Bio


Recent years have seen unprecedented motivation for the emergence of new energy technologies. Global dependence on fossil fuels, however, will persist until alternate technologies can compete economically. We must develop means to produce energy (or energy carriers) from renewable sources and then convert them to work as efficiently and cleanly as possible. Catalysis is energy conversion, and the Jaramillo laboratory focuses on fundamental catalytic processes occurring on solid-state surfaces in both the production and consumption of energy. Chemical-to-electrical and electrical-to-chemical energy conversion are at the core of the research. Nanoparticles, metals, alloys, sulfides, nitrides, carbides, phosphides, oxides, and biomimetic organo-metallic complexes comprise the toolkit of materials that can help change the energy landscape. Tailoring catalyst surfaces to fit the chemistry is our primary challenge.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Deputy Director, SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis (2014 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara (2004)
  • MS, University of California, Santa Barbara, Chemical Engineering (2000)
  • BS, Stanford, Chemical Engineering (1998)

2016-17 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30. Nature communications Jia, J., Seitz, L. C., Benck, J. D., Huo, Y., Chen, Y., Ng, J. W., Bilir, T., Harris, J. S., Jaramillo, T. F. 2016; 7: 13237-?

    Abstract

    Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms13237

    View details for PubMedID 27796309

  • A highly active and stable IrOx/SrIrO3 catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction SCIENCE Seitz, L. C., Dickens, C. F., Nishio, K., Hikita, Y., Montoya, J., Doyle, A., Kirk, C., Vojvodic, A., Hwang, H. Y., Norskov, J. K., Jaramillo, T. F. 2016; 353 (6303): 1011-1014

    Abstract

    Oxygen electrochemistry plays a key role in renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers, but the slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limit the performance and commercialization of such devices. Here we report an iridium oxide/strontium iridium oxide (IrOx/SrIrO3) catalyst formed during electrochemical testing by strontium leaching from surface layers of thin films of SrIrO3 This catalyst has demonstrated specific activity at 10 milliamps per square centimeter of oxide catalyst (OER current normalized to catalyst surface area), with only 270 to 290 millivolts of overpotential for 30 hours of continuous testing in acidic electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations suggest the formation of highly active surface layers during strontium leaching with IrO3 or anatase IrO2 motifs. The IrOx/SrIrO3 catalyst outperforms known IrOx and ruthenium oxide (RuOx) systems, the only other OER catalysts that have reasonable activity in acidic electrolyte.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaf5050

    View details for Web of Science ID 000382558900034

    View details for PubMedID 27701108

  • Elucidating the electronic structure of supported gold nanoparticles and its relevance to catalysis by means of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy SURFACE SCIENCE Reinecke, B. N., Kuhl, K. P., Ogasawara, H., Li, L., Voss, J., Abild-Pedersen, F., Nilsson, A., Jaramillo, T. F. 2016; 650: 24-33
  • Molybdenum Disulfide as a Protection Layer and Catalyst for Gallium Indium Phosphide Solar Water Splitting Photocathodes JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS Britto, R. J., Benck, J. D., Young, J. L., Hahn, C., Deutsch, T. G., Jaramillo, T. F. 2016; 7 (11): 2044-2049

    Abstract

    Gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) is a semiconductor with promising optical and electronic properties for solar water splitting, but its surface stability is problematic as it undergoes significant chemical and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomaterials are promising to both protect GaInP2 and to improve catalysis because MoS2 is resistant to corrosion and also possesses high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, we demonstrate that GaInP2 photocathodes coated with thin MoS2 surface protecting layers exhibit excellent activity and stability for solar hydrogen production, with no loss in performance (photocurrent onset potential, fill factor, and light-limited current density) after 60 h of operation. This represents a 500-fold increase in stability compared to bare p-GaInP2 samples tested in identical conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b00563

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377239200018

    View details for PubMedID 27196435

  • Improving the Photoelectrochemical Performance of Hematite by Employing a High Surface Area Scaffold and Engineering Solid-Solid Interfaces ADVANCED MATERIALS INTERFACES Chakthranont, P., Pinaud, B. A., Seitz, L. C., Forman, A. J., Jaramillo, T. F. 2016; 3 (7)
  • Band Edge Engineering of Oxide Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Integration of Subsurface Dipoles with Atomic-Scale Control ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Hikita, Y., Nishio, K., Seitz, L. C., Chakthranont, P., Tachikawa, T., Jaramillo, T. F., Hwang, H. Y. 2016; 6 (7)
  • Tuning Composition and Activity of Cobalt Titanium Oxide Catalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA Seitz, L. C., Nordlund, D., Gallo, A., Jaramillo, T. F. 2016; 193: 240-245
  • Engineering Cobalt Phosphide (CoP) Thin Film Catalysts for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Activity on Silicon Photocathodes ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Hellstern, T. R., Benck, J. D., Kibsgaard, J., Hahn, C., Jaramillo, T. F. 2016; 6 (4)
  • Chemical and Phase Evolution of Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Catalysts for Electrochemical Hydrogen Production. ACS nano Lee, S. C., Benck, J. D., Tsai, C., Park, J., Koh, A. L., Abild-Pedersen, F., Jaramillo, T. F., Sinclair, R. 2016; 10 (1): 624-632

    Abstract

    Amorphous MoSx is a highly active, earth-abundant catalyst for the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction. Previous studies have revealed that this material initially has a composition of MoS3, but after electrochemical activation, the surface is reduced to form an active phase resembling MoS2 in composition and chemical state. However, structural changes in the MoSx catalyst and the mechanism of the activation process remain poorly understood. In this study, we employ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to image amorphous MoSx catalysts activated under two hydrogen-rich conditions: ex situ in an electrochemical cell and in situ in an environmental TEM. For the first time, we directly observe the formation of crystalline domains in the MoSx catalyst after both activation procedures as well as spatially localized changes in the chemical state detected via electron energy loss spectroscopy. Using density functional theory calculations, we investigate the mechanisms for this phase transformation and find that the presence of hydrogen is critical for enabling the restructuring process. Our results suggest that the surface of the amorphous MoSx catalyst is dynamic: while the initial catalyst activation forms the primary active surface of amorphous MoS2, continued transformation to the crystalline phase during electrochemical operation could contribute to catalyst deactivation. These results have important implications for the application of this highly active electrocatalyst for sustainable H2 generation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.5b05652

    View details for PubMedID 26624225

  • Benchmarking nanoparticulate metal oxide electrocatalysts for the alkaline water oxidation reaction JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Jung, S., McCrory, C. C., Ferrer, I. M., Peters, J. C., Jaramillo, T. F. 2016; 4 (8): 3068-3076

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c5ta07586f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371077300034

  • Electrooxidation of Alcohols with Electrode-Supported Transfer Hydrogenation Catalysts ACS CATALYSIS Buonaiuto, M., De Crisci, A. G., Jaramillo, T. F., Waymouth, R. M. 2015; 5 (12): 7343-7349
  • Enhancement Effect of Noble Metals on Manganese Oxide for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS Seitz, L. C., Hersbach, T. J., Nordlund, D., Jaramillo, T. F. 2015; 6 (20): 4178-4183
  • Mapping Photoelectrochemical Current Distribution at Nanoscale Dimensions on Morphologically Controlled BiVO4 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS Chakthranont, P., Seitz, L. C., Jaramillo, T. F. 2015; 6 (18): 3702-3707
  • Platinum and hybrid polyaniline-platinum surfaces for the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 MRS COMMUNICATIONS Abram, D. N., Kuhl, K. P., Cave, E. R., Jaramillo, T. F. 2015; 5 (2): 319-325
  • Benchmarking Hydrogen Evolving Reaction and Oxygen Evolving Reaction Electrocatalysts for Solar Water Splitting Devices JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY McCrory, C. C., Jung, S., Ferrer, I. M., Chatman, S. M., Peters, J. C., Jaramillo, T. F. 2015; 137 (13): 4347-4357

