Bio


Wong joined Stanford in 2004 after 16 years at IBM Research, with appointments as research staff member, Manager, and Senior Manager. While at IBM, he was responsible for shaping and executing IBM's strategy on nanoscale science and technology and silicon technology. His interests are in the area of nanoscale science and technology, semiconductor technology, solid-state devices, and electronic imaging.

His present research covers a broad range of topics including carbon electronics, 2D layered materials, wireless implantable biosensors, directed self-assembly, nanoelectromechanical relays, device modeling, brain-inspired computing, and non-volatile memory devices such as phase change memory and metal oxide resistance change memory.

Honors & Awards


  • Fellow, IEEE (2001)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Lehigh (1988)

2014-15 Courses


All Publications


  • Rapid Co-Optimization of Processing and Circuit Design to Overcome Carbon Nanotube Variations IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Hills, G., Zhang, J., Shulaker, M. M., Wei, H., Lee, C., Balasingam, A., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2015; 34 (7): 1082-1095
  • 1D Selection Device Using Carbon Nanotube FETs for High-Density Cross-Point Memory Arrays IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Ahn, C., Jiang, Z., Lee, C., Chen, H., Liang, J., Liyanage, L. S., Wong, H. P. 2015; 62 (7): 2197-2204
  • Partitioning Electrostatic and Mechanical Domains in Nanoelectromechanical Relays JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Shavezipur, M., Harrison, K., Lee, W. S., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Howe, R. T. 2015; 24 (3): 592-598
  • Large-Area Assembly of Densely Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Solution Shearing and Their Application to Field-Effect Transistors ADVANCED MATERIALS Park, S., Pitner, G., Giri, G., Koo, J. H., Park, J., Kim, K., Wang, H., Sinclair, R., Wong, H. P., Bao, Z. 2015; 27 (16): 2656-2662

    Abstract

    Dense alignment of single-walled carbon nanotubes over a large area is demonstrated using a novel solution-shearing technique. A density of 150-200 single-walled carbon nanotubes per micro-meter is achieved with a current density of 10.08 μA μm(-1) at VDS = -1 V. The on-current density is improved by a factor of 45 over that of random-network single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201405289

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353298900013

    View details for PubMedID 25788393

  • A General Design Strategy for Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly Patterning of Integrated Circuits Contact Holes using an Alphabet Approach. Nano letters Yi, H., Bao, X., Tiberio, R., Wong, H. P. 2015; 15 (2): 805-812

    Abstract

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a promising lithography candidate for technology nodes beyond 14 nm. Researchers have shown contact hole patterning for random logic circuits using DSA with small physical templates. This paper introduces an alphabet approach that uses a minimal set of small physical templates to pattern all contacts configurations on integrated circuits. We illustrate, through experiments, a general and scalable template design strategy that links the DSA material properties to the technology node requirements.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl502172m

    View details for PubMedID 25551471

  • Continuous wireless pressure monitoring and mapping with ultra-small passive sensors for health monitoring and critical care NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Chen, L. Y., Tee, B. C., Chortos, A. L., Schwartz, G., Tse, V., Lipomi, D. J., Wong, H. P., McConnell, M. V., Bao, Z. 2014; 5

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms6028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343935600001

  • Carbon nanotubes for high-performance logic MRS BULLETIN Chen, Z., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S., Bol, A., Peng, L., Hills, G., Thissen, N. 2014; 39 (8): 719-726
  • Improved Performance of Bottom-Contact Organic Thin-Film Transistor Using Al Doped HfO2 Gate Dielectric IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Tang, W. M., Aboudi, U., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2014; 61 (7): 2398-2403
  • Ultrafast terahertz-induced response of GeSbTe phase-change materials APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Shu, M. J., Zalden, P., Chen, F., Weems, B., Chatzakis, I., Xiong, F., Jeyasingh, R., Hoffmann, M. C., Pop, E., Wong, H. P., Wuttig, M., Lindenberg, A. M. 2014; 104 (25)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4884816

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338515900032

  • Multi-level control of conductive nano-filament evolution in HfO2 ReRAM by pulse-train operations NANOSCALE Zhao, L., Chen, H., Wu, S., Jiang, Z., Yu, S., Hou, T., Wong, H. P., Nishi, Y. 2014; 6 (11): 5698-5702

    Abstract

    Precise electrical manipulation of nanoscale defects such as vacancy nano-filaments is highly desired for the multi-level control of ReRAM. In this paper we present a systematic investigation on the pulse-train operation scheme for reliable multi-level control of conductive filament evolution. By applying the pulse-train scheme to a 3 bit per cell HfO2 ReRAM, the relative standard deviations of resistance levels are improved up to 80% compared to the single-pulse scheme. The observed exponential relationship between the saturated resistance and the pulse amplitude provides evidence for the gap-formation model of the filament-rupture process.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4nr00500g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336883000022

    View details for PubMedID 24769626

  • Ultrafast Characterization of Phase-Change Material Crystallization Properties in the Melt-Quenched Amorphous Phase NANO LETTERS Jeyasingh, R., Fong, S. W., Lee, J., Li, Z., Chang, K., Mantegazza, D., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K. E., Wong, H. P. 2014; 14 (6): 3419-3426

    Abstract

    Phase change materials are widely considered for application in nonvolatile memories because of their ability to achieve phase transformation in the nanosecond time scale. However, the knowledge of fast crystallization dynamics in these materials is limited because of the lack of fast and accurate temperature control methods. In this work, we have developed an experimental methodology that enables ultrafast characterization of phase-change dynamics on a more technologically relevant melt-quenched amorphous phase using practical device structures. We have extracted the crystallization growth velocity (U) in a functional capped phase change memory (PCM) device over 8 orders of magnitude (10(-10) < U < 10(-1) m/s) spanning a wide temperature range (415 < T < 580 K). We also observed direct evidence of non-Arrhenius crystallization behavior in programmed PCM devices at very high heating rates (>10(8) K/s), which reveals the extreme fragility of Ge2Sb2Te5 in its supercooled liquid phase. Furthermore, these crystallization properties were studied as a function of device programming cycles, and the results show degradation in the cell retention properties due to elemental segregation. The above experiments are enabled by the use of an on-chip fast heater and thermometer called as microthermal stage (MTS) integrated with a vertical phase change memory (PCM) cell. The temperature at the PCM layer can be controlled up to 600 K using MTS and with a thermal time constant of 800 ns, leading to heating rates ∼10(8) K/s that are close to the typical device operating conditions during PCM programming. The MTS allows us to independently control the electrical and thermal aspects of phase transformation (inseparable in a conventional PCM cell) and extract the temperature dependence of key material properties in real PCM devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl500940z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337337100068

  • Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Hyperacute Stroke with Thrombolysis Decision Support Using a Contralateral Comparative Method of CT Image Analysis JOURNAL OF DIGITAL IMAGING Shieh, Y., Chang, C., Shieh, M., Lee, T., Chang, Y. J., Wong, H., Chin, S. C., Goodwin, S. 2014; 27 (3): 392-406

    Abstract

    New and improved techniques have been continuously introduced into CT and MR imaging modalities for the diagnosis and therapy planning of acute stroke. Nevertheless, non-contrast CT (NCCT) is almost always used by every institution as the front line diagnostic imaging modality due to its high affordability and availability. Consequently, the potential reward of extracting as much clinical information as possible from NCCT images can be very great. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has become the gold standard for treating acute ischemic stroke because it is the only acute stroke intervention approved by the FDA. ASPECTS scoring based on NCCT images has been shown to be a reliable scoring method that helps physicians to make sound decisions regarding tPA administration. In order to further reduce inter-observer variation, we have developed the first end-to-end automatic ASPECTS scoring system using a novel method of contralateral comparison. Due to the self-adaptive nature of the method, our system is robust and has good generalizability. ROC analysis based on evaluation of 103 subjects who presented to the stroke center of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital with symptoms of acute stroke has shown that our system's dichromatic classification of patients into thrombolysis indicated or thrombolysis contraindicated groups has achieved a high accuracy rate with AUC equal to 90.2 %. The average processing time for a single case is 170 s. In conclusion, our system has the potential of enhancing quality of care and providing clinical support in the setting of a busy stroke or emergency center.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10278-013-9672-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336400300012

    View details for PubMedID 24464216

  • Cost-Effective, Transfer-Free, Flexible Resistive Random Access Memory Using Laser-Scribed Reduced Graphene Oxide Patterning Technology NANO LETTERS Tian, H., Chen, H., Ren, T., Li, C., Xue, Q., Mohammad, M. A., Wu, C., Yang, Y., Wong, H. P. 2014; 14 (6): 3214-3219

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl5005916

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337337100037

  • 3-D Cross-Point Array Operation on AlOy/HfOx-Based Vertical Resistive Switching Memory IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Gao, B., Chen, B., Liu, R., Zhang, F., Huang, P., Liu, L., Liu, X., Kang, J., Chen, H. (., Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2014; 61 (5): 1377-1381
  • System Level Benchmarking with Yield-Enhanced Standard Cell Library for Carbon Nanotube VLSI Circuits ACM JOURNAL ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS Bobba, S., Zhang, J., Gaillardon, P., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S., De Micheli, G. 2014; 10 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1145/2600073

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336444700007

  • Carbon Nanotube Circuit Integration up to Sub-20 nm Channel Lengths ACS NANO Shulaker, M. M., Van Rethy, J., Wu, T. F., Liyanage, L. S., Wei, H., Li, Z., Pop, E., Gielen, G., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2014; 8 (4): 3434-3443

    Abstract

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are a promising emerging technology projected to achieve over an order of magnitude improvement in energy-delay product, a metric of performance and energy efficiency, compared to silicon-based circuits. However, due to substantial imperfections inherent with CNTs, the promise of CNFETs has yet to be fully realized. Techniques to overcome these imperfections have yielded promising results, but thus far only at large technology nodes (1 μm device size). Here we demonstrate the first very large scale integration (VLSI)-compatible approach to realizing CNFET digital circuits at highly scaled technology nodes, with devices ranging from 90 nm to sub-20 nm channel lengths. We demonstrate inverters functioning at 1 MHz and a fully integrated CNFET infrared light sensor and interface circuit at 32 nm channel length. This demonstrates the feasibility of realizing more complex CNFET circuits at highly scaled technology nodes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn406301r

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334990600034

    View details for PubMedID 24654597

  • VLSI-Compatible Carbon Nanotube Doping Technique with Low Work-Function Metal Oxides NANO LETTERS Liyanage, L. S., Xu, X., Pitner, G., Bao, Z., Wong, H. P. 2014; 14 (4): 1884-1890

    Abstract

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have great potential to become the channel material for future high-speed transistor technology. However, as-made carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) are p-type in ambient, and a consistent and reproducible n-type carbon nanotube (CNT) doping technique has yet to be realized. In addition, for very large scale integration (VLSI) of CNT transistors, it is imperative to use a solid-state method that can be applied on the wafer scale. Herein we present a novel, VLSI-compatible doping technique to fabricate n-type CNT transistors using low work-function metal oxides as gate dielectrics. Using this technique we demonstrate wafer-scale, aligned CNT transistors with yttrium oxide (Y2Ox) gate dielectrics that exhibit n-type behavior with Ion/Ioff of 10(6) and inverse subthreshold slope of 95 mV/dec. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirm that slow (∼1 Å/s) evaporation of yttrium on the CNTs can form a smooth surface that provides excellent wetting to CNTs. Further analysis of the yttrium oxide gate dielectric using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques revealed that partially oxidized elemental yttrium content increases underneath the surface where it acts as a reducing agent on nanotubes by donating electrons that gives rise to n-type doping in CNTs. We further confirm the mechanism for this technique with other low work-function metals such as lanthanum (La), erbium (Er), and scandium (Sc) which also provide similar CNT NFET behavior after transistor fabrication. This study paves the way to exploiting a wide range of materials for an effective n-type carbon nanotube transistor for a complementary (p- and n-type) transistor technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl404651j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334572400031

  • Session 2E: Compound Semiconductors Kim, S. B., Lee, B., Asheghi, M., Hurkx, G., Reifenberg, J., Goodson, K., Wong, H.S.Philip
  • SPECIAL ISSUE ON NANOMETER-SCALE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Chen, W., Frank, D. J., Ismail, K. E., Lo, S., Sai-Halasz, G., Viswanathan, R. G.
  • Carbon Nanotube Transistor Compact Model Deng, J., Wan, G. C., Wong, H. S.
  • 14: 40 B-1-3 Electrical Stress Effects on Mobility of Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) pMOSFETs with HfO~ 2 Gate Dielectric SOLID STATE DEVICES AND MATERIALS Yi, J. H., Oh, S., Wong, H. S. ; 34
  • A Fully Anlytical Model for Carbon Nanotube FETs including Quantum Capacitances and Electrostatics Wei, L., Frank, D. J., Chang, L., Wong, H.
  • Solid-State Power and High Voltage A Highly Efficient 1.9-GHz Si High-Power MOS Amplifier..... I. Yoshida, M. Katsueda, Y. Maruyama, and I. Kohjiro 953 A MOS-Controlled High-Voltage Thyristor with Low Switching Losses...................................................... W. Hermansson, B. Breitholtz, LCG Zdansky, K. Andersson, LF Heijkenskjöld, R. Revsäter, and D. Sigurd 957 Vacuum Electron Devices Rodrıguez, R., Nafrıa, M., Suné, J., Aymerich, X., Wong, H., Chang, R. T.
  • Carbon Nanotube Vacuum Gauges With Wide Dynamic Range....................... AB Kaul and HM Manohara 252 On the Probabilistic Characterization of Nano-Based Circuits............................. X. Lu, J. Li, and W. Zhang 258 Novel Local Silicon-Gate Carbon Nanotube Transistors Combining Silicon-on-Insulator Technology for Integration......................................................... M. Zhang, PCH Chan, Y. Chai, Q. Liang, and ZK Tang 260 Formation and Optical Characteristics of Type-II Strain-Relieved GaSb/GaAs Quantum Dots by Using an Interfacial Misfit Amlani, I., Lee, K. F., Deng, J., Wong, H., Paydavosi, N., Holland, K. D.
  • IEDM Executive Committee Wong, H. S., Brederlow, R., Ishimaru, K., Auth, C., Misra, V., Subramanian, V.
  • Thermal Phenomena in Phase Change Memory Devices Goodson, K. E., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. S.
  • Methodologies to Study the Scalability and Physics of Phase Change Memory devices Cell 1, 5µm Jeyasingh, R. G., Caldwell, M. A., Liang, J., Ahn, C., Wong, H.
  • Compound Semiconductor Devices Lateral Scale Down of InGaAs/InAs Composite-Channel HEMTs With Tungsten-Based Tiered Ohmic Structure for 2-S/mm gm and 500-GHz fT......... H. Matsuzaki, T. Maruyama, T. Koasugi, H. Takahashi, M. Tokumitsu, and T. Enoki 378 SThM Temperature Mapping and Nonlinear Thermal Resistance Evolution With Bias on AlGaN/GaN HEMT Devices Aubry, R., Jacquet, J. C., Weaver, J., Durand, O., Dobson, P., Mills, G., Wong, H.S.Philip
  • Design and Benchmarking of BCPMOS Versus SCPMOS for an Evolutionary 0.25-m CMOS Technology............ H.-H. Vuong, SA Eshraghi, CS Rafferty, SJ Hillenius, MR Pinto, PW Diodato, H.-I. Cong, and PM Zeitzoff 991 An Analytical Model for the Electron Velocity Overshoot Effects in Strained-Si on Si Ge MOSFET’s......................................................... JB Roldán, F. Gámiz, JA López-Villanueva, and JE Carceller 993 Rodrıguez, R., Nafrıa, M., Suné, J., Aymerich, X., Wong, H., Chang, R. T.
  • Technical Program Committee Members Akkipeddi, I. R., Arakawa, Y., Arai, F., Bhattacharya, P., Chau, R., Chen, J., Wong, H.S.Philip
  • Reliability of Graphene Interconnects and N-type Doping of Carbon Nanotube transistors Liyanage, L. S., Chen, X., Wei, H., Chen, H., Mitra, S., Wong, H. S.
  • 26.3 Investigation of Performance Limits of III-V Double-Gate n-MOSFETs INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING Pethe, A., Krishnamohan, T., Kim, D., Oh, S., Wong, H., Nishi, Y. ; 619
  • AUSTIN MINNICH Schmidt, A., Bahk, J. H., Favaloro, T., Shakouri, A., Shen, S., Dames, C., Wong, H.S.Philip
  • IEDM Executive Committee Candelaria, J., Mistry, K., Wong, H. S., Ieong, M., Brederlow, R., Auth, C.
  • Nurse Support Program II Puddester, F. W., Sexton, K. J., Antos, J. R., Bone, G., Lowthers, C., Wong, H. S.
  • The two VLSI-TSA plenary talks feature the following keynote speeches:" Has The Sun Finally Risen on Photovoltaics?" by Dr. Mark Pinto from Applied Materials, USA and" Carrier Transport and Stress Engineering in Advanced Nanoscale MOS Transistors" by Dr. Ken Uchida from Tokyo Institute ofTechnology, Japan. Two special emerging technology sessions feature the progress of Green Devices and Next Wong, H. S.
  • CONVERGENCE PLATFORMS: FOUNDATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TOOLS Lundstrom, M., Wong, H. S.
  • Sponsored by the IEEE Electron Devices Society IEEE Bryant, A., Guo, J., Kalavade, P., Loo, L., O'Brien, J., Wong, H. S.
  • Compound Semiconductor Devices Analysis of DC–RF Dispersion in AlGaN/GaN HFETs Using RF Waveform Engineering.................... C. Roff, J. Benedikt, PJ Tasker, DJ Wallis, KP Hilton, JO Maclean, DG Hayes, MJ Uren, and T. Martin 13 Molecular and Organic Devices A Charge-Based OTFT Model for Circuit Simulation........ F. Torricelli, ZM Kovács-Vajna, and L. Colalongo 20 Lin, D. A., Kumar, R. S., Cheng, L. S., Jin, C., Vaidya, V., Kim, J., Wong, H.S.Philip
  • Challenges in Colloidal Phase Change Nanoparticle Devices Caldwell, M. A., Milliron, D. J., Wong, H. S.
  • LATERALLY ACTUATED NANOELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS WITH COMPLIANT, LOW RESISTANCE CONTACT Shavezipur, M., Lee, W. S., Harrison, K. L., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H. S.
  • BEST PAPER CANDIDATES Eggersglüß, S., Wille, R., Drechsler, R., Zhang, Y., Luk, W., Yan, C., Wong, H.S.Philip
  • Nanoelectronic Devices 11 Wong, H. S.
  • Imperfection-Immune Carbon Nanotube VLSI Deng, J., Lin, A., Patil, N., Wan, G., Wei, H., Wong, H. S.
  • Physics of electrical conduction in the sub-threshold regime and crystallization due to thermal disturbances in phase-change memory Ahn, C., Lee, B., Jeyasingh, R. G., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K., Wong, H. S.
  • A 0.5 /font> m Pixel Frame-Transfer CCD Image Sensor in 110nm CMOS Fife, K., Gamal, A. E., Wong, H. S.
  • Contact Properties of Titanium Nitride Sidewall Coating for Nanoelectromechanical Electronics Shavezipur, M., Harrison, K. L., Lee, W. S., Espinosa, B., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H.S.Philip
  • GaAs buffer layer technique for vertical nanowire growth on Si substrate APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Xu, X., Li, Y., Parizi, K. B., Huo, Y., Kang, Y., Wong, H. P. 2014; 104 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4866915

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332619100114

  • Sensor-to-Digital Interface Built Entirely With Carbon Nanotube FETs Shulaker, M. M., Rethy, J. V., Hills, G., Wei, H., Chen, H. Y., Gielen, G., Wong, H.S.Philip 2014
  • Statistical Assessment Methodology for the Design and Optimization of Cross-Point RRAM Arrays 2014 IEEE 6TH INTERNATIONAL MEMORY WORKSHOP (IMW) Li, H., Jiang, Z., Huang, P., Chen, H., Chen, B., Liu, R., Chen, Z., Zhang, F., Liu, L., Gao, B., Liu, X., Yu, S., Wong, H. P., Kang, J. 2014
  • Electrochemical Metallization and Trapping/Detrapping Resistive Switching Mechanism in Al/VOx/Cu RRAM ECS SOLID STATE LETTERS Zhang, K., Sun, K., Wang, F., Han, Y., Jiang, Z., Wang, B., Liu, K., Wong, H. S. 2014; 3 (10): Q63-Q66
  • Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) Template Pattern Verification 2014 51ST ACM/EDAC/IEEE DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (DAC) Xiao, Z., Du, Y., Tian, H., Wong, M. D., Yi, H., Wong, H. P., Zhang, H. 2014
  • DSA Template Optimization for Contact Layer in 1D Standard Cell Design ALTERNATIVE LITHOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIES VI Xiao, Z., Du, Y., Tian, H., Wong, M. D., Yi, H., Wong, H. P. 2014; 9049

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2045691

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339326700043

  • Write Disturb Analyses on Half-Selected Cells of Cross-Point RRAM Arrays 2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL RELIABILITY PHYSICS SYMPOSIUM Li, H., Chen, H., Chen, Z., Chen, B., Liu, R., Qiu, G., Huang, P., Zhang, F., Jiang, Z., Gao, B., Liu, L., Liu, X., Yu, S., Wong, H. P., Kang, J. 2014
  • Optimization and Mechanism on Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Hafnium Oxide for RRAM Devices ECS JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Zhang, K., Feng, Y., Cao, J., Wang, F., Han, Y., Yuan, Y., Wong, H. S. 2014; 3 (7): P249-P252
  • DSA-Aware Detailed Routing for Via Layer Optimization ALTERNATIVE LITHOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIES VI Du, Y., Xiao, Z., Wong, M. D., Yi, H., Wong, H. P. 2014; 9049

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2045756

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339326700058

  • Oral and topical boswellic acid attenuates mouse osteoarthritis OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Wang, Q., Pan, X., Wong, H. H., Wagner, C. A., Lahey, L. J., Robinson, W. H., Sokolove, J. 2014; 22 (1): 128-132

    Abstract

    Boswellic acid is a plant-derived molecule with putative anti-inflammatory effects. This study was performed to determine whether oral or topical administration of boswellic acid can attenuate joint damage in a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA).Levels of boswellic acid were measured in the blood and synovium of mice treated with oral or topical boswellic acid. OA was generated by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Therapy with oral or topical boswellic acid was initiated one day after surgery and continued for 12 weeks, when knees were harvested and scored histologically for degree of cartilage loss, osteophyte formation, and synovitis. Microdissected OA synovium was stimulated with IL-1β or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of boswellic acid and cytokine production by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or multiplex enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA).Topical treatment resulted in synovial concentrations of boswellic acid 2-6-fold higher than that measured in plasma. Cartilage loss was significantly reduced in mice treated with oral or topical boswellic acid compared with vehicle control (P < 0.01 for both oral and topical therapies). Likewise, treatment with either oral boswellic acid or boswellic acid ointment reduced of synovitis (P = 0.006 and 0.025, respectively) and osteophyte formation (P = 0.009 and 0.030, respectively). In vitro, boswellic acid was able to inhibit IL-1β and TLR4 mediated induction of several inflammatory mediators from OA synovial explant tissue.Significant synovial concentration and therapeutic efficacy can be achieved with topical boswellic acid treatment. These findings suggest that boswellic acid has potential as a disease-modifying agent in OA.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2013.10.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330422000016

    View details for PubMedID 24185109

  • Brain-like associative learning using a nanoscale non-volatile phase change synaptic device array. Frontiers in neuroscience Eryilmaz, S. B., Kuzum, D., Jeyasingh, R., Kim, S., BrightSky, M., Lam, C., Wong, H. P. 2014; 8: 205-?

