Bio


Professor Lee's principal areas of professional interest include analog circuitry of all types, ranging from low-level DC instrumentation to high-speed RF communications systems. His present research focus is on CMOS RF integrated circuit design, and on extending operation into the terahertz realm.

Academic Appointments


Program Affiliations


  • Stanford SystemX Alliance

Professional Education


  • ScD, MIT (1990)

Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Analysis and Design of a Tetrahedral Oscillator IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS II-EXPRESS BRIEFS Smith, R. L., Lee, T. H. 2022; 69 (1): 75-79
  • Modeling of Injection Locking in Neurons for Neuromorphic and Biomedical Systems Smith, R. L., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2021
  • Hybrid Frequency Domain Simulation Method to Speed-up Analysis of Injection Locked Oscillators Smith, R. L., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2021: 722-726
  • An Electronically Steerable Millimeter-Wave Reflectarray for Wireless Power Delivery Buckmaster, J., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2020
  • A Simple Linear Time-Variant Theory of Superregeneration Raghunathan, A., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2020
  • An Electronically Steerable Millimeter-Wave Reflectarray for Wireless Power Delivery Buckmaster, J., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2020
  • An Electronically Steerable Millimeter-Wave Reflectarray for Wireless Power Delivery Buckmaster, J., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2020: 514-517
  • Evaluating the Microwave Performance of Epidermal Electronics with Equivalent Transmission Line Modeling Chang, T., Fan, J. A., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2018
  • A 125 pJ/bit 5 mW 28 GHz Superregenerative Receiver with Automatic Gain Control and Energy Efficient Startup for Burst Mode IoE Applications Raghunathan, A., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2018: 70–73
  • A Ka-Band Beamformer for Wireless Power Transfer to Body Area Networks Saiz, N. D., Buckmaster, G., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2018: 10–12
  • A Ka-Band Beamformer for Wireless Power Transfer to Body Area Networks Saiz, N. D., Buckmaster, G., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2018
  • Evaluating the Microwave Performance of Epidermal Electronics with Equivalent Transmission Line Modeling Chang, T., Fan, J. A., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2018: 40–42
  • A General Strategy for Stretchable Microwave Antenna Systems using Serpentine Mesh Layouts ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Chang, T., Tanabe, Y., Wojcik, C. C., Barksdale, A. C., Doshay, S., Dong, Z., Liu, H., Zhang, M., Chen, Y., Su, Y., Lee, T. H., Ho, J. S., Fan, J. A. 2017; 27 (46)
  • Characterization of Stretchable Serpentine Microwave Devices for Wearable Electronics Chang, T., Wojcik, C., Su, Y., Rogers, J. A., Lee, T. H., Fan, J. A., IEEE IEEE. 2017: 207–10
  • A Phase-Interpolation and Quadrature-Generation Method Using Parametric Energy Transfer in CMOS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Bhardwaj, K., Lee, T. H. 2015; 62 (5): 1250-1259
  • GPS Anti-Jam: A Simple Method of Single Antenna Null-Steering for Aerial Applications McMilin, E., De Lorenzo, D. S., Lee, T., Enge, P., Akos, D., Caizzone, S., Konovaltsev, A., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2015: 470–83
  • Terahertz Electronics: The Last Frontier 40th European Solid-State Circuit Conference (ESSCIRC) Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2014: 30–34
  • Terahertz Electronics: The Last Frontier Lee, T. H., Bez, R., Pavan, P., Meneghesso, G. IEEE. 2014: 30-34
  • A 0.96mW, 5.3-6.75GHz, Phase-Interpolation and Quadrature-Generation Method using Parametric Energy Transfer in 65nm CMOS Bhardwaj, K., Lee, T. H., IEEE IEEE. 2014: 2145–48
  • Single Antenna GPS Spoof Detection that is Simple, Static, Instantaneous and Backwards Compatible for Aerial Applications McMilin, E., De Lorenzo, D. S., Walter, T., Lee, T. H., Enge, P., Inst Navigat INST NAVIGATION. 2014: 2233–42
  • Micro Barkhausen-Kurz Oscillators for Terahertz Integrated Systems 15th IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference Dixit, A., Snapp, J. P., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2014: 69–70
  • Terahertz CMOS Integrated Circuits IEEE International Symposium on Radio-Frequency Integration Technology (RFIT) - Silicon Technology Heats up for THz Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2014
  • Terahertz Electronics: Opportunities, Challenges and Technologies Lee, T., IEEE IEEE. 2013
  • A 3.1mW Phase-Tunable Quadrature-Generation Method for CEI 28G Short-Reach CDR in 28nm CMOS Bhardwaj, K., Narayan, S., Shumarayev, S., Lee, T., IEEE IEEE. 2013: 412-+
  • Dark Secrets of RF Design IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society Singapore Chapter, Singapore Lee, T. 2012
  • Circuit-Based Characterization of Device Noise Using Phase Noise Data IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Navid, R., Lee, T. H., Dutton, R. W. 2010; 57 (6): 1265-1272
  • CMOS Impedance Biosensor Array with Active Tone Cancellation for Simultaneous Impedance and Nonlinearity Measurement International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) Daniels, J. S., Anderson, E. P., Pourmand, N., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2010
  • The Return of the Empty State: Vacuum Nanoelectronics for Terahertz Applications Lee, T. 2010
  • A 10Gb/s NRZ Receiver with Feedforward Equalizer and Glitch-Free Phase-Frequency Detector 35th European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC 2009) Kiaei, A., Bohsali, M., Bahai, A., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2009: 373–376
  • When Silicon Valley was ‘Arc Alley Lee, T. 2009
  • European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Athens, Greece Kiaei, A., Bohsali, M., Bahai, A., Lee, T., H. 2009
  • Crosstalk in Integrated Microarrays With Current Sensing IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Anderson, E. P., Daniels, J. S., Pourmand, N., Lee, T. H. 2008; 55 (11): 3756-3762
  • High-speed optical beam-steering based on phase-arrayed waveguides 52nd International Conference on Electron, Ion and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication Jarrahi, M., Fabian, R., Pease, W., Miller, D. A., Lee, T. H. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS. 2008: 2124–26