    Abstract

    Objective comparisons of electrocatalyst activity and stability using standard methods under identical conditions are necessary to evaluate the viability of existing electrocatalysts for integration into solar-fuel devices as well as to help inform the development of new catalytic systems. Herein, we use a standard protocol as a primary screen for evaluating the activity, short-term (2 h) stability, and electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) of 18 electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and 26 electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under conditions relevant to an integrated solar water-splitting device in aqueous acidic or alkaline solution. Our primary figure of merit is the overpotential necessary to achieve a magnitude current density of 10 mA cm(-2) per geometric area, the approximate current density expected for a 10% efficient solar-to-fuels conversion device under 1 sun illumination. The specific activity per ECSA of each material is also reported. Among HER catalysts, several could operate at 10 mA cm(-2) with overpotentials <0.1 V in acidic and/or alkaline solutions. Among OER catalysts in acidic solution, no non-noble metal based materials showed promising activity and stability, whereas in alkaline solution many OER catalysts performed with similar activity achieving 10 mA cm(-2) current densities at overpotentials of ~0.33-0.5 V. Most OER catalysts showed comparable or better specific activity per ECSA when compared to Ir and Ru catalysts in alkaline solutions, while most HER catalysts showed much lower specific activity than Pt in both acidic and alkaline solutions. For select catalysts, additional secondary screening measurements were conducted including Faradaic efficiency and extended stability measurements.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja510442p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352752000019

    View details for PubMedID 25668483

  • Simultaneous detection of electronic structure changes from two elements of a bifunctional catalyst using wavelength-dispersive X-ray emission spectroscopy and in situ electrochemistry PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Gul, S., Ng, J. W., Alonso-Mori, R., Kern, J., Sokaras, D., Anzenberg, E., Lassalle-Kaiser, B., Gorlin, Y., Weng, T., Zwart, P. H., Zhang, J. Z., Bergmann, U., Yachandra, V. K., Jaramillo, T. F., Yano, J. 2015; 17 (14): 8901-8912

    Abstract

    Multielectron catalytic reactions, such as water oxidation, nitrogen reduction, or hydrogen production in enzymes and inorganic catalysts often involve multimetallic clusters. In these systems, the reaction takes place between metals or metals and ligands to facilitate charge transfer, bond formation/breaking, substrate binding, and release of products. In this study, we present a method to detect X-ray emission signals from multiple elements simultaneously, which allows for the study of charge transfer and the sequential chemistry occurring between elements. Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) probes charge and spin states of metals as well as their ligand environment. A wavelength-dispersive spectrometer based on the von Hamos geometry was used to disperse Kβ signals of multiple elements onto a position detector, enabling an XES spectrum to be measured in a single-shot mode. This overcomes the scanning needs of the scanning spectrometers, providing data free from temporal and normalization errors and therefore ideal to follow sequential chemistry at multiple sites. We have applied this method to study MnOx-based bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In particular, we investigated the effects of adding a secondary element, Ni, to form MnNiOx and its impact on the chemical states and catalytic activity, by tracking the redox characteristics of each element upon sweeping the electrode potential. The detection scheme we describe here is general and can be applied to time-resolved studies of materials consisting of multiple elements, to follow the dynamics of catalytic and electron transfer reactions.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c5cp01023c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351933600043

    View details for PubMedID 25747045

  • CoTiOx Catalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Seitz, L. C., Pinaud, B. A., Nordlund, D., GORLIN, Y., Gallo, A., Jaramillo, T. F. 2015; 162 (12): H841-H846
  • Synthesis of thin film AuPd alloys and their investigation for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Hahn, C., Abram, D. N., Hansen, H. A., Hatsukade, T., Jackson, A., Johnson, N. C., Hellstern, T. R., Kuhl, K. P., Cave, E. R., Feaster, J. T., Jaramillo, T. F. 2015; 3 (40): 20185-20194

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c5ta04863j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363151000021

  • Designing an improved transition metal phosphide catalyst for hydrogen evolution using experimental and theoretical trends ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Kibsgaard, J., Tsai, C., Chan, K., Benck, J. D., Norskov, J. K., Abild-Pedersen, F., Jaramillo, T. F. 2015; 8 (10): 3022-3029

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c5ee02179k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362351700024

  • Applications of ALD MnO to electrochemical water splitting PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Pickrahn, K. L., Gorlin, Y., Seitz, L. C., Garg, A., Nordlund, D., Jaramillo, T. F., Bent, S. F. 2015; 17 (21): 14003-14011

    Abstract

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an attractive method to deposit uniform catalytic films onto high surface area electrodes. One interesting material for ALD synthesis is MnOx, a promising earth-abundant catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). It has previously been shown that catalysts beginning as MnO synthesized using ALD on smooth glassy carbon (s-GC) electrodes and Mn2O3 obtained upon annealing MnO on s-GC are active OER catalysts. Here, we use ALD to deposit MnO on high surface area GC (HSA-GC) substrates, forming an active catalyst on a geometric surface area basis. We then characterize three types of catalysts, HSA-GC MnO, s-GC MnO, and annealed MnO (Mn2O3), using cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We show that under OER conditions, all three catalysts oxidize to similar surface states with a mixture of Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) and that MnOx surface area effects can account for the observed differences in the catalytic activity. We also demonstrate the need for a high surface area support for high OER activity on a geometric basis.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c5cp00843c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354946200025

    View details for PubMedID 25946998

  • Designing Active and Stable Silicon Photocathodes for Solar Hydrogen Production Using Molybdenum Sulfide Nanomaterials ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Benck, J. D., Lee, S. C., Fong, K. D., Kibsgaard, J., Sinclair, R., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 4 (18)
  • Molybdenum Phosphosulfide: An Active, Acid-Stable, Earth-Abundant Catalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION Kibsgaard, J., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 53 (52): 14433-14437

    Abstract

    Introducing sulfur into the surface of molybdenum phosphide (MoP) produces a molybdenum phosphosulfide (MoP|S) catalyst with superb activity and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic environments. The MoP|S catalyst reported herein exhibits one of the highest HER activities of any non-noble-metal electrocatalyst investigated in strong acid, while remaining perfectly stable in accelerated durability testing. Whereas mixed-metal alloy catalysts are well-known, MoP|S represents a more uncommon mixed-anion catalyst where synergistic effects between sulfur and phosphorus produce a high-surface-area electrode that is more active than those based on either the pure sulfide or the pure phosphide. The extraordinarily high activity and stability of this catalyst open up avenues to replace platinum in technologies relevant to renewable energies, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers and solar photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/anie.201408222

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346485800022

    View details for PubMedID 25359678

  • Operando Characterization of an Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Nanoparticle Catalyst during the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Casalongue, H. G., Benck, J. D., Tsai, C., Karlsson, R. K., Kaya, S., Ng, M. L., Pettersson, L. G., Abild-Pedersen, F., Norskov, J. K., Ogasawara, H., Jaramillo, T. F., Nilsson, A. 2014; 118 (50): 29252-29259