    Abstract

    Recent advances in neuroscience together with nanoscale electronic device technology have resulted in huge interests in realizing brain-like computing hardwares using emerging nanoscale memory devices as synaptic elements. Although there has been experimental work that demonstrated the operation of nanoscale synaptic element at the single device level, network level studies have been limited to simulations. In this work, we demonstrate, using experiments, array level associative learning using phase change synaptic devices connected in a grid like configuration similar to the organization of the biological brain. Implementing Hebbian learning with phase change memory cells, the synaptic grid was able to store presented patterns and recall missing patterns in an associative brain-like fashion. We found that the system is robust to device variations, and large variations in cell resistance states can be accommodated by increasing the number of training epochs. We illustrated the tradeoff between variation tolerance of the network and the overall energy consumption, and found that energy consumption is decreased significantly for lower variation tolerance.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fnins.2014.00205

    View details for PubMedID 25100936

  • Sensor-to-Digital Interface Built Entirely With Carbon Nanotube FETs IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS Shulaker, M. M., Van Rethy, J., Hills, G., Wei, H., Chen, H., Gielen, G., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2014; 49 (1): 190-201
  • System Level Benchmarking with Yield-Enhanced Standard Cell Library for Carbon Nanotube VLSI Circuits ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems Mitra, S., Gaillardon, P. E., Micheli, G. D., Wong, H. S., Bobba, S., Zhang, J. 2014
  • Experimental study of plane electrode thickness scaling for 3D vertical resistive random access memory. Nanotechnology Chen, H., Yu, S., Gao, B., Liu, R., Jiang, Z., Deng, Y., Chen, B., Kang, J., Philip Wong, H. 2013; 24 (46): 465201-?

    Abstract

    The vertical scaling for the multi-layer stacked 3D vertical resistive random access memory (RRAM) cross-point array is investigated. The thickness of the multi-layer stack for a 3D RRAM is a key factor for determining the storage density. A vertical RRAM cell with plane electrode thickness (tm) scaled down to 5 nm, aiming to minimize 3D stack height, is experimentally demonstrated. An improvement factor of 5 in device density can be achieved as compared to a previous demonstration using a 22 nm thick plane electrode. It is projected that 37 layers can be stacked for a lithographic half-pitch (F) = 26 nm and total thickness of one stack (T) = 21 nm, delivering a bit density of 72.8 nm(2)/cell.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/24/46/465201

    View details for PubMedID 24148997

  • Assembly and Installation of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION Band, H. R., Brown, R. L., Carr, R., Chen, X. C., Chen, X. H., CHERWINKA, J. J., Chu, M. C., Draeger, E., Dwyer, D. A., Edwards, W. R., Gill, R., Goett, J., Greenler, L. S., Gu, W. Q., He, W. S., Heeger, K. M., Heng, Y. K., HINRICHS, P., Ho, T. H., Hoff, M., Hsiung, Y. B., Jin, Y., Kang, L., Kettell, S. H., Kramer, M., Kwan, K. K., Kwok, M. W., Lewis, C. A., Li, G. S., Li, N., Li, S. F., Li, X. N., Lin, C. J., Littlejohn, B. R., Liu, J. L., Luk, K. B., Luo, X. L., Ma, X. Y., McFarlane, M. C., McKeown, R. D., Nakajima, Y., Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P., Pagac, A., Qian, X., Seilhan, B., Shih, K., Steiner, H., Tang, X., THEMANN, H., Tsang, K. V., Tsang, R. H., Virostek, S., Wang, L., Wang, W., Wang, Z. M., Webber, D. M., Wei, Y. D., WEN, L. J., Wenman, D. L., WILHELMI, J., Wingert, M., Wise, T., Wong, H. L., Wu, F. F., Xiao, Q., Yang, L., Zhang, Z. J., Zhong, W. L., Zhuang, H. L. 2013; 8
  • Synergetic carbon nanotube growth CARBON Parker, J. M., Wong, H. P. 2013; 62: 61-68
  • Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications NANOTECHNOLOGY Kuzum, D., Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2013; 24 (38)

    Abstract

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/24/38/382001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324141800002

    View details for PubMedID 23999572

  • Nanometer-Scale HfOx RRAM IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Zhang, Z., Wu, Y., Wong, H. P., Wong, S. S. 2013; 34 (8): 1005-1007
  • Mass fabrication and delivery of 3D multilayer mu Tags into living cells SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Chen, L. Y., Parizi, K. B., Kosuge, H., Milaninia, K. M., McConnell, M. V., Wong, H. P., Poon, A. S. 2013; 3

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep02295

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322308900002

  • Impact of III-V and Ge Devices on Circuit Performance IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS Park, J., Oh, S., Kim, S., Wong, H. P., Wong, S. S. 2013; 21 (7): 1189-1200
  • Atomic layer deposition of high-k dielectrics on single-walled carbon nanotubes: a Raman study NANOTECHNOLOGY Liyanage, L. S., Cott, D. J., Delabie, A., Van Elshocht, S., Bao, Z., Wong, H. P. 2013; 24 (24)

    Abstract

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have great potential to become the channel material for future high-speed transistor technology. However, to realize a carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) with excellent gate control, the high-k dielectrics between the CNT and the metal gate must have superb electrical properties and extremely high uniformity. Thus it is essential to understand the interactions between high-k materials and the SWCNTs to effectively control the transistor characteristics. In this study, we investigate the effects of atomic layer deposited (ALD) high-k dielectrics (Al2O3 and HfO2) on SWCNTs using Raman spectroscopy. We subjected the SWCNTs to various ALD cycles and studied the nucleation and growth of ALD dielectrics at defect sites using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. We analyzed these samples using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Raman peak shifts of the G-peak and the 2D (G') peaks suggest doping and stress induced effects on the CNTs by the surrounding high-k oxide environment. Trends in the G-peak FWHM and G/D-peak ratios were identified and compared between Al2O3 and HfO2. We confirmed the ALD-deposited HfO2 is polycrystalline using x-ray diffraction and analyzed dielectric-CNT bonding states using XPS measurements. This study provides insights on the effects of ALD high-k materials on SWCNTs for future high-speed transistor applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/24/24/245703

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319384300021

    View details for PubMedID 23696347

  • Compact Model for Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors Including Nonidealities and Calibrated With Experimental Data Down to 9-nm Gate Length IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Luo, J., Wei, L., Lee, C., Franklin, A. D., Guan, X., Pop, E., Antoniadis, D. A., Wong, H. P. 2013; 60 (6): 1834-1843
  • Phonon and electron transport through Ge2Sb2Te5 films and interfaces bounded by metals APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Lee, J., Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Kim, S., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2013; 102 (19)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4807141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320440800035

  • Combinational Logic Design Using Six-Terminal NEM Relays IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Lee, D., Lee, W. S., Chen, C., Fallah, F., Provine, J., Chong, S., Watkins, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2013; 32 (5): 653-666
  • A Low Energy Oxide-Based Electronic Synaptic Device for Neuromorphic Visual Systems with Tolerance to Device Variation ADVANCED MATERIALS Yu, S., Gao, B., Fang, Z., Yu, H., Kang, J., Wong, H. P. 2013; 25 (12): 1774-1779

    Abstract

    Neuromorphic computing is an emerging computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital von Neumann computation. An oxide-based resistive switching memory is engineered to emulate synaptic devices. At the device level, the gradual resistance modulation is characterized by hundreds of identical pulses, achieving a low energy consumption of less than 1 pJ per spike. Furthermore, a stochastic compact model is developed to quantify the device switching dynamics and variation. At system level, the performance of an artificial visual system on the image orientation or edge detection with 16 348 oxide-based synaptic devices is simulated, successfully demonstrating a key feature of neuromorphic computing: tolerance to device variation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201203680

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316322600018

    View details for PubMedID 23355110

  • HfOx-Based Vertical Resistive Switching Random Access Memory Suitable for Bit-Cost-Effective Three-Dimensional Cross-Point Architecture ACS NANO Yu, S., Chen, H., Gao, B., Kang, J., Wong, H. P. 2013; 7 (3): 2320-2325

    Abstract

    The three-dimensional (3D) cross-point array architecture is attractive for future ultra-high-density nonvolatile memory application. A bit-cost-effective technology path toward the 3D integration that requires only one critical lithography step or mask for reducing the bit-cost is demonstrated in this work. A double-layer HfOx-based vertical resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) is fabricated and characterized. The HfOx thin film is deposited at the sidewall of the predefined trench by atomic layer deposition, forming a vertical memory structure. Electrode/oxide interface engineering with a TiON interfacial layer results in nonlinear I-V suitable for the selectorless array. The fabricated HfOx vertical RRAM shows excellent performances such as reset current (<50 ?A), switching speed (<100 ns), switching endurance (>10(8) cycles), read disturbance immunity (>10(9) cycles), and data retention time (>10(5) s @ 125 °C).

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn305510u

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316846700049

    View details for PubMedID 23411406

  • Monitoring Oxygen Movement by Raman Spectroscopy of Resistive Random Access Memory with a Graphene-Inserted Electrode NANO LETTERS Tian, H., Chen, H., Gao, B., Yu, S., Liang, J., Yang, Y., Xie, D., Kang, J., Ren, T., Zhang, Y., Wong, H. P. 2013; 13 (2): 651-657

    Abstract

    In this paper, we employed Ramen spectroscopy to monitor oxygen movement at the electrode/oxide interface by inserting single-layer graphene (SLG). Raman area mapping and single-point measurements show noticeable changes in the D-band, G-band, and 2D-band signals of the SLG during consecutive electrical programming repeated for nine cycles. In addition, the inserted SLG enables the reduction of RESET current by 22 times and programming power consumption by 47 times. Collectively, our results show that monitoring the oxygen movement by Raman spectroscopy for a resistive random access memory (RRAM) is made possible by inserting a single-layer graphene at electrode/oxide interface. This may open up an important analysis tool for investigation of switching mechanism of RRAM.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl304246d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315079500054

    View details for PubMedID 23278753

  • Effect of Wordline/Bitline Scaling on the Performance, Energy Consumption, and Reliability of Cross-Point Memory Array ACM JOURNAL ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS Liang, J., Yeh, S., Wong, S. S., Wong, H. P. 2013; 9 (1)
  • Design Strategy of Small Topographical Guiding Templates for sub-15 nm Integrated Circuits Contact Hole Patterns using Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly ALTERNATIVE LITHOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIES V Yi, H., Bao, X., Tiberio, R., Wong, H. P. 2013; 8680

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2011263

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323077100017

  • Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) Aware Contact Layer Optimization for 10 nm 1D Standard Cell Library 2013 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ICCAD) Du, Y., Guo, D., Wong, M. D., Yi, H., Wong, H. P., Zhang, H., Ma, Q. 2013: 186-193
  • Computational simulation of block copolymer directed self-assembly in small topographical guiding templates ALTERNATIVE LITHOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIES V Yi, H., Latypova, A., Wong, H. P. 2013; 8680

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2011264

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323077100037

  • Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE Yu, S., Gao, B., Fang, Z., Yu, H., Kang, J., Wong, H. P. 2013; 7
  • NEM Relays Using 2-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Low Energy Contacts 2013 THIRD BERKELEY SYMPOSIUM ON ENERGY EFFICIENT ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (E3S) Lee, S., Tang, A., McVittie, J. P., Wong, H. P. 2013
  • Sacha: the Stanford Carbon Nanotube Controlled Handshaking Robot 2013 50TH ACM / EDAC / IEEE DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (DAC) Shulaker, M., Van Rethy, J., Hills, G., Chen, H., Gielen, G., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2013
  • Reliability of Graphene Interconnects and N-type Doping of Carbon Nanotube transistors 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL RELIABILITY PHYSICS SYMPOSIUM (IRPS) Liyanage, L. S., Chen, X., Wei, H., Chen, H., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2013
  • Design and Optimization Methodology for 3D RRAM Arrays 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Deng, Y., Chen, H., Gao, B., Yu, S., Wu, S., Zhao, L., Chen, B., Jiang, Z., Liu, X., Hou, T., Nishi, Y., Kang, J., Wong, H. P. 2013
  • Monolithic Three-Dimensional Integration of Carbon Nanotube FET Complementary Logic Circuits 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Wei, H., Shulaker, M., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2013
  • First Demonstration of RRAM Patterned by Block Copolymer Self-Assembly 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Wu, Y., Yi, H., Zhang, Z., Jiang, Z., Sohn, J., Wong, S., Wong, H. P. 2013
  • LATERALLY ACTUATED NANOELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS WITH COMPLIANT, LOW RESISTANCE CONTACT 26TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS 2013) Shavezipur, M., Lee, W. S., Harrison, K. L., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Howe, R. T. 2013: 520-523
  • Experimental Demonstration of Array-level Learning with Phase Change Synaptic Devices 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Eryilmaz, S. B., Kuzum, D., Jeyasingh, R. G., Kim, S., BrightSky, M., Lam, C., Wong, H. P. 2013
  • Experimental demonstration of a fully digital capacitive sensor interface built entirely using carbon-nanotube FETs Shulaker, M., Rethy, J. V., Hills, G., Chen, H. Y., Gielen, G., Wong, H. S. 2013
  • Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing Frontiers in neuroscience Yu, S., Gao, B., Fang, Z., Yu, H., Kang, J., Wong, H. S. 2013; 7
  • Sacha: the Stanford carbon nanotube controlled handshaking robot Shulaker, M., Rethy, J. V., Hills, G., Chen, H. Y., Gielen, G., Wong, H. S. 2013
  • Combinational Logic Design Using Six-Terminal NEM Relays Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions Lee, D., Lee, W. S., Chen, C., Fallah, F., Provine, J., Chong, S., Wong, H.S.Philip 2013
  • Effect of Wordline/Bitline Scaling on the Performance, Energy Consumption, and Reliability of Cross-Point Memory Array ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC) Liang, J., Yeh, S., Wong, S. S., Wong, H. S. 2013; 1 (9): 9
  • Dilute phosphide nitride materials as photocathodes for electrochemical solar energy conversion SPIE OPTO Parameshwaran, V., Xu, X., Kang, Y., Harris, J., Wong, H. S., Clemens, B. 2013: 86201J-86201J-9
  • Computational simulation of block copolymer directed self-assembly in small topographical guiding templates SPIE Advanced Lithography Yi, H., Latypov, A., Wong, H. S. 2013: 86801L-86801L-7
  • Laterally Actuated Platinum-Coated Polysilicon NEM Relays IEEE Parsa, R., Lee, W. S., Shavezipur, M., Provine, J., Maboudian, R., Mitra, S., Wong, H.S.Philip 2013
  • Compact models of emerging devices Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), IEEE International Lee, C. S., Yu, S., Guan, X., Luo, J., Wei, L., Wong, H. S. 2013
  • 3D vertical RRAM-Scaling limit analysis and demonstration of 3D array operation Yu, S., Chen, H. Y., Deng, Y., Gao, B., Jiang, Z., Kang, J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2013
  • Block copolymer directed self-assembly (DSA) aware contact layer optimization for 10 nm 1D standard cell library Du, Y., Guo, D., Wong, M. D., Yi, H., Wong, H. S., Zhang, H. 2013
  • Technology projections of III–V devices down to 11 nm: importance of electrostatics and series resistance Electronics Letters Oh, S., Wong, H. S. 2013; 13 (49): 832-833
  • Novel graphene-based devices Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), IEEE International Tian, H., Yang, Y., Xie, D., Chen, H. Y., Wong, H. S., Ren, T. L. 2013
  • Mass fabrication and delivery of 3D multilayer [mgr] Tags into living cells Scientific reports Chen, L. Y., Parizi, K. B., Kosuge, H., Milaninia, K. M., McConnell, M. V., Wong, H. S. 2013; 3
  • Nanometer-Scale RRAM Electron Device Letters, IEEE Zhang, Z., Wu, Y., Wong, H. P., Wong, S. S. 2013; 8 (34): 1005-1007
  • Carbon nanotube computer Nature Shulaker, M. M., Hills, G., Patil, N., Wei, H., Chen, H. Y., Wong, H. S. 2013; 7468 (501): 526-530
  • (Invited) Carbon 1D/2D Nanoelectronics: Advances in Synthesis and Integration ECS Transactions Parker, J. M., Chen, X., Liyanage, L., Tang, A., Wong, H. S. 2013; 1 (53): 27-38
  • 5th International Memory Workshop May 26th–29th 2013 Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, CA Aochi, H., Bernard, D., CEA-Spintec, F., Pei-Ying, D., Hong, K., Asano, I., Wong, H.S.Philip 2013
  • Compact Model for Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors Including Nonidealities and Calibrated With Experimental Data Down to 9-nm Gate Length IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices Luo, J., Wei, L., Lee, C. S., Franklin, A. D., Wong, H. S. 2013; 6 (60)
  • A Low Energy Oxide‐Based Electronic Synaptic Device for Neuromorphic Visual Systems with Tolerance to Device Variation Advanced Materials Yu, S., Gao, B., Fang, Z., Yu, H., Kang, J., Wong, H. S. 2013
  • Dual-beam, six-terminal nanoelectromechanical relays Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS Harrison, K. L., Lee, W. S., Shavezipur, K., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H. S. 2013
  • Thermal transport in phase change memory materials Annual Review of Heat Transfer Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Reifenberg, J. P., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. S., Goodson, K. E. 2013; 1 (16)
  • Design strategy of small topographical guiding templates for sub-15nm integrated circuits contact hole patterns using block copolymer directed self assembly SPIE Advanced Lithography Yi, H., Bao, X. Y., Tiberio, R., Wong, H. S. 2013: 868010-868010-9
  • < span> Phase Change Memory–The Interplay Between Thermal and Electrical Effects</span> Wong, H. S. 2013
  • Carbon nanotube circuits: opportunities and challenges Wei, H., Shulaker, M., Hills, G., Chen, H. Y., Lee, C. S., Liyanage, L., Wong, H.S.Philip 2013
  • Phonon and electron transport through Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 films and interfaces bounded by metals Applied Physics Letters Lee, J., Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Kim, S. B., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2013; 19 (102): 191911-191911-5
  • Rapid exploration of processing and design guidelines to overcome carbon nanotube variations Hills, G., Zhang, J., Mackin, C., Shulaker, M., Wei, H., Wong, H. S. 2013
  • Electrothermal Modeling and Design Strategies for Multibit Phase-Change Memory IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Li, Z., Jeyasingh, R. G., Lee, J., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2012; 59 (12): 3561-3567
  • Low-Energy Robust Neuromorphic Computation Using Synaptic Devices IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Kuzum, D., Jeyasingh, R. G., Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2012; 59 (12): 3489-3494
  • Increasing the semiconducting fraction in ensembles of single-walled carbon nanotubes CARBON Parker, J., Beasley, C., Lin, A., Chen, H., Wong, H. P. 2012; 50 (14): 5093-5098
  • Graphene Interconnect Lifetime: A Reliability Analysis IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Chen, X., Seo, D. H., Seo, S., Chung, H., Wong, H. P. 2012; 33 (11): 1604-1606
  • Optical Absorption Enhancement in Freestanding GaAs Thin Film Nanopyramid Arrays ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Liang, D., Huo, Y., Kang, Y., Wang, K. X., Gu, A., Tan, M., Yu, Z., Li, S., Jia, J., Bao, X., Wang, S., Yao, Y., Wong, H. P., Fan, S., Cui, Y., Harris, J. S. 2012; 2 (10): 1254-1260
  • A SPICE Compact Model of Metal Oxide Resistive Switching Memory With Variations IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Guan, X., Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2012; 33 (10): 1405-1407
  • Selective Synthesis and Device Applications of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Isopropyl Alcohol as Feedstock ACS NANO Che, Y., Wang, C., Liu, J., Liu, B., Lin, X., Parker, J., Beasley, C., Wong, H. P., Zhou, C. 2012; 6 (8): 7454-7462

    Abstract

    The development of guided chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a great platform for wafer-scale integration of aligned nanotubes into circuits and functional electronic systems. However, the coexistence of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes is still a major obstacle for the development of carbon-nanotube-based nanoelectronics. To address this problem, we have developed a method to obtain predominantly semiconducting nanotubes from direct CVD growth. By using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the carbon feedstock, a semiconducting nanotube purity of above 90% is achieved, which is unambiguously confirmed by both electrical and micro-Raman measurements. Mass spectrometric study was performed to elucidate the underlying chemical mechanism. Furthermore, high performance thin-film transistors with an on/off ratio above 10(4) and mobility up to 116 cm(2)/(V·s) have been achieved using the IPA-synthesized nanotube networks grown on silicon substrate. The method reported in this contribution is easy to operate and the results are highly reproducible. Therefore, such semiconducting predominated single-walled carbon nanotubes could serve as an important building block for future practical and scalable carbon nanotube electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn302720n

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307988900107

    View details for PubMedID 22849386

  • Flexible Control of Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly using Small, Topographical Templates: Potential Lithography Solution for Integrated Circuit Contact Hole Patterning ADVANCED MATERIALS Yi, H., Bao, X., Zhang, J., Bencher, C., Chang, L., Chen, X., Tiberio, R., Conway, J., Dai, H., Chen, Y., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2012; 24 (23): 3107-3114

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201200265

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305121100015

    View details for PubMedID 22550028

  • Metal-Oxide RRAM PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE Wong, H. P., Lee, H., Yu, S., Chen, Y., Wu, Y., Chen, P., Lee, B., Chen, F. T., Tsai, M. 2012; 100 (6): 1951-1970
  • Nanoelectronic Programmable Synapses Based on Phase Change Materials for Brain-Inspired Computing NANO LETTERS Kuzum, D., Jeyasingh, R. G., Lee, B., Wong, H. P. 2012; 12 (5): 2179-2186

    Abstract

    Brain-inspired computing is an emerging field, which aims to extend the capabilities of information technology beyond digital logic. A compact nanoscale device, emulating biological synapses, is needed as the building block for brain-like computational systems. Here, we report a new nanoscale electronic synapse based on technologically mature phase change materials employed in optical data storage and nonvolatile memory applications. We utilize continuous resistance transitions in phase change materials to mimic the analog nature of biological synapses, enabling the implementation of a synaptic learning rule. We demonstrate different forms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity using the same nanoscale synapse with picojoule level energy consumption.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl201040y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303696400001