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.2978945

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261385600052

  • Optical spatial quantization for higher performance analog-to-digital conversion IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES Jarrahi, M., Fabian, R., Pease, W., Miller, D. A., Lee, T. H. 2008; 56 (9): 2143-2150
  • Spatial Quantized Analog-to-Digital Conversion Based on Optical Beam-Steering JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Jarrahi, M., Pease, R. F., Lee, T. H. 2008; 26 (13-16): 2219-2226
  • Wideband, low driving voltage traveling-wave Mach-Zehnder modulator for RF photonics IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Jarrahi, M., Lee, T. H., Miller, D. A. 2008; 20 (5-8): 517-519
  • A system for multiplexed direct electrical detection of DNA synthesis SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL Anderson, E. P., Daniels, J. S., Yu, H., Karhanek, M., Lee, T. H., Davis, R. W., Pourmand, N. 2008; 129 (1): 79-86

    Abstract

    An electronic system for the multiplexed detection of DNA polymerization is designed and characterized. DNA polymerization is detected by the measurement of small transient currents arising from ion diffusion during polymerization. A transimpedance amplifier is used to detect these small currents; we implemented a twenty-four channel recording system on a single printed circuit board. Various contributions to the input-referred current noise are analyzed and characterized, as it limits the minimum detectable current and thus the biological limit of detection. We obtained 8.5 pA RMS mean noise current (averaged over all 24 channels) over the recording bandwidth (DC to 2 kHz). With digital filtering, the input-referred current noise of the acquisition system is reduced to 2.4 pA, which is much lower than the biological noise. Electrical crosstalk between channels is measured, and a model for the crosstalk is presented. Minimizing the crosstalk is critical because it can lead to erroneous microarray data. With proper precautions, crosstalk is reduced to a negligible value (less than 1.4%). Using a micro-fabricated array of 24 gold electrodes, we demonstrated system functionality by detecting the presence of a target DNA oligonucleotide which hybridized onto its corresponding target.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.snb.2007.07.105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253172500013

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2344141

  • A System for Multiplexed Direct Electrical Detection of DNA Synthesis. Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical Anderson, E. P., Daniels, J. S., Yu, H., Karhanek, M., Lee, T. H., Davis, R. W., Pourmand, N. 2008; 129 (1): 79-86

    Abstract

    An electronic system for the multiplexed detection of DNA polymerization is designed and characterized. DNA polymerization is detected by the measurement of small transient currents arising from ion diffusion during polymerization. A transimpedance amplifier is used to detect these small currents; we implemented a twenty-four channel recording system on a single printed circuit board. Various contributions to the input-referred current noise are analyzed and characterized, as it limits the minimum detectable current and thus the biological limit of detection. We obtained 8.5 pA RMS mean noise current (averaged over all 24 channels) over the recording bandwidth (DC to 2 kHz). With digital filtering, the input-referred current noise of the acquisition system is reduced to 2.4 pA, which is much lower than the biological noise. Electrical crosstalk between channels is measured, and a model for the crosstalk is presented. Minimizing the crosstalk is critical because it can lead to erroneous microarray data. With proper precautions, crosstalk is reduced to a negligible value (less than 1.4%). Using a micro-fabricated array of 24 gold electrodes, we demonstrated system functionality by detecting the presence of a target DNA oligonucleotide which hybridized onto its corresponding target.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.snb.2007.07.105

    View details for PubMedID 19183700

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2344141

  • Optical switching based on high-speed phased array optical beam steering APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Jarrahi, M., Fabian, R., Pease, W., Miller, D. A., Lee, T. H. 2008; 92 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2831005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252284200192

  • Monolithic integration of GaAs/AlGaAs phase modulator and photodetector for RF photonics Conference on Optical Fiber Communications/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference Jarrahi, M., Miller, D. A., Lee, T. H. OPTICAL SOC AMERICA. 2008: 106–108
  • Monolithic integration of GaAs/AlGaAs phase modulator and photodetector for RF photonics Jarrahi, M., Miller, D., A. B., Lee, T., H. 2008
  • A System for Multiplexed Direct Electrical Detection of DNA Synthesis, Sensors & Actuators Anderson, E., P., Daniels, J., S., Yu, H., Karhanek, M., Lee, T., H., Davis, R., W. 2008; B 129: 79–86
  • The Future of Wireless Technology in the Fourth age – The Internet of Things Lee, T. 2008
  • Simultaneous Measurement of Nonlinearity and Electrochemical Impedance for Protein Sensing Using Two-Tone Excitation Daniels, J., S., Anderson, E., Lee, T., H., Pourmand, N. 2008
  • Optical switching based on highspeed phased-array optical beam steering Applied Physics Letters Jarrahi, M., Pease, R., F. W., Miller, D., A. B., Lee, T., H. 2008; 92
  • A Label-free CMOS DNA Microarray based on Charge Sensing Anderson, E., P., Daniels, J., S., Yu, H., Pourmand, N., Lee, T., H. 2008
  • RFIC Design & Implementation: An Introduction Plus IEEE short course, Singapore local Solid-State Circuits Society chapter, Singapore Lee, T. 2008
  • A Low-verhead Fault Tolerance Scheme for TSV-based 3D Network on Chip Links Loi, I., Mitra, S., Lee, T., H., Fujita, S., Benini, L. 2008
  • High-Power Tunable Terahertz Generation based on Photoconductive Antenna Arrays Jarrahi, M., Danielson, J., Lee, T., H. 2008
  • Simultaneous Measurement of Nonlinearity and Electrochemical Impedance for Protein Sensing Using Two-Tone Excitation 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society Daniels, J. S., Anderson, E. P., Lee, T. H., Pounnand, N. IEEE. 2008: 5753–5756

    Abstract

    Impedance biosensors detect the binding of a target to an immobilized probe by quantifying changes in the impedance of the electrode-electrolyte interface. The interface's I-V relationship is inherently nonlinear, varying with DC bias, and target binding can alter the degree of nonlinearity. We propose and demonstrate a method to simultaneously measure the nonlinearity and conventional small-signal impedance using intermodulation products from a two-tone input. Intermodulation amplitudes accurately reflect the impedance's manually-measured voltage dependence. We demonstrate that changes in nonlinearity can discriminate protein binding. Our measurements suggest that target binding can alter nonlinearity via the voltage dependence of the ionic double layer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262404503237

