Bio


Ram Rajagopal is an Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Stanford University, where he directs the Stanford Sustainable Systems Lab (S3L), focused on large-scale monitoring, data analytics and stochastic control for infrastructure networks, in particular, power networks. His current research interests in power systems are in the integration of renewables, smart distribution systems, and demand-side data analytics.

He holds a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences and an M.A. in Statistics, both from the University of California Berkeley, Masters in Electrical and Computer Engineering from University of Texas, Austin and Bachelors in Electrical Engineering from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. He is a recipient of the NSF CAREER Award, Powell Foundation Fellowship, Berkeley Regents Fellowship and the Makhoul Conjecture Challenge award. He holds more than 30 patents and several best paper awards from his work and has advised or founded various companies in the fields of sensor networks, power systems, and data analytics.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Co-Academic Director, Stanford Global Projects Center (2018 - Present)
  • Director and Founding Researcher, Stanford University Bits and Watts Lab (2016 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • NSF CAREER Award, NSF (2016)

2017-18 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Optimal occupancy-driven parking pricing under demand uncertainties and traveler heterogeneity: A stochastic control approach TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART B-METHODOLOGICAL Qian, Z. (., Rajagopal, R. 2014; 67: 144-165
  • Network Risk Limiting Dispatch: Optimal Control and Price of Uncertainty IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL Zhang, B., Rajagopal, R., Tse, D. 2014; 59 (9): 2442-2456
  • Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID Kwac, J., Flora, J., Rajagopal, R. 2014; 5 (1): 420-430
  • Smart Meter Driven Segmentation: What Your Consumption Says About You IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Albert, A., Rajagopal, R. 2013; 28 (4): 4019-4030
  • Data-driven planning of distributed energy resources amidst socio-technical complexities Nature Energy Jain, R. K., Qin, J., Rajagopal, R. 2017

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nenergy.2017.112

  • Approximation Algorithms for Optimization of Combinatorial Dynamical Systems IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL Yang, I., Burden, S. A., Rajagopal, R., Sastry, S. S., Tomlin, C. J. 2016; 61 (9): 2644-2649
  • Data-Driven Targeting of Customers for Demand Response IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID Kwac, J., Rajagopal, R. 2016; 7 (5): 2199-2207
  • Online Modified Greedy Algorithm for Storage Control Under Uncertainty IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Qin, J., Chow, Y., Yang, J., Rajagopal, R. 2016; 31 (3): 1729-1743
  • Scheduling Non-Preemptive Deferrable Loads IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS O'Brien, G., Rajagopal, R. 2016; 31 (2): 835-845
  • Distributed Online Modified Greedy Algorithm for Networked Storage Operation Under Uncertainty IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID Qin, J., Chow, Y., Yang, J., Rajagopal, R. 2016; 7 (2): 1106-1118
  • Parking Sensing and Information System Sensors, Deployment, and Evaluation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD Chen, X., Qian, Z. (., Rajagopal, R., Stiers, T., Flores, C., Kavaler, R., Williams, F. 2016: 81-89

    View details for DOI 10.3141/2559-10

    View details for Web of Science ID 000390618400011

  • Shapley Value Estimation for Compensation of Participants in Demand Response Programs IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID O'Brien, G., El Gamal, A., Rajagopal, R. 2015; 6 (6): 2837-2844
  • Ranking appliance energy efficiency in households: Utilizing smart meter data and energy efficiency frontiers to estimate and identify the determinants of appliance energy efficiency in residential buildings ENERGY AND BUILDINGS Kavousian, A., Rajagopal, R., Fischer, M. 2015; 99: 220-230
  • Wind Aggregation Via Risky Power Markets IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Zhao, Y., Qin, J., Rajagopal, R., Goldsmith, A., Poor, H. V. 2015; 30 (3): 1571-1581
  • Competition and Coalition Formation of Renewable Power Producers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Zhang, B., Johari, R., Rajagopal, R. 2015; 30 (3): 1624-1632
  • Optimal dynamic pricing for morning commute parking TRANSPORTMETRICA A-TRANSPORT SCIENCE Qian, Z. (., Rajagopal, R. 2015; 11 (4): 291-316
  • Structural health monitoring of progressive damage EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING & STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Mollineaux, M., Rajagopal, R. 2015; 44 (4): 583-600