    View details for PubMedID 21668029

  • Single-Tube Characterization Methodology for Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Carbon Nanotube Synthesis JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Chen, H., Lin, A., Liyanage, L. S., Beasley, C., Patil, N., Wei, H., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2012; 51 (4)
  • Robust Digital VLSI using Carbon Nanotubes IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Zhang, J., Lin, A., Patil, N., Wei, H., Wei, L., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2012; 31 (4): 453-471
  • On the Switching Parameter Variation of Metal-Oxide RRAM-Part I: Physical Modeling and Simulation Methodology IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Guan, X., Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2012; 59 (4): 1172-1182
  • An Ultra-Low Reset Current Cross-Point Phase Change Memory With Carbon Nanotube Electrodes IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Liang, J., Jeyasingh, R. G., Chen, H., Wong, H. P. 2012; 59 (4): 1155-1163
  • On the Switching Parameter Variation of Metal Oxide RRAM-Part II: Model Corroboration and Device Design Strategy IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Yu, S., Guan, X., Wong, H. P. 2012; 59 (4): 1183-1188
  • Simplifying and streamlining Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS Yang, W. C., Patel, K. G., Wong, H. E., Swartz, J. R. 2012; 28 (2): 413-420

    Abstract

    Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) uses E. coli extracts to make active proteins in vitro. The basic CFPS reaction mixture is comprised of four main reagent components: (1) energy source and CFPS chemicals, (2) DNA encoding the protein of interest, (3) T7 RNA Polymerase (RNAP) for transcription, and (4) cell extract for translation. In this work, we have simplified and shortened the protocols for preparing the CFPS chemical mixture, cell extract, and T7 RNAP. First, we streamlined the workflow for preparing the CFPS chemical solutions by combining all the chemicals into a single reagent mixture, which we call Premix. We showed that productive cell extracts could be made from cells grown in simple shake flasks, and we also truncated the preparation protocol. Finally, we discovered that T7 RNAP purification was not necessary for CFPS. Crude lysate from cells over-expressing T7 RNAP could be used without deleteriously affecting protein production. Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) as a model protein, we showed that these streamlined protocols still support high-yielding CFPS. These simplified procedures save time and offer greater accessibility to our laboratory's CFPS technology.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/btpr.1509

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302607100013

    View details for PubMedID 22275217

  • Effect of annealing ambient and temperature on the electrical characteristics of atomic layer deposition Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and MOSFETs JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Hu, J., Wong, H. P. 2012; 111 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3686628

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300948600077

  • Thermoelectric Characterization and Power Generation Using a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Lee, J., Kim, S., Marconnet, A., in't Zandt, M. A., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2012; 21 (1): 4-6
  • Variability in Carbon Nanotube Transistors: Improving Device-to-Device Consistency ACS NANO Franklin, A. D., Tulevski, G. S., Han, S., Shahrjerdi, D., Cao, Q., Chen, H., Wong, H. P., Haensch, W. 2012; 6 (2): 1109-1115

    Abstract

    The large amount of hysteresis and threshold voltage variation in carbon nanotube transistors impedes their use in highly integrated digital applications. The origin of this variability is elucidated by employing a top-coated, hydrophobic monolayer to passivate bottom-gated devices. Compared to passivating only the supporting substrate, it is found that covering the nanotube channel proves highly effective and robust at improving device-to-device consistency-hysteresis and threshold voltage variation are reduced by an average of 84 and 53%, respectively. The effect of gate and drain-source bias on hysteresis is considered, showing strong dependence that must be accounted for when analyzing the effectiveness of a passivation layer. These results provide both key insight into the origin of variability in carbon nanotube transistors and a promising path for resolving this significant obstacle.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn203516z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300757900015

    View details for PubMedID 22272749

  • Effect of Resistance Drift on the Activation Energy for Crystallization in Phase Change Memory JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ahn, C., Lee, B., Jeyasingh, R. G., Asheghi, M., Hurkx, F., Goodson, K. E., Wong, H. P. 2012; 51 (2)
  • Characterization of low-frequency noise in the resistive switching of transition metal oxide HfO2 PHYSICAL REVIEW B Yu, S., Jeyasingh, R., Wu, Y., Wong, H. P. 2012; 85 (4)
  • A Monte Carlo study of the low resistance state retention of HfOx based resistive switching memory APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, S., Chen, Y. Y., Guan, X., Wong, H. P., Kittl, J. A. 2012; 100 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3679610

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300064500072

  • Wafer-Scale Fabrication and Characterization of Thin-Film Transistors with Polythiophene-Sorted Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Networks ACS NANO Liyanage, L. S., Lee, H., Patil, N., Park, S., Mitra, S., Bao, Z., Wong, H. P. 2012; 6 (1): 451-458

    Abstract

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have great potential of becoming the channel material for future thin-film transistor technology. However, an effective sorting technique is needed to obtain high-quality semiconducting SWCNTs for optimal device performance. In our previous work, we reported a dispersion technique for semiconducting SWCNTs that relies on regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (rr-P3DDT) to form hybrid nanostructures. In this study, we demonstrate the scalability of those sorted CNT composite structures to form arrays of TFTs using standard lithographic techniques. The robustness of these CNT nanostructures was tested with Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscope images. Important trends in device properties were extracted by means of electrical measurements for different CNT concentrations and channel lengths (L(c)). A statistical study provided an average mobility of 1 cm(2)/V·s and I(on)/I(off) as high as 10(6) for short channel lengths (L(c) = 1.5 ?m) with 100% yield. This highlights the effectiveness of this sorting technique and its scalability for large-scale, flexible, and transparent display applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn203771u

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299368300055

    View details for PubMedID 22148677

  • Electrode/Oxide Interface Engineering by Inserting Single-Layer Graphene: Application for HfOx-Based Resistive Random Access Memory 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Chen, H., Tian, H., Gao, B., Yu, S., Liang, J., Kang, J., Zhang, Y., Ren, T., Wong, H. P. 2012
  • A Neuromorphic Visual System Using RRAM Synaptic Devices with Sub-pJ Energy and Tolerance to Variability: Experimental Characterization and Large-Scale Modeling 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Yu, S., Gao, B., Fang, Z., Yu, H., Kang, J., Wong, H. P. 2012
  • ELECTROTHERMAL MODELING AND DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR MULTIBIT PHASE CHANGE MEMORY PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME MICRO/NANOSCALE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, 2012 Li, Z., Jeyasingh, R. G., Lee, J., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2012: 777-783
  • Scaling Challenges for the Cross-point Resistive Memory Array to Sub-10nm Node - An Interconnect Perspective 2012 4TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL MEMORY WORKSHOP (IMW) Liang, J., Yeh, S., Wong, S. S., Wong, H. P. 2012
  • Graphene interconnect lifetime under high current stress Chen, X., Seo, D. H., Seo, S., Chung, H., Wong, H. P. 2012
  • Electrode/oxide interface engineering by inserting single-layer graphene: Application for HfO x-based resistive random access memory Chen, H. Y., Tian, H., Gao, B., Yu, S., Liang, J., Kang, J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2012
  • Design and materials selection for low power laterally actuating nanoelectromechanical relays Yoo, K., Lee, D., Tiberio, R., Conway, J., Wong, H. S., Nishi, Y. 2012
  • Metal oxide resistive switching memory Functional Metal Oxide Nanostructures Yu, S., Lee, B., Wong, H. S. 2012: 303-335
  • On the switching parameter variation of metal-oxide RRAM—part I: physical modeling and simulation methodology Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Guan, X., Yu, S., Wong, H. S. 2012; 4 (59): 1172-1182
  • Recent progress of resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop (SNW) , IEEE Wu, Y., Yu, S., Chen, X., Wong, H. S. 2012: 1-4
  • A neuromorphic visual system using RRAM synaptic devices with Sub-pJ energy and tolerance to variability: Experimental characterization and large-scale modeling Yu, S., Gao, B., Fang, Z., Yu, H., Kang, J., Wong, H. S. 2012
  • HfOx based vertical resistive random access memory for cost-effective 3D cross-point architecture without cell selector Chen, H. Y., Yu, S., Gao, B., Huang, P., Kang, J., Wong, H. S. 2012
  • On the variability of HfOx RRAM: From numerical simulation to compact modeling Guan, X., Yu, S., Wong, H. S. 2012
  • Interconnect scaling into the sub-10nm regime Chen, X., Liang, J., Wong, H. S. 2012
  • Metal–oxide RRAM Wong, H. S., Lee, H. Y., Yu, S., Chen, Y. S., Wu, Y., Chen, P. S. 2012
  • Semiconducting nanotube dominant chemical vapor deposition synthesis of isopropanol carbon feedstock Bulletin of the American Physical Society Che, Y., Wang, C., Liu, J., Lin, X., Wong, H. S., Zhou, C. 2012; 57
  • Scaling behavior of PCM cells in off-state conduction VLSI Technology, Systems, and Applications (VLSI-TSA), International Chen, J., Jeyasingh, R. G., Gao, B., Lu, Y., Deng, Y. X., Liu, X. Y., Wong, H.S.Philip 2012
  • Characterization of low-frequency noise in the resistive switching of transition metal oxide HfO_ {2} Physical Review B Yu, S., Jeyasingh, R., Wu, Y., Wong, H. S. 2012; 4 (85): 45324
  • A Monte Carlo study of the low resistance state retention of HfO< inf> x</inf> based resistive switching memory Applied Physics Letters Yu, S., Chen, Y. Y., Guan, X., Wong, H. P., Kittl, J. A. 2012; 4 (100): 043507-043507-4
  • Effect of annealing ambient and temperature on the electrical characteristics of atomic layer deposition Al< inf> 2</inf> O< inf> 3</inf>/In< inf> 0.53</inf> Ga< inf> 0.47</inf> As metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and MOSFETs Journal of Applied Physics Hu, J., Wong, H. P. 2012; 4 (111): 044105-044105-8
  • On the switching parameter variation of metal oxide RRAM—Part II: Model corroboration and device design strategy Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Yu, S., Guan, X., Wong, H. S. 2012; 4 (59): 1183-1188
  • Oral 14: Organic Devices and Sensors December 5, Wednesday (10: 30-12: 00) Viphavakit, C., Dutta, J., Boonruang, S., Tang, W. M., Aboudi, U., Provine, J. 2012
  • Exceeding Nernst limit (59mV/pH): CMOS-based pH sensor for autonomous applications Parizi, K. B., Yeh, A. J., Poon, A. S., Wong, H. S. 2012
  • AlOx-Based Resistive Switching Device with Gradual Resistance Modulation for Neuromorphic Device Application Wu, Y., Yu, S., Wong, H. S., Chen, Y. S., Lee, H. Y., Wang, S. M. 2012
  • Block copolymer directed self-assembly enables sublithographic patterning for device fabrication Wong, H. S., Bencher, C., Yi, H., Bao, X. Y., Chang, L. W. 2012
  • Contact-hole patterning for random logic circuits using block copolymer directed self-assembly Yi, H., Bao, X. Y., Zhang, J., Tiberio, R., Conway, J., Chang, L. W., Wong, H.S.Philip 2012
  • Nano-electro-mechanical relays for FPGA routing: experimental demonstration and a design technique Chen, C., Lee, W. S., Parsa, R., Chong, S., Provine, J., Watt, J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2012
  • Template Patterning: Flexible Control of Block Copolymer Directed Self‐Assembly using Small, Topographical Templates: Potential Lithography Solution for Integrated Circuit Contact Hole Patterning (Adv. Mater. 23/2012) Advanced Materials Yi, H., Bao, X. Y., Zhang, J., Bencher, C., Chang, L. W., Chen, X., Wong, H.S.Philip 2012; 23 (24): 3082-3082
  • Flexible Control of Block Copolymer Directed Self‐Assembly using Small, Topographical Templates: Potential Lithography Solution for Integrated Circuit Contact Hole Patterning Advanced Materials Yi, H., Bao, X. Y., Zhang, J., Bencher, C., Chang, L. W., Chen, X., Wong, H.S.Philip 2012; 23 (24): 3107-3114
  • Scaling challenges for the cross-point resistive memory array to sub-10nm node-an interconnect perspective Liang, J., Yeh, S., Wong, S. S., Wong, H. S. 2012
  • Resistive switching random access memory—Materials, device, interconnects, and scaling considerations Integrated Reliability Workshop Final Report (IRW) , IEEE International Wu, Y., Liang, J., Yu, S., Guan, X., Wong, H. S. 2012
  • Resistive Switching Random Access Memory - Materials, Device, Interconnects, and Scaling Considerations 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATED RELIABILITY WORKSHOP FINAL REPORT Wu, Y., Liang, J., Yu, S., Guan, X., Wong, H. P. 2012: 16-21
  • Electrical Properties of CuPc-based OTFTs with Atomic Layer Deposited HfAlO Gate Dielectric 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRON DEVICES AND SOLID STATE CIRCUIT (EDSSC) Tang, W. M., Aboudi, U., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2012
  • Integration of Nanoelectromechanical Relays With Silicon nMOS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Chong, S., Lee, B., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2012; 59 (1): 255-258
  • Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relays and their Application to FPGA Routing 2012 17TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC) Chen, C., Lee, S., Provine, J., Chong, S., Parsa, R., Lee, D., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2012: 639-639
  • Understanding Metal Oxide RRAM Current Overshoot and Reliability Using Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Yu, S., Guan, X., Wong, H. P. 2012
  • Low-Resistance Electrical Contact to Carbon Nanotubes With Graphitic Interfacial Layer IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Chai, Y., Hazeghi, A., Takei, K., Chen, H., Chan, P. C., Javey, A., Wong, H. P. 2012; 59 (1): 12-19
  • Phase Change Memory: Scaling and Applications 2012 IEEE CUSTOM INTEGRATED CIRCUITS CONFERENCE (CICC) Jeyasingh, R., Liang, J., Caldwell, M. A., Kuzum, D., Wong, H. P. 2012
  • Nanoscale phase change memory materials NANOSCALE Caldwell, M. A., Jeyasingh, R. G., Wong, H. P., Milliron, D. J. 2012; 4 (15): 4382-4392

    Abstract

    Phase change memory materials store information through their reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states. For typical metal chalcogenide compounds, their phase transition properties directly impact critical memory characteristics and the manipulation of these is a major focus in the field. Here, we discuss recent work that explores the tuning of such properties by scaling the materials to nanoscale dimensions, including fabrication and synthetic strategies used to produce nanoscale phase change memory materials. The trends that emerge are relevant to understanding how such memory technologies will function as they scale to ever smaller dimensions and also suggest new approaches to designing materials for phase change applications. Finally, the challenges and opportunities raised by integrating nanoscale phase change materials into switching devices are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2nr30541k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306324000005

    View details for PubMedID 22740071

  • Impact of fixed charge on metal-insulator-semiconductor barrier height reduction APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Hu, J., Nainani, A., Sun, Y., Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. P. 2011; 99 (25)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3669414

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299031600034

  • AC conductance measurement and analysis of the conduction processes in HfOx based resistive switching memory APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, S., Jeyasingh, R., Wu, Y., Wong, H. P. 2011; 99 (23)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3663968

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298006100033

  • Crystallization properties and their drift dependence in phase-change memory studied with a micro-thermal stage JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ahn, C., Lee, B., Jeyasingh, R. G., Asheghi, M., Hurkx, G. A., Goodson, K. E., Wong, H. P. 2011; 110 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3667295

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298254800159

  • Investigation of Trap Spacing for the Amorphous State of Phase-Change Memory Devices IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Jeyasingh, R. G., Kuzum, D., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (12): 4370-4376
  • Low-power TiN/Al2O3/Pt resistive switching device with sub-20 mu A switching current and gradual resistance modulation JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Wu, Y., Yu, S., Lee, B., Wong, P. 2011; 110 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3657938

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297062100086

  • Nanoscale Bipolar and Complementary Resistive Switching Memory Based on Amorphous Carbon IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Chai, Y., Wu, Y., Takei, K., Chen, H., Yu, S., Chan, P. C., Javey, A., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (11): 3933-3939
  • Selective dispersion of high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes with regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Lee, H. W., Yoon, Y., Park, S., Oh, J. H., Hong, S., Liyanage, L. S., Wang, H., Morishita, S., Patil, N., Park, Y. J., Park, J. J., Spakowitz, A., Galli, G., Gygi, F., Wong, P. H., Tok, J. B., Kim, J. M., Bao, Z. 2011; 2

    Abstract

    Conjugated polymers, such as polyfluorene and poly(phenylene vinylene), have been used to selectively disperse semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWNTs), but these polymers have limited applications in transistors and solar cells. Regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s (rr-P3ATs) are the most widely used materials for organic electronics and have been observed to wrap around SWNTs. However, no sorting of sc-SWNTs has been achieved before. Here we report the application of rr-P3ATs to sort sc-SWNTs. Through rational selection of polymers, solvent and temperature, we achieved highly selective dispersion of sc-SWNTs. Our approach enables direct film preparation after a simple centrifugation step. Using the sorted sc-SWNTs, we fabricate high-performance SWNT network transistors with observed charge-carrier mobility as high as 12?cm(2)?V(-1)?s(-1) and on/off ratio of >10(6). Our method offers a facile and a scalable route for separating sc-SWNTs and fabrication of electronic devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1545

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297686500028

    View details for PubMedID 22086341

  • Fabrication and Characterization of Nanoscale NiO Resistance Change Memory (RRAM) Cells With Confined Conduction Paths IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Lee, B., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (10): 3270-3275
  • Complex Band Structures: From Parabolic to Elliptic Approximation IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Guan, X., Kim, D., Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. P. 2011; 32 (9): 1296-1298
  • Metal/III-V effective barrier height tuning using atomic layer deposition of high-kappa/high-kappa bilayer interfaces APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Hu, J., Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. P. 2011; 99 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3633118

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294489300032

  • Molecular Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Using Microparticle Enhanced Double-Stranded DNA Probes ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Riahi, R., Mach, K. E., Mohan, R., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2011; 83 (16): 6349-6354

    Abstract

    Rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens is essential toward clinical management of infectious diseases. Traditional approaches for pathogen detection, however, often require time-intensive bacterial culture and amplification procedures. Herein, a microparticle enhanced double-stranded DNA probe is demonstrated for rapid species-specific detection of bacterial 16S rRNA. In this molecular assay, the binding of the target sequence to the fluorophore conjugated probe thermodynamically displaces the quencher probe and allows the fluorophore to fluoresce. By incorporation of streptavidin-coated microparticles to localize the biotinylated probes, the sensitivity of the assay can be improved by 3 orders of magnitude. The limit of detection of the assay is as few as eight bacteria without target amplification and is highly specific against other common pathogens. Its applicability toward clinical diagnostics is demonstrated by directly identifying bacterial pathogens in urine samples from patients with urinary tract infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac2012575

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293758800034

    View details for PubMedID 21718053

  • Conduction mechanism of TiN/HfOx/Pt resistive switching memory: A trap-assisted-tunneling model APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, S., Guan, X., Wong, H. P. 2011; 99 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3624472

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293857700084

  • Characterization and Design of Logic Circuits in the Presence of Carbon Nanotube Density Variations IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Zhang, J., Patil, N. P., Hazeghi, A., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2011; 30 (8): 1103-1113
  • Noniterative Compact Modeling for Intrinsic Carbon-Nanotube FETs: Quantum Capacitance and Ballistic Transport IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Wei, L., Frank, D. J., Chang, L., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (8): 2456-2465
  • Technology Assessment Methodology for Complementary Logic Applications Based on Energy-Delay Optimization IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Wei, L., Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (8): 2430-2439
  • An Electronic Synapse Device Based on Metal Oxide Resistive Switching Memory for Neuromorphic Computation IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Yu, S., Wu, Y., Jeyasingh, R., Kuzum, D., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (8): 2729-2737
  • Grain Boundaries, Phase Impurities, and Anisotropic Thermal Conduction in Phase-Change Memory IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Li, Z., Lee, J., Reifenberg, J. P., Asheghi, M., Jeyasingh, R. G., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2011; 32 (7): 961-963
  • Microthermal Stage for Electrothermal Characterization of Phase-Change Memory IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Lee, J., Kim, S., Jeyasingh, R., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2011; 32 (7): 952-954
  • Viability Study of All-III-V SRAM for Beyond-22-nm Logic Circuits IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2011; 32 (7): 877-879
  • Scalable Carbon Nanotube Computational and Storage Circuits Immune to Metallic and Mispositioned Carbon Nanotubes IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Patil, N., Lin, A., Zhang, J. (., Wei, H., Anderson, K., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2011; 10 (4): 744-750
  • Electronic and optical switching of solution-phase deposited SnSe2 phase change memory material JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Wang, R. Y., Caldwell, M. A., Jeyasingh, R. G., Aloni, S., Shelby, R. M., Wong, H. P., Milliron, D. J. 2011; 109 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3587187

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292214700027

  • One-Dimensional Thickness Scaling Study of Phase Change Material (Ge2Sb2Te5) Using a Pseudo 3-Terminal Device IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Kim, S., Bae, B., Zhang, Y., Jeyasingh, R. G., Kim, Y., Baek, I., Park, S., Nam, S., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (5): 1483-1489
  • Linear Increases in Carbon Nanotube Density Through Multiple Transfer Technique NANO LETTERS Shulaker, M. M., Wei, H., Patil, N., Provine, J., Chen, H., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2011; 11 (5): 1881-1886

    Abstract

    We present a technique to increase carbon nanotube (CNT) density beyond the as-grown CNT density. We perform multiple transfers, whereby we transfer CNTs from several growth wafers onto the same target surface, thereby linearly increasing CNT density on the target substrate. This process, called transfer of nanotubes through multiple sacrificial layers, is highly scalable, and we demonstrate linear CNT density scaling up to 5 transfers. We also demonstrate that this linear CNT density increase results in an ideal linear increase in drain-source currents of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs). Experimental results demonstrate that CNT density can be improved from 2 to 8 CNTs/?m, accompanied by an increase in drain-source CNFET current from 4.3 to 17.4 ?A/?m.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl200063x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290373000005

    View details for PubMedID 21469727

  • Parasitic Capacitances: Analytical Models and Impact on Circuit-Level Performance IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Wei, L., Boeuf, F., Skotnicki, T., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (5): 1361-1370
  • Compact Modeling of Conducting-Bridge Random-Access Memory (CBRAM) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (5): 1352-1360
  • Analysis of randomized comparative clinical trial data for personalized treatment selections BIOSTATISTICS Cai, T., Tian, L., Wong, P. H., Wei, L. J. 2011; 12 (2): 270-282

    Abstract

    Suppose that under the conventional randomized clinical trial setting, a new therapy is compared with a standard treatment. In this article, we propose a systematic, 2-stage estimation procedure for the subject-level treatment differences for future patient's disease management and treatment selections. To construct this procedure, we first utilize a parametric or semiparametric method to estimate individual-level treatment differences, and use these estimates to create an index scoring system for grouping patients. We then consistently estimate the average treatment difference for each subgroup of subjects via a nonparametric function estimation method. Furthermore, pointwise and simultaneous interval estimates are constructed to make inferences about such subgroup-specific treatment differences. The new proposal is illustrated with the data from a clinical trial for evaluating the efficacy and toxicity of a 3-drug combination versus a standard 2-drug combination for treating HIV-1-infected patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/biostatistics/kxq060