    View details for PubMedID 19164024

  • High-Power Tunable Terahertz Generation based on Photoconductive Antenna Arrays 2008 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest Jarrahi, M., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2008: 390–393
  • High-speed optical beam-steering based on phased arrayed waveguides Jarrahi, M., Pease, R., F. W., Miller, D., A. B., Lee, T., H. 2008
  • 3-D nanoarchitectures with carbon nanotube mechanical switches for future on-chip network beyond CMOS architecture IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Fujita, S., Nomura, K., Abe, K., Lee, T. H. 2007; 54 (11): 2472-2479
  • Prospect of Ballistic CNFET in High Performance Applications: Modeling and Analysis ACM JOURNAL ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS Paul, B. C., Fujita, S., Okajima, M., Lee, T. 2007; 3 (3)
  • "A general theory of phase noise in electrical oscillators" - Response IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. H. 2007; 42 (10): 2315-2315
  • Impact of a process variation on nanowire and nanotube device performance IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Paul, B. C., Fujita, S., Okajima, M., Lee, T. H., Wong, H. P., Nishi, Y. 2007; 54 (9): 2369-2376
  • An analytical compact circuit model for nanowire FET IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Paul, B. C., Tu, R., Fujita, S., Okajima, M., Lee, T. H., Nishi, Y. 2007; 54 (7): 1637-1644
  • High-frequency noise in nanoscale metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Navid, R., Jungemann, C., Lee, T. H., Dutton, R. W. 2007; 101 (12)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2740345

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247625700125

  • Optical Spatially Quantized High Performance Analog-to-digital Conversion Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference Jarrahi, M., Miller, D. A., Pease, R. F., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2007: 987–988
  • A circuit-based noise parameter extraction technique for MOSFETs Navid, R., Lee, T. H., Dutton, R. W., IEEE IEEE. 2007: 3347-+
  • A 10Gb/s Equalizer with Decision Feedback for High Speed Serial Links Kiaei, A., Matinpour, B., Bahai, A., Lee, T., H. 2007
  • The History of the Integrated Circuit: A Random Walk Lee, T. 2007
  • Engineering Perspectives on Alternative Energy Lee, T. 2007
  • From Oxymoron to Mainstream: The Evolution and Future of RF CMOS Lee, T., H. 2007
  • Optical Spatially Quantized High Performance Analog-to-digital Conversion Jarrahi, M., Miller, D., A. B., Fabian, R., Pease, W., Lee, T., H. 2007
  • RFID: Status, Promise and Challenges Lee, T. 2007
  • Oscillator Phase Noise Santa Clara Valley IEEE Solid State Circuits Society (SSCS) Chapter Program, RFIC Design Short Course, Santa Clara, CA Lee, T. 2007
  • Phase Noise in Oscillators Lee, T. 2007
  • 3D Nanoarchitectures with Carbon Nanotube Mechanical Switches for Future On-Chip Network Beyond CMOS Architecture IEEE TCA S-I Special Issue: Nanoarchitecture Fujita, S., Nomura, K., Abe, K., Lee, T., H. 2007
  • Traveling wave spatial quantized analog-to-digital conversion IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Jarrahi, M., Pease, R. F., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2007: 225–228
  • A 10Gb/s equalizer with decision feedback for high speed serial links IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference Kiaei, A., Matinpour, B., Bahai, A., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2007: 285–288
  • From oxymoron to mainstream: The evolution and future of RF CMOS IEEE International Workshop on Radio-Frequency Integration Technology Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2007: 1–6
  • High-voltage-tolerant I/O circuit design for USB 2.0-compliant applications IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference Kim, M., Icking, H., Gossner, H., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2007: 491–494
  • Ordered and chaotic electrical solitons: Communication perspectives IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE Ham, D., Li, X., Denenberg, S. A., Lee, T. H., Ricketts, D. S. 2006; 44 (12): 126-135
  • A programmable 0.18-mu m CMOS electrochemical sensor microarray for biomolecular detection IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Hassibi, A., Lee, T. H. 2006; 6 (6): 1380-1388
  • A 1.5-v, 1.5-GHz CMOS low noise amplifier (vol 40, pg 1397, 2005) IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Shaeffer, D. K., Lee, T. H. 2006; 41 (10): 2359-2359
  • Impact of geometry-dependent parasitic capacitances on the performance of CNFET circuits IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Paul, B. C., Fujita, S., Okajima, M., Lee, T. 2006; 27 (5): 380-382
  • Direct electrical detection of DNA synthesis PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Pourmand, N., Karhanek, M., Persson, H. H., Webb, C. D., Lee, T. H., Zahradnikova, A., Davis, R. W. 2006; 103 (17): 6466-6470

    Abstract

    Rapid, sequence-specific DNA detection is essential for applications in medical diagnostics and genetic screening. Electrical biosensors that use immobilized nucleic acids are especially promising in these applications because of their potential for miniaturization and automation. Current DNA detection methods based on sequencing by synthesis rely on optical readouts; however, a direct electrical detection method for this technique is not available. We report here an approach for direct electrical detection of enzymatically catalyzed DNA synthesis by induced surface charge perturbation. We discovered that incorporation of a complementary deoxynucleotide (dNTP) into a self-primed single-stranded DNA attached to the surface of a gold electrode evokes an electrode surface charge perturbation. This event can be detected as a transient current by a voltage-clamp amplifier. Based on current understanding of polarizable interfaces, we propose that the electrode detects proton removal from the 3'-hydroxyl group of the DNA molecule during phosphodiester bond formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0601184103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237151000011

    View details for PubMedID 16614066

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1458907

  • Device physics - Electrical solitons come of age NATURE Lee, T. H. 2006; 440 (7080): 36-37

    View details for DOI 10.1038/440036a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235685700030

