Dr. Carrillo is an emergency physician with expertise in prehospital emergency care. He is board certified in Emergency Medical Services and is a medical director for the Santa Clara County Fire Department and Milpitas Fire Department. He is the director of prehospital education at Stanford which includes the education of resident physicians and paramedics/EMTs throughout the region. He currently serves as a medical team manager for Urban Search And Rescue, Task Force-3, based out of Menlo Park, CA, a team that deploys to local and national disasters requiring complex search and rescue in confined spaces. He serves as the base hospital medical director in support of Stanford's designation as the single source for EMS communication/consultation in San Mateo County.

Dr. Carrillo's research interests include the role of physicians in prehospital care, mobile integrated healthcare, cardiac arrest outcomes, and health disparities in EMS care.

He serves as the clinical and academic advisor for numerous medical students, residents, and EMS Fellows.

Clinical Focus

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Prehospital Emergency Care
  • Medical Education
  • Emergency Ultrasonography
  • Health Equity

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Visiting Team Medical Liaison (San Francisco 49ers), National Football League (2019 - 2023)
  • Medical Team Manager, Urban Search and Rescue, California Task Force 3 (2019 - Present)
  • Educator 4 C.A.R.E. (Compassion, Advocacy, Responsibility, Empathy), Stanford University, School of Medicine (2020 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Franklin G. Ebaugh Jr. Award for Excellence in Advising Medical Students, Stanford University School of Medicine (2023)

Professional Education

  • Residency: Alameda Health System Dept of Emergency Medicine (2016) CA
  • Residency, Highland Hospital - Oakland, CA, Emergency Medicine (2016)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2017)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medical Services (2017)
  • Fellowship, University of Massachusetts, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (2017)
  • Medical Education, UCSF School of Medicine - San Francisco, CA (2012)

All Publications

  • Race and Ethnicity and Prehospital Use of Opioid or Ketamine Analgesia in Acute Traumatic Injury. JAMA network open Brunson, D. C., Miller, K. A., Matheson, L. W., Carrillo, E. 2023; 6 (10): e2338070


    Racial and ethnic disparities in pain management have been characterized in many hospital-based settings. Painful traumatic injuries are a common reason for 911 activations of the EMS (emergency medical services) system.To evaluate whether, among patients treated by EMS with traumatic injuries, race and ethnicity are associated with either disparate recording of pain scores or disparate administration of analgesia when a high pain score is recorded.This cohort study included interactions from 2019 to 2021 for US patients ages 14 to 99 years who had experienced painful acute traumatic injuries and were treated and transported by an advanced life support unit following the activation of the 911 EMS system. The data were analyzed in January 2023.Acute painful traumatic injuries including burns.Outcomes were the recording of a pain score and the administration of a nonoral opioid or ketamine.The study cohort included 4 781 396 EMS activations for acute traumatic injury, with a median (IQR) patient age of 59 (35-78) years (2 497 053 female [52.2%]; 31 266 American Indian or Alaskan Native [0.7%]; 59 713 Asian [1.2%]; 742 931 Black [15.5%], 411 934 Hispanic or Latino [8.6%], 10 747 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [0.2%]; 2 764 499 White [57.8%]; 16 161 multiple races [0.3%]). The analysis showed that race and ethnicity was associated with the likelihood of having a pain score recorded. Compared with White patients, American Indian and Alaskan Native patients had the lowest adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of having a pain score recorded (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.76). Among patients for whom a high pain score was recorded (between 7 and 10 out of 10), Black patients were about half as likely to receive opioid or ketamine analgesia as White patients (AOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52-0.54) despite having a pain score recorded almost as frequently as White patients.In this nationwide study of patients treated by EMS for acute traumatic injuries, patients from racial or ethnic minority groups were less likely to have a pain score recorded, with Native American and Alaskan Natives the least likely to have a pain score recorded. Among patients with a high pain score, patients from racial and ethnic minority groups were also significantly less likely to receive opioid or ketamine analgesia treatment, with Black patients having the lowest adjusted odds of receiving these treatments.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.38070

    View details for PubMedID 37847499

  • Trends of Academic Faculty Identifying as Hispanic at US Medical Schools, 1990-2021. Journal of graduate medical education Saxena, M. R., Ling, A. Y., Carrillo, E., Alvarez, A., Yiadom, M. Y., Bennett, C. L., Gallegos, M. 2023; 15 (2): 175-179


    Background: According to recent census data, Hispanic and Latino populations comprise the largest minority group in the United States. Despite ongoing efforts for improved diversity, equity, and inclusion, Hispanics remain underrepresented in medicine (UIM). In addition to well-established benefits to patient care and health systems, physician diversity and increased representation in academic faculty positively impact the recruitment of trainees from UIM backgrounds. Disproportionate representation (as compared to increases of certain underrepresented groups in the US population) has direct implications for recruitment of UIM trainees to residency programs.Objective: To examine the number of full-time US medical school faculty physicians who self-identify as Hispanic in light of the increasing Hispanic population in the United States.Methods: We analyzed data from the Association of American Medical Colleges from 1990 to 2021, looking at those academic faculty who were classified as Hispanic, Latino, of Spanish Origin, or of Multiple Race-Hispanic. We used descriptive statistics and visualizations to illustrate the level of representation of Hispanic faculty by sex, rank, and clinical specialty over time.Results: Overall, the proportion of faculty studied who identified as Hispanic increased from 3.1% (1990) to 6.01% (2021). Moreover, while the proportion of female Hispanic academic faculty increased, there remains a lag between females versus males.Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the number of full-time US medical school faculty who self-identify as Hispanic has not increased, though the population of Hispanics in the United States has increased.