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288800600007

    View details for PubMedID 20876663

  • In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Nanostructural Changes in Phase-Change Memory ACS NANO Meister, S., Kim, S., Cha, J. J., Wong, H. P., Cui, Y. 2011; 5 (4): 2742-2748

    Abstract

    Phase-change memory (PCM) has been researched extensively as a promising alternative to flash memory. Important studies have focused on its scalability, switching speed, endurance, and new materials. Still, reliability issues and inconsistent switching in PCM devices motivate the need to further study its fundamental properties. However, many investigations treat PCM cells as black boxes; nanostructural changes inside the devices remain hidden. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observe real-time nanostructural changes in lateral Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) (GST) PCM bridges during switching. We find that PCM devices with similar resistances can exhibit distinct threshold switching behaviors due to the different initial distribution of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains, explaining variability of switching behaviors of PCM cells in the literature. Our findings show a direct correlation between nanostructure and switching behavior, providing important guidelines in the design and operation of future PCM devices with improved endurance and lower variability.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn1031356

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289742100038

    View details for PubMedID 21425849

  • Physics-Based Compact Model for III-V Digital Logic FETs Including Gate Tunneling Leakage and Parasitic Capacitance IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (4): 1068-1075
  • The Effect of Donor/Acceptor Nature of Interface Traps on Ge MOSFET Characteristics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Kuzum, D., Park, J., Krishnamohan, T., Wong, H. P., Saraswat, K. C. 2011; 58 (4): 1015-1022
  • Investigating the switching dynamics and multilevel capability of bipolar metal oxide resistive switching memory APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Yu, S., Wu, Y., Wong, H. P. 2011; 98 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3564883

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288277200085

  • Resistance and Threshold Switching Voltage Drift Behavior in Phase-Change Memory and Their Temperature Dependence at Microsecond Time Scales Studied Using a Micro-Thermal Stage IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Kim, S., Lee, B., Asheghi, M., Hurkx, F., Reifenberg, J. P., Goodson, K. E., Wong, H. P. 2011; 58 (3): 584-592
  • Experimental demonstration of In0.53Ga0.47As field effect transistors with scalable nonalloyed source/drain contacts APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Hu, J., Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. P. 2011; 98 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3553192

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287242100034

  • Novel contact structures for high mobility channel materials MRS BULLETIN Hu, J., Wong, H. P., Saraswat, K. 2011; 36 (2): 112-119

    View details for DOI 10.1557/mrs.2011.5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293232300012

  • A Biosensor Platform for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Directly From Clinical Samples JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Mach, K. E., Mohan, R., Baron, E. J., Shih, M., Gau, V., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C. 2011; 185 (1): 148-153

    Abstract

    A significant barrier to efficient antibiotic management of infection is that the standard diagnostic methodologies do not provide results at the point of care. The delays between sample collection and bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility reporting have led to empirical use of antibiotics, contributing to the emergence of drug resistant pathogens. As a key step toward the development of a point of care device for determining the antibiotic susceptibility of urinary tract pathogens, we report on a biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test.For assay development bacteria were cultured with or without antibiotics, and growth was quantitated by determining viable counts and electrochemical biosensor measurement of bacterial 16S rRNA. To determine antibiotic susceptibility directly from patient samples, urine was cultured on antibiotic plates for 2.5 hours and growth was determined by electrochemical measurement of bacterial 16S rRNA. For assay validation 252 urine samples were collected from patients at the Spinal Cord Injury Service at Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. The biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test was completed for samples containing gram-negative organisms. Pathogen identification and antibiotic susceptibility results were compared between our assay and standard microbiological analysis.A direct biosensor quantitation of bacterial 16S rRNA can be used to monitor bacterial growth for a biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test. Clinical validation of a biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test with patient urine samples demonstrated that this test was 94% accurate in 368 pathogen-antibiotic tests compared to standard microbiological analysis.This biosensor based antimicrobial susceptibility test, in concert with our previously described pathogen identification assay, can provide culture and susceptibility information directly from a urine sample within 3.5 hours.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2010.09.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285141900047

    View details for PubMedID 21074208

  • Carbon nanotube electronics-Materials, devices, circuits, design, modeling, and performance projection Wong, H. S., Mitra, S., Akinwande, D., Beasley, C., Chai, Y., Chen, H. Y. 2011
  • Electrical and mechanical characterization of lateral NEMS Switches Hinchet, R., Montès, L., Bouteloup, G., Ardila, G., Parsa, R., Akarvardar, K., Wong, H.S.Philip 2011
  • Physics-based Compact Model of III-V Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) for Logic Applications (VerilogA Model) Oh, S., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • Phase Change Memory–The Interplay Between Thermal and Electrical Effects Memory Jeyasingh, R. G., Fong, S. W., Lee, J., Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Ahn, C., Asheghi, M. 2011; 7 (23): 952-954
  • One-Dimensional Thickness Scaling Study of Phase Change Material< formula>< img src= Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Kim, S. B., Bae, B. J., Zhang, Y., Jeyasingh, R. G., Kim, Y., Baek, I. G., Wong, H.S.Philip 2011; 5 (58): 1483-1489
  • Experimental demonstration of In0. 53Ga0. 47As field effect transistors with scalable nonalloyed source/drain contacts Applied Physics Letters Hu, J., Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. S. 2011; 98: 62107
  • A 1.4 µA reset current phase change memory cell with integrated carbon nanotube electrodes for cross-point memory application Liang, J., Jeyasingh, R. G., Chen, H. Y., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • Carbon electronics—From material synthesis to circuit demonstration VLSI Technology, Systems and Applications (VLSI-TSA) , International Chen, H. Y., Patil, N., Lin, A., Wei, L., Beasley, C., Zhang, J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2011
  • Carbon-based Nanomaterial for Nanoelectronics DIELECTRICS IN NANOSYSTEMS -AND- GRAPHENE, GE/III-V, NANOWIRES AND EMERGING MATERIALS FOR POST-CMOS APPLICATIONS 3 Chen, X., Lin, A., Wei, L., Patil, N., Wei, H., Chen, H., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2011; 35 (3): 259-269

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3569919

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309539300024

  • Direct measurement of trap spacing in phase change memory cells using ATE devices Jeyasingh, R. G., Kuzum, D., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • Dual sidewall lateral nanoelectromechanical relays with beam isolation Lee, W. S., Chong, S., Parsa, R., Provine, J., Lee, D., Mitra, S., Wong, H.S.Philip 2011
  • Nanoelectromechanical relays with decoupled electrode and suspension Parsa, R., Shavezipur, M., Lee, W. S., Chong, S., Lee, D., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • First demonstration of phase change memory device using solution processed GeTe nanoparticles Jeyasingh, R. G., Caldwell, M. A., Milliron, D. J., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • 474nd MEETING OF THE HEALTH SERVICES COST REVIEW COMMISSION EXECUTIVE SESSION January 12, 2011 Puddester, F. W., Sexton, K. J., Antos, J. R., Bone, G. H., Lowthers, C. J., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • 2D analytical model for the study of NEM relay device scaling Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices (SISPAD) Shen, X., Chong, S., Lee, D., Parsa, R., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • Characterization of switching parameters and multilevel capability in HfO< inf> x</inf>/AlO< inf> x</inf> bi-layer RRAM devices VLSI Technology, Systems and Applications (VLSI-TSA) , International Yu, S., Wu, Y., Chai, Y., Provine, J., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • Analytical approximation of complex band structures for band-to-band tunneling models Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices (SISPAD) Guan, X., Kim, D., KC Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • Physics-based compact model for III–V digital logic FETs including gate tunneling leakage and parasitic capacitance Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Oh, S., Wong, H. S. 2011; 4 (58): 1068-1075
  • AC conductance measurement and analysis of the conduction processes in HfO< inf> x</inf> based resistive switching memory Applied Physics Letters Yu, S., Jeyasingh, R., Wu, Y., Wong, H. P. 2011; 23 (99): 232105-232105-3
  • Metal/III-V effective barrier height tuning using atomic layer deposition of high-κ/high-κ bilayer interfaces Applied Physics Letters Hu, J., Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. P. 2011; 9 (99): 092107-092107-3
  • Forming-free nitrogen-doped AlO X RRAM with sub-μA programming current Kim, W., Park, S. I., Zhang, Z., Yang-Liauw, Y., Sekar, D., Wong, H. P. 2011
  • Viability Study of All-III–V SRAM for Beyond-22-nm Logic Circuits Electron Device Letters, IEEE Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2011; 7 (32): 877-879
  • An integrated capacitance bridge for high-resolution, wide temperature range quantum capacitance measurements Review of Scientific Instruments Hazeghi, A., Sulpizio, J. A., Diankov, G., Goldhaber-Gordon, D., Wong, H. P. 2011; 5 (82): 053904-053904-5
  • Metal/III–V effective barrier height tuning using ALD high-κ dipoles Hu, J., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • Resistive switching AlOx-based memory with CNT electrode for ultra-low switching current and high density memory application Wu, Y., Chai, Y., Chen, H. Y., Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2011
  • Imperfection-Immune Carbon Nanotube VLSI Circuits Nanoelectronic Circuit Design Patil, N., Lin, A., Zhang, J., Wei, H., Wong, H. S., Mitra, S. 2011: 277-305
  • Experimental demonstration of< equation>< font face='verdana'> In</font>< sub> 0.53</sub>< font face='verdana'> Ga</font>< sub> 0.47</sub>< font face='verdana'> As</font></equation> field effect transistors with scalable nonalloyed source/drain contacts Applied Physics Letters Hu, J., Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. S. 2011; 6 (98): 062107-062107-3
  • When does a circuit really fail? Integrated Reliability Workshop Final Report (IRW) , IEEE International Ryan, J. T., Wei, L., Campbell, J. P., Southwick, R. G., Cheung, K. P., Oates, A. S., Wong, H.S.Philip 2011
  • Technology Assessment Methodology for Complementary Logic Applications Based on Energy–Delay Optimization Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Wei, L., Oh, S., Wong, H. S. 2011; 8 (58): 2430-2439
  • Mandrel-based patterning: density multiplication techniques for 15nm nodes SPIE Advanced Lithography Bencher, C., Dai, H., Miao, L., Chen, Y., Xu, P., Chen, Y., Wong, H.S.Philip 2011: 79730K-79730K-10
  • Circuit-aware device reliability criteria methodology Ryan, J. T., Wei, L., Campbell, J. P., Southwick, R. G., Cheung, K. P., Oates, A. S. 2011
  • Multi-spacer technique for low-voltage, high-aspect-ratio lateral electrostatic actuators Lee, D., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. S. 2011
  • Tight-binding study of Γ-L bandstructure engineering for ballistic III–V nMOSFETs Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices (SISPAD) Yuan, Z., Nainani, A., Guan, X., Wong, H. S., Saraswat, K. C. 2011
  • Overcoming Carbon Nanotube Variations through Co-optimized Technology and Circuit Design 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Zhang, J., Patil, N., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2011
  • Carbon Nanotube Imperfection-Immune Digital VLSI: Frequently Asked Questions Updated Invited Paper 2011 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ICCAD) Wei, H., Zhang, J., Wei, L., Patil, N., Lin, A., Shulaker, M. M., Chen, H., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2011: 227-230
  • Understanding the Conduction and Switching Mechanism of Metal Oxide RRAM through Low Frequency Noise and AC Conductance Measurement and Analysis 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Yu, S., Jeyasingh, R., Wu, Y., Wong, H. P. 2011
  • On the Stochastic Nature of Resistive Switching in Metal Oxide RRAM: Physical Modeling, Monte Carlo Simulation, and Experimental Characterization 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Yu, S., Guan, X., Wong, H. P. 2011
  • High-Mobility Ge N-MOSFETs and Mobility Degradation Mechanisms IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Kuzum, D., Krishnamohan, T., Nainani, A., Sun, Y., Pianetta, P. A., Wong, H. P., Saraswat, K. C. 2011; 58 (1): 59-66
  • Integration of Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) Relays with Silicon CMOS with Functional CMOS-NEM Circuit 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Chong, S., Lee, B., Parizi, K. B., Provine, J., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2011
  • Carbon Nanotube Electronics - Materials, Devices, Circuits, Design, Modeling, and Performance Projection 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Wong, H. P., Mitra, S., Akinwande, D., Beasley, C., Chai, Y., Chen, H., Chen, X., Close, G., Deng, J., Hazeghi, A., Liang, J., Lin, A., Liyanage, L. S., Luo, J., Parker, J., Patil, N., Shulaker, M., Wei, H., Wei, L., Zhang, J. 2011
  • Energy Efficient Programming of Nanoelectronic Synaptic Devices for Large-Scale Implementation of Associative and Temporal Sequence Learning 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Kuzum, D., Jeyasingh, R. G., Wong, H. P. 2011
  • Low Frequency Noise in Phase Change Materials 2011 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NOISE AND FLUCTUATIONS (ICNF) Jeyasingh, R., Chroboczek, J. A., Ghibaudo, G., Mouis, M., Wong, H. P. 2011: 476-479
  • SRAM, NAND, DRAM Contact Hole Patterning using Block Copolymer Directed Self-assembly Guided by Small Topographical Templates 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Bao, X., Yi, H., Bencher, C., Chang, L., Dai, H., Chen, Y., Chen, P. J., Wong, H. P. 2011
  • Air-Stable Technique for Fabricating n-Type Carbon Nanotube FETs 2011 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING (IEDM) Wei, H., Chen, H., Liyanage, L., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2011
  • Hybrid electrokinetic manipulation in high-conductivity media LAB ON A CHIP Gao, J., Sin, M. L., Liu, T., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2011; 11 (10): 1770-1775

    Abstract

    This study reports a hybrid electrokinetic technique for label-free manipulation of pathogenic bacteria in biological samples toward medical diagnostic applications. While most electrokinetic techniques only function in low-conductivity buffers, hybrid electrokinetics enables effective operation in high-conductivity samples, such as physiological fluids (?1 S m(-1)). The hybrid electrokinetic technique combines short-range electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis, and long-range AC electrothermal flow to improve its effectiveness. The major technical hurdle of electrode instability for manipulating high conductivity samples is tackled by using a Ti-Au-Ti sandwich electrode and a 3-parallel-electrode configuration is designed for continuous isolation of bacteria. The device operates directly with biological samples including urine and buffy coats. We show that pathogenic bacteria and biowarfare agents can be concentrated for over 3 orders of magnitude using hybrid electrokinetics.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c1lc20054b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289951200009

    View details for PubMedID 21487576

  • Spectroscopic Evidence for Exceptional Thermal Contribution to Electron Beam-Induced Fragmentation JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Caldwell, M. A., Haynor, B., Aloni, S., Ogletree, D. F., Wong, H. P., Urban, J. J., Milliron, D. J. 2010; 114 (50): 22064-22068

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp1078086

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285236800025

  • Electrothermal Fluid Manipulation of High-Conductivity Samples for Laboratory Automation Applications JALA Sin, M. L., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2010; 15 (6): 426-432

    Abstract

    Electrothermal flow is a promising technique in microfluidic manipulation toward laboratory automation applications, such as clinical diagnostics and high throughput drug screening. Despite the potential of electrothermal flow in biomedical applications, relative little is known about electrothermal manipulation of highly conductive samples, such as physiological fluids and buffer solutions. In this study, the characteristics and challenges of electrothermal manipulation of fluid samples with different conductivities were investigated systematically. Electrothermal flow was shown to create fluid motion for samples with a wide range of conductivity when the driving frequency was above 100 kHz. For samples with low conductivities (below 1 S/m), the characteristics of the electrothermal fluid motions were in quantitative agreement with the theory. For samples with high conductivities (above 1 S/m), the fluid motion appeared to deviate from the model as a result of potential electrochemical reactions and other electrothermal effects. These effects should be taken into consideration for electrothermal manipulation of biological samples with high conductivities. This study will provide insights in designing microfluidic devices for electrokinetic manipulation of biological samples toward laboratory automation applications in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jala.2010.05.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285116600003

    View details for PubMedID 21180401

  • Phase Change Memory PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE Wong, H. P., Raoux, S., Kim, S., Liang, J., Reifenberg, J. P., Rajendran, B., Asheghi, M., Goodson, K. E. 2010; 98 (12): 2201-2227
  • A Phenomenological Model for the Reset Mechanism of Metal Oxide RRAM IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2010; 31 (12): 1455-1457
  • Al2O3-Based RRAM Using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) With 1-mu A RESET Current IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Wu, Y., Lee, B., Wong, H. P. 2010; 31 (12): 1449-1451
  • Read/write schemes analysis for novel complementary resistive switches in passive crossbar memory arrays NANOTECHNOLOGY Yu, S., Liang, J., Wu, Y., Wong, H. P. 2010; 21 (46)

    Abstract

    Recently a prototype of complementary resistive switches has been proposed to solve the sneak-path problem in passive crossbar memory arrays. To further evaluate the potential of this novel cell structure for practical applications, we present a modeling analysis to capture its switching dynamics and analyze its unique read/write schemes. The model is corroborated by experimental data. We found a trade-off between the read voltage window and write voltage window. The constraint from avoiding disturbance on unselected cells is critical for proper functionality, which in turn limits the writing speed.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/21/46/465202

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283491000002

    View details for PubMedID 20972315

  • Statistical Metamodeling for Revealing Synergistic Antimicrobial Interactions PLOS ONE Chen, C. H., Gau, V., Zhang, D. D., Liao, J. C., Wang, F., Wong, P. K. 2010; 5 (11)

    Abstract

    Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO) scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0015472

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284087800026

    View details for PubMedID 21124958

  • Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed CMOS Electronics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Chen, X., Akinwande, D., Lee, K., Close, G. F., Yasuda, S., Paul, B. C., Fujita, S., Kong, J., Wong, H. P. 2010; 57 (11): 3137-3143
  • Electrochemical immunosensor detection of urinary lactoferrin in clinical samples for urinary tract infection diagnosis BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS Pan, Y., Sonn, G. A., Sin, M. L., Mach, K. E., Shih, M., Gau, V., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C. 2010; 26 (2): 649-654

    Abstract

    Urine is the most abundant and easily accessible of all body fluids and provides an ideal route for non-invasive diagnosis of human diseases, particularly of the urinary tract. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for urinary diagnostics due to their excellent sensitivity, low-cost, and ability to detect a wide variety of target molecules including nucleic acids and protein biomarkers. We report the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for direct detection of the urinary tract infection (UTI) biomarker lactoferrin from infected clinical samples. An electrochemical biosensor array with alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the mixed SAM, consisted of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol. A sandwich amperometric immunoassay was developed for detection of lactoferrin from urine, with a detection limit of 145 pg/ml. We validated lactoferrin as a biomarker of pyuria (presence of white blood cells in urine), an important hallmark of UTI, in 111 patient-derived urine samples. Finally, we demonstrated multiplex detection of urinary pathogens and lactoferrin through simultaneous detection of bacterial nucleic acid (16S rRNA) and host immune response protein (lactoferrin) on a single sensor array. Our results represent first integrated sensor platform capable of quantitative pathogen identification and measurement of host immune response, potentially providing clinical diagnosis that is not only more expeditious but also more informative than the current standard.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2010.07.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283804400056

    View details for PubMedID 20667707

  • Cross-Point Memory Array Without Cell Selectors-Device Characteristics and Data Storage Pattern Dependencies IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Liang, J., Wong, H. P. 2010; 57 (10): 2531-2538
  • ACCNT: A Metallic-CNT-Tolerant Design Methodology for Carbon Nanotube VLSI: Analyses and Design Guidelines IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Lin, A., Zhang, J., Patil, N., Wei, H., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2010; 57 (9): 2284-2295
  • Current Scaling in Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array Transistors With Local Bottom Gating IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Franklin, A. D., Wong, H. P., Lin, A., Chen, Z. 2010; 31 (7): 644-646
  • Matrix Effects-A Challenge Toward Automation of Molecular Analysis JALA Chiu, M. L., Lawi, W., Snyder, S. T., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C., Gau, V. 2010; 15 (3): 233-242
  • The miR-17-92 microRNA Polycistron Regulates MLL Leukemia Stem Cell Potential by Modulating p21 Expression CANCER RESEARCH Wong, P., Iwasaki, M., Somervaille, T. C., Ficara, F., Carico, C., Arnold, C., Chen, C., Cleary, M. L. 2010; 70 (9): 3833-3842

    Abstract

    Despite advances in defining the critical molecular determinants for leukemia stem cell (LSC) generation and maintenance, little is known about the roles of microRNAs in LSC biology. Here, we identify microRNAs that are differentially expressed in LSC-enriched cell fractions (c-kit(+)) in a mouse model of MLL leukemia. Members of the miR-17 family were notably more abundant in LSCs compared with their normal counterpart granulocyte-macrophage progenitors and myeloblast precursors. Expression of miR-17 family microRNAs was substantially reduced concomitant with leukemia cell differentiation and loss of self-renewal, whereas forced expression of a polycistron construct encoding miR-17-19b miRNAs significantly shortened the latency for MLL leukemia development. Leukemias expressing increased levels of the miR-17-19b construct displayed a higher frequency of LSCs, more stringent block of differentiation, and enhanced proliferation associated with reduced expression of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor previously implicated as a direct target of miR-17 microRNAs. Knockdown of p21 in MLL-transformed cells phenocopied the overexpression of the miR-17 polycistron, including a significant decrease in leukemia latency, validating p21 as a biologically relevant and direct in vivo target of the miR-17 polycistron in MLL leukemia. Expression of c-myc, a crucial upstream regulator of the miR-17 polycistron, correlated with miR-17-92 levels, enhanced self-renewal, and LSC potential. Thus, microRNAs quantitatively regulate LSC self-renewal in MLL-associated leukemia in part by modulating the expression of p21, a known regulator of normal stem cell function.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3268

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278486200042

    View details for PubMedID 20406979

  • Uniaxial Stress Engineering for High-Performance Ge NMOSFETs IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Kobayashi, M., Irisawa, T., Magyari-Koepe, B., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. P., Nishi, Y. 2010; 57 (5): 1037-1046
  • Metal/III-V Schottky barrier height tuning for the design of nonalloyed III-V field-effect transistor source/drain contacts JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Hu, J., Saraswat, K. C., Wong, H. P. 2010; 107 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3327434

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276210800057

  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Using High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Microchannels ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Chen, C. H., Lu, Y., Sin, M. L., Mach, K. E., Zhang, D. D., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Wong, P. K. 2010; 82 (3): 1012-1019

    Abstract

    This study reports the use of microfluidics, which intrinsically has a large surface-to-volume ratio, toward rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing at the point of care. By observing the growth of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in gas permeable polymeric microchannels with different dimensions, we demonstrate that the large surface-to-volume ratio of microfluidic systems facilitates rapid growth of bacteria. For microchannels with 250 microm or less in depth, the effective oxygenation can sustain the growth of E. coli to over 10(9) cfu/mL without external agitation or oxygenation, which eliminates the requirement of bulky instrumentation and facilitates rapid bacterial growth for antimicrobial susceptibility testing at the point of care. The applicability of microfluidic rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing is demonstrated in culture media and in urine with clinical bacterial isolates that have different antimicrobial resistance profiles. The antimicrobial resistance pattern can be determined as rapidly as 2 h compared to days in standard clinical procedures facilitating diagnostics at the point of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ac9022764