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eqe.2562

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351176900006

  • Thermal Profiling of Residential Energy Use IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Albert, A., Rajagopal, R. 2015; 30 (2): 602-611
  • The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the emission reductions due to wind power and carbon tax. Environmental science & technology Yu, Y., Rajagopal, R. 2015; 49 (4): 2568-2576

    Abstract

    Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce emissions. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater emission reduction by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 emission when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 emission reduction when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% emission reduction associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 emission is similar to the emission level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es5052099

    View details for PubMedID 25607824

  • Where Ds My Parking Spot? Online and Offline Prediction of Time-Varying Parking Occupancy TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH RECORD Tamrazian, A., Qian, Z. (., Rajagopal, R. 2015: 77-85

    View details for DOI 10.3141/2489-09

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370993500010

  • SnowFort: An Open Source Wireless Sensor Network for Data Analytics in Infrastructure and Environmental Monitoring IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Liao, Y., Mollineaux, M., Hsu, R., Bartlett, R., Singla, A., Raja, A., Bajwa, R., Rajagopal, R. 2014; 14 (12)
  • Cost-of-Service Segmentation of Energy Consumers IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Albert, A., Rajagopal, R. 2014; 29 (6): 2795-2803
  • Optimal dynamic parking pricing for morning commute considering expected cruising time TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART C-EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Qian, Z. (., Rajagopal, R. 2014; 48: 468-490
  • RSSI-Fingerprinting-Based Mobile Phone Localization With Route Constraints IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY Ergen, S. C., Tetikol, H. S., Kontik, M., Sevlian, R., Rajagopal, R., Varaiya, P. 2014; 63 (1): 423-428
  • A Model For The Effect of Aggregation on Short Term Load Forecasting IEEE PES General Meeting Sevlian, R. A., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2014
  • Do Wind Power Producers have Market Power and Exercise It? IEEE PES General Meeting Yu, Y., Zhang, B., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2014
  • Aggregation for Load Servicing IEEE PES General Meeting Patel, S., Sevlian, R., Zhang, B., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2014
  • Data-Driven Benchmarking of Building Energy Efficiency Utilizing Statistical Frontier Models JOURNAL OF COMPUTING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Kavousian, A., Rajagopal, R. 2014; 28 (1): 79-88
  • Towards optimal allocation of computer resources: Trade-offs between uncertainty quantification, discretization and model reduction ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING & SOFTWARE Leube, P. C., de Barros, F. P., Nowak, W., Rajagopal, R. 2013; 50: 97-107
  • Sequential structural damage diagnosis algorithm using a change point detection method JOURNAL OF SOUND AND VIBRATION Noh, H., Rajagopal, R., Kiremidjian, A. S. 2013; 332 (24): 6419-6433
  • Detection and Statistics of Wind Power Ramps IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Sevlian, R., Rajagopal, R. 2013; 28 (4): 3610-3620
  • Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior ENERGY Kavousian, A., Rajagopal, R., Fischer, M. 2013; 55: 184-194
  • Risk-limiting dispatch for integrating renewable power INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL POWER & ENERGY SYSTEMS Rajagopal, R., Bitar, E., Varaiya, P., Wu, F. 2013; 44 (1): 615-628
  • Building dynamic thermal profiles of energy consumption for individuals and neighborhoods IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data) Albert, A., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2013
  • Demand Response Targeting Using Big Data Analytics IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data) Kwac, J., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2013
  • Risky Power Forward Contracts for Wind Aggregation 51st Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing Zhao, Y., Qin, J., Rajagopal, R., Goldsmith, A., Poor, H. V. IEEE. 2013: 54–61
  • Dynamic Programming Solution to Distributed Storage Operation and Design General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society (PES) Qin, J., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2013
  • Financial Transmission Rights Perform Well in Power Markets with High Penetration of Wind Energy? General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society (PES) Yu, Y., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2013
  • Outage Detection in Power Distribution Networks with Optimally-Deployed Power Flow Sensors General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society (PES) Zhao, Y., Sevlian, R., Rajagopal, R., Goldsmith, A., Poor, H. V. IEEE. 2013
  • Storage in Risk Limiting Dispatch: Control and Approximation American Control Conference (ACC) Qin, J., Su, H., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2013: 4202–4208
  • A Method for Automatically Scheduling Notified Deferrable Loads American Control Conference (ACC) O'Brien, G., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2013: 5080–5085
  • Utility Customer Segmentation Based on Smart Meter Data: Empirical Study IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm) Kwac, J., Tan, C., Sintov, N., Flora, J., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2013: 720–725
  • Oriented Wireless Sensing for Structural Health Monitoring 9th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (IWSHM) Mollineaux, M., Rajagopal, R., Kiremidjian, A., Balafas, K. DESTECH PUBLICATIONS, INC. 2013: 73–80
  • Risk Limiting Dispatch with Ramping Constraints IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm) Qin, J., Zhang, B., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2013: 791–796
  • Data-Driven Forecasting Algorithms for Building Energy Consumption Conference on Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems Noh, H. Y., Rajagopal, R. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2009894