    View details for DOI 10.4300/JGME-D-22-00384.1

    View details for PubMedID 37139207

  • SARS-CoV-2 IgG Seropositivity and Acute Asymptomatic Infection Rate Among Firefighter First Responders in an Early Outbreak County in California. Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors Newberry, J. A., Gautreau, M., Staats, K., Carrillo, E., Mulkerin, W., Yang, S., Kohn, M. A., Matheson, L., Boyd, S. D., Pinsky, B. A., Blomkalns, A. L., Strehlow, M. C., D'Souza, P. A. 2021: 1–10


    Objective: Firefighter first responders and other emergency medical services (EMS) personnel have been among the highest risk healthcare workers for illness during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We sought to determine the rate of seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and of acute asymptomatic infection among firefighter first responders in a single county with early exposure in the pandemic.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of clinically active firefighters cross-trained as paramedics or EMTs in the fire departments of Santa Clara County, California. Firefighters without current symptoms were tested between June and August 2020. Our primary outcomes were rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody seropositivity and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR swab positivity for acute infection. We report cumulative incidence, participant characteristics with frequencies and proportions, and proportion positive and associated relative risk (with 95% confidence intervals).Results: We enrolled 983 out of 1339 eligible participants (response rate: 73.4%). Twenty-five participants (2.54%, 95% CI 1.65-3.73) tested positive for IgG antibodies and 9 (0.92%, 95% CI 0.42-1.73) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Our cumulative incidence, inclusive of self-reported prior positive PCR tests, was 34 (3.46%, 95% CI 2.41-4.80).Conclusion: In a county with one of the earliest outbreaks in the United States, the seroprevalence among firefighter first responders was lower than that reported by other studies of frontline health care workers, while the cumulative incidence remained higher than that seen in the surrounding community.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10903127.2021.1912227

    View details for PubMedID 33819128

  • Measuring Agreement Among Prehospital Providers and Physicians in Patient Capacity Determination. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine O'Connor, L., Porter, L., Dugas, J., Robinson, C., Carrillo, E., Knowles, K., Nelson, K. P., Gigiliotti, R., Tennyson, J., Weisberg, S., Rebesco, M. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: If a patient wishes to refuse treatment in the prehospital setting, prehospital providers and consulting emergency physicians must establish that the patient possesses the capacity to do so. The objective of this study is to assess agreement among prehospital providers and emergency physicians in performing patient capacity assessments.METHODS: This study involved 139 prehospital providers and 28 emergency medicine physicians. Study participants listened to 30 medical control calls pertaining to patient capacity and were asked to interpret whether the patients in the scenarios had the capacity to refuse treatment. Participants also reported their comfort level using modified Likert scales. Inter-rater reliability was calculated utilizing Fleiss' and Model B kappa statistics. Fisher's exact tests were used to calculate p-values comparing the proportion in each cohort that responded "no capacity." Primary outcomes included inter-rater reliability in the physician and prehospital provider cohorts.RESULTS: The inter-rater agreement between the physicians was low (Fleiss' kappa = 0.31, S.E. = 0.06; model-based kappa = 0.18, S.E. = 0.04). Agreement was similarly low for the 135 prehospital providers (Fleiss' kappa = 0.30, S.E. = 0.06; model-based kappa = 0.28, S.E. = 0.04). The difference between the proportion of physicians and prehospital providers who responded "no capacity" was statistically significant in 5/30 scenarios. Median prehospital provider and physician confidence, on a 1 to 4 scale, was 2.00 (q1-q3 = 1.00-3.00 for prehospital providers and q1-q3= 1.0-2.0 for physicians).CONCLUSION: There was poor inter-rater reliability in capacity determination between and among the prehospital provider and physician cohorts. This suggests that there is need for additional study and standardization of this task.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.13941

    View details for PubMedID 32065493

  • Prehospital Administration of Epinephrine in Pediatric Anaphylaxis. Prehospital emergency care : official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the National Association of State EMS Directors Carrillo, E., Hern, H. G., Barger, J. 2016; 20 (2): 239-44


    Anaphylaxis in the pediatric population is both serious and potentially lethal. The incidence of allergic and anaphylactic reactions has been increasing and the need for life saving intervention with epinephrine must remain an important part of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provider training. Our aim was to characterize dosing and timing of epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol in the pediatric patient with anaphylaxis. In this retrospective chart review, we studied prehospital medication administration in pediatric patients ages 1 month up to 14 years old classified as having a severe allergic reaction or anaphylaxis. We compared rates of epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol given to patients with allergic conditions including anaphylaxis. In addition, we calculated the rate of epinephrine administration in cases of anaphylaxis and determined what percentage of time the epinephrine was given by EMS or prior to their arrival. Of the pediatric patient contacts, 205 were treated for allergic complaints. Of those with allergic complaints, 98 of 205 (48%; 95% CI 41%, 55%) had symptoms consistent with anaphylaxis and indications for epinephrine. Of these 98, 53 (54%, 95% CI 44%, 64%) were given epinephrine by EMS or prior to EMS arrival. Among the patients in anaphylaxis not given epinephrine prior to EMS arrival, 6 (12%; 95% CI 3%, 21%) received epinephrine from EMS, 10 (20%; 95% CI 9%, 30%) received diphenhydramine only, 9 (18%, 95% CI 7%-28%) received only albuterol and 17 (33%, 95% CI 20%-46%) received both albuterol and diphenhydramine. 9 patients in anaphylaxis received no treatment prior to arriving to the emergency department (18%, 95% CI 7%-28%). In pediatric patients who met criteria for anaphylaxis and the use of epinephrine, only 54% received epinephrine and the overwhelming majority received it prior to EMS arrival. EMS personnel may not be treating anaphylaxis appropriately with epinephrine.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10903127.2015.1086843

    View details for PubMedID 26555274