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp505394e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346759300037

  • Catalyzing the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER) with Molybdenum Sulfide Nanonnaterials ACS CATALYSIS Benck, J. D., Hellstern, T. R., Kibsgaard, J., Chakthranont, P., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 4 (11): 3957-3971

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cs500923c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344639300019

  • Substrate Selection for Fundamental Studies of Electrocatalysts and Photoelectrodes: Inert Potential Windows in Acidic, Neutral, and Basic Electrolyte PLOS ONE Benck, J. D., Pinaud, B. A., Gorlin, Y., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 9 (10)

    Abstract

    The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide) and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide). We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0107942

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346765000003

    View details for PubMedID 25357131

  • Optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5: A joint theoretical and experimental study PHYSICAL REVIEW B Morbec, J. M., Narkeviciute, I., Jaramillo, T. F., Galli, G. 2014; 90 (15)
  • Electrocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methane and Methanol on Transition Metal Surfaces JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Kuhl, K. P., Hatsukade, T., Cave, E. R., Abram, D. N., Kibsgaard, J., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 136 (40): 14107-14113

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja505791r

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343026700028

  • Electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide to methane and methanol on transition metal surfaces. Journal of the American Chemical Society Kuhl, K. P., Hatsukade, T., Cave, E. R., Abram, D. N., Kibsgaard, J., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 136 (40): 14107-14113

    Abstract

    Fuels and industrial chemicals that are conventionally derived from fossil resources could potentially be produced in a renewable, sustainable manner by an electrochemical process that operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, using only water, CO2, and electricity as inputs. To enable this technology, improved catalysts must be developed. Herein, we report trends in the electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 on a broad group of seven transition metal surfaces: Au, Ag, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pt, and Fe. Contrary to conventional knowledge in the field, all metals studied are capable of producing methane or methanol. We quantify reaction rates for these two products and describe catalyst activity and selectivity in the framework of CO binding energies for the different metals. While selectivity toward methane or methanol is low for most of these metals, the fact that they are all capable of producing these products, even at a low rate, is important new knowledge. This study reveals a richer surface chemistry for transition metals than previously known and provides new insights to guide the development of improved CO2 conversion catalysts.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja505791r

    View details for PubMedID 25259478

  • Insights into the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on metallic silver surfaces. Physical chemistry chemical physics Hatsukade, T., Kuhl, K. P., Cave, E. R., Abram, D. N., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 16 (27): 13814-13819

    Abstract

    The electrochemical reduction of CO2 could allow for a sustainable process by which renewable energy from wind and solar are used directly in the production of fuels and chemicals. In this work we investigated the potential dependent activity and selectivity of the electrochemical reduction of CO2 on metallic silver surfaces under ambient conditions. Our results deepen our understanding of the surface chemistry and provide insight into the factors important to designing better catalysts for the reaction. The high sensitivity of our experimental methods for identifying and quantifying products of reaction allowed for the observation of six reduction products including CO and hydrogen as major products and formate, methane, methanol, and ethanol as minor products. By quantifying the potential-dependent behavior of all products, we provide insights into kinetics and mechanisms at play, in particular involving the production of hydrocarbons and alcohols on catalysts with weak CO binding energy as well as the formation of a C-C bond required to produce ethanol.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4cp00692e

    View details for PubMedID 24915537

  • A carbon-free, precious-metal-free, high-performance O-2 electrode for regenerative fuel cells and metal-air batteries ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Ng, J. W., Tang, M., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 7 (6): 2017-2024

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3ee44059a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336831700025

  • Modeling Practical Performance Limits of Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Based on the Current State of Materials Research CHEMSUSCHEM Seitz, L. C., Chen, Z., Forman, A. J., Pinaud, B. A., Benck, J. D., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 7 (5): 1372-1385

    Abstract

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a means to store solar energy in the form of hydrogen. Knowledge of practical limits for this process can help researchers assess their technology and guide future directions. We develop a model to quantify loss mechanisms in PEC water splitting based on the current state of materials research and calculate maximum solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiencies along with associated optimal absorber band gaps. Various absorber configurations are modeled considering the major loss mechanisms in PEC devices. Quantitative sensitivity analyses for each loss mechanism and each absorber configuration show a profound impact of both on the resulting STH efficiencies, which can reach upwards of 25 % for the highest performance materials in a dual stacked configuration. Higher efficiencies could be reached as improved materials are developed. The results of the modeling also identify and quantify approaches that can improve system performance when working with imperfect materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/cssc.201301030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336249400018

    View details for PubMedID 24692256

  • Understanding Interactions between Manganese Oxide and Gold That Lead to Enhanced Activity for Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Gorlin, Y., Chung, C., Benck, J. D., Nordlund, D., Seitz, L., Weng, T., Sokaras, D., Clemens, B. M., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 136 (13): 4920-4926

    Abstract

    To develop active nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), a limiting reaction in several emerging renewable energy technologies, a deeper understanding of the activity of the first row transition metal oxides is needed. Previous studies of these catalysts have reported conflicting results on the influence of noble metal supports on the OER activity of the transition metal oxides. Our study aims to clarify the interactions between a transition metal oxide catalyst and its metal support in turning over this reaction. To achieve this goal, we examine a catalytic system comprising nanoparticulate Au, a common electrocatalytic support, and nanoparticulate MnOx, a promising OER catalyst. We conclusively demonstrate that adding Au to MnOx significantly enhances OER activity relative to MnOx in the absence of Au, producing an order of magnitude higher turnover frequency (TOF) than the TOF of the best pure MnOx catalysts reported to date. We also provide evidence that it is a local rather than bulk interaction between Au and MnOx that leads to the observed enhancement in the OER activity. Engineering improvements in nonprecious metal-based catalysts by the addition of Au or other noble metals could still represent a scalable catalyst as even trace amounts of Au are shown to lead a significant enhancement in the OER activity of MnOx.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja407581w

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333947900031

    View details for PubMedID 24661269

  • Building an appropriate active-site motif into a hydrogen-evolution catalyst with thiomolybdate [Mo3S13](2-) clusters NATURE CHEMISTRY Kibsgaard, J., Jaramillo, T. F., Besenbacher, F. 2014; 6 (3): 248-253

    Abstract

    Identifying and understanding the active sites responsible for reaction turnover is critical to developing improved catalysts. For the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER), MoS2 has been identified as an active non-noble-metal-based catalyst. However, only edge sites turnover the reaction because the basal planes are catalytically inert. In an effort to develop a scalable HER catalyst with an increased number of active sites, herein we report a Mo-S catalyst (supported thiomolybdate [Mo3S13](2-) nanoclusters) in which most sulfur atoms in the structure exhibit a structural motif similar to that observed at MoS2 edges. Supported sub-monolayers of [Mo3S13](2-) nanoclusters exhibited excellent HER activity and stability in acid. Imaging at the atomic scale with scanning tunnelling microscopy allowed for direct characterization of these supported catalysts. The [Mo3S13](2-) nanoclusters reported herein demonstrated excellent turnover frequencies, higher than those observed for other non-precious metal catalysts synthesized by a scalable route.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NCHEM.1853

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331951800016

    View details for PubMedID 24557141

  • Nearly Total Solar Absorption in Ultrathin Nanostructured Iron Oxide for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting ACS PHOTONICS Wang, K. X., Wu, Z., Liu, V., Brongersma, M. L., Jaramillo, T. F., Fan, S. 2014; 1 (3): 235-240