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323283300022

  • Sequential detection of progressive damage Conference on Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems Mollineaux, M., Rajagopal, R. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2009887

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323283300023

  • Risk Limiting Dispatch in Congested Networks 50th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton) Rajagopal, R., Tse, D., Zhang, B. IEEE. 2013: 1900–1907
  • Bringing Wind Energy to Market IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS Bitar, E. Y., Rajagopal, R., Khargonekar, P. P., Poolla, K., Varaiya, P. 2012; 27 (3): 1225-1235
  • Damage diagnosis algorithm using a sequential change point detection method with an unknown distribution for damage Conference on Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems Noh, H. Y., Rajagopal, R., Kiremidjian, A. S. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2012

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.915409

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304192100005

  • Risk Limiting Dispatch of Wind Power American Control Conference (ACC) Rajagopal, R., Bitar, E., Wu, F., Varaiya, P. IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2012: 4417–4422
  • Risk Limiting Dispatch General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society Entriken, R., Varaiya, P., Wu, F., Bialek, J., Dent, C., Tuohy, A., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2012
  • Optimal Electric Energy Storage Operation General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society Qin, J., Sevlian, R., Varodayan, D., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2012
  • Wind Power Ramps: Detection and Statistics General Meeting of the IEEE-Power-and-Energy-Society Sevlian, R., Rajagopal, R. IEEE. 2012
  • Simultaneous Optimization of Sensor Placements and Balanced Schedules IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL Krause, A., Rajagopal, R., Gupta, A., Guestrin, C. 2011; 56 (10): 2390-2405
  • Damage Diagnosis Algorithm for Civil Structures Using a Sequential Change Point Detection Method and Time-Series Analysis 8th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring Noh, H. Y., Rajagopal, R., Kiremidjian, A. S. DESTECH PUBLICATIONS, INC. 2011: 55–62
  • The Role of Co-located Storage for Wind Power Producers in Conventional Electricity Markets American Control Conference (ACC) Bitar, E., Rajagopal, R., Khargonekar, P., Poolla, K. IEEE. 2011: 3886–3891
  • Arterial Travel Time Estimation Based On Vehicle Re-Identification Using Magnetic Sensors: Performance Analysis 14th International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC) Sanchez, R. O., Flores, C., Horowitz, R., Rajagopal, R., Varaiya, P. IEEE. 2011: 997–1002
  • Real-Time Measurement of Link Vehicle Count and Travel Time in a Road Network IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Kwong, K., Kavaler, R., Rajagopal, R., Varaiya, P. 2010; 11 (4): 814-825
  • Arterial travel time estimation based on vehicle re-identification using wireless magnetic sensors TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART C-EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Kwong, K., Kavaler, R., Rajagopal, R., Varaiya, P. 2009; 17 (6): 586-606
  • Distributed Online simultaneous fault detection for multiple sensors 2008 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION PROCESSING IN SENSOR NETWORKS, PROCEEDINGS Rajagopal, R., Nguyen, X., Ergen, S. C., Varaiya, P. 2008: 133-144
  • Universal quantile estimation with feedback in the communication-constrained setting 2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOLS 1-6, PROCEEDINGS Rajagopal, R., Wainwright, M. J., Varaiya, P. 2006: 836-840
  • Peak locations in all-pass signals the Makhoul Conjecture Challenge 2001 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOLS I-VI, PROCEEDINGS Rajagopal, R., Wenzel, L. 2001: 3961-3964