    View details for PubMedID 16511480

  • 3D on-chip networking technology based on post-silicon devices for future networks-on-chip. 1st International Conference on Nano-Networks and Workshops Fujita, S., Nomura, K., Abe, K., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 2006: 105–109
  • The Past and Future of the Integrated Circuit Lee, T. 2006
  • A Programmable 0.18-μm CMOS Electrochemical Sensor Microarray for Biomolecular Detection IEEE Sensors Journal Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H. 2006; 6-6: 1380-1388
  • Candidate THz Sources: The History and Future of Velocity-Modulated Devices Photonics West, San Jose, CA Lee, T. 2006
  • RF ID: Promise and Challenges Lee, T. 2006
  • Novel architecture based on floating gate CNT-NEMS switches and its application to 3D on-chip bus beyond CMOS architecture Fujita, S., Nomura, K., Abe, K., Lee, T., H. 2006
  • 3D on-chip networking technology based on post-Silicon devices for Future Network on Chip Fujita, S., Nomura, K., Abe, K., Lee, T., H. 2006
  • Coupled Inverter Ring I/Q Oscillator for Low Power Frequency Synthesis Xu, J., Verma, S., Lee, T., H. 2006
  • Ordered and Chaotic Electrical Solitons: Communication Perspectives, IEEE Communications Magazine Ham, D., Li, X., Denenberg, S., A., Lee, T., H., Ricketts, D., S. 2006; 44 (12): 126-135
  • Device Physics: Electrical Solitons Come of Age Nature Lee, T. 2006; 440: 36-37
  • Things about stuff MESA Community Colleges Statewide Day, Noe Lozano Lee, T. 2006
  • Candidate THz sources: the history and future (?) of velocity-modulated devices Conferernce on Terahertz and Gigahertz Electronics and Photonics V Lee, T. H. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2006

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.660967

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237272700012

  • Modeling and analysis of circuit performance of ballistic CNFET 43rd Design Automation Conference Paul, B. C., Fujita, S., Okajima, M., Lee, T. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2006: 717–722
  • A 17-mW 0.66-mm(2) direct-conversion receiver for 1-Mb/s cable replacement IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2005) Verma, S., Xu, J. F., Hamada, M., Lee, T. H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2005: 2547–54
  • Monolithic integrated millimeter-wave IMPATT transmitter in standard CMOS technology IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Al-Attar, T., Lee, T. H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2005: 3557–61
  • Comprehensive study of noise processes in electrode electrolyte interfaces (vol 96, pg 1074, 2004) JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Hassibi, A., Navid, R., DUTTON, R. W., Lee, T. H. 2005; 98 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2040708

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232226000100

  • Bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC) system: Theoretical considerations for nucleic acid quantification assays BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Hassibi, A., Contag, C., Vlad, M. O., Hafezi, M., Lee, T. H., Davis, R. W., Pourmand, N. 2005; 116 (3): 175-185

    Abstract

    A novel application of bioluminescence for nucleic acid quantification, the bioluminescence regenerative cycle (BRC), is described in theoretical terms and supported by preliminary experimental data. In the BRC system, pyrophosphate (PPi) molecules are released during biopolymerization and are counted and correlated to DNA copy number. The enzymes ATP-sulfurylase and firefly luciferase are employed to generate photons quantitatively from PPi. Enzymatic unity-gain positive feedback is implemented to amplify photon generation and to compensate for decay in light intensity by self-regulation. The cumulative total of photons can be orders of magnitude higher than in typical chemiluminescent processes. A system level theoretical model is developed, taking into account the kinetics of the regenerative cycle, contamination, and detector noise. Data and simulations show that the photon generation process achieves steady state for the time range of experimental measurements. Based on chain reaction theory, computations show that BRC is very sensitive to variations in the efficiencies of the chemical reactions involved and less sensitive to variations in the quantum yield of the process. We show that BRC can detect attomolar quantities of DNA (10(-18) mol), and that the useful dynamic range is five orders of magnitude. Sensitivity is not constrained by detector performance but rather by background bioluminescence caused by contamination by either PPi or ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpc.2005.04.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230717400001

    View details for PubMedID 15882922

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2096776

  • A 1.5-V, 1.5-GHz CMOS low noise amplifier (vol 32, pg 745, 1997) IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Shaeffer, D. K., Lee, T. H. 2005; 40 (6): 1397-1398
  • Biological shot-noise and quantum-limited signal-to-noise ratio in affinity-based biosensors JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Hassibi, A., Zahedi, S., Navid, R., DUTTON, R. W., Lee, T. H. 2005; 97 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1861970

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228729500113

  • An analytical formulation of phase noise of signals with Gaussian-distributed jitter IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS II-EXPRESS BRIEFS Navid, R., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. 2005; 52 (3): 149-153
  • Minimum achievable phase noise of RC oscillators IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Navid, R., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. 2005; 40 (3): 630-637
  • A high dynamic range programmable CMOS front-end filter with a tuning range from 1850 to 2400 MHz 21st NORCHIP Conference Christensen, K. T., Lee, T. H., Bruun, E. SPRINGER. 2005: 55–64
  • A Programmable Electrochemical Biosensor Array in 0.18µm Standard CMOS Hassibi, A., Lee, T. 2005
  • Biological Shot-noise and Quantum-Limited SNR in Affinity-Based Biosensor Journal of Applied Physics Hassibi, A., Zahedi, S., Navid, R., Dutton, R., W., Lee, T., H. 2005; 97 (84701): 8
  • A 17.1mW, 0.66mm2, Direct Conversion Receiver for 1Mb/s Cable Replacement Verma, S., Xu, J., Hamada, M., Lee, T., H. 2005
  • A 77GHz Monolithic IMPATT Transmitter in Standard CMOS Technology Al-Attar, T., Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H. 2005
  • A Constant-Frequency Method for Improving Light-Load Efficiency in Synchronous Buck Converters IEEE Power Electronics Letters Mulligan, M., D., Broach, B., Lee, T., H. 2005; 3: 24-29
  • First-Hand Tales of Successful Entrepreneurs MIT Club Semiconductor Program Lee, T. 2005
  • Comprehensive study of noise processes in electrode electrolyte interfaces JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Hassibi, A., Navid, R., DUTTON, R. W., Lee, T. H. 2004; 96 (2): 1074-1082