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ph4001026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335802900013

  • Controlling the Structural and Optical Properties of Ta3N5 Films through Nitridation Temperature and the Nature of the Ta Metal CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Pinaud, B. A., Vailionis, A., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 26 (4): 1576-1582

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cm403482s

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332059400012

  • High Surface Area Transparent Conducting Oxide Electrodes with a Customizable Device Architecture CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Forman, A. J., Chen, Z., Chakthranont, P., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 26 (2): 958-964

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cm402551m

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330543600012

  • Climbing the Activity Volcano: Core-Shell Ru@Pt Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction CHEMELECTROCHEM Jackson, A., Viswanathan, V., Forman, A. J., Larsen, A. H., Norskov, J. K., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 1 (1): 67-71
  • Nickel-silver alloy electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and oxidation in an alkaline electrolyte PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Tang, M. H., Hahn, C., Klobuchar, A. J., Ng, J. W., Wellendorff, J., Bligaard, T., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 16 (36): 19250-19257

    Abstract

    The development of improved catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in basic electrolytes remains a major technical obstacle to improved fuel cells, water electrolyzers, and other devices for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Based on the free energy of adsorbed hydrogen intermediates, theory predicts that alloys of nickel and silver are active for these reactions. In this work, we synthesize binary nickel-silver bulk alloys across a range of compositions and show that nickel-silver alloys are indeed more active than pure nickel for hydrogen evolution and, possibly, hydrogen oxidation. To overcome the mutual insolubility of silver and nickel, we employ electron-beam physical vapor codeposition, a low-temperature synthetic route to metastable alloys. This method also produces flat and uniform films that facilitate the measurement of intrinsic catalytic activity with minimal variations in the surface area, ohmic contact, and pore transport. Rotating-disk-electrode measurements demonstrate that the hydrogen evolution activity per geometric area of the most active catalyst in this study, Ni0.75Ag0.25, is approximately twice that of pure nickel and has comparable stability and hydrogen oxidation activity. Our experimental results are supported by density functional theory calculations, which show that bulk alloying of Ni and Ag creates a variety of adsorption sites, some of which have near-optimal hydrogen binding energy.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4cp01385a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341299500021

    View details for PubMedID 25098811

  • Nanostructured Manganese Oxide Supported onto Particulate Glassy Carbon as an Active and Stable Oxygen Reduction Catalyst in Alkaline-Based Fuel Cells JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Ng, J. W., Gorlin, Y., Nordlund, D., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 161 (7): D3105-D3112
  • Insights into the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on metallic silver surfaces PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Hatsukade, T., Kuhl, K. P., Cave, E. R., Abram, D. N., Jaramillo, T. F. 2014; 16 (27): 13814-13819

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c4cp00692e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338116700031

  • An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Surface Changes on Brominated and Sulfur-Treated Activated Carbon Sorbents during Mercury Capture: Performance of Pellet versus Fiber Sorbents ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Saha, A., Abram, D. N., Kuhl, K. P., Paradis, J., Crawford, J. L., Sasmaz, E., Chang, R., Jaramillo, T. F., Wilcox, J. 2013; 47 (23): 13695-13701

    Abstract

    This work explores surface changes and the Hg capture performance of brominated activated carbon (AC) pellets, sulfur-treated AC pellets, and sulfur-treated AC fibers upon exposure to simulated Powder River Basin-fired flue gas. Hg breakthrough curves yielded specific Hg capture amounts by means of the breakthrough shapes and times for the three samples. The brominated AC pellets showed a sharp breakthrough after 170-180 h and a capacity of 585 μg of Hg/g, the sulfur-treated AC pellets exhibited a gradual breakthrough after 80-90 h and a capacity of 661 μg of Hg/g, and the sulfur-treated AC fibers showed no breakthrough even after 1400 h, exhibiting a capacity of >9700 μg of Hg/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze sorbent surfaces before and after testing to show important changes in quantification and oxidation states of surface Br, N, and S after exposure to the simulated flue gas. For the brominated and sulfur-treated AC pellet samples, the amount of surface-bound Br and reduced sulfur groups decreased upon Hg capture testing, while the level of weaker Hg-binding surface S(VI) and N species (perhaps as NH4(+)) increased significantly. A high initial concentration of strong Hg-binding reduced sulfur groups on the surface of the sulfur-treated AC fiber is likely responsible for this sorbent's minimal accumulation of S(VI) species during exposure to the simulated flue gas and is linked to its superior Hg capture performance compared to that of the brominated and sulfur-treated AC pellet samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es403280z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327999400061

    View details for PubMedID 24256554

  • A Precious-Metal-Free Regenerative Fuel Cell for Storing Renewable Electricity ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Ng, J. W., Gorlin, Y., Hatsukade, T., Jaramillo, T. F. 2013; 3 (12): 1545-1550
  • Benchmarking Heterogeneous Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY McCrory, C. C., Jung, S., Peters, J. C., Jaramillo, T. F. 2013; 135 (45): 16977-16987

    Abstract

    Objective evaluation of the activity of electrocatalysts for water oxidation is of fundamental importance for the development of promising energy conversion technologies including integrated solar water-splitting devices, water electrolyzers, and Li-air batteries. However, current methods employed to evaluate oxygen-evolving catalysts are not standardized, making it difficult to compare the activity and stability of these materials. We report a protocol for evaluating the activity, stability, and Faradaic efficiency of electrodeposited oxygen-evolving electrocatalysts. In particular, we focus on methods for determining electrochemically active surface area and measuring electrocatalytic activity and stability under conditions relevant to an integrated solar water-splitting device. Our primary figure of merit is the overpotential required to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) per geometric area, approximately the current density expected for a 10% efficient solar-to-fuels conversion device. Utilizing the aforementioned surface area measurements, one can determine electrocatalyst turnover frequencies. The reported protocol was used to examine the oxygen-evolution activity of the following systems in acidic and alkaline solutions: CoO(x), CoPi, CoFeO(x), NiO(x), NiCeO(x), NiCoO(x), NiCuO(x), NiFeO(x), and NiLaO(x). The oxygen-evolving activity of an electrodeposited IrO(x) catalyst was also investigated for comparison. Two general observations are made from comparing the catalytic performance of the OER catalysts investigated: (1) in alkaline solution, every non-noble metal system achieved 10 mA cm(-2) current densities at similar operating overpotentials between 0.35 and 0.43 V, and (2) every system but IrO(x) was unstable under oxidative conditions in acidic solutions.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja407115p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327103600040

    View details for PubMedID 24171402

  • Impedance-based study of capacitive porous carbon electrodes with hierarchical and bimodal porosity JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Suss, M. E., Baumann, T. F., Worsley, M. A., Rose, K. A., Jaramillo, T. F., Stadermann, M., Santiago, J. G. 2013; 241: 266-273
  • Technical and economic feasibility of centralized facilities for solar hydrogen production via photocatalysis and photoelectrochemistry ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Pinaud, B. A., Benck, J. D., Seitz, L. C., Forman, A. J., Chen, Z., Deutsch, T. G., James, B. D., Baum, K. N., Baum, G. N., Ardo, S., Wang, H., Miller, E., Jaramillo, T. F. 2013; 6 (7): 1983-2002

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3ee40831k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320779700001

  • In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of a Bifunctional Manganese Oxide Catalyst with High Activity for Electrochemical Water Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Gorlin, Y., Lassalle-Kaiser, B., Benck, J. D., Gul, S., Webb, S. M., Yachandra, V. K., Yano, J., Jaramillo, T. F. 2013; 135 (23): 8525-8534