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273983700037

    View details for PubMedID 20055494

  • Efficient Metallic Carbon Nanotube Removal Readily Scalable to Wafer-Level VLSI CNFET Circuits 2010 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS Wei, H., Patil, N., Zhang, J., Lin, A., Chen, H., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2010: 237-238
  • Experimental demonstration and characterization of on-chip high speed graphene interconnects Bulletin of the American Physical Society Chen, X., Akinwande, D., Lee, K. J., Close, G., Yasuda, S., Paul, B., Wong, H.S.Philip 2010: 55
  • Performance benchmarks for Si, III–V, TFET, and carbon nanotube FET-re-thinking the technology assessment methodology for complementary logic applications Wei, L., Oh, S., Wong, H. S. 2010
  • Modeling and analysis of III–V logic FETs for devices and circuits: Sub-22nm technology III–V SRAM cell design Oh, S., Park, J., Wong, S. S., Wong, H. S. 2010
  • Device engineering to improve SRAM static noise margin Luo, J., Wei, L., Boeuf, F., Antoniadis, D., Skotnicki, T., Wong, H. S. 2010
  • Carbon nanotube circuits: Living with imperfections and variations Zhang, J., Patil, N., Lin, A., Wong, H. S., Mitra, S. 2010
  • Recent progress of phase change memory (PCM) and resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) Wong, H. S., Kim, S. B., Lee, B., Caldwell, M. A., Liang, J., Wu, Y. 2010
  • Four-mask process based on spacer technology for scaled-down lateral NEM electrostatic actuators Lee, D., Lee, W. S., Mitra, S., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. S. 2010
  • Carbon nanotube correlation: promising opportunity for CNFET circuit yield enhancement Zhang, J., Bobba, S., Patil, N., Lin, A., Wong, H. S., De Micheli, G. 2010
  • Titanium nitride sidewall stringer process for lateral nanoelectromechanical relays Lee, D., Lee, W. S., Provine, J., Lee, J. O., Yoon, J. B., Howe, R. T., Wong, H.S.Philip 2010
  • Ultra-low power Al 2 O 3-based RRAM with 1μA reset current Wu, Y., Lee, B., Wong, H. P. 2010
  • Detachable nano-carbon chip with ultra low power Fujita, S., Yasuda, S., Lee, D. S., Chen, X., Akinwande, D., Wong, H. S. 2010
  • Carbon source branching: The role of functional group location in relation to branching in the selective growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Beasley, C., Clemens, B. M., Wong, H. S. 2010; 239
  • An integrated capacitance bridge for high-resolution, wide temperature range quantum capacitance measurements arXiv preprint arXiv Sulpizio, J. A., Hazeghi, A., Diankov, G., Goldhaber-Gordon, D., Wong, H. S. 2010: 1009.5407
  • CMOS process compatible directed block copolymer self-assembly for 20nm contact holes and beyond SPIE Advanced Lithography Chang, L. W., Bao, X. Y., Wong, H. S. 2010: 76370I-76370I-9
  • Composite polysilicon-platinum lateral nanoelectromechanical relays 14th Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems Workshop Parsa, R., Akarvardar, K., Provine, J., Lee, D., Elata, D., Mitra, S., Wong, H.S.Philip 2010: 7-10
  • Al2O3-based RRAM using atomic layer deposition (ALD) with 1-μA reset current IEEE electron device letters Wu, Y., Lee, B., WONG, H. P. 2010; 12 (31): 1449-1451
  • In-Plane Thermal Conduction and Conductivity Anisotropy in GeSbTe Films for Phase Change Memory Li, Z., Lee, J., Reifenberg, J. P., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. S., Goodson, K. E. 2010
  • A phenomenological model of oxygen ion transport for metal oxide resistive switching memory Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2010
  • Post Meeting Documents from the Puddester, F. W., Sexton, K. J., Antos, J. R., Bone, G. H., Lowthers, C. J., Wong, H. S. 2010
  • Cross-point memory array without cell selectors—Device characteristics and data storage pattern dependencies Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Liang, J., Wong, H. S. 2010; 10 (57): 2531-2538
  • Size limitation of cross-point memory array and its dependence on data storage pattern and device parameters Liang, J., Wong, H. S. 2010
  • Carbon nanotube imperfection-immune digital VLSI: Frequently asked questions updated Wei, H., Zhang, J., Wei, L., Patil, N., Lin, A., Shulaker, M. M., Wong, H.S.Philip 2010
  • Modeling the Switching Dynamics of Programmable-Metallization-Cell (PMC) Memory and Its Application as Synapse Device for a Neuromorphic Computation System 2010 INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING - TECHNICAL DIGEST Yu, S., Wong, H. P. 2010
  • Thermal Boundary Resistance Measurements for Phase-Change Memory Devices IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Reifenberg, J. P., Chang, K., Panzer, M. A., Kim, S., Rowlette, J. A., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2010; 31 (1): 56-58
  • Performance Benchmarks for Si, III-V, TFET, and carbon nanotube FET - Re-thinking the Technology Assessment Methodology for Complementary Logic Applications 2010 INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING - TECHNICAL DIGEST Wei, L., Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2010
  • CMOS Process Compatible Directed Block Copolymer Self-Assembly for 20 nm Contact Holes and Beyond ALTERNATIVE LITHOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIES II Chang, L., Bao, X., Wong, H. P. 2010; 7637

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.848430

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285575900012

  • Thermal Disturbance and its Impact on Reliability of Phase-Change Memory Studied by the Micro-Thermal Stage 2010 INTERNATIONAL RELIABILITY PHYSICS SYMPOSIUM Kim, S., Lee, B., Asheghi, M., Hurkx, G. A., Reifenberg, J., Goodson, K., Wong, H. P. 2010: 99-103
  • Decoupled Thermal Resistances of Phase Change Material and Their Impact on PCM Devices 2010 12TH IEEE INTERSOCIETY CONFERENCE ON THERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA IN ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS Lee, J., Reifenberg, J. P., Bozorg-Grayeli, E., Hom, L., Li, Z., Kim, S., Asheghi, M., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2010
  • Resistive Switching of Carbon-Based RRAM with CNT Electrodes for Ultra-Dense Memory 2010 INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING - TECHNICAL DIGEST Chai, Y., Wu, Y., Takei, K., Chen, H., Yu, S., Chan, P. C., Javey, A., Wong, H. P. 2010
  • Efficient FPGAs using Nanoelectromechanical Relays FPGA 10 Chen, C., Parsa, R., Patil, N., Chong, S., Akarvardar, K., Provine, J., Lewis, D., Watt, J., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2010: 273-282
  • SLICE Image Analysis for Diblock Copolymer Characterization and Process Optimization ALTERNATIVE LITHOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIES II Hong, Y., Chang, L., Lin, A., Wong, H. P. 2010; 7637

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.848378

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285575900038

  • Experimental Demonstration of Aperiodic Patterns of Directed Self-Assembly by Block Copolymer Lithography for Random Logic Circuit Layout 2010 INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING - TECHNICAL DIGEST Chang, L., Bao, X., Bencher, C., Wong, H. P. 2010
  • Graphitic Interfacial Layer to Carbon Nanotube for Low Electrical Contact Resistance 2010 INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING - TECHNICAL DIGEST Chai, Y., Hazeghi, A., Takei, K., Chen, H., Chan, P. C., Javey, A., Wong, H. P. 2010
  • Synthesis and size-dependent crystallization of colloidal germanium telluride nanoparticles JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY Caldwell, M. A., Raoux, S., Wang, R. Y., Wong, H. P., Milliron, D. J. 2010; 20 (7): 1285-1291

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b917024c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274207500008

  • Device and Circuit Interactive Design and Optimization Beyond the Conventional Scaling Era 2010 INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING - TECHNICAL DIGEST Oh, S., Wei, L., Chong, S., Luo, J., Wong, H. P. 2010
  • Monolithic III-V Nanowire PV for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation 35TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE Ba, X., Pinaud, B. A., Parker, J., Aloni, S., Jaramillo, T. F., Wong, H. P. 2010: 1793-1796
  • A Microfluidic Cartridge System for Multiplexed Clinical Analysis JALA Lawi, W., Wiita, C., Snyder, S. T., Wei, F., Wong, D., Wong, P. K., Liao, J. C., Haake, D., Gau, V. 2009; 14 (6): 407-412

    Abstract

    Cartridge-based microfluidics is a promising technology for clinical diagnostics. By miniaturizing the fluid-handling processes required for genomic and proteomic analyses, reagent and specimen volume is minimized along with the size of the system. We demonstrate an automated microfluidic system capable of performing six multiplexed genomic and proteomic analyses simultaneously, by means of an integrated electrochemical sensor and embedded controls.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jala.2009.05.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285163400011

    View details for PubMedID 20161584

  • ACCNT-A Metallic-CNT-Tolerant Design Methodology for Carbon-Nanotube VLSI: Concepts and Experimental Demonstration IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Lin, A., Patil, N., Wei, H., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2009; 56 (12): 2969-2978
  • A Physics-Based Compact Model of III-V FETs for Digital Logic Applications: Current-Voltage and Capacitance-Voltage Characteristics IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2009; 56 (12): 2917-2924
  • COMPARISON OF TREATMENT RESULTS BETWEEN ADULT AND JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Downing, N. L., Wolden, S., Wong, P., Petrik, D. W., Hara, W., Le, Q. 2009; 75 (4): 1064-1070

    Abstract

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a bimodal age distribution. In contrast to the adult variant, little is known about the juvenile form. This study examined the treatment results between adult (aNPC) and juvenile NPC (jNPC) patients for future treatment considerations in jNPC.The jNPC population included 53 patients treated at two institutions between 1972 and 2004. The aNPC population included 84 patients treated at one institution. The patients had received a median dose of 66 Gy of external beam radiotherapy and 72% underwent chemotherapy. The mean follow-up for surviving patients was 12.6 years for jNPC and 6.6 years for aNPC.The jNPC patients presented with more advance stages than did the aNPC patients (92% vs. 67% Stage III-IV, p = .006). However, jNPC patients had significantly better overall survival (OS) than did aNPC patients. The 5-year OS rate was 71% for jNPC and 58% for aNPC (p = .03). The jNPC group also demonstrated a trend for greater relapse-free survival than the aNPC group (5-year relapse-free survival rate, 69% vs. 49%; p = .056). The pattern of failure analysis revealed that the jNPC patients had greater locoregional control and freedom from metastasis but the differences were not statistically significant. Univariate analysis for OS revealed that age group, nodal classification, and chemotherapy use were significant prognostic factors. Age group remained significant for OS on multivariate analysis, after adjusting for N classification and treatment.Despite more advance stage at presentation, jNPC patients had better survival than did aNPC patients. Future treatment strategies should take into consideration the long-term complications in these young patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.12.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271489600017

    View details for PubMedID 19327901

  • Analog Nanoelectromechanical Relay With Tunable Transconductance IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Akarvardar, K., Wong, H. P. 2009; 30 (11): 1143-1145
  • Metal-induced dopant (boron and phosphorus) activation process in amorphous germanium for monolithic three-dimensional integration JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Park, J., Tada, M., Jung, W., Wong, H. P., Saraswat, K. C. 2009; 106 (7)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3238297

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270915600118

  • Use of atomic force microscopy and fractal geometry to characterize the roughness of nano-, micro-, and ultrafiltration membranes JOURNAL OF MEMBRANE SCIENCE Wong, P. C., Kwon, Y., Criddle, C. S. 2009; 340 (1-2): 117-132
  • Wafer-Scale Growth and Transfer of Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Patil, N., Lin, A., Myers, E. R., Ryu, K., Badmaev, A., Zhou, C., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2009; 8 (4): 498-504
  • Ultralow Voltage Crossbar Nonvolatile Memory Based on Energy-Reversible NEM Switches IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS Akarvardar, K., Wong, H. P. 2009; 30 (6): 626-628
  • Surface Science of Catalyst Dynamics for Aligned Carbon Nanotube Synthesis on a Full-Scale Quartz Wafer JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Akinwande, D., Patil, N., Lin, A., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. P. 2009; 113 (19): 8002-8008

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp810794y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265895500005

  • Effect of Parasitic Resistance and Capacitance on Performance of InGaAs HEMT Digital Logic Circuits IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2009; 56 (5): 1161-1164
  • Active Manipulation of Quantum Dots using AC Electrokinetics JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Sin, M. L., Gau, V., Liao, J. C., Haake, D. A., Wong, P. K. 2009; 113 (16): 6561-6565

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp9004423

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265383300032

  • Phase 2 gene therapy trial of an anti-HIV ribozyme in autologous CD34(+) cells NATURE MEDICINE Mitsuyasu, R. T., Merigan, T. C., Carr, A., Zack, J. A., Winters, M. A., Workman, C., Bloch, M., Lalezari, J., Becker, S., Thornton, L., Akil, B., Khanlou, H., Finlayson, R., McFarlane, R., Smith, D. E., Garsia, R., Ma, D., Law, M., Murray, J. M., von Kalle, C., Ely, J. A., Patino, S. M., Knop, A. E., Wong, P., Todd, A. V., Haughton, M., Fuery, C., Macpherson, J. L., Symonds, G. P., Evans, L. A., Pond, S. M., Cooper, D. A. 2009; 15 (3): 285-292

    Abstract

    Gene transfer has potential as a once-only treatment that reduces viral load, preserves the immune system and avoids lifetime highly active antiretroviral therapy. This study, which is to our knowledge the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 cell-delivered gene transfer clinical trial, was conducted in 74 HIV-1-infected adults who received a tat-vpr-specific anti-HIV ribozyme (OZ1) or placebo delivered in autologous CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. There were no OZ1-related adverse events. There was no statistically significant difference in viral load between the OZ1 and placebo group at the primary end point (average at weeks 47 and 48), but time-weighted areas under the curve from weeks 40-48 and 40-100 were significantly lower in the OZ1 group. Throughout the 100 weeks, CD4+ lymphocyte counts were higher in the OZ1 group. This study indicates that cell-delivered gene transfer is safe and biologically active in individuals with HIV and can be developed as a conventional therapeutic product.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.1932

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263914000028

    View details for PubMedID 19219022

  • Measuring Frequency Response of a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Common-Source Amplifier IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Amlani, I., Lee, K. F., Deng, J., Wong, H. P. 2009; 8 (2): 226-233
  • Selective Device Structure Scaling and Parasitics Engineering: A Way to Extend the Technology Roadmap IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Wei, L., Deng, J., Chang, L., Kim, K., Chuang, C., Wong, H. P. 2009; 56 (2): 312-320
  • Fermi level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Kobayashi, M., Kinoshita, A., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. P., Nishi, Y. 2009; 105 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3065990

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262970900048

  • CMOS-Analogous Wafer-Scale Nanotube-on-Insulator Approach for Submicrometer Devices and Integrated Circuits Using Aligned Nanotubes NANO LETTERS Ryu, K., Badmaev, A., Wang, C., Lin, A., Patil, N., Gomez, L., Kumar, A., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Zhou, C. 2009; 9 (1): 189-197

    Abstract

    Massive aligned carbon nanotubes hold great potential but also face significant integration/assembly challenges for future beyond-silicon nanoelectronics. We report a wafer-scale processing of aligned nanotube devices and integrated circuits, including progress on essential technological components such as wafer-scale synthesis of aligned nanotubes, wafer-scale transfer of nanotubes to silicon wafers, metallic nanotube removal and chemical doping, and defect-tolerant integrated nanotube circuits. We have achieved synthesis of massive aligned nanotubes on complete 4 in. quartz and sapphire substrates, which were then transferred to 4 in. Si/SiO(2) wafers. CMOS analogous fabrication was performed to yield transistors and circuits with features down to 0.5 mum, with high current density approximately 20 muA/mum and good on/off ratios. In addition, chemical doping has been used to build fully integrated complementary inverter with a gain approximately 5, and a defect-tolerant design has been employed for NAND and NOR gates. This full-wafer approach could serve as a critical foundation for future integrated nanotube circuits.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl802756u

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262519100035

    View details for PubMedID 19086836

  • High quality GeO< inf> 2</inf>/Ge interface formed by SPA radical oxidation and uniaxial stress engineering for high performance Ge NMOSFETs Kobayashi, M., Irisawa, T., Kope, B. M., Sun, Y., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. S. 2009
  • Design and Characterization of Submicron CCDs in CMOS IISW Fife, K., Gamal, A. E., Wong, H. S. 2009
  • A physics-based compact model of III–V FETs for digital logic applications: Current–voltage and capacitance–voltage characteristics Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Oh, S., Wong, H. S. 2009; 12 (56): 2917-2924
  • High-speed graphene interconnects monolithically integrated with CMOS ring oscillators operating at 1.3 GHz Chen, X., Lee, K. J., Akinwande, D., Close, G. F., Yasuda, S., Paul, B., Wong, H.S.Philip 2009
  • Fermi level depinning for the design of III–V FET source/drain contacts Hu, J., Guan, X., Choi, D., Harris, J. S., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. S. 2009
  • Carbon Nanotube Device Modeling and Circuit Simulation Carbon Nanotube Electronics Wong, H. S., Lin, A., Deng, J., Hazeghi, A., Krishnamohan, T., Wan, G. 2009: 133-162
  • 1D thickness scaling study of phase change material (Ge< inf> 2</inf> Sb< inf> 2</inf> Te< inf> 5</inf>) using a pseudo 3-terminal device Bae, B. J., Kim, S. B., Zhang, Y., Kim, Y., Baek, I. G., Park, S., Wong, H.S.Philip 2009
  • 4160 PATTERSON AVENUE-BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 21215 Deputy| _-mate, AREA CODE 410"/64'25 5 Research and Methodology Young, D. A., Murray, M. D., Antos, J. R., POM, P. D., Wong, H. S., Director, P. D. 2009
  • ACCNT—A metallic-CNT-tolerant design methodology for carbon-nanotube VLSI: Concepts and experimental demonstration Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Lin, A., Patil, N., Wei, H., Mitra, S., Wong, H. S. 2009; 12 (56): 2969-2978
  • Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) relays integrated with CMOS SRAM for improved stability and low leakage Computer-Aided Design-Digest of Technical Papers , ICCAD IEEE/ACM Chong, S., Akarvardar, K., Parsa, R., Yoon, J. B., Howe, R. T., Mitra, S., Wong, H.S.Philip 2009
  • Threshold voltage and on–off ratio tuning for multiple-tube carbon nanotube FETs Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions Lin, A., Patil, N., Ryu, K., Badmaev, A., De Arco, L. G., Zhou, C., Wong, H.S.Philip 2009; 1 (8): 4-9
  • Experimental demonstration of high mobility Ge NMOS Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) , IEEE International Kuzum, D., Krishnamohan, T., Nainani, A., Sun, Y., Pianetta, P. A., Wong, H. S. 2009: 1-4
  • Contact Resistance, Electrical Breakdown and Temperature-Dependent Conductance of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Bulletin of the American Physical Society Chen, X., Akinwande, D., Wong, H. S. 2009; 54
  • The Device Physics of Experimentally Validated Analytical Theory of Transport in Ballistic Carbon Nanotube Transistors Bulletin of the American Physical Society Akinwande, D., Liang, J., Wong, H. S. 2009; 54
  • A General Route to Inorganic Nanoparticles Using a Condensed Electron Beam Bulletin of the American Physical Society Caldwell, M., Aloni, S., Urban, J., Milliron, D., Wong, H. S. 2009; 54
  • Measurement of anisotropy in the thermal conductivity of Ge< inf> 2</inf> Sb< inf> 2</inf> Te< inf> 5</inf> films Lee, J., Reifenberg, J. P., Li, Z., Hom, L., Asheghi, M., Kim, S. B., Wong, H.S.Philip 2009
  • PHYS 378-Effects of carbon source geometry and reactivity on the CVD growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Beasley, C., Clemens, B. M., Wong, H. S. 2009; 237
  • Crystallization times of Ge–Te phase change materials as a function of composition Applied Physics Letters Raoux, S., Cheng, H. Y., Caldwell, M. A., Wong, H. S. 2009; 7 (95): 071910-071910-3
  • 453rd MEETING OF THE HEALTH SERVICES COST REVIEW COMMISSION PUBLIC SESSION OF THE HEALTH SERVICES COST REVIEW COMMISSION February 4, 2009 9: 00 am Young, D. A., Antos, J. R., Brusca, R. J., Hall, J. D., Lowthers, C. J., Sexton, K. J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2009
  • Top-Gated FETs/Inverters with Diblock Copolymer Self-Assembled 20 nm Contact Holes 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING Chang, L., Lee, T. L., Wann, C. H., Chang, C. Y., Wong, H. P. 2009: 821-824
  • VMR: VLSI-Compatible Metallic Carbon Nanotube Removal for Imperfection-Immune Cascaded Multi-Stage Digital Logic Circuits using Carbon Nanotube FETs 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING Patil, N., Lin, A., Zhang, J., Wei, H., Anderson, K., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2009: 535-538
  • Circuit-Level Performance Benchmarking and Scalability Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Transistor Circuits Patil, N., Deng, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2009: 37-45
  • A Non-iterative Compact Model for Carbon Nanotube FETs Incorporating Source Exhaustion Effects 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING Wei, L., Frank, D. J., Chang, L., Wong, H. P. 2009: 857-860
  • Nanoelectromechanical Logic and Memory Devices ADVANCED GATE STACK, SOURCE/DRAIN, AND CHANNEL ENGINEERING FOR SI-BASED CMOS 5: NEW MATERIALS, PROCESSES, AND EQUIPMENT Akarvardar, K., Wong, H. P. 2009; 19 (1): 49-59