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1755429

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222391500021

  • A multiply-by-3 coupled-ring oscillator for low-power frequency synthesis Symposium on VLSI Circuits Verma, S., Xu, J. F., Lee, T. H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2004: 709–13
  • High Dynamic Range Programmable CMOS Front-End Filter with a Tuning Range from 1850 to 2400 Mhz Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing Christensen, K., Lee, T., H., Bruun, E. 2004; 42: 55-63
  • Effects of scaling on the SNR and speed of biosensors. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference Hassibi, A., Lee, T. H., Navid, R., Dutton, R. W., Zahedi, S. 2004; 4: 2549-2552

    Abstract

    This work presents a stochastic model for the observed signal of biosensors, a model that predicts the signal fluctuation of the system and the SNR associated with it using a Markov chain process. In the process, transition probabilities are derived from the target and probe binding kinetics in view of statistical motion and random walk events. Based on this model, we are able to estimate the settling time, power-spectral density (PSD), and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of general affinity-based biosensors. The effects of scaling from macroscopic to microscopic regimes are also studied, which indicate a fundamental tradeoff between settling time (speed) and signal fluctuation (noise). The model is also applied to analyze the behavior of a DNA hybridization electronic detector.

    View details for PubMedID 17270793

  • Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) Estimator for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Processes Kakavand, H., O’Brien, D., Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H. 2004
  • Effects of Scaling on the SNR and Speed of Biosensors Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H., Navid, R., Dutton, R., W., Zahedi, S. 2004
  • Feedback Linearization of RF Power Amplifiers Dawson, J., Lee, T. Kluwer Academic Press. 2004
  • Planar Microwave Engineering Lee, T. Cambridge University Press. 2004
  • Novel Functional Logic Circuits Based on 3D Emerging Memory Cells 3-D Architectures for Semiconductor Integration and Packaging – Understanding the Impact on Materials, Processes, and Markets, Burlingame, CA Fujita, S., Lee, T. 2004
  • Lateral IMPATT Diodes in Standard CMOS Technology International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, San Francisco, CA Al-Attar, T., Mulligan, M., D., Lee, T., H. 2004
  • Close-in Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators Navid, R., Jungemann, C., Lee, T., H., Dutton, R., W. 2004
  • A Comprehensive Study of Noise Processes in Electrode-electrolyte Interfaces Journal of Applied Physics Hassibi, A., Navid, R., Dutton, R., W., Lee, T., H. 2004; 96: 1074-1082
  • Wireless Transceiver Building Blocks Stanford Engineering & Science Institute short course Lee, T. 2004
  • Effects of Scaling on the SNR and Speed of Biosensors Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H., Navid, R., Dutton, R., W., Zahedi, S. 2004
  • A Stochastic Model and Simulation Algorithm for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Systems Hassibi, A., Kakavand, H., Lee, T., H. 2004
  • Automatic phase alignment for a fully integrated Cartesian feedback power amplifier system IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Dawson, J. L., Lee, T. H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2003: 2269–79
  • Volumetric ultrasound Imaging using 2-D CMUT arrays IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL Oralkan, O., Ergun, A. S., Cheng, C. H., Johnson, J. A., Karaman, M., Lee, T. H., Khuri-Yakub, B. T. 2003; 50 (11): 1581-1594

    Abstract

    Recently, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have emerged as a candidate to overcome the difficulties in the realization of 2-D arrays for real-time 3-D imaging. In this paper, we present the first volumetric images obtained using a 2-D CMUT array. We have fabricated a 128 x 128-element 2-D CMUT array with through-wafer via interconnects and a 420-microm element pitch. As an experimental prototype, a 32 x 64-element portion of the 128 x 128-element array was diced and flip-chip bonded onto a glass fanout chip. This chip provides individual leads from a central 16 x 16-element portion of the array to surrounding bondpads. An 8 x 16-element portion of the array was used in the experiments along with a 128-channel data acquisition system. For imaging phantoms, we used a 2.37-mm diameter steel sphere located 10 mm from the array center and two 12-mm-thick Plexiglas plates located 20 mm and 60 mm from the array. A 4 x 4 group of elements in the middle of the 8 x 16-element array was used in transmit, and the remaining elements were used to receive the echo signals. The echo signal obtained from the spherical target presented a frequency spectrum centered at 4.37 MHz with a 100% fractional bandwidth, whereas the frequency spectrum for the echo signal from the parallel plate phantom was centered at 3.44 MHz with a 91% fractional bandwidth. The images were reconstructed by using RF beamforming and synthetic phased array approaches and visualized by surface rendering and multiplanar slicing techniques. The image of the spherical target has been used to approximate the point spread function of the system and is compared with theoretical expectations. This study experimentally demonstrates that 2-D CMUT arrays can be fabricated with high yield using silicon IC-fabrication processes, individual electrical connections can be provided using through-wafer vias, and flip-chip bonding can be used to integrate these dense 2-D arrays with electronic circuits for practical 3-D imaging applications.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187162500021

    View details for PubMedID 14682642

  • A unified model for injection-locked frequency dividers IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Verma, S., Rategh, H. R., Lee, T. H. 2003; 38 (6): 1015-1027
  • A multiply-by-3 coupled-ring oscillator for low-power frequency synthesis Symposium on VLSI Circuits Verma, S., Xu, J. F., Lee, T. H. JAPAN SOCIETY APPLIED PHYSICS. 2003: 189–192
  • 512-Mb PROM with a Three-dimensional Array of Diode/antifuse Memory Cells IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuit Johnson, M., Al-Shamma, A., Bosch, D., Crowley, M., Farmwald, M., Fasoli, L., Lee, Thomas, H. 2003; 38: 1920-1928
  • Lumped, Inductorless Oscillators: How Far Can They Go? Navid, R., Lee, T., H., Dutton, R., W. 2003
  • Bioluminescence Regenerative Cycle (BRC) system for Nucleic Acid Quantification Assays Hassibi, A., Lee, T., H., Davis, R., W., Pourmand, N. 2003
  • Completely DC-free Direct Sequence Spectrum Spreading Scheme for Low Power, Low Cost, Direct Conversion Transceiver Hamada, M., Verma, S., Xu, J., Lee, T., H. 2003
  • Automatic Phase Alignment for a Fully Integrated CMOS Cartesian Feedback Power Amplifier System Dawson, J., Lee, T. 2003
  • Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers: Next-generation arrays for acoustic imaging? IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL Oralkan, O., Ergun, A. S., Johnson, J. A., Karaman, M., Demirci, U., Kaviani, K., Lee, T. H., Khuri-Yakub, B. T. 2002; 49 (11): 1596-1610