    Abstract

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique that can be applied to electrochemical systems, with the ability to elucidate the chemical nature of electrocatalysts under reaction conditions. In this study, we perform in situ XAS measurements on a bifunctional manganese oxide (MnOx) catalyst with high electrochemical activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), we find that exposure to an ORR-relevant potential of 0.7 V vs RHE produces a disordered Mn3(II,III,III)O4 phase with negligible contributions from other phases. After the potential is increased to a highly anodic value of 1.8 V vs RHE, relevant to the OER, we observe an oxidation of approximately 80% of the catalytic thin film to form a mixed Mn(III,IV) oxide, while the remaining 20% of the film consists of a less oxidized phase, likely corresponding to unchanged Mn3(II,III,III)O4. XAS and electrochemical characterization of two thin film catalysts with different MnOx thicknesses reveals no significant influence of thickness on the measured oxidation states, at either ORR or OER potentials, but demonstrates that the OER activity scales with film thickness. This result suggests that the films have porous structure, which does not restrict electrocatalysis to the top geometric layer of the film. As the portion of the catalyst film that is most likely to be oxidized at the high potentials necessary for the OER is that which is closest to the electrolyte interface, we hypothesize that the Mn(III,IV) oxide, rather than Mn3(II,III,III)O4, is the phase pertinent to the observed OER activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja3104632

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320483900022

  • Bridging the Gap Between Bulk and Nanostructured Photoelectrodes: The Impact of Surface States on the Electrocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Properties of MoS2 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Chen, Z., Forman, A. J., Jaramillo, T. F. 2013; 117 (19): 9713-9722

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp311375k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319649100020

  • Growth of Pt Nanowires by Atomic Layer Deposition on Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite NANO LETTERS Lee, H., Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T. F., Bent, S. F. 2013; 13 (2): 457-463

    Abstract

    The formation of Pt nanowires (NWs) by atomic layer deposition on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is investigated. Pt is deposited only at the step edges of HOPG and not on the basal planes, leading to the formation of laterally aligned Pt NWs. A growth model involving a morphological transition from 0-D to 1-D structures via coalescence is presented. The width of the NWs grows at a rate greater than twice the vertical growth rate. This asymmetry is ascribed to the wetting properties of Pt on HOPG as influenced by the formation of graphene oxide. A difference in Pt growth kinetics based on crystallographic orientation may also contribute.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl303803p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315079500021

  • Catalyzing chemical transformations in renewable energy: Tailoring Electrocatalyst Materials for Activity, Selectivity, and Stability Jaramillo, T., F. 2013
  • Effect of Temperature Treatment on CoTiOx Catalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF FUELS 2 Seitz, L. C., Pinaud, B. A., Nordlund, D., Jaramillo, T. F. 2013; 58 (2): 285-291
  • Solar hydrogen production by photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting: Advancing technology through the synergistic activities of the PEC working group (PEC WG) Jaramillo, T., F. 2013
  • Exploring Nano-architectures of MoS2: How Surface Structure and Electronic Structure Impact H2 Production by Electrocatalysis and Solar Photoelectrochemistry Jaramillo, T., F. 2013
  • Catalyzing Electrochemical Transformations in Renewable Energy Jaramillo, T., F. 2013
  • The Impact of Surface Structure on the Electrocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Properties of MoS2 Jaramillo, T., F. 2013
  • Electrocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Fuels and Chemicals on Transition Metal Electrodes Jaramillo, T., F., Kuhl, K., P., Cave, E., R., Abram, D., N., Hatsukade, T. 2013
  • Catalyzing key chemical transformations for renewable, sustainable energy Jaramillo, T., F. 2013
  • Mn3O4 Supported on Glassy Carbon: An Active Non-Precious Metal Catalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction ACS CATALYSIS Gorlin, Y., Chung, C., Nordlund, D., Clemens, B. M., Jaramillo, T. F. 2012; 2 (12): 2687-2694

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cs3004352

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312170100030

  • Engineering the surface structure of MoS2 to preferentially expose active edge sites for electrocatalysis NATURE MATERIALS Kibsgaard, J., Chen, Z., Reinecke, B. N., Jaramillo, T. F. 2012; 11 (11): 963-969

    Abstract

    Controlling surface structure at the atomic scale is paramount to developing effective catalysts. For example, the edge sites of MoS(2) are highly catalytically active and are thus preferred at the catalyst surface over MoS(2) basal planes, which are inert. However, thermodynamics favours the presence of the basal plane, limiting the number of active sites at the surface. Herein, we engineer the surface structure of MoS(2) to preferentially expose edge sites to effect improved catalysis by successfully synthesizing contiguous large-area thin films of a highly ordered double-gyroid MoS(2) bicontinuous network with nanoscaled pores. The high surface curvature of this catalyst mesostructure exposes a large fraction of edge sites, which, along with its high surface area, leads to excellent activity for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. This work elucidates how morphological control of materials at the nanoscale can significantly impact the surface structure at the atomic scale, enabling new opportunities for enhancing surface properties for catalysis and other important technological applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT3439

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310434600021

    View details for PubMedID 23042413

  • Active MnOx Electrocatalysts Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition for Oxygen Evolution and Oxygen Reduction Reactions ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Pickrahn, K. L., Park, S. W., Gorlin, Y., Lee, H., Jaramillo, T. F., Bent, S. F. 2012; 2 (10): 1269-1277
  • New cubic perovskites for one- and two-photon water splitting using the computational materials repository ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Castelli, I. E., Landis, D. D., Thygesen, K. S., Dahl, S., Chorkendorff, I., Jaramillo, T. F., Jacobsen, K. W. 2012; 5 (10): 9034-9043

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ee22341d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308891200029

  • Mercury chemistry on brominated activated carbon FUEL Sasmaz, E., Kirchofer, A., Jew, A. D., Saha, A., Abram, D., Jaramillo, T. F., Wilcox, J. 2012; 99: 188-196
  • Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Catalysts for Electrochemical Hydrogen Production: Insights into the Origin of their Catalytic Activity ACS CATALYSIS Benck, J. D., Chen, Z., Kuritzky, L. Y., Forman, A. J., Jaramillo, T. F. 2012; 2 (9): 1916-1923

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cs300451q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308577300011

  • Effect of Film Morphology and Thickness on Charge Transport in Ta3N5/Ta Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Pinaud, B. A., Vesborg, P. C., Jaramillo, T. F. 2012; 116 (30): 15918-15924

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp3041742

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306989500007

  • Meso-Structured Platinum Thin Films: Active and Stable Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Kibsgaard, J., Gorlin, Y., Chen, Z., Jaramillo, T. F. 2012; 134 (18): 7758-7765

    Abstract

    Improving both the activity and the stability of the cathode catalyst in platinum-based polymer electrolyte fuel cells is a key technical challenge. Here, we synthesize a high surface area meso-structured Pt thin film that exhibits higher specific activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than commercial carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C). An accelerated stability test demonstrates that the meso-structured Pt thin film also displays significantly enhanced stability as compared to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Our study reveals the origin of the high turnover frequency (TOF), and excellent durability is attributed to the meso-structure, which yields a morphology with fewer undercoordinated Pt sites than Pt/C nanoparticles, a key difference with substantial impact to the surface chemistry. The improved catalyst activity and stability could enable the development of a high-performance gas diffusion electrode that is resistant to corrosion even under the harsh conditions of start-up, shut-down, and/or hydrogen starvation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja2120162

