor, G., Schoy, A., Trull, J., Meir, A., Ben, Lee, Thomas, H. 1997; 32: 1650-1664
  • A 12-mW Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Front-End for a Portable GPS Receiver IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Shahani, D., Shaeffer, Lee, T. 1997; 32: 2061-2070
  • A 12mW Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Front-End for a Portable GPS Receiver Shahani, D., Shaeffer, Lee, T. 1997
  • A 1.5mW, 200MHz CMOS VCO for Wireless Telemetry Zamora, R., Betancourt, Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. 1997
  • A 1.5V, 1.5 GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Shaeffer, D., Lee, T. 1997; 32: 745-759
  • CMOS RF: No Longer an Oxymoron Lee, T. 1997
  • An X86 Microprocessor with Multi-Media Extensions Draper, M., Crowley, Holst, J., Favor, G., Schoy, A., Meir, A., Ben, Trull, J., Lee, Thomas, H. 1997
  • RF Linearity of Short-Channel MOSFETs Soorapanth, T., Lee, T. 1997
  • Physical Modeling of Enhanced High-Frequency Drain and Gate Current Noise in Short-Channel MOSFETs Klimovitch, T., Lee, Yamamoto, Y. 1997
  • The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits Lee, T. Cambridge University Press. 1997
  • An Equalization Scheme for 10Gb/s 4PAM Signaling over Long Cables Rad, R., Farjad, Yu, K., Lee, T. 1997
  • CMOS RF: No Longer an Oxymoron Lee, T. 1997
  • A 155MHz Delay- and Phase-Locked Loop Monolithic Phase-Locked Loops Lee, T. edited by Razavi, B. IEEE Press. 1997: 1
  • A 600MHz Superscalar RISC Microprocessor with Out-of-Order Execution Gieseke, R., Allmon, Bailey, D., Benschneider, B., Britton, S., Clouser, J., III, H., Fair, Lee, Thomas, H. 1997
  • A 1.6GHz 0.5mW CMOS LC Low Phase Noise VCO Using Bond Wire Inductance Ahrens, T., Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. 1997
  • CMOS Operational Amplifier Design and Optimization via Geometric Programming Hershenson, M., del Mar, Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1997
  • A 160MHz 32b 0.5W CMOS RISC Microprocessor IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Montanaro, J., Witek, R., Anne, K., Black, A., Cooper, E., Dobberpuhl, D., Lee, Thomas, H. 1996; 31: 1703-1714
  • A 1.5V, 1.5 GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier Shaeffer, D., Lee, T. 1996
  • A Physical Model for Spiral Inductors on Silicon International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, San Francisco, CA Yue, P., Ryu, C., Lau, J., Lee, T., Wong, S. 1996
  • A 1.5V, 1.5 GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier Shaeffer, Lee, T. 1996
  • A 160MHz 32b 0.5W CMOS RISC Microprocessor Montanaro, J., Witek, R., Anne, K., Black, A., Cooper, E., Dobberpuhl, D., Lee, Thomas, H. 1996
  • A 2.5V Delay-Locked Loop for an 18Mbit, 500MByte/sec DRAM IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Lee, T., Donnelly, K., Ho, J., Zerbe, J., Johnson, M., Ishawa, T. 1994; 29: 1491-1496
  • A 2.5V Delay-Locked Loop for an 18Mbit, 500MByte/sec DRAM Lee, T., Donnelly, K., Ho, J., Zerbe, J., Johnson, M., Ishikawa, T. 1994
  • PLL Design for a 500MByte/sec Interface Horowitz, M., Chan, A., Cobrunson, J., Gasbarro, J., Lee, T., Leung, W. 1993
  • A 500-Megabyte/s Data-Rate 4.5M DRAM IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Kushiyama, N., Ohsha, S., Stark, D., Noji, H., Sakurai, K., Takase, S., Lee, Thomas, H. 1993; 28: 490-498
  • A 155MHz Clock Recovery Delay- and Phase-Locked Loop IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Lee, T., Bulzacchelli, J. 1992; 27: 1736-1746
  • A 155MHz Clock Recovery Delay- and Phase-Locked Loop Lee, T., Bulzacchelli, J. 1992
  • Circuits, Analog” and “Circuits, Digital articles for Encyclopedia of Applied Physics Lee, T. VCH Publishers. 1992: 1