    Abstract

    Piezoelectric materials have dominated the ultrasonic transducer technology. Recently, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have emerged as an alternative technology offering advantages such as wide bandwidth, ease of fabricating large arrays, and potential for integration with electronics. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the viability of CMUTs for ultrasound imaging. We present the first pulse-echo phased array B-scan sector images using a 128-element, one-dimensional (1-D) linear CMUT array. We fabricated 64- and 128-element 1-D CMUT arrays with 100% yield and uniform element response across the arrays. These arrays have been operated in immersion with no failure or degradation in performance over the time. For imaging experiments, we built a resolution test phantom roughly mimicking the attenuation properties of soft tissue. We used a PC-based experimental system, including custom-designed electronic circuits to acquire the complete set of 128 x 128 RF A-scans from all transmit-receive element combinations. We obtained the pulse-echo frequency response by analyzing the echo signals from wire targets. These echo signals presented an 80% fractional bandwidth around 3 MHz, including the effect of attenuation in the propagating medium. We reconstructed the B-scan images with a sector angle of 90 degrees and an image depth of 210 mm through offline processing by using RF beamforming and synthetic phased array approaches. The measured 6-dB lateral and axial resolutions at 135 mm depth were 0.0144 radians and 0.3 mm, respectively. The electronic noise floor of the image was more than 50 dB below the maximum mainlobe magnitude. We also performed preliminary investigations on the effects of crosstalk among array elements on the image quality. In the near field, some artifacts were observable extending out from the array to a depth of 2 cm. A tail also was observed in the point spread function (PSF) in the axial direction, indicating the existence of crosstalk. The relative amplitude of this tail with respect to the mainlobe was less than -20 dB.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179224100016

    View details for PubMedID 12484483

  • A noise optimization technique for integrated low-noise amplifiers IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Goo, J. S., Ahn, H. T., Ladwig, D. J., Yu, Z. P., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. 2002; 37 (8): 994-1002
  • Exploiting CMOS reverse interconnect scaling in multigigahertz amplifier and oscillator design (vol 36, pg 1480, 2001) IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Kleveland, B., Diaz, C. H., Vook, D., Madden, L., Lee, T. H., Wong, S. S. 2002; 37 (2): 255-255
  • Special issue on silicon-based RF and microwave integrated circuits - Guest editorial IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. H. 2002; 50 (1): 233-234
  • Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays for Acoustic Imaging IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectronics and Frequency Control Oralkan, O., Ergun, A., Sanli, Karaman, M., Demirci, U., Kaviani, K., Lee, T. 2002; 49: 1596-1610
  • Volumetric Ultrasound Imaging Using 2-D Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays (CMUTs): Initial Results Oralkan, O., Ergun, A., S., Cheng, C., H., Johnson, J., A., Karaman, M., Lee, T., H. 2002
  • 5-GHz CMOS wireless LANs IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES Lee, T. H., Samavati, H., Rategh, H. R. 2002; 50 (1): 268-280
  • A vertical leap for microchips SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Lee, T. H. 2002; 286 (1): 52-59