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303696200035

    View details for PubMedID 22500676

  • New insights into the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide on metallic copper surfaces ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Kuhl, K. P., Cave, E. R., Abram, D. N., Jaramillo, T. F. 2012; 5 (5): 7050-7059

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ee21234j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303251500047

  • Simulating Linear Sweep Voltammetry from First-Principles: Application to Electrochemical Oxidation of Water on Pt(111) and Pt3Ni(111) JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Viswanathan, V., Hansen, H. A., Rossmeisl, J., Jaramillo, T. F., Pitsch, H., Norskov, J. K. 2012; 116 (7): 4698-4704

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp210802q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301156500043

  • Investigation of Surface Oxidation Processes on Manganese Oxide Electrocatalysts Using Electrochemical Methods and Ex Situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Gorlin, Y., Jaramillo, T. F. 2012; 159 (10): H782-H786
  • Catalyzing chemical transformations in renewable energy: Tailoring electrocatalyst materials for activity, selectivity, and stability Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Tailoring electrocatalyst materials to enhance activity, stability, and selectivity for key energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Electrocatalysis 101 Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Developing Electrocatalysts for the Synthesis of Renewable Fuels Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • The electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals Jaramillo, T., F., Kuhl, Kendra, P., Cave, Etosha, R., Abram, David, N. 2012
  • Tailoring electrocatalyst materials to enhance activity, stability, and selectivity for key energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Tailoring electrocatalyst materials to enhance activity, stability, and selectivity for key energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Engineering the Surface Structure of MoS2 Through Morphological Control At the Nano-Scale for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production Jaramillo, T., F., Chen, Z., Kibsgaard, J., Reinecke, B., N. 2012
  • Bridging the gap between optical absorption and charge transport in metal oxide materials for the synthesis of solar fuels Jaramillo, T., F., Forman, A., J., Chen, Z., Thomann, I., Pinaud, B., A., Cho, I., S. 2012
  • Tailoring Electrocatalyst Materials at the Nano-Scale: Controlling Activity, Selectivity, and Stability for Energy Conversion Reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Tailoring Electrocatalyst Materials at the Nano-Scale: Controlling Activity, Selectivity, and Stability for Energy Conversion Reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Solar Fuels by Photocatalysis and Photoelectrochemistry Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Insights into the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals on transition metal surfaces Jaramillo, T., F., Kuhl, K., P., Cave, E., R., Abram, D., N., Hatsukade, T. 2012
  • Directed Nano-scale and Macro-scale Architectures for Semiconductor Absorbers and Transparent Conducting Substrates for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Jaramillo, T., F., Forman, A., Chen, Z., Pinaud, B., A., Seitz, L., Jackson, A. 2012
  • Addressing charge transport limitations in thin film Ta3N5 & TaON photoanodes for solar fuel synthesis Jaramillo, T., F., Pinaud, B., A. 2012
  • Identifying active surface phases for metal oxide electrocatalysts: a study of manganese oxide bi-functional catalysts for oxygen reduction and water oxidation catalysis PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS Su, H., Gorlin, Y., Man, I. C., Calle-Vallejo, F., Norskov, J. K., Jaramillo, T. F., Rossmeisl, J. 2012; 14 (40): 14010-14022

    Abstract

    Progress in the field of electrocatalysis is often hampered by the difficulty in identifying the active site on an electrode surface. Herein we combine theoretical analysis and electrochemical methods to identify the active surfaces in a manganese oxide bi-functional catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). First, we electrochemically characterize the nanostructured ?-Mn(2)O(3) and find that it undergoes oxidation in two potential regions: initially, between 0.5 V and 0.8 V, a potential region relevant to the ORR and, subsequently, between 0.8 V and 1.0 V, a potential region between the ORR and the OER relevant conditions. Next, we perform density function theory (DFT) calculations to understand the changes in the MnO(x) surface as a function of potential and to elucidate reaction mechanisms that lead to high activities observed in the experiments. Using DFT, we construct surface Pourbaix and free energy diagrams of three different MnO(x) surfaces and identify 1/2 ML HO* covered Mn(2)O(3) and O* covered MnO(2), as the active surfaces for the ORR and the OER, respectively. Additionally, we find that the ORR occurs through an associative mechanism and that its overpotential is highly dependent on the stabilization of intermediates through hydrogen bonds with water molecules. We also determine that OER occurs through direct recombination mechanism and that its major source of overpotential is the scaling relationship between HOO* and HO* surface intermediates. Using a previously developed Sabatier model we show that the theoretical predictions of catalytic activities match the experimentally determined onset potentials for the ORR and the OER, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Consequently, the combination of first-principles theoretical analysis and experimental methods offers an understanding of manganese oxide oxygen electrocatalysis at the atomic level, achieving fundamental insight that can potentially be used to design and develop improved electrocatalysts for the ORR and the OER and other important reactions of technological interest.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2cp40841d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309140400036

    View details for PubMedID 22990481

  • Energy Storage by Means of Renewable Fuels Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Electrocatalyst development for renewable energy: Engineering surface structure at the atomic-scale by controlling morphology at the nano-scale Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Tailoring Electrocatalyst Materials at the Nano-Scale: Controlling Activity, Selectivity, and Stability for Energy Conversion Reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Electrocatalyst development for the synthesis of renewable fuels from water and CO2 Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • A tutorial on electrocatalysis: Concepts, fundamentals, methods, and applications Jaramillo, T., F. 2012
  • Addressing the terawatt challenge: scalability in the supply of chemical elements for renewable energy RSC ADVANCES Vesborg, P. C., Jaramillo, T. F. 2012; 2 (21): 7933-7947

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ra20839c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307792200001

  • Branched TiO2 Nanorods for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production NANO LETTERS Cho, I. S., Chen, Z., Forman, A. J., Kim, D. R., Rao, P. M., Jaramillo, T. F., Zheng, X. 2011; 11 (11): 4978-4984

    Abstract

    We report a hierarchically branched TiO(2) nanorod structure that serves as a model architecture for efficient photoelectrochemical devices as it simultaneously offers a large contact area with the electrolyte, excellent light-trapping characteristics, and a highly conductive pathway for charge carrier collection. Under Xenon lamp illumination (UV spectrum matched to AM 1.5G, 88 mW/cm(2) total power density), the branched TiO(2) nanorod array produces a photocurrent density of 0.83 mA/cm(2) at 0.8 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency reaches 67% at 380 nm with an applied bias of 0.6 V versus RHE, nearly two times higher than the bare nanorods without branches. The branches improve efficiency by means of (i) improved charge separation and transport within the branches due to their small diameters, and (ii) a 4-fold increase in surface area which facilitates the hole transfer at the TiO(2)/electrolyte interface.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl2029392

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296674700082

    View details for PubMedID 21999403

  • Core-shell MoO3-MoS2 Nanowires for Hydrogen Evolution: A Functional Design for Electrocatalytic Materials NANO LETTERS Chen, Z., Cummins, D., Reinecke, B. N., Clark, E., Sunkara, M. K., Jaramillo, T. F. 2011; 11 (10): 4168-4175

    Abstract

    We synthesize vertically oriented core-shell nanowires with substoichiometric MoO(3) cores of ?20-50 nm and conformal MoS(2) shells of ?2-5 nm. The core-shell architecture, produced by low-temperature sulfidization, is designed to utilize the best properties of each component material while mitigating their deficiencies. The substoichiometric MoO(3) core provides a high aspect ratio foundation and enables facile charge transport, while the conformal MoS(2) shell provides excellent catalytic activity and protection against corrosion in strong acids.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl2020476