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3118930

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272170600005

  • NiO Resistance Change Memory with a Novel Structure for 3D Integration and Improved Confinement of Conduction Path 2009 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS Lee, B., Wong, H. P. 2009: 28-29
  • Measurement of Anisotropy in the Thermal Conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 Films NVMTS: 2009 10TH ANNUAL NON-VOLATILE MEMORY TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM Lee, J., Reifenberg, J. P., Li, Z., Hom, L., Asheghi, M., Kim, S., Wong, H. P., Goodson, K. E. 2009: 52-57
  • Fabrication and Characterization of Emerging Nanoscale Memory ISCAS: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-5 Kim, S., Zhang, Y., Lee, B., Caldwell, M., Wong, H. P. 2009: 65-68
  • High-Speed Graphene Interconnects Monolithically Integrated with CMOS Ring Oscillators Operating at 1.3GHz 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING Chen, X., Lee, K., Akinwande, D., Close, G. F., Yasuda, S., Paul, B., Fujita, S., Kong, J., Wong, H. P. 2009: 543-546
  • Measurement of Subnanosecond Delay Through Multiwall Carbon-Nanotube Local Interconnects in a CMOS Integrated Circuit IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Close, G. F., Yasuda, S., Paul, B. C., Fujita, S., Wong, H. P. 2009; 56 (1): 43-49
  • Carbon Nanotube Quantum Capacitance for Nonlinear Terahertz Circuits IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Akinwande, D., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. P. 2009; 8 (1): 31-36
  • Monolithic Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits using Carbon Nanotube FETs and Interconnects 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING Wei, H., Patil, N., Lin, A., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2009: 539-542
  • Fermi Level Depinning For the Design of III-V FET Source/Drain Contacts PROCEEDINGS OF TECHNICAL PROGRAM: 2009 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS Hu, J., Guan, X., Choi, D., Harris, J. S., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. P. 2009: 123-124
  • CMOS Technology Roadmap Projection Including Parasitic Effects PROCEEDINGS OF TECHNICAL PROGRAM: 2009 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS Wei, L., Boeuf, F., Skotnicki, T., Wong, H. P. 2009: 78-79
  • Technology Projection Using Simple Compact Models 2009 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SIMULATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSES AND DEVICES Wong, H. P., Wei, L., Oh, S., Lin, A., Deng, J., Chong, S., Akarvardar, K. 2009: 1-8
  • High Quality GeO2/Ge Interface Formed by SPA Radical Oxidation and Uniaxial Stress Engineering for High Performance Ge NMOSFETs 2009 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS Kobayashi, M., Irisawa, T., Kope, B. M., Sun, Y., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. P., Pianetta, P., Nishi, Y. 2009: 76-77
  • A Metallic-CNT-Tolerant Carbon Nanotube Technology Using Asymmetrically-Correlated CNTs (ACCNT) 2009 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS Lin, A., Patil, N., Wei, H., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2009: 182-183
  • Digital VLSI Logic Technology using Carbon Nanotube FETs: Frequently Asked Questions DAC: 2009 46TH ACM/IEEE DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2 Patil, N., Lin, A., Zhang, J., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2009: 304-309
  • Threshold Voltage and On-Off Ratio Tuning for Multiple-Tube Carbon Nanotube FETs IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Lin, A., Patil, N., Ryu, K., Badmaev, A., De Arco, L. G., Zhou, C., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P. 2009; 8 (1): 4-9
  • Analytical ballistic theory of carbon nanotube transistors: Experimental validation, device physics, parameter extraction, and performance projection JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Akinwande, D., Liang, J., Chong, S., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. P. 2008; 104 (12)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3050345

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262225100123

  • A Multi-Aperture Image Sensor With 0.7 mu m Pixels in 0.11 mu m CMOS Technology Fife, K., El Gamal, A., Wong, H. P. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2008: 2990-3005
  • The Mir-17-19b Microrna Cluster Quantitatively Regulates the Self-Renewing Leukemia Stem Cell Compartment in MLL Leukemia Wong, P., Iwasaki, M., Chen, C., Cleary, M. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2008: 255-255
  • Modeling and Performance Comparison of 1-D and 2-D Devices Including Parasitic Gate Capacitance and Screening Effect IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Wei, L., Deng, J., Wong, H. P. 2008; 7 (6): 720-727
  • Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Zhang, Y., Raoux, S., Krebs, D., Krupp, L. E., Topuria, T., Caldwell, M. A., Milliron, D. J., Kellock, A., Rice, P. M., Jordan-Sweet, J. L., Wong, H. P. 2008; 104 (7)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2981070

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260125500130

  • Design methods for misaligned and mispositioned carbon-nanotube immune circuits Patil, N., Deng, J., Lin, A., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2008: 1725-1736
  • Carrier density and quantum capacitance for semiconducting carbon nanotubes JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Liang, J., Akinwande, D., Wong, H. P. 2008; 104 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2986216

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260119300158

  • Integrating phase-change memory cell with Ge nanowire diode for crosspoint memory-experimental demonstration and analysis Kim, S., Zhang, Y., McVittie, J. P., Jagannathan, H., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. P. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 2008: 2307-2313
  • Finite element analysis and analytical simulations of Suspended Gate-FET for ultra-low power inverters SOLID-STATE ELECTRONICS Tsamados, D., Chauhan, Y. S., Eggimann, C., Akarvardar, K., Wong, H. P., Ionescu, A. M. 2008; 52 (9): 1374-1381
  • Assembly and Electrical Characterization of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Interconnects IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Close, G. F., Wong, H. P. 2008; 7 (5): 596-600
  • Monolithic Integration of CMOS XLSI and Carbon Nanotubes for Hybrid Nanotechnology Applications IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Akinwande, D., Yasuda, S., Paul, B., Fujita, S., Close, G., Wong, H. P. 2008; 7 (5): 636-639
  • Device study, chemical doping, and logic circuits based on transferred aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Wang, C., Ryu, K., Badmaev, A., Patil, N., Lin, A., Mitra, S., Wong, H. P., Zhou, C. 2008; 93 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2956677

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257968700062

  • Insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in women with bipolar disorder Rasgon, N. L., Stemmle, P. G., Kenna, H. A., Wong, P. W., Hill, S. J., Ketter, T. A. ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER. 2008: S235-S235
  • Carbon Nanotube Transistor Compact Model for Circuit Design and Performance Optimization ACM JOURNAL ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS Deng, J., Lin, A., Wan, G. C., Wong, H. P. 2008; 4 (2)
  • Hole mobility characteristics under electrical stress for surface-channel germanium transistors with high-k gate stack JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Yi, J., Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2008; 47 (4): 2544-2547
  • A 1 GHz integrated circuit with carbon nanotube interconnects and silicon transistors NANO LETTERS Close, G. F., Yasuda, S., Paul, B., Fujita, S., Wong, H. P. 2008; 8 (2): 706-709

    Abstract

    Due to their excellent electrical properties, metallic carbon nanotubes are promising materials for interconnect wires in future integrated circuits. Simulations have shown that the use of metallic carbon nanotube interconnects could yield more energy efficient and faster integrated circuits. The next step is to build an experimental prototype integrated circuit using carbon nanotube interconnects operating at high speed. Here, we report the fabrication of the first stand-alone integrated circuit combining silicon transistors and individual carbon nanotube interconnect wires on the same chip operating above 1 GHz. In addition to setting a milestone by operating above 1 GHz, this prototype is also a tool to investigate carbon nanotubes on a silicon-based platform at high frequencies, paving the way for future multi-GHz nanoelectronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl0730965

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253166200061

    View details for PubMedID 18269256

  • Integrated wafer-scale growth and transfer of directional carbon nanotubes and misaligned-carbon-nanotube-immune logic structures 2008 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY Patil, N., Lin, A., Myers, E. R., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2008: 159-160
  • The future of CMOS scaling-parasitics engineering and device footprint scaling Wong, H. S., Wei, L., Deng, J. 2008
  • Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction and its application to metal source/drain Ge NMOSFET Kobayashi, M., Kinoshita, A., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. S., Nishi, Y. 2008
  • Fault-Tolerant Circuit for Carbon Nanotube Transistors with Si-CMOS Hybrid Circuitry Yasuda, S., Akinwande, D., Close, G. F., Wong, H. S., Paul, B. C., Fujita, S. 2008
  • Fermi-level depinning of GaAs for Ohmic contacts Hu, J., Choi, D., Harris, J. S., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. S. 2008
  • Nanotube wires operate at speed of commercial chips ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES Wong, H. S. 2008; 5 (166): 27-27
  • Analytical Degenerate Carrier Density and Quantum Capacitance for Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes Akinwande, D., Liang, J., Wong, H. S. 2008
  • A 3Mpixel multi-aperture image sensor with 0.7 μm pixels in 0.11 μm CMOS Fife, K., Gamal, A. E., Wong, H. S. 2008
  • Energy-reversible complementary NEM logic gates Akarvardar, K., Elata, D., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. S. 2008
  • Effective drive current in CMOS inverters for sub-45 nm technologies Hu, J., Park, J. E., Freeman, G., Wong, H. S. 2008
  • Hole Mobility Characteristics under Electrical Stress for Surface-Channel Germanium Transistors with High-kappa Gate Stack Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Yi, J. H., Oh, S., Wong, H. S. 2008; 47: 2544
  • A Multi-Aperture Image Sensor With 0.7< formula formulatype= Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal Fife, K., Gamal, A. E., Wong, H. S. 2008; 12 (43): 2990-3005
  • Diblock copolymer directed self-assembly for CMOS device fabrication Advanced Lithography Chang, L. W., Caldwell, M. A., Wong, H. S. 2008: 69212M-69212M-6
  • Integrating phase-change memory cell with Ge nanowire diode for crosspoint memory—experimental demonstration and analysis Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Kim, S. B., Zhang, Y., McVittie, J. P., Jagannathan, H., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. S. 2008; 9 (55): 2307-2313
  • A multi-aperture image sensor with 0.7 µm pixels in 0.11 µm CMOS technology IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Fife, K., Gamal, A. E., Wong, H. S. 2008; 12 (43): 2990-3005
  • Low temperature (≤ 380 C) and high performance Ge CMOS technology with novel source/drain by metal-induced dopants activation and high-k/metal gate stack for monolithic 3D integration Park, J. H., Tada, M., Kuzum, D., Kapur, P., Yu, H. Y., Wong, H. S. 2008
  • Crystallization Characteristics Of Phase Change Nanoparticle Arrays Fabricated By Self-Assembly Based Lithography Zhang, Y., Raoux, S., Krebs, D., Krupp, L. E., Topuria, T., Jordan-Sweet, J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2008
  • Monolithic integration of CMOS VLSI and carbon nanotubes for hybrid nanotechnology applications Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions Akinwande, D., Yasuda, S., Paul, B., Fujita, S., Close, G., Wong, H. S. 2008; 5 (7): 636-639
  • Modeling of schottky and ohmic contacts between metal and graphene nanoribbons using extended hückel theory (EHT)-based NEGF method Guan, X., Ran, Q., Zhang, M., Yu, Z., Wong, H. S. 2008
  • Physics-Based Compact Model of III-V Heterostructure FETs for Digital Logic Applications IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 2008, TECHNICAL DIGEST Oh, S., Wong, H. P. 2008: 883-886
  • Low Temperature (<= 380 degrees C) and High Performance Ge CMOS Technology with Novel Source/Drain by Metal-Induced Dopants Activation and High-K/Metal Gate Stack for Monolithic 3D Integration IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 2008, TECHNICAL DIGEST Park, J., Tada, M., Kuzum, D., Kapur, P., Yu, H., Wong, H. P., Saraswat, K. C. 2008: 389-392
  • Effective Drive Current in CMOS Inverters for Sub-45nm Technologies NSTI NANOTECH 2008, VOL 3, TECHNICAL PROCEEDINGS Hu, J., Park, J., Freeman, G., Wachnik, R., Wong, H. P. 2008: 829-832
  • The Future of CMOS Scaling - Parasitics Engineering and Device Footprint Scaling 2008 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLID-STATE AND INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGY, VOLS 1-4 Wong, H. P., Wei, L., Deng, J. 2008: 21-24
  • Extending technology roadmap by selective device footprint scaling and parasitics engineering 2008 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS (VLSI-TSA), PROCEEDINGS OF TECHNICAL PROGRAM Deng, J., Wei, L., Chang, L., Kim, K., Chuang, C., Wong, H. P. 2008: 159-160
  • Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction and its application to metal source/drain GeNMOSFET 2008 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY Kobayashi, M., Kinoshita, A., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. P., Nishi, Y. 2008: 43-44
  • Diblock copolymer directed self-assembly for CMOS device fabrication EMERGING LITHOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIES XII, PTS 1 AND 2 Chang, L., Caldwell, M. A., Wong, H. P. 2008; 6921

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.772000

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256898400075

  • Analytical modeling of the suspended-gate FET and design insights for low-power logic IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Akarvardar, K., Eggimann, C., Tsamados, D., Chauhan, Y. S., Wan, G. C., Lonescu, A. M., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2008; 55 (1): 48-59
  • Integrated wafer-scale growth and transfer of directional carbon nanotubes and misaligned-carbon-nanotube-immune logic structures 2008 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS Patil, N., Lin, A., Myers, E. R., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2008: 205-206
  • An Analytical Model for Intrinsic Carbon Nanotube FETs ESSDERC 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 38TH EUROPEAN SOLID-STATE DEVICE RESEARCH CONFERENCE Wei, L., Frank, D. J., Chang, L., Wong, H. P. 2008: 222-225
  • Modeling of Schottky and Ohmic Contacts between Metal and Graphene Nanoribbons Using Extended Huckel Theory (EHT)-Based NEGF Method IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING 2008, TECHNICAL DIGEST Guan, X., Ran, Q., Zhang, M., Yu, Z., Wong, H. P. 2008: 197-200
  • Sub-ns delay through multi-wall carbon nanotube local interconnects in a CMOS integrated circuit PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE 2008 INTERNATIONAL INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Close, G. F., Yasuda, S., Paul, B., Fujita, S., Wong, H. P. 2008: 234-236
  • Monolithic Integration of CMOS VLSI and CNT for Hybrid Nanotechnology Applications ESSDERC 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 38TH EUROPEAN SOLID-STATE DEVICE RESEARCH CONFERENCE Akinwande, D., Yasuda, S., Paul, B., Fujita, S., Close, G., Wong, H. P. 2008: 91-94
  • Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction and its application to metal source/drainage NMOSFET 2008 SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS Kobayashi, M., Kinoshita, A., Saraswat, K., Wong, H. P., Nishi, Y. 2008: 54-55
  • An analytical derivation of the density of states, effective mass, and carrier density for achiral carbon nanotubes IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Akinwande, D., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. P. 2008; 55 (1): 289-297
  • A compact SPICE model for carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors including nonidealities and its application - Part I: Model of the intrinsic channel region IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Deng, J., Wong, H. P. 2007; 54 (12): 3186-3194
  • A compact SPICE model for carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors including nonidealities and its application - Part II: Full device model and circuit performance benchmarking IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Deng, J., Wong, H. P. 2007; 54 (12): 3195-3205
  • Meis1 is an essential and rate-limiting regulator of MLL leukemia stem cell potential GENES & DEVELOPMENT Wong, P., Iwasaki, M., Somervaille, T. C., So, C. W., Cleary, M. L. 2007; 21 (21): 2762-2774

    Abstract

    Oncogenic mutations of the MLL histone methyltransferase confer an unusual ability to transform non-self-renewing myeloid progenitors into leukemia stem cells (LSCs) by mechanisms that remain poorly defined. Misregulation of Hox genes is likely to be critical for LSC induction and maintenance but alone it does not recapitulate the phenotype and biology of MLL leukemias, which are clinically heterogeneous--presumably reflecting differences in LSC biology and/or frequency. TALE (three-amino-acid loop extension) class homeodomain proteins of the Pbx and Meis families are also misexpressed in this context, and we thus employed knockout, knockdown, and dominant-negative genetic techniques to investigate the requirements and contributions of these factors in MLL oncoprotein-induced acute myeloid leukemia. Our studies show that induction and maintenance of MLL transformation requires Meis1 and is codependent on the redundant contributions of Pbx2 and Pbx3. Meis1 in particular serves a major role in establishing LSC potential, and determines LSC frequency by quantitatively regulating the extent of self-renewal, differentiation arrest, and cycling, as well as the rate of in vivo LSC generation from myeloid progenitors. Thus, TALE proteins are critical downstream effectors within an essential homeoprotein network that serves a rate-limiting regulatory role in MLL leukemogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.1602107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250618100008

    View details for PubMedID 17942707

  • Synthesis of metal chalcogenide nanodot arrays using block copolymer-derived nanoreactors NANO LETTERS Milliron, D. J., Caldwell, M. A., Wong, H. P. 2007; 7 (11): 3504-3507

    Abstract

    Soluble metal chalcogenide precursors are used to fabricate arrays of metal chalcogenide nanodots by spin-coating. Nanodots are formed after thermal decomposition of the precursors, which are collected in patterned nanowell arrays. These arrays are derived from block copolymer patterns and may consist of the polymer itself or result from etching to transfer the pattern to an inorganic substrate. Etching provides enhanced control over nanowell shape and the morphology of the resulting metal chalcogenide array.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl072109b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251059800045

    View details for PubMedID 17900200

  • Thickness and stoichiometry dependence of the thermal conductivity of GeSbTe films APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Reifenberg, J. P., Panzer, M. A., Kim, S., Gibby, A. M., Zhang, Y., Wong, S., Wong, H. P., Pop, E., Goodson, K. E. 2007; 91 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2784169

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249474000022

  • High performance, uniaxially-strained, silicon and germanium, double-gate p-MOSFETs Krishnamohan, T., Jungemann, C., Kim, D., Ungersboeck, E., Selberherr, S., Pham, A., Meinerzhagen, B., Wong, P., Nishi, Y., Saraswat, K. C. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2007: 2063-2066
  • Modeling carbon nanotube sensors IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Deng, J., Ghosh, K., Wong, H. P. 2007; 7 (9-10): 1356-1357
  • Modeling and analysis of planar-gate electrostatic capacitance of 1-D FET with multiple cylindrical conducting channels IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Deng, J., Wong, H. P. 2007; 54 (9): 2377-2385
  • Impact of a process variation on nanowire and nanotube device performance IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Paul, B. C., Fujita, S., Okajima, M., Lee, T. H., Wong, H. P., Nishi, Y. 2007; 54 (9): 2369-2376
  • Phase change nanodot arrays fabricated using a self-assembly diblock copolymer approach APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Zhang, Y., Wong, H. P., Raoux, S., Cha, J. N., Rettner, C. T., Krupp, L. E., Topuria, T., Milliron, D. J., Rice, P. M., Jordan-Sweet, J. L. 2007; 91 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2753699

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247819700061

  • The impact of device footprint scaling on high-performance CMOS logic technology IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Deng, J., Kim, K., Chuang, C., Wong, H. P. 2007; 54 (5): 1148-1155
  • A composite circuit model for NDR devices in random access memory cells IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Akinwande, D., Wong, H. P. 2007; 54 (4): 776-783
  • Schottky-barrier carbon nanotube field-effect transistor modeling IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Hazeghi, A., Krishnamohan, T., Wong, H. P. 2007; 54 (3): 439-445
  • Biomimetic approaches for fabricating high-density nanopatterned arrays CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Cha, J. N., Zhang, Y., Wong, H. P., Raoux, S., Rettner, C., Krupp, L., Deline, V. 2007; 19 (4): 839-843

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cm062495i

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244161800028

  • 1-D and 2-D devices performance comparison including parasitic gate capacitance and screening effect 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, VOLS 1 AND 2 Wei, L., Deng, J., Wong, H. P. 2007: 741-744
  • Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube interconnects 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, VOLS 1 AND 2 Close, G. F., Wong, H. P. 2007: 203-206
  • INOR 141-Synthesis and characterization of Germanium Chalcogenide nanoparticles via single-source precursors and coprecipitation ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Caldwell, M., Raoux, S., Milliron, D. J., Wong, H. S. 2007; 234
  • Band to band tunneling study in high mobility materials: III-V, Si, Ge and strained SiGe Kim, D., Krishnamohan, T., Smith, L., Wong, H. S., Saraswat, K. C. 2007
  • Analysis of temperature in phase change memory scaling Electron Device Letters Kim, S. B., Wong, H. S. 2007; 8 (28): 697-699
  • Automated design of misaligned-carbon-nanotube-immune circuits 2007 44TH ACM/IEEE DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2 Patil, N., Deng, J., Wong, H. P., Mitra, S. 2007: 958-961
  • A 0.5 μm pixel frame-transfer CCD image sensor in 110 nm CMOS Fife, K., Gamal, A. E., Wong, H. S. 2007
  • X-ray diffraction studies of the crystallization of phase change nanoparticles produced by self-assembly-based techniques Raoux, S., Zhang, Y., Milliron, D., Cha, J., Caldwell, M., Rettner, C., Wong, H.S.Philip 2007
  • A biomimetic carbon nanotube synapse circuit Friesz, A. K., Parker, A. C., Zhou, C., Ryu, K., Sanders, J. M., Wong, H. S. 2007
  • A compact SPICE model for carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors including nonidealities and its application—Part II: Full device model and circuit performance benchmarking Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Deng, J., Wong, H. S. 2007; 12 (54): 3195-3205
  • A compact SPICE model for carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors including nonidealities and its application—Part I: Model of the intrinsic channel region Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on Deng, J., Wong, H. S. 2007; 12 (54): 3186-3194
  • Carbon nanotube transistor circuits: Circuit-level performance benchmarking and design options for living with imperfections Deng, J., Patil, N., Ryu, K., Badmaev, A., Zhou, C., Mitra, S., Wong, H.S.Philip 2007
  • Plenary Session Wong, H. S., Brederlow, R. 2007
  • Design considerations for complementary nanoelectromechanical logic gates 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, VOLS 1 AND 2 Akarvardar, K., Elata, D., Parsa, R., WAN, G. C., Yoo, K., Provine, J., Peurnans, P., Howe, R. T., Wong, H. P. 2007: 299-302
  • A 0.5 mu m pixel frame-transfer CCD image sensor in 110nm CMOS 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, VOLS 1 AND 2 Fife, K., El Gamal, A., Wong, H. P. 2007: 1003-1006
  • An integrated phase change memory cell with Ge nanowire diode for cross-point memory Zhang, Y., Kim, S., McVittie, J. P., Jagannathan, H., Ratchford, J. B., Chidsey, C. E., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. P. JAPAN SOCIETY APPLIED PHYSICS. 2007: 98-99
  • Device footprint scaling for ultra thin body fully depleted SOI ISQED 2007: PROCEEDINGS OF THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON QUALITY ELECTRONIC DESIGN Deng, J., Kim, K., Chuang, C., Wong, H. P. 2007: 145-150
  • Analytical model of carbon nanotube electrostatics: Density of states, effective mass, carrier density, and quantum capacitance 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING, VOLS 1 AND 2 Akinwande, D., Nishi, Y., Wong, H. P. 2007: 753-756
  • Nanostructured materials for interconnects ADVANCED METALLIZATION CONFERENCE 2006 (AMC 2006) Close, G. F., Wong, H. P. 2007: 3-13
  • Plasma osteopontin is an independent prognostic marker for head and neck cancers JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Petrik, D., Lavori, P. W., Cao, H., Zhu, Y., Wong, P., Christofferson, E., Kaplan, M. J., Pinto, H. A., Sutphin, P., Koong, A. C., Giaccia, A. J., Le, Q. 2006; 24 (33): 5291-5297

    Abstract

    To confirm the relationship between plasma osteopontin (OPN) levels and treatment outcomes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients in an expanded study.One hundred forty patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC were enrolled onto this study, 54 previously reported and 86 new patients. Pretreatment plasma OPN levels were assessed in all patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. OPN levels were correlated to treatment outcomes in the new group of patients. Detailed analyses were also performed on the relationship between OPN and tumor control rate, event-free survival (EFS), and postrelapse survival for the entire group.Using a previously defined cut off point of 450 ng/mL, there was a significant correlation between OPN and freedom-from-relapse (P = .047), overall survival (P = .019), and EFS (P = .023) in the new, independent patient cohort (n = 86). Sequence of event analyses using the entire group (N = 140) revealed that OPN was an independent prognostic factor for initial tumor control, EFS in those who have achieved tumor control, and postrelapse survival.In this expanded study, we were able to replicate the prognostic significance of OPN using a predefined cut off point in an independent patient group and demonstrated that plasma OPN is an independent prognostic marker for HNSCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2006.06.8627