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172967700029

    View details for PubMedID 11799618

  • Exploiting CMOS reverse interconnect scaling in multigigahertz amplifier and oscillator design IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Kleveland, B., Diaz, C. H., Vook, D., Madden, L., Lee, T. H., Wong, S. S. 2001; 36 (10): 1480-1488
  • Measuring and modeling the effects of substrate noise on the LNA for a CMOS GPS receiver IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference Xu, M., Su, D. K., Shaeffer, D. K., Lee, T. H., Wooley, B. A. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2001: 473–85
  • Physical origin of the excess thermal noise in short channel MOSFETs IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Goo, J. S., Choi, C. H., Abramo, A., Ahn, J. G., Yu, Z. P., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. 2001; 22 (2): 101-103
  • Optimal allocation of local feedback in multistage amplifiers via geometric programming IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I-REGULAR PAPERS Dawson, J. L., Boyd, S. P., Hershenson, M. D., Lee, T. H. 2001; 48 (1): 1-11
  • Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis and Division Rategh, H., Lee, T. Kluwer Academic Press. 2001
  • Optimal design of a CMOS op-amp via geometric programming IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Hershenson, M. D., Boyd, S. P., Lee, T. H. 2001; 20 (1): 1-21
  • An accurate and efficient high frequency noise simulation technique for deep submicron MOSFETs IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Goo, J. S., Choi, C. H., Danneville, F., Morifuji, E., Momose, H. S., Yu, Z. P., Iwai, H., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. 2000; 47 (12): 2410-2419
  • CMOS RF integrated circuits at 5 GHz and beyond PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE Lee, T. H., Wong, S. S. 2000; 88 (10): 1560-1571
  • Distributed ESD protection for high-speed integrated circuits IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Kleveland, B., Maloney, T. J., Morgan, I., Madden, L., Lee, T. H., Wong, S. S. 2000; 21 (8): 390-392
  • A 0.3-mu m CMOS 8-Gb/s 4-PAM serial link transceiver Symposium on VLSI Circuits Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C. K., Horowitz, M. A., Lee, T. H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2000: 757–64
  • Bandwidth extension in CMOS with optimized on-chip inductors IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference Mohan, S. S., Hershenson, M. D., Boyd, S. P., Lee, T. H. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2000: 346–55
  • The equivalence of van der Ziel and BSIM4 models in modeling the induced gate noise of MOSFETs IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Goo, J. S., Liu, W., Choi, C. H., Green, K. R., Yu, Z. P., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. IEEE. 2000: 811–814
  • Measuring and Modeling the Effects of Substrate Noise on the LNS for a CMOS GPS Receiver Xu, M., Su, D., Shaeffer, D., Lee, T., Wooley, B. 2000
  • Automatic Phase Alignment for High Bandwidth Cartesian Feedback Power Amplifiers Dawson, J., Lee, T. 2000
  • Oscillator Phase Noise: A Tutorial IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Lee, T., H., Hajimiri, A. 2000; 35: 326-336
  • Circuit Techniques for CMOS RF ICs Lee, T. 2000
  • CMOS RF Integrated Circuits at 5GHz and Beyond Lee, T., Wong, S. 2000
  • A CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with an Injection-Locked Frequency Divider for a 5-GHz Wireless LAN Receiver IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Rategh, H., Samavati, H., Lee, T. 2000; 35: 780-787
  • Optimal Allocation of Local Feedback in Multistage Amplifiers via Geometric Programming Dawson, J., Boyd, S., Hershenson, M., del Mar, Lee, T. 2000
  • CMOS RF Integrated Circuits at 5GHz and Beyond Lee, T., Wong, S. 2000
  • A 5-GHz CMOS Wireless LAN Receiver Front End IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Lee, T. 2000; 35: 765-772
  • A 0.3-µm CMOS 8-Gb/s 4-PAM Serial Link Transceiver IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C., Horowitz, M., Lee, T. 2000; 35: 757-764
  • Guidelines for the power constrained design of a CMOS tuned LNA International Conference on Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices Goo, J. S., Oh, K. H., Choi, C. H., Yu, Z. P., Lee, T. H., DUTTON, R. W. IEEE. 2000: 269–272
  • Simple accurate expressions for planar spiral inductances IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Mohan, S. S., Hershenson, M. D., Boyd, S. P., Lee, T. H. 1999; 34 (10): 1419-1424
  • A portable digital DLL for high-speed CMOS interface circuits Symposium on VLSI Circuits Garlepp, B. W., Donnelly, K. S., Kim, J., Chau, P. S., Zerbe, J. L., Huang, C., Tran, C. V., Portmann, C. L., Stark, D., Chan, Y. F., Lee, T. H., Horowitz, M. A. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1999: 632–44
  • Jitter and Phase Noise in Ring Oscillators IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Hajimiri, A., Limotyrakis, S., Lee, T. 1999; 34: 790-804
  • RF Noise Simulation for Submicron MOSFETs Based on Hydrodynamic Model Goo, J., Choi, C., Morifuji, E., Sasaki, H., Momose, H., Yu, Z., Lee, Thomas, H. 1999
  • A 5GHz, 1mW CMOS Voltage-Controlled Differential Injection-Locked Frequency Divider Rategh, H., Samavati, H., Lee, T. 1999
  • Superharmonic Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Rategh, H., Lee, T. 1999; 34: 813-821
  • Design Issues in CMOS Differential LC Oscillators IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. 1999; 34: 717-724
  • Phase Noise in Oscillators: A Tutorial Lee, T. 1999
  • A Linear, Time-Varying Theory of Phase Noise in Oscillators Lee, T. 1999
  • A 0.3mm CMOS 8Gb/s 4-PAM Serial Link Transceiver Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C., Horowitz, M., Lee, T. 1999
  • Issues in High Frequency Noise Simulation for Deep Submicron MOSFETs Goo, J., Choi, C., Dannerville, F., Yu, Z., Lee, T., Dutton, R. 1999
  • Optimal Design of a CMOS Op-amp via Geometric Programming Applied and Computational Control, Signals and Circuits Lee, T. Birkhauser. 1999: 1
  • Low-Power Dividerless Frequency Synthesis Using Aperture Phase Detection IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Shahani, D., Shaeffer, Mohan, S., Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Hershnson, M., del Mar, Xu, M., Lee, Thomas, H. 1999; 33: 2232-2239
  • Monolithic CMOS Distributed Amplifier and Oscillator Kleveland, C., Diaz, Vook, D., Madden, L., Lee, T., Wong, S. 1999
  • GPCAD: A Tool for CMOS Op-Amp Synthesis Hershenson, M., del Mar, Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1999
  • CMOS RF: (Still) No Longer an Oxymoron Lee, T. 1999
  • A 2.125 Gbaud 1.6kΩ Transimpedance Preamplifier in 0.5µm CMOS Mohan, S., Lee, T. 1999
  • A 12.4mW CMOS Front-End for a 5GHz Wireless-LAN Receiver Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Lee, T. 1999
  • Design and Optimization of LC Oscillators Hershenson, M., del Mar, Hajimiri, A., Mohan, S., Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1999