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295667000024

    View details for PubMedID 21894935

  • Plasmon Enhanced Solar-to-Fuel Energy Conversion NANO LETTERS Thomann, I., Pinaud, B. A., Chen, Z., Clemens, B. M., Jaramillo, T. F., Brongersma, M. L. 2011; 11 (8): 3440-3446

    Abstract

    Future generations of photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation must employ inexpensive, earth-abundant absorber materials in order to provide a large-scale source of clean energy. These materials tend to have poor electrical transport properties and exhibit carrier diffusion lengths which are significantly shorter than the absorption depth of light. As a result, many photoexcited carriers are generated too far from a reactive surface and recombine instead of participating in solar-to-fuel conversion. We demonstrate that plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures and multilayer interference effects can be engineered to strongly concentrate sunlight close to the electrode/liquid interface, precisely where the relevant reactions take place. On comparison of spectral features in the enhanced photocurrent spectra to full-field electromagnetic simulations, the contribution of surface plasmon excitations is verified. These results open the door to the optimization of a wide variety of photochemical processes by leveraging the rapid advances in the field of plasmonics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl201908s

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293665600066

    View details for PubMedID 21749077

  • Universality in Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysis on Oxide Surfaces CHEMCATCHEM Man, I. C., Su, H., Calle-Vallejo, F., Hansen, H. A., Martinez, J. I., Inoglu, N. G., Kitchin, J., Jaramillo, T. F., Norskov, J. K., Rossmeisl, J. 2011; 3 (7): 1159-1165
  • Thin Films of Sodium Birnessite-Type MnO2: Optical Properties, Electronic Band Structure, and Solar Photoelectrochemistry JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Pinaud, B. A., Chen, Z., Abram, D. N., Jaramillo, T. F. 2011; 115 (23): 11830-11838

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp200015p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291339000063

  • Electrocatalysis on manganese oxide surfaces: Oxygen reduction and water oxidation Jaramillo, T. F., Gorlin, Y., Baeck, S., Pinaud, B. A. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2011
  • Ex-situ Spectroscopy Study of Manganese Oxide Catalytic Surfaces under Reaction Conditions Relevant to Oxygen Reduction and Oxygen Evolution POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS 11 GORLIN, Y., Jaramillo, T. F. 2011; 41 (1): 1701-1707

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3635701

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309598800163

  • Catalyzing the production of clean fuels from renewable energy resources Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Tailoring Electrocatalyst Materials at the Nano-Scale: Controlling Activity, Selectivity, and Stability for Energy Conversion Reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Nanostructured electrocatalysts for energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Nanomaterials for efficient chemical transformations in energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Tailoring electrocatalyst materials at the nano-scale: Controlling activity, selectivity, and stability for energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Tailoring Electrocatalyst Materials at the Nano-Scale: Controlling Activity, Selectivity, and Stability for Energy Conversion Reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Nano-architectures for 3rd generation PEC devices: A study of MoS2, fundamental investigations and applied research Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Engineering catalysts at the nano-scale for energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Tailoring electrocatalyst materials at the nano-scale: Controlling activity and selectivity for energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Tailoring electrocatalyst materials at the nano-scale: Controlling activity and selectivity for energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Semiconductors and catalysts for the production of solar fuels Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Non-precious metal catalysts for electrochemical transformations between H2, O2, and H2O Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 to fuels on metal surfaces Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Electrocatalytic Conversion of CO2 to Fuels on Metal Surfaces Jaramillo, T., F., Kuhl, K., P., Cave, E., Abram, D., N. 2011
  • Tailoring Electrocatalyst Materials at the Nano-Scale: Controlling Activity, Selectivity, and Stability for Energy Conversion Reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Tailoring electrocatalyst materials at the nano-scale: Controlling activity and selectivity for energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Tailoring electrocatalyst materials at the nano-scale: Controlling activity and selectivity for energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Nanostructured Catalysts for Chemical Transformations in Energy Jaramillo, T., F. 2011
  • Advanced electrode and photo-electrode structures for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F., Forman, A., J., Chen, Z., Pinaud, B., A., Benck, J., D., Baeck, S., H. 2011
  • Double Gyroid Nanostructured Platinum As Highly Durable Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalyst Jaramillo, T., F., Kibsgaard, J., Gorlin, Y. 2011
  • A Bifunctional Nonprecious Metal Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction and Water Oxidation JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Gorlin, Y., Jaramillo, T. F. 2010; 132 (39): 13612-13614

    Abstract

    There is a growing interest in oxygen electrochemistry as conversions between O(2) and H(2)O play an important role in a variety of renewable energy technologies. The goal of this work is to develop active bifunctional catalyst materials for water oxidation and oxygen reduction. Drawing inspiration from a cubane-like CaMn(4)O(x), the biological catalyst found in the oxygen evolving center (OEC) in photosystem II, nanostructured manganese oxide surfaces were investigated for these reactions. Thin films of nanostructured manganese oxide were found to be active for both oxygen reduction and water oxidation, with similar overall oxygen electrode activity to the best known precious metal nanoparticle catalysts: platinum, ruthenium, and iridium. Physical and chemical characterization of the nanostructured Mn oxide bifunctional catalyst reveals an oxidation state of Mn(III), akin to one of the most commonly observed Mn oxidation states found in the OEC.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja104587v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282864100017

    View details for PubMedID 20839797

  • Nanostructured MoS2 for solar hydrogen production Chen, Z., Choi, S., Kibsgaard, J., Jaramillo, T. F. AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2010
  • Accelerating materials development for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production: Standards for methods, definitions, and reporting protocols JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Chen, Z., Jaramillo, T. F., Deutsch, T. G., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., Forman, A. J., Gaillard, N., Garland, R., Takanabe, K., Heske, C., Sunkara, M., McFarland, E. W., Domen, K., Miller, E. L., Turner, J. A., Dinh, H. N. 2010; 25 (1): 3-16
  • Developing solid-state electrocatalysts based on design principles from nature: The oxidation of water and the reduction of CO2 to fuels Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 for the solar production of hydrogen Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Nano-structured materials for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Surface electrocatalysis for fuel synthesis: Inspiration from nature Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Nano-scaled materials for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Nano-scaled materials for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Nano-scaled materials for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Nano-scaled materials for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • In pursuit of a reversible oxygen electrode: Water oxidation and oxygen reduction on electro-catalytic oxide surfaces Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Bi-functional electrocatalysis on manganese oxide surfaces: oxygen reduction and water oxidation Jaramillo, T., F. 2010
  • Nanostructuring MoS2 for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting SOLAR HYDROGEN AND NANOTECHNOLOGY V Chen, Z., Kibsgaard, J., Jaramillo, T. F. 2010; 7770

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.860659

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286094200009

  • Monolithic III-V Nanowire PV for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation 35TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE Ba, X., Pinaud, B. A., Parker, J., Aloni, S., Jaramillo, T. F., Wong, H. P. 2010: 1793-1796
  • Alloys of platinum and early transition metals as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts NATURE CHEMISTRY Greeley, J., Stephens, I. E., Bondarenko, A. S., Johansson, T. P., Hansen, H. A., Jaramillo, T. F., Rossmeisl, J., Chorkendorff, I., Norskov, J. K. 2009; 1 (7): 552-556