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242342800017

    View details for PubMedID 17114663

  • Analysis of the frequency response of carbon nanotube transistors IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Akinwande, D., Close, G. E., Wong, H. P. 2006; 5 (5): 599-605
  • Metrics for performance benchmarking of nanoscale Si and carbon nanotube FETs including device nonidealities IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES Deng, J., Wong, H. P. 2006; 53 (6): 1317-1322
  • Special issue on 2005 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY Wong, H. P. 2006; 5 (3): 153-153
  • Investigation of the performance limits of III-V double-gate n-MOSFETs SIXTEENTH BIENNIAL UNIVERSITY/GOVERNMENT/INDUSTRY MICROELECTRONICS SYMPOSIUM, PROCEEDINGS Pethe, A., Krishnamohan, T., Kim, D., Oh, S., Wong, H. P., Saraswat, K. 2006: 47-50
  • Thermal characterization of multi-die packages Poppe, A., Zhang, Y., Farkas, G., Wong, H., Wilson, J., Szabó, P. 2006
  • Circuit Design with Carbon Nanotubes Open Questions & Some Directions Talk or presentation, GSRC Quarterly Workshop, San Francisco Patil, N., Deng, J., Mitra, S., Wong, H. S. 2006; 23
  • Carbon nanotube transistor circuits-models and tools for design and performance optimization Wong, H. S., Deng, J., Krishnamohan, T., Wan, G. C. 2006
  • Advanced CMOS Devices-A Tutorial from Practical Options to Innovative Concepts. Part I-Conventional Devices and Technology Options Meeting Abstracts Wong, H. S. 2006: 617-617
  • Sponsored by the IEEE Electron Devices Society Fay, P., Guo, J., Huffaker, D., Kalavade, P., Otsuji, T., Wernersson, L. E., Wong, H.S.Philip 2006
  • Nanotechnology 101 Part 2 IEEE Wong, H. S. 2006
  • Designing Circuits with Carbon Nanotubes Open Questions and Some Possible Directions Deng, J., Patil, N., Mitra, S., Wong, H. S. 2006
  • Diblock copolymer directed self-assembly for CMOS device fabrication Chang, L. W., Wong, H. S. 2006
  • Advanced CMOS Devices: A Tutorial from Practical Options to Innovative Concepts. Part II-Exploratory Devices and Approaches Meeting Abstracts Wong, H. S. 2006: 618-618
  • First demonstration of AC gain from a single-walled carbon nanotube common-source amplifier Electron Devices Meeting , IEDM'06. International Amlani, I., Lewis, J., Lee, K., Zhang, R., Deng, J., Wong, H. S. 2006: 1-4
  • IEEE Nanotechnology Council Executive Committee Ann Arbor WONG, H. S., CHUN-CREECH, G., BOSE, A., FRANK, D., FREEMAN, M., HIRAMOTO, T. 2006; 1001: 48109-2122
  • Lateral nanoconcentrator nanowire multijunction photovoltaic cells GCEP Progress Report (Stanford University, 2011).[Citation Context Wong, H. S., Peumans, P., Brongersma, M., Nishi, Y., Chen, Y., Parker, J. 2006
  • Measurability Issues in the Radio-Frequency Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Close, G. F., Wong, H. S. 2006
  • Device and Technology Challenges for Nanoscale CMOS. ISQED Wong, H. S. 2006: 515-518
  • Nanoelectronics–Opportunities and challenges International journal of high speed electronics and systems WONG, H. S. 2006; 1 (16): 83-94
  • A circuit-compatible SPICE model for enhancement mode carbon nanotube field effect transistors Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices , International Deng, J., Wong, H. S. 2006
  • Carbon nanotube transistor circuits - Models and tools for design and performance optimization IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER AIDED DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS, VOLS 1 AND 2 Wong, H. P., Deng, J., Arash, Hazeghi, Krishnamohan, T., Wan, G. C. 2006: 819-822
  • A 3D multi-aperture image sensor architecture PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE 2006 CUSTOM INTEGRATED CIRCUITS CONFERENCE Fife, K., El Gamal, A., Wong, H. P. 2006: 281-284
  • Research opportunities for nanoscale CMOS 2006 INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON NANO CMOS, PROCEEDINGS Wong, H. P. 2006: 43-43
  • Nanoelectronics - Opportunities and challenges FRONTIERS IN ELECTRONICS Wong, H. P. 2006; 41: 83-94
  • Self-efficacy, coping, and difficulties interacting with health care professionals among women living with breast cancer in rural communities PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY Collie, K., Wong, P., Tilston, J., Butler, L. D., Turner-Cobb, J., Kreshka, M. A., PARSONS, R., Graddy, K., Cheasty, J. D., Koopman, C. 2005; 14 (10): 901-912

    Abstract

    This study examined self-efficacy, coping, and social support in relation to difficulties interacting with physicians and nurses among women living with breast cancer. One hundred women living in rural, mountainous communities of northeastern California were recruited, with 89 providing complete data for this study. All women completed a battery of questionnaires that included the CARES--Medical Interaction Subscale and measures of self-efficacy, coping, satisfaction with social support, and demographic and medical characteristics. In a multiple regression analysis, difficulties interacting with medical professionals were found to be greater among women who were not married, who used more behavioral disengagement or less self-distraction to cope with breast cancer, and who reported less self-efficacy for affect regulation and for seeking and understanding medical information. Emotional venting and satisfaction with social support for dealing with cancer-related stress were not, however, significantly related to difficulties in interacting with the medical team. This model accounted for an adjusted value of 42% of the variance. Further research is needed to identify possible causal relationships related to these findings and to determine what interventions might be warranted to improve medical interactions for women with breast cancer living in rural areas.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pon.944

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232666600017

    View details for PubMedID 16200526

  • A comparison study of different PCR assays in measuring circulating plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Le, Q. T., Jones, C. D., Yau, T. K., Shirazi, H. A., Wong, P. H., Thomas, E. N., Patterson, B. K., Lee, A. W., Zehnder, J. L. 2005; 11 (16): 5700-5707

    Abstract

    To compare the performance of three PCR assays in measuring circulating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). DNA levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and to confirm its prognostic significance.Plasma from 58 newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were collected before, during, and every 3 to 6 months after radiotherapy. EBV DNA levels were determined by real-time quantitative PCR using primer/probe sets for polymerase-1 (Pol-1), latent membrane protein 2 (Lmp2), and BamHI-W. Pretreatment levels from the three assays were correlated with each other and serial measurements from the Pol-1 assay were correlated with clinical variables.Pol-1 was more accurate than BamHI-W in predicting EBV DNA concentrations in cell lines. Of the three assays, BamHI-W yielded the highest concentrations followed by Pol-1 in plasmas (n = 23). The correlation coefficient was 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for Pol-1 and Lmp2, 0.66 (P < 0.0001) for Pol-1 and BamHI-W, and 0.55 (P < 0.0001) for BamHI-W and Lmp2. Elevated pretreatment DNA levels as detected by Pol-1 were correlated with advanced nodal stage (P = 0.04) and overall stage (P = 0.028). There was no correlation between pretreatment EBV DNA levels and freedom-from-relapse or overall survival; however, there was a significant correlation between posttreatment levels and these variables. The 2-year freedom-from-relapse and overall survival rates were 92% and 94% for patients with undetectable, and 37% and 55% for those with detectable, posttreatment levels (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.002).The three PCR assays yielded similar results in detecting EBV DNA in plasmas. The Pol-1-detected posttreatment EBV DNA level was the strongest predictor for treatment outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-0648

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231320000009

    View details for PubMedID 16115906

  • An expanded study of the relationship between osteopontin, tumor pO(2) and prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Petrik, D. W., Cao, H., Zhu, Y., Wong, P., Sutphin, P., Giaccia, A. J., Koong, A. A., Le, Q. T. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2005: 505S-505S
  • IEEE Periodicals Magazines Department IEEE CIRCUITS & DEVICES MAGAZINE Zeitzoff, P. M., Chung, J. E., Skotnicki, T., Hutchby, J., King, T., Wong, H. S. 2005
  • Hidden markov model based characterization of content access patterns in an E-Learning environment Fok, A. W., Wong, H. S., Chen, Y. S. 2005
  • Beyond the conventional transistor Solid-state electronics Wong, H. P. 2005; 5 (49): 755-762
  • Advanced cmos devices: Part II-exploratory devices and approaches WONG, H. S. 2005
  • 2.34. DEVICE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GATE, GROUND-PLANE, AND SINGLE-GATED ULTRA-THIN SOI MOSFET'S AT THE 25 nm CHANNEL LENGTH GENERATION Emerging nanoelectronics: life with and after CMOS Wong, H. S., Frank, D. J., Solomon, P. M. 2005; 1: 401
  • 2.37. METAL-GATE FinFET AND FULLY-DEPLETED SOI DEVICES USING TOTAL GATE SILICIDATION Emerging nanoelectronics: life with and after Kedzierski, J., Nowak, E., Kanarsky, T., Zhang, Y., Boyd, D., Carruthers, R., Wong, H.S.Philip 2005; 1: 420
  • Advanced CMOS devices: Part I conventional devices and technology options WONG, H. S. 2005
  • 2.2. NANOSCALE CMOS Emerging nanoelectronics: life with and after CMOS Wong, H. S., Frank, D. J., Solomon, P. M., Wann, C., Welser, J. 2005; 1: 46
  • The end of CMOS scaling: toward the introduction of new materials and structural changes to improve MOSFET performance Circuits and Devices Magazine, IEEE Skotnicki, T., Hutchby, J. A., King, T. J., Wong, H. S., Boeuf, F. 2005; 1 (21): 16-26
  • JR: Variability Has Stopped Scaling: Who Will Conquer the Issues of Variability?[Suzaku]-Will Technology People Be Able to Keep the Device Variability?-Will Design Technology Take the Further Device Variability Into Account? SYMPOSIUM ON VLSI TECHNOLOGY Wong, H. 2005; 150
  • 2.38. TRIPLE-SELF-ALIGNED, PLANAR DOUBLE-GATE MOSFETS: DEVICES AND CIRCUITS Emerging nanoelectronics: life with and after CMOS Guarini, K. W., Solomon, P. M., Zhang, Y., Chan, K., Jones, E., Cohen, G. M., Wong, H.S.Philip 2005; 1: 425
  • Disease models and transformation mechanisms mediated by MLL-AF4 family oncoproteins in human leukemia. So, C. W., Wong, P., Lin, M., Cleary, M. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2004: 136A-136A
  • Stent-based controlled release of intravascular angiostatin to limit plaque progression and in-stent restenosis JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY Ganaha, F., Kao, E. Y., Wong, H., Elkins, C. J., Lee, J., Modanlou, S., Rhee, C., Kuo, M. D., Yuksel, E., Cifra, P. N., Waugh, J. M., Dake, M. D. 2004; 15 (6): 601-608

    Abstract

    To evaluate the importance of angiogenesis in plaque progression after stent placement, this study examines stent-based controlled delivery of the antiangiogenic agent, angiostatin, in a rabbit model.Controlled release biodegradable microspheres delivering angiostatin or polymer-only microspheres (polylactic-co-glycolic-acid-polyethylene glycol; PLGA/PEG) were loaded in channeled stents, anchored, and deployed in the aorta of adult New Zealand white rabbits (n = 6 animals per group, three each per time point). The stented aortas were harvested at 7 days and 28 days and evaluated for neovascularization, local inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and in-stent plaque progression.At 7 days, neovascularization was significantly decreased in the angiostatin groups (1.6 +/- 1.6 neovessels per mm(2) plaque) versus the control group (15.4 +/- 2.6 neovessels per mm(2) plaque; P =.00081), as were local inflammation where angiostatin-treated groups demonstrated significantly lower macrophage recruitment per cross section (34.9 +/- 4.9 cells per cross section) relative to the control group (55.2 +/- 3.84 cells per cross section; P =.0037). And a significant decrease in the overall vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation (143.8 +/- 26.3 Ki-67 positive cells per mm(2)) relative to the control group (263.2 +/- 16.6 Ki-67 positive cells per mm(2); P =.00074). At both 7 and 28 days, in-stent plaque progression in the angiostatin groups was successfully limited relative to the control group by 54% (0.255 +/- 0.019% of cross section; P =.00016) and 19% (1.981 +/- 0.080; P =.0033) respectively and resulted in reduction of in-stent restenosis relative to the control group.Angiostatin-eluting stents may limit neovascularity after arterial implantation, offer insight into in-stent restenosis, and allow future refinement of bioactive stent designs and clinical strategies, particularly in light of evidence that intimal smooth muscle cells may in part be marrow-derived.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.RVI.0000127888.70058.93

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227678200011

    View details for PubMedID 15178721

  • Leukemic transformation of hematopoietic progenitors by MLL-GAS7 in the absence of Hoxa7 or Hoxa9 BLOOD So, C. W., Karsunky, H., Wong, P., Weissman, I. L., Cleary, M. L. 2004; 103 (8): 3192-3199

    Abstract

    Differential expression of Hox genes is associated with normal hematopoiesis, whereas inappropriate maintenance of Hox gene expression, particularly Hoxa7 and Hoxa9, is a feature of leukemias harboring mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) mutations. To understand the pathogenic roles of Hox genes in MLL leukemias, we assessed the impact of Hoxa7 or Hoxa9 nullizygosity on hematopoietic progenitor compartments and their susceptibility to MLL-induced leukemias. Selective reductions in the absolute numbers of committed progenitors, but not of hematopoietic stem cells, distinguished Hoxa7- and Hoxa9-deficient mice. Megakaryocytic/erythroid progenitor (MEP) reductions in Hoxa7(-/-) mice correlated with reticulocytosis and thrombocytopenia without anemia. Conversely, Hoxa9(-/-) mice displayed marked lymphopenia and substantial reductions of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and lymphoid precursors, in addition to significant reductions of common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs). In retroviral transduction/transplantation assays, Hoxa7- and Hoxa9-deficient progenitors remained susceptible to transformation by MLL-GAS7, which activates MLL through a dimerization-dependent mechanism. However, Hoxa7(-/-) or Hoxa9(-/-) progenitors were less efficient in generating transformed blast colony-forming units (CFUs) in vitro and induced leukemias with longer disease latencies, reduced penetrance, and less mature phenotypes. Thus, Hoxa7 and Hoxa9 contribute to hematopoietic progenitor homeostasis but are not necessary for MLL-GAS7-mediated leukemogenesis, yet they appear to affect disease latency, penetrance, and phenotypes consistent with their critical roles as downstream targets of MLL fusion proteins.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222163500056

    View details for PubMedID 15070702

  • ECE 499: Directed studies in ECE: GaN materials and applications (Prof. Lester Eastman) School of Electrical and Computer Engineering , Cornell University Wong, H. 2004
  • Wafer bonding for high-performance logic applications Wafer Bonding Guarini, K. W., Wong, H. S. 2004: 157-191
  • Frequency response of top-gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions Singh, D. V., Jenkins, K. A., Appenzeller, J., Neumayer, D., Grill, A., Wong, H. S. 2004; 3 (3): 383-387
  • Fabrication of metal gated FinFETs through complete gate silicidation with Ni Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Kedzierski, J., Ieong, M., Kanarsky, T., Zhang, Y., Wong, H. S. 2004; 12 (51): 2115-2120
  • Self-aligned n-channel germanium MOSFETs with a thin Ge oxynitride gate dielectric and tungsten gate Electron Device Letters , IEEE Shang, H., Lee, K. L., Kozlowski, P., D'Emic, C., Babich, I., Sikorski, E., Wong, H.S.Philip 2004; 3 (25): 135-137
  • Sagittal plane loading response during gait in different age groups and in people with knee osteoarthritis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE & REHABILITATION Chen, C. P., Chen, M. J., Pei, Y. C., Lew, H. L., Wong, P. Y., Tang, S. F. 2003; 82 (4): 307-312

    Abstract

    To investigate the gait patterns and the sagittal ground reaction forces in different age groups and in people with knee osteoarthritis.Motion analysis and force platform data were collected for a total of 55 female subjects capable of independent ambulation. Subjects were divided into three groups consisting of the control group, the elderly group, and the osteoarthritis knee group. Gait parameters of walking velocity, cadence, step length, stride time, single- and double-support time, and sagittal ground reaction forces were obtained during comfortable walking speed. Gait analysis was performed in a tertiary hospital's gait laboratory. Variables were analyzed using a univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance. Statistical significance was set at a value of P < 0.05.The osteoarthritis knee group had slower walking velocity, lower cadence, and longer stride time as compared with the elderly and young control groups (P < 0.05). In ground reaction force studies, the first peak time, expressed in percentage of gait cycle, was significantly longer in the osteoarthritis knee group (20.8 +/- 3.2) as compared with the elderly (17.8 +/- 2.0) and young control groups (17.1 +/- 1.8, P < 0.01). The force during time of minimal midstance was larger in the osteoarthritis knee group (90.9 +/- 5.3) as compared with the elderly and young control groups (P < 0.05). The second peak force was significantly smaller in the osteoarthritis knee group as compared with the young control group (P < 0.01). The force change in the midfoot region in the osteoarthritis knee and elderly groups revealed more loading force onto the midfoot region during midstance as compared with the young control group (P < 0.01).Gait parameters in the elderly and osteoarthritis knee patients were characterized by slower walking velocity, lower cadence, shorter step length, longer stride time, and longer double-support time. Less heel contact and push-off forces were noticed in these two groups, with more loading force onto the midfoot during midstance.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.PHM.0000056987.33630.56

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181744900010

    View details for PubMedID 12649658

  • Effects of biopsy-induced wound healing on residual basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas: rate of tumor regression in excisional specimens JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY Swetter, S. M., Boldrick, J. C., Pierre, P., Wong, P., Egbert, B. M. 2003; 30 (2): 139-146

    Abstract

    Wound healing following a partial biopsy of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) may induce tumor regression.Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) biopsy and re-excision specimens from 1994 to 2001 were reviewed for histologic evidence of scar vs. presence of residual tumor in excision specimens. Regressed and non-regressed tumors were analyzed to assess the influence of anatomic location, biopsy technique (punch vs. shave), histologic subtype of BCC or SCC, time interval between biopsy and excision, and patient age.Nine hundred and ten excisions were performed for transected BCC or SCC, 217 (24%) of which showed scar with no residual tumor. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant differences in the regressed vs. non-regressed subsets. SCCs were more likely to regress than BCCs (40% vs. 20%, respectively, p < 0.00001). Independent of the NMSC type, tumors regressed more often following shave rather than punch biopsy (34% vs. 15%, respectively, p < 0.00001), as did tumors on the trunk and extremities compared with head and neck cases (31% vs. 21%, respectively, p < 0.01).In our series, 24% of NMSCs transected on the initial biopsy showed no residual tumor in the excision specimens, implying that some event in the interval between biopsy and excision may lead to the eradication of residual tumor. The exact mechanism is unclear, but wound healing likely plays an important role.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181633300008

    View details for PubMedID 12641794

  • Two gates are better than one [double-gate MOSFET process] Circuits and Devices Magazine, IEEE Solomon, P. M., Guarini, K. W., Zhang, Y., Chan, K., Jones, E. C., Cohen, G. M., Wong, H.S.Philip 2003; 1 (19): 48-62
  • AC characterization of top-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistors Singh, D. V., Jenkins, K. A., Appenzeller, J., Wong, H. S. 2003
  • Electrical characterization of germanium p-channel MOSFETs Electron Device Letters , IEEE Shang, H., Okorn-Schimdt, H., Ott, J., Kozlowski, P., Steen, S., Jones, E. C., Wong, H.S.Philip 2003; 4 (24): 242-244
  • Gate capacitance optimization for arrays of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors Wang, X., Wong, H. S., Oldiges, P., Miller, R. J. 2003
  • Recent progress in devices and materials for CMOS technology Wong, H. S., Doris, B., Gusev, E., Ieong, M., Jones, E. C., Kedzierski, J. 2003
  • Nanoscale science and technology-a device and engineering perspective Wong, H. S. 2003
  • Carbon nanotube field effect transistors-fabrication, device physics, and circuit implications Wong, H. S., Appenzeller, J., Derycke, V., Martel, R., Wind, S., Avouris, P. 2003
  • Performance Estimation and Benchmarking for Carbon Nanotube FETs and Nanodiode Arrays SOLID STATE DEVICES AND MATERIALS Wong, H. S., Ditlow, G. S., Solomon, P. M., Wang, X. 2003: 802-803
  • Strained Si CMOS (SS CMOS) technology: opportunities and challenges Solid-State Electronics Rim, K., Anderson, R., Boyd, D., Cardone, F., Chan, K., Che, H., Wong, H.S.Philip 2003; 7 (47): 1133-1139
  • Extension and source/drain design for high-performance FinFET devices Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Kedzierski, J., Ieong, M., Nowak, E., Kanarsky, T. S., Zhang, Y., Roy, R., Wong, H.S.Philip 2003; 4 (50): 952-958
  • Electrostatic analysis of carbon nanotube arrays Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices Wang, X., Wong, H. S., Oldiges, P., Miller, R. J. 2003
  • In vivo vascular engineering of vein grafts: Directed migration of smooth muscle cells by perivascular release of elastase limits neointimal proliferation JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY Amabile, P. G., Wong, H., Uy, M., Boroumand, S., Elkins, C. J., Yuksel, E., Waugh, J. M., Dake, M. D. 2002; 13 (7): 709-715

    Abstract

    Saphenous vein bypass grafting for coronary revascularization procedures remains limited by accelerated neointima formation. It was hypothesized that creation of a modified chemotactic gradient in vivo could guide migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) peripherally instead of in a luminal direction and reduce intimal hyperplasia during vein graft arterialization.Surgical bypass vein grafting to femoral arteries was performed in adult male New Zealand White rabbits (n = 8 per treatment group; five for 7 d and three for 28 d). Controlled-release microspheres delivering elastase or buffered polymer only were administered perivascularly at the vein graft site. At 7 days, five vein grafts per group were harvested and cross-sections were immunostained with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to determine the number and distribution of proliferating SMCs. At 28 days, three vein grafts per group were harvested and intima-to-media (I/M) ratios were calculated after staining with Verhoeff von Gieson-Masson trichrome stain.Significant early outward-directed elastin degradation resulted from elastase treatment. Concurrently, proliferating SMCs migrated peripherally. PCNA(+) cells in the outer half of the wall increased 2.37 fold compared to procedural controls (P <.0001). Directional shifts in SMC migration underlie these results because overall SMC proliferation was not significantly different. At 28 days after vein graft surgery, a 38% reduction (P =.0008) in neointima was observed relative to procedural controls.Directional guidance of SMC responses through perivascular elastase release achieves favorable vein graft remodeling characteristics, including limited neointima development. This represents practical evidence that SMC migration can be directionally guided in vivo in a vein graft model and that plaque progression can be prevented by redistributing elastin without decreasing functional vein graft wall stability.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177228700008