  • RF Passive IC Components in The VLSI Handbook Lee, T. edited by Chen, W. CRC Press. 1999: 1
  • A 0.4-µm CMOS 10-Gb/s 4-PAM Pre-emphasis Serial Link Transmitter IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C., Horowitz, M., Lee, T. 1999; 34: 580-585
  • A 5GHz, 32mW CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with an Injection-Locked Frequency Divider Rategh, H., Samavati, H., Lee, T. 1999
  • Optimization of Inductor Circuits via Geometric Programming Hershenson, M., del Mar, Mohan, S., Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1999
  • The Design of Low Noise Oscillators Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. Kluwer Academic Press. 1999
  • The Design and Implementation of Low-Power CMOS Radio Receivers Shaeffer, D., K., Lee, T. Kluwer Academic Press. 1999
  • Phase Noise in CMOS Differential LC Oscillators Hajimiri, Lee, T. 1998
  • Ultra-Low Resistance, Through-Wafer Via (TWV) Technology and its Applications in Three Dimensional Structures on Silicon Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1, Hiroshima, Japan Soh, H., Yu, C., McCarthy, A., Ryu, C., Lee, T., Wong, S. 1998; 38: 2393-2396
  • A Portable Digital DLL Architecture for CMOS Interface Circuits Garlepp, Donnelly, K., Kim, J., Chau, P., Zerbe, J., Huang, C., Lee, Thomas, H. 1998
  • Superharmonic Injection Locked Oscillators as Low Power Frequency Dividers Rategh, H., Lee, T. 1998
  • The Design of CMOS Low-Noise Amplifiers Lee, T. 1998
  • A General Theory of Phase Noise in Oscillators IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Hajimir, A., Lee, T. 1998; 33: 179-194
  • Automated Design of Folded-Cascode Op-Amps with Sensitivity Analysis Hershenson, M., del Mar, Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1998
  • Fractal Capacitors IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Samavati, H., Hajimiri, A., Shahani, A., Nasserbakht, G., Lee, T. 1998; 33: 2035-2041
  • A 115mW, 0.5-µm CMOS GPS Receiver with Wide Dynamic-Range Active Filters IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Shaeffer, D., Shahani, A., Mohan, S., Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Hershenson, M., del Mar, Lee, Thomas, H. 1998; 33: 2219-2231
  • Analysis and Optimization of Accumulation-Mode Varactor for RF ICs Soorapanth, T., Yue, C., Shaeffer, D., Lee, T., Wong, S. 1998
  • Low Phase Noise Ring Oscillators for Frequency Synthesis Betancourt-Zamora, R., Lee, T. 1998
  • Fractal Capacitors Samavati, H., Hajimiri, A., Shahani, A., Nasserbakht, G., Lee, T. 1998
  • A 115mW CMOS GPS Receiver Shaeffer, Shahani, A., Mohan, S., Samavati, H., Rategh, H., Hershenson, M., del Mar, Lee, Thomas, H. 1998
  • 50-GHz Interconnect Design in Standard Silicon Technology Kleveland, S., Wong, Lee, T. 1998
  • A 0.4µm CMOS 10-Gb/s 4-PAM Pre-Emphasis Serial Link Transmitter Farjad-Rad, R., Yang, C., Horowitz, M., Lee, T. 1998
  • A 1.4-GHz 3-mW CMOS LC Low Phase Noise VCO Using Tapped Bond Wire Inductances Ahrens, T., Lee, T. 1998
  • Modeling and characterization of on-chip transformers International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Mohan, S. S., Yue, C. P., Hershenson, M. D., Wong, S. S., Lee, T. H. IEEE. 1998: 531–534
  • CMOS VCOs for Frequency Synthesis in Wireless Biotelemetry Betancourt-Zamora, R., Lee, T. 1998
  • Recent Progress in CMOS RF Integrated Circuits Lee, T. 1998
  • Circuit Techniques in a 266-MHz MMX-Enabled Processor IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Draper, M., Crowley, Holst, J., Favor, G., Schoy, A., Trull, J., Meir, A., Ben, Lee, Thomas, H. 1997; 32: 1650-1664
  • A 12-mW Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Front-End for a Portable GPS Receiver IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Shahani, D., Shaeffer, Lee, T. 1997; 32: 2061-2070
  • A 12mW Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Front-End for a Portable GPS Receiver Shahani, D., Shaeffer, Lee, T. 1997
  • A 1.5mW, 200MHz CMOS VCO for Wireless Telemetry Zamora, R., Betancourt, Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. 1997
  • A 1.5V, 1.5 GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Shaeffer, D., Lee, T. 1997; 32: 745-759
  • CMOS RF: No Longer an Oxymoron Lee, T. 1997
  • An X86 Microprocessor with Multi-Media Extensions Draper, M., Crowley, Holst, J., Favor, G., Schoy, A., Meir, A., Ben, Trull, J., Lee, Thomas, H. 1997
  • RF Linearity of Short-Channel MOSFETs Soorapanth, T., Lee, T. 1997
  • Physical Modeling of Enhanced High-Frequency Drain and Gate Current Noise in Short-Channel MOSFETs Klimovitch, T., Lee, Yamamoto, Y. 1997
  • The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits Lee, T. Cambridge University Press. 1997
  • An Equalization Scheme for 10Gb/s 4PAM Signaling over Long Cables Rad, R., Farjad, Yu, K., Lee, T. 1997
  • CMOS RF: No Longer an Oxymoron Lee, T. 1997
  • A 155MHz Delay- and Phase-Locked Loop Monolithic Phase-Locked Loops Lee, T. edited by Razavi, B. IEEE Press. 1997: 1
  • CMOS Operational Amplifier Design and Optimization via Geometric Programming Hershenson, M., del Mar, Boyd, S., Lee, T. 1997
  • A 1.6GHz 0.5mW CMOS LC Low Phase Noise VCO Using Bond Wire Inductance Ahrens, T., Hajimiri, A., Lee, T. 1997
  • A 600MHz Superscalar RISC Microprocessor with Out-of-Order Execution Gieseke, R., Allmon, Bailey, D., Benschneider, B., Britton, S., Clouser, J., III, H., Fair, Lee, Thomas, H. 1997
  • A 160MHz 32b 0.5W CMOS RISC Microprocessor IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Montanaro, J., Witek, R., Anne, K., Black, A., Cooper, E., Dobberpuhl, D., Lee, Thomas, H. 1996; 31: 1703-1714
  • A 1.5V, 1.5 GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier Shaeffer, D., Lee, T. 1996
  • A Physical Model for Spiral Inductors on Silicon International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, San Francisco, CA Yue, P., Ryu, C., Lau, J., Lee, T., Wong, S. 1996
  • A 1.5V, 1.5 GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier Shaeffer, Lee, T. 1996
  • A 160MHz 32b 0.5W CMOS RISC Microprocessor Montanaro, J., Witek, R., Anne, K., Black, A., Cooper, E., Dobberpuhl, D., Lee, Thomas, H. 1996
  • A 2.5V Delay-Locked Loop for an 18Mbit, 500MByte/sec DRAM IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Lee, T., Donnelly, K., Ho, J., Zerbe, J., Johnson, M., Ishawa, T. 1994; 29: 1491-1496
  • A 2.5V Delay-Locked Loop for an 18Mbit, 500MByte/sec DRAM Lee, T., Donnelly, K., Ho, J., Zerbe, J., Johnson, M., Ishikawa, T. 1994
  • A 500-Megabyte/s Data-Rate 4.5M DRAM IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Kushiyama, N., Ohsha, S., Stark, D., Noji, H., Sakurai, K., Takase, S., Lee, Thomas, H. 1993; 28: 490-498
  • PLL Design for a 500MByte/sec Interface Horowitz, M., Chan, A., Cobrunson, J., Gasbarro, J., Lee, T., Leung, W. 1993
  • A 155MHz Clock Recovery Delay- and Phase-Locked Loop IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Lee, T., Bulzacchelli, J. 1992; 27: 1736-1746
  • A 155MHz Clock Recovery Delay- and Phase-Locked Loop Lee, T., Bulzacchelli, J. 1992
  • Circuits, Analog” and “Circuits, Digital articles for Encyclopedia of Applied Physics Lee, T. VCH Publishers. 1992: 1