    Abstract

    The widespread use of low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for mobile applications will require significant reductions in the amount of expensive Pt contained within their cathodes, which drive the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Although progress has been made in this respect, further reductions through the development of more active and stable electrocatalysts are still necessary. Here we describe a new set of ORR electrocatalysts consisting of Pd or Pt alloyed with early transition metals such as Sc or Y. They were identified using density functional theory calculations as being the most stable Pt- and Pd-based binary alloys with ORR activity likely to be better than Pt. Electrochemical measurements show that the activity of polycrystalline Pt(3)Sc and Pt(3)Y electrodes is enhanced relative to pure Pt by a factor of 1.5-1.8 and 6-10, respectively, in the range 0.9-0.87 V.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NCHEM.367

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270077200014

    View details for PubMedID 21378936

  • Combined spectroscopy and microscopy of supported MoS2 nanoparticles SURFACE SCIENCE Nielsen, J. H., Bech, L., Nielsen, K., Tison, Y., Jorgensen, K. P., Bonde, J. L., Horch, S., Jaramillo, T. F., Chorkendorff, I. 2009; 603 (9): 1182-1189
  • Electrocatalytic Activity of Gold-Platinum Clusters for Low Temperature Fuel Cell Applications JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Tang, W., Jayaraman, S., Jaramillo, T. F., Stucky, G. D., McFarland, E. W. 2009; 113 (12): 5014-5024

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp8089209

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264349100044

  • Dynamics of Surface Exchange Reactions Between Au and Pt for HER and HOR JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Abrams, B. L., Vesborg, P. C., Bonde, J. L., Jaramillo, T. F., Chorkendorff, I. 2009; 156 (2): B273-B282

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3040509

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261973600018

  • Electrocatalytic activity of gold-platinum clusters for low temperature fuel cell applications Journal of Physical Chemistry C Tang, W., Jayaraman, S., Jaramillo, T., F., Stucky, G., D., McFarland, E., W. 2009; 113 (12): 5014-5024
  • Combined spectroscopy and microscopy of supported MoS2 nanoparticles Surface Science Nielsen, J., H., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Nielsen, K., Bech, L., Tison, Y., Jaramillo, T. F. 2009; 603 (9): 1182-1189
  • Alloys of platinum and early transition metals as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts Nature Chemistry Greeley, J., Stephens, I., E.L., Bondarenko, A., S., Johansson, T., P., Hansen, H., A., Jaramillo, T., F. 2009; 1 (7): 552-556
  • Photon absorbers and energy conversion catalysts: New approaches to solar fuels Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Nanostructured MoS2 for the Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 for the solar production of hydrogen Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 for the solar production of hydrogen Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 for the solar production of hydrogen Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Nano-scaled semiconductors and novel catalysts for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Designing new electrocatalysts: A case study of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Designing new electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER): combining theory and experiment Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Greeley, J., Zhang, J., Ooi, B., L. 2009
  • Solar Fuels by Photoelectrochemistry (PEC) Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Nano-structured MoS2 and WS2 for the Solar Production of Hydrogen Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Designing nano-scaled, non-precious metal catalysts for hydrogen evolution Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Greeley, J., Zhang, J., Ooi, B., L. 2009
  • Nano-scaled materials for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • Nano-scaled materials for the synthesis of fuels from sunlight Jaramillo, T., F. 2009
  • The Dynamics of Surface Exchange Reactions Between Au and Pt for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER) and the Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction (HOR) Journal of the Electrochemical Society Abrams, B., L., Vesborg, P., C.K., Bonde, J., Jaramillo, T., F., Chorkendorff, I. 2009; 156 (2): B273-B282
  • Hydrogen Evolution on Supported Incomplete Cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) Electrocatalysts JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Jaramillo, T. F., Bonde, J., Zhang, J., Ooi, B., Andersson, K., Ulstrup, J., Chorkendorff, I. 2008; 112 (45): 17492-17498

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp802695e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260675900002

  • Hydrogen evolution on nano-particulate transition metal sulfides Bonde, J., Moses, P. G., Jaramillo, T. F., Norskov, J. K., Chorkendorff, I. ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY. 2008: 219-231

    Abstract

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on carbon supported MoS2 nanoparticles is investigated and compared to findings with previously published work on Au(111) supported MoS2. An investigation into MoS2 oxidation is presented and used to quantify the surface concentration of MoS2. Other metal sulfides with morphologies similar to MoS2 such as WS2, cobalt-promoted WS2, and cobalt-promoted MoS2 were also investigated in the search for improved HER activity. Experimental findings are compared to density functional theory (DFT) calculated values for the hydrogen binding energies (deltaGH) on each system.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b803857k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260437800016

    View details for PubMedID 19213319

  • Designing electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. Jaramillo, T., F. 2008
  • Steady state oxygen reduction and cyclic voltammetry FARADAY DISCUSSIONS Rossmeisl, J., Karlberg, G. S., Jaramillo, T., Norskov, J. K. 2008; 140: 337-346

    Abstract

    The catalytic activity of Pt and Pt3Ni for the oxygen reduction reaction is investigated by applying a Sabatier model based on density functional calculations. We investigate the role of adsorbed OH on the activity, by comparing cyclic voltammetry obtained from theory with previously published experimental results with and without molecular oxygen present. We find that the simple Sabatier model predicts both the potential dependence of the OH coverage and the measured current densities seen in experiments, and that it offers an understanding of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the atomic level. To investigate kinetic effects we develop a simple kinetic model for ORR. Whereas kinetic corrections only matter close to the volcano top, an interesting outcome of the kinetic model is a first order dependence on the oxygen pressure. Importantly, the conclusion obtained from the simple Sabatier model still persists: an intermediate binding of OH corresponds to the highest catalytic activity, i.e. Pt is limited by a too strong OH binding and Pt3Ni is limited by a too weak OH binding.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b802129e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260437800023

    View details for PubMedID 19213325

  • Designing novel electrocatalytic materials: a case study of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Nielsen, J., H., Chorkendorff, I., Horch, S. 2008
  • Steady state oxygen reduction reaction and cyclic voltammetry Rossmeisl, J., Karlberg, G., S., Jaramillo, T., F., Nørskov, J., K 2008
  • Solar fuels by photoelectrochemistry: Prospects and challenges. Jaramillo, T., F. 2008
  • Precious-metal and non-precious metal based nano-scale electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Jaramillo, T., F., Ulstrup, J., Nørskov, J., K., Chorkendorff, I. 2008
  • New materials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production: from alloys to nanoparticles Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Horch, S., Nielsen, J., H., Chorkendorff, I. 2008
  • Developing new hydrogen evolution electrocatalysts: metal surface alloys and nano-scale molybdenum sulfides. Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Nielsen, J., H., Horch, S., Nørskov, J., K. 2008
  • Designing new electrocatalytic materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Jaramillo, T., F. 2008
  • Electrocatalytic materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction. Jaramillo, T., F. 2008
  • Designing non-noble metal electrocatalysts: An investigation of the hydrogen evolution reaction. Jaramillo, T., F. 2008
  • Non-precious metal electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER): Inspiration for designing new PEC materials Jaramillo, T., F. 2008
  • In the pursuit of active, non-precious metal electrocatalysts: A study of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Nielsen, J., H., Chorkendorff, I., Horch, S. 2008
  • Cyclic voltammograms for H on Pt(111) and Pt(100) from first principles PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Karlberg, G. S