    View details for PubMedID 12119330

  • Characteristics and device design of sub-100 nm strained Si N-and PMOSFETs Rim, K., Chu, J., Chen, H., Jenkins, K. A., Kanarsky, T., Lee, K., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002
  • Soft error rate scaling for emerging SOI technology options Oldiges, P., Bernstein, K., Heidel, D., Klaasen, B., Cannon, E., Dennard, R., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002
  • Field effect transistors-from silicon MOSFETs to carbon nanotube FETs Wong, H. S. 2002
  • Examination of hole mobility in ultra-thin body SOI MOSFETs Electron Devices Meeting , IEDM'02. International Ren, Z., Solomon, P. M., Kanarsky, T., Doris, B., Dokumaci, O., Oldiges, P., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002: 51-54
  • Beyond the conventional transistor IBM Journal of Research and Development Wong, H. S. 2002; 2.3 (46): 133-168
  • Ultra-thin silicon channel single-and double-gate MOSFETs SOLID STATE DEVICES AND MATERIALS Ieong, M., Kedzierski, J., Ren, Z., Doris, B., Kanarsky, T., Wong, H. S. 2002: 136-137
  • An experimental study on transport issues and electrostatics of ultrathin body SOI pMOSFETs Electron Device Letters, IEEE Ren, Z., Hegde, S., Doris, B., Oldiges, P., Kanarsky, T., Dokumaci, O., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002; 10 (23): 609-611
  • Electron and hole mobility enhancement in strained SOI by wafer bonding Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Huang, L., Chu, J. O., Goma, S. A., D'Emic, C. P., Koester, S. J., Canaperi, D. F., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002; 9 (49): 1566-1571
  • Extreme scaling with ultra-thin Si channel MOSFETs Doris, B., Ieong, M., Kanarsky, T., Zhang, Y., Roy, R. A., Dokumaci, O., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002
  • High performance double-gate device technology challenges and opportunities Ieong, M., Wong, H. S., Nowak, E., Kedzierski, J., Jones, E. C. 2002
  • High mobility p-channel germanium MOSFETs with a thin Ge oxynitride gate dielectric Shang, H., Okorn-Schmidt, H., Chan, K. K., Copel, M., Ott, J. A., Kozlowski, P. M., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002
  • Metal-gate FinFET and fully-depleted SOI devices using total gate silicidation Kedzierski, J., Nowak, E., Kanarsky, T., Zhang, Y., Boyd, D., Carruthers, R., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002
  • Mobility enhancement in strained Si NMOSFETs with HfO< sub> 2</sub> gate dielectrics Rim, K., Gusev, E. P., D'Emic, C., Kanarsky, T., Chen, H., Chu, J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2002
  • Design cooperation: Strengthening the link between organizational and instructional change in schools EDUCATIONAL POLICY MINTROP, H., Gamson, D., McLaughlin, M., Wong, P. L., Oberman, I. 2001; 15 (4): 520-546
  • Parathyroid crisis in a 20 year old - an unusual cause of hypercalcaemic crisis POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL JOURNAL Wong, P., Carmeci, C., Jeffrey, R. B., Weigel, R. J. 2001; 77 (909): 468-470

    Abstract

    Since the advent of automated serum analysis, patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are often asymptomatic at presentation or have mild symptoms attributable to the disease. Parathyroid crisis is a rare and potentially fatal complication of PHPT in which patients develop severe hypercalcaemia with signs and symptoms of multiple organ dysfunction. A case of parathyroid crisis in a 20 year old man who presented with brown tumours and renal stones is described.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169815000013

    View details for PubMedID 11423601

  • Case report - Paclitaxel-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Radiographic and CT findings AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Wong, P., Leung, A. N., Berry, G. J., Atkins, K. A., Montoya, J. G., Ruoss, S. J., Stockdale, F. E. 2001; 176 (3): 718-720
  • High-performance symmetric-gate and CMOS-compatible V< sub> t</sub> asymmetric-gate FinFET devices Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'01. Technical Digest. International Kedzierski, J., Fried, D. M., Nowak, E. J., Kanarsky, T., Rankin, J. H., Hanafi, H., Wong, H.S.Philip 2001; 19
  • Device scaling limits of Si MOSFETs and their application dependencies Frank, D. J., Dennard, R. H., Nowak, E., Solomon, P. M., Taur, Y., Wong, H. S. 2001
  • SiGe-on-insulator prepared by wafer bonding and layer transfer for high-performance field-effect transistors Applied Physics Letters Huang, L. J., Chu, J. O., Canaperi, D. F., DEmic, C. P., Anderson, R. M., Koester, S. J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2001; 9 (78): 1267-1269
  • Carbon nanotube field effect transistors for logic applications Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'01. Technical Digest. International Martel, R., Wong, H. S., Chan, K., Avouris, P. 2001
  • Experimental evaluation of carrier transport and device design for planar symmetric/asymmetric double-gate/ground-plane CMOSFETs Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'01. Technical Digest. International Ieong, M., Jones, E. C., Kanarsky, T., Ren, Z., Dokumaci, O., Roy, R. A., Wong, H.S.Philip 2001; 19
  • High-performance symmetric-gate and CMOS-compatible Vt asymmetric-gate FinFET devices IEDM Tech. Dig. Kedzierski, J. 2001
  • Triple-self-aligned, planar double-gate MOSFETs: Devices and circuits Electron Devices Meeting , IEDM'01. Technical Digest. International, Guarini, K. W., Solomon, P. M., Zhang, Y., Chan, K. K., Jones, E. C., Cohen, G. M., Wong, H.S.Philip 2001; 19
  • Carrier mobility enhancement in strained Si-on-insulator fabricated by wafer bonding Huang, L. J., Chu, J. O., Goma, S., D'Emic, C. P., Koester, S. J., Canaperi, D. F., Wong, H.S.Philip 2001
  • Strained Si NMOSFETs for high performance CMOS technology Rim, K., Koester, S., Hargrove, M., Chu, J., Mooney, P. M., Ott, J., Wong, H.S.Philip 2001
  • Analysis of the design space available for high-< i> k</i> gate dielectrics in nanoscale MOSFETs Superlattices and Microstructures Frank, D. J., Wong, H. S. 2000; 5 (28): 485-491
  • Simulation of stochastic doping effects in Si MOSFETs Computational Electronics, Book of Abstracts. IWCE Glasgow Frank, D. J., Wong, H. S. 2000
  • Preparation of 200 mm silicon substrates with metal ground-plane for double-gate SOI devices Huang, L. J., Chan, K., Solomon, P. M., Jones, E., D'Emic, C., Lee, W. C., Wong, H.S.Philip 2000
  • DC and AC performance analysis of 25 nm symmetric/asymmetric double-gate, back-gate and bulk CMOS Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices , SISPAD 2000. 2000 Ieong, M. K., Wong, H. S., Taur, Y., Oldiges, P., Frank, D. 2000
  • JPEG-compliant perceptual coding for a grayscale image printing pipeline IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING Vander Kam, R. A., Wong, P. W., Gray, R. M. 1999; 8 (1): 1-14

    Abstract

    We describe a procedure by which Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compression may be customized for gray-scale images that are to be compressed before they are scaled, halftoned, and printed. Our technique maintains 100% compatibility with the JPEG standard, and is applicable with all scaling and halftoning methods. The JPEG quantization table is designed using frequency-domain characteristics of the scaling and halftoning operations, as well as the frequency sensitivity of the human visual system. In addition, the Huffman tables are optimized for low-rate coding. Compression artifacts are significantly reduced because they are masked by the halftoning patterns, and pushed into frequency bands where the eye is less sensitive. We describe how the frequency-domain effects of scaling and halftoning may be measured, and how to account for those effects in an iterative design procedure for the JPEG quantization table. We also present experimental results suggesting that the customized JPEG encoder typically maintains "near visually lossless" image quality at rates below 0.5 b/pixel (with reference to the number of pixels in the original image) when it is used with bilinear interpolation and either error diffusion or ordered dithering. Based on these results, we believe that in terms of the achieved bit rate, the performance of our encoder is typically at least 20% better than that of a JPEG encoder using the suggested baseline tables.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077871900001

    View details for PubMedID 18262860

  • Overview of CMOS Image Sensors Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Wong, H. S. 1999
  • Characterization of the silicon on insulator film in bonded wafers by high resolution x-ray diffraction Applied physics letters Cohen, G. M., Mooney, P. M., Jones, E. C., Chan, K. K., Solomon, P. M., Wong, H. S. 1999; 6 (75): 787-789
  • Transient enhanced diffusion and dose loss of indium in silicon Dokumaci, O., Ronsheim, P., D'emic, C., Domenicucci, A. G., Hegde, S., Kozlowski, P., Wong, H.S.Philip 1999
  • Nanoscale cmos Wong, H. S., Frank, D. J., Solomon, P. M., Wann, C. H., Welser, J. J. 1999
  • Monte Carlo modeling of threshold variation due to dopant fluctuations Frank, D. J., Taur, Y., Ieong, M., Wong, H. S. 1999
  • Low-complexity cochannel interference cancellation and macroscopic diversity for high-capacity PCS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY Wong, P. B., Cox, D. C. 1998; 47 (1): 124-132
  • Device design considerations for double-gate, ground-plane, and single-gated ultra-thin SOI MOSFET's at the 25 nm channel length generation Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'98. Technical Digest., International Wong, H. S., Frank, D. J., Solomon, P. M. 1998
  • Monitoring hot-carrier degradation in SOI MOSFETs by hot-carrier luminescence techniques Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Selmi, L., Pavesi, M., Wong, H. S., Acovic, A., Sangiorgi, E. 1998; 5 (45): 1135-1139
  • Silicon light-valve array chip for high-resolution reflective liquid crystal projection displays (vol 42, pg 347, 1998) IBM JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Sanford, J. L., Wong, H. S. 1998; 6 (42): 874-874
  • CMOS active pixel image sensors fabricated using a 1.8-V, 0.25-μm CMOS technology Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Wong, H. P., Chang, R. T., Crabbe, E., Agnello, P. D. 1998; 4 (45): 889-894
  • Generalized scale length for two-dimensional effects in MOSFETs Electron Device Letters , IEEE Frank, D. J., Taur, Y., Wong, H. S. 1998; 10 (19): 385-387
  • Guest Editors' Introduction: Digital Imaging IEEE MICRO Theuwissen, A. J., Wong, H. S. 1998; 6 (18): 0012-13
  • Discrete random dopant distribution effects in nanometer-scale MOSFETs Microelectronics Reliability Wong, H. P., Taur, Y., Frank, D. J. 1998; 9 (38): 1447-1456
  • Comparison of raised and Schottky source/drain MOSFETs using a novel tunneling contact model Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'98. Technical Digest., International Ieong, M. K., Solomon, P. M., Laux, S. E., Wong, H. S., Chidambarrao, D. 1998
  • CMOS image sensors-recent advances and device scaling considerations Electron Devices Meeting , IEDM'97. Technical Digest., International Wong, H. S. 1997
  • Self-aligned (top and bottom) double-gate MOSFET with a 25 nm thick silicon channel Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'97. Technical Digest., International Wong, H. S., Chan, K. K., Taur, Y. 1997
  • CMOS scaling into the nanometer regime Taur, Y., Buchanan, D. A., Chen, W., Frank, D. J., Ismail, K. E., Lo, S. H., Wong, H.S.Philip 1997
  • Fabrication of ultrathin, highly uniform thin-film SOI MOSFETs with low series resistance using pattern-constrained epitaxy Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Wong, H. S., Chan, K. K., Lee, Y., Roper, P., Taur, Y. 1997; 7 (44): 1131-1135
  • Low-complexity diversity combining algorithms and circuit architectures for co-channel interference cancellation and frequency-selective fading mitigation IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS Wong, P. B., Cox, D. C. 1996; 44 (9): 1107-1116
  • A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION Wong, P. B., Tyler, G. L., Baron, J. E., GURROLA, E. M., Simpson, R. A. 1996; 44 (4): 504-514
  • Scaling silicon MOS devices to their limits Microelectronic engineering Wind, S. J., Frank, D. J., Wong, H. S. 1996; 1 (32): 271-282
  • Technology and device scaling considerations for CMOS imagers Electron Devices Wong, H. S. 1996; 12 (43): 2131-2142
  • Ultra-thin, highly uniform thin film SOI MOSFET with low series resistance using pattern-constrained epitaxy (PACE) Wong, H. P., Chan, K., Lee, Y., Roper, P., Taur, Y. 1996
  • CONSTRUCTING A PUBLIC POPULAR EDUCATION IN SAO-PAULO, BRAZIL COMPARATIVE EDUCATION REVIEW Wong, P. L. 1995; 39 (1): 120-141
  • CMOS scaling into the 21st century: 0.1 μm and beyond IBM J. Research and Development Wong, H. S., Taur, Y. 1995; 39: 245-260
  • On “Effective Channel Length” in 0.1-pm MOSFET’s IEEE electron device letters Taur, Y., Mii, Y. J., Logan, R., Wong, H. S. 1995; 4 (16)
  • CMOS scaling into the 21st century: 0.1 µm and beyond IBM journal of research and development Taur, Y., Mii, Y. J., Frank, D. J., Wong, H. S., Buchanan, D. A., Wind, S. J. 1995; 1.2 (39): 245-260
  • A comparative study of hot-carrier induced light emission and degradation in bulk and SOI MOSFETs Selmi, L., Pavesi, M., Wong, H. S., Acovic, A., Sangiorgi, E. 1995
  • Probing the Limits of Silicon-Based Nanoelectronics Wind, S. J., Taur, Y., Mii, Y., Frank, D. J., Wong, H. S., Buchanan, D. A. 1995
  • Design and performance considerations for sub-0.1 μm double-gate SOI MOSFET's Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'94. Technical Digest., International Wong, H. S., Frank, D. J., Taur, Y., Stork, J. M. 1994
  • Temperature-dependent trapping behaviors of thin-nitrided oxide films [2364-44] Yang, B. L., Wong, H., Chan, Y. C., Cheng, Y. C. 1994
  • ANALOG FIR FILTERS WITH AN OVERSAMPLED SIGMA-DELTA MODULATOR - COMMENTS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS II-ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Wong, P. W., Gray, R. M. 1993; 40 (12): 798-798
  • Investigation of hot electron luminescence in silicon by means of dual-gate MOSFET's Electron Devices Meeting , IEDM'93. Technical Digest., International Selmi, L., Wong, H. S., Sangiorgi, E., Lanzoni, M., Manfredi, M. 1993
  • Investigation of Hot Electron Luminescence in Silicon by Means of Dual Gate MOSFETs Selmi, L., Wong, H., Sangiorgi, E., Lanzoni, M., Manfredi, M. 1993
  • Three-dimensional ‘atomistic’simulation of discrete random dopant distribution effects in sub-0.1 m MOSFET’s Wang, H. S., Taur, Y. 1993
  • “Universal” effective mobility of empirical local mobility models for< i> n</i>-and< i> p</i>-channel silicon MOSFETs Solid-state electronics Wong, H. S. 1993; 2 (36): 179-188
  • Performance evaluation of a high-quality TDI-CCD color scanner High-resolution sensors and hybrid systems Wong, H., Kang, W., Giordano, F., Yao, Y. 1992: 10-14
  • Gate-current injection and surface impact ionization in MOSFET's with a gate induced virtual drain Electron Devices Meeting , IEDM'92. Technical Digest., International Wong, H. S. 1992
  • TDI charge-coupled devices: design and applications IBM Journal of research and development Wong, H. S., Yao, Y. L., Schlig, E. S. 1992; 1 (36): 83-106
  • LATE CONSOLIDATIVE RADIATION-THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF LIMITED-STAGE SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER CANCER Carlson, R. W., Sikic, B. I., Gandara, D. R., HENDRICKSON, C. G., WITTLINGER, P. S., Shields, J. A., Wong, P. P., WHITE, J. E., MEAKIN, C. J., MCWHIRTER, K. M., Lamborn, K. R., Phillips, T. L. 1991; 68 (5): 948-958

    Abstract

    Two hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled on this randomized Phase III trial testing the value of late consolidative involved-field radiation therapy in the treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Patients were treated with induction chemotherapy consisting of alternating cycles of procarbazine, vincristine, lomustine, and cyclophosphamide (POCC) and etoposide, doxorubicin, and methotrexate (VAM) for 6 to 9 months. Responding patients were then randomized at 6 or 9 months to chemotherapy alone or to involved-field radiation therapy. All partial and complete responders received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Of the 180 eligible and evaluable patients, 80 (44%) achieved a complete response and 39 (22%) achieved a partial response (overall rate of response, 66%). Actuarial median survival time was 11.6 months, with 16% of patients surviving 2 years and 11% surviving 5 years. Forty-eight patients were randomized to chemotherapy alone (24 patients) versus chemotherapy plus involved-field radiation therapy (24 patients). There were no significant differences in time to progression or survival between those patients receiving or not receiving involved-field radiation therapy. The thorax was the site of first relapse in 58% of patients randomized to chemotherapy alone versus 29% in patients randomized to chemotherapy plus involved-field radiation therapy (P equals 0.042). The major acute toxicity was reversible myelosuppression, and the major late toxicity was chronic central nervous system dysfunction. The authors conclude that the addition of late consolidative radiation therapy to induction chemotherapy in the treatment of limited-stage SCLC is well tolerated and improves local control, but does not improve time to progression or rates of survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GD02500006

    View details for PubMedID 1655219

  • Color Properties and Color Calibration for a High Performance, High Fidelity Color Scanner International Business Machines Corporation. Research Division ,HR Delp, G ... Wong, H. S. 1991
  • A Rapid Prototyping and Implementation Method for Systolic Array Digital Signal Processors Bergmann, N. W., Wong, H., Sutton, P. 1991
  • Signal distribution methods for active phased arrays Wong, H., Chang, S. S., Ho, T. Q. 1991
  • Experimental verification of the mechanism of hot-carrier-induced photon emission in n-MOSFET's with a CCD gate structure Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'91. Technical Digest. Wong, H. S. 1991
  • Signal distribution techniques for active phased-array antennas Microwave Journal Wong, H., Chang, S. S., Ho, T. Q. 1991; 34: 147-151
  • Effect of knife-edge skew on modulation transfer function measurement of charge-coupled device imagers employing a scanning knife edge Optical Engineering Wong, H. S. 1991; 9 (30): 1394-1398
  • Design Considerations for a High Quality Camera Type Color Scanner International Business Machines Corporation. Research Division Wong, H. S. 1991
  • SIGMA-DELTA MODULATION WITH IID GAUSSIAN INPUTS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY Wong, P. W., Gray, R. M. 1990; 36 (4): 784-798
  • FIR FILTERS WITH SIGMA-DELTA MODULATION ENCODING IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ACOUSTICS SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Wong, P. W., Gray, R. M. 1990; 38 (6): 979-990
  • QUANTIZATION NOISE, FIXED-POINT MULTIPLICATIVE ROUNDOFF NOISE, AND DITHERING IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ACOUSTICS SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Wong, P. W. 1990; 38 (2): 286-300
  • Gate dielectric‐dependent flicker noise in metal‐oxide‐semiconductor transistors Journal of applied physics Wong, H., Cheng, Y. C. 1990; 2 (67): 863-867
  • QUANTIZATION NOISE IN SINGLE-LOOP SIGMA-DELTA MODULATION WITH SINUSOIDAL INPUTS IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS Gray, R. M., Chou, W., Wong, P. W. 1989; 37 (9): 956-968
  • MULTISTAGE SIGMA-DELTA MODULATION IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY Chou, W., Wong, P. W., Gray, R. M. 1989; 35 (4): 784-796
  • The ion sensitivity of boron implanted silicon nitride chemical sensors Journal of The Electrochemical Society Wong, H. S., Hu, Y., White, M. H. 1989; 10 (136): 2968-2972
  • A CMOS-integratedISFET-operational amplifier'chemical sensor employing differential sensing Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Wong, H. S., White, M. H. 1989; 3 (36): 479-487
  • ENHANCEMENT OF THE CLINICAL ACTIVITY OF MELPHALAN BY THE HYPOXIC CELL SENSITIZER MISONIDAZOLE CANCER RESEARCH Coleman, C. N., Carlson, R. W., Halsey, J., Kohler, M., Gribble, M., Sikic, B. I., Jacobs, C. 1988; 48 (12): 3528-3532

    Abstract

    One hundred patients with non-small cell lung cancer were entered by members of the Northern California Oncology Group into a randomized Phase II trial of i.v. melphalan versus i.v. melphalan with concomitant oral misonidazole. The patients had not received prior chemotherapy. Eighty-five patients were evaluable for assessment of response and 89 were evaluable for toxicity analysis. The melphalan/misonidazole group had a superior response rate (two complete and four partial responses among 42 patients or 14%) compared to the melphalan group in which there were no responses among 43 patients (p = 0.024, two-sided Fisher exact test). Since hematological toxicity was equivalent in the two groups, there was an improvement in therapeutic index. Data from 12 patients undergoing pharmacological studies demonstrated that the plasma concentration of melphalan was 25% higher in the misonidazole group, a difference that is not statistically significant. Although the mechanism of interaction has not been fully established, this randomized trial demonstrates that a chemosensitizer can enhance the clinical antitumor activity of an alkylating agent and suggests that chemosensitizers in combination with alkylating agents should be investigated in further clinical trials.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N713400041

    View details for PubMedID 2836059

  • The Physics and Technology of the Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Wong, H. S. 1988
  • A self-contained CMOS integrated pH sensor Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM'88. Technical Digest. Wong, H. S., White, M. H. 1988
  • The Physics and Technology of the Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET) Lehigh University Wong, H. S. 1988
  • TWO-DIMENSIONAL BLOCK KALMAN FILTERING FOR IMAGE-RESTORATION IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ACOUSTICS SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING AZIMISADJADI, M. R., Wong, P. W. 1987; 35 (12): 1736-1749
  • An improved method of MOSFET modeling and parameter extraction Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Krutsick, T. J., White, M. H., Wong, H. S., Booth, R. V. 1987; 8 (34): 1676-1680
  • Modeling of transconductance degradation and extraction of threshold voltage in thin oxide MOSFET's Solid-State Electronics Wong, H. S., White, M. H., Krutsick, T. J., Booth, R. V. 1987; 9 (30): 953-968
  • The effect of channel implants on MOS transistor characterization Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions Booth, R. V., White, M. H., Wong, H. S., Krutsick, T. J. 1987; 12 (34): 2501-2509
  • AGGREGATE FLOW MODEL FOR EVALUATING ATC PLANNING STRATEGIES JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Wong, P. J., COULURIS, G. J., Schmidt, D. K. 1977; 14 (6): 527-532
  • FUNDAMENTALS OF RAILROAD HUMP YARD DESIGN TRAFFIC QUARTERLY Wong, P. J. 1975; 29 (1): 133-147
  • REACHABLE SETS FOR TRACKING OPERATIONS RESEARCH Wong, P. J., KORSAK, A. J. 1974; 22 (3): 497-509
  • MEMRISTORS: DEVICES, MODELS, AND APPLICATIONS ISSUES Chua, L. O., Jeltsema, D., Dòria-Cerezo, A., Georgiou, P., Barahona, M., Yaliraki, S. N. 1959; 2091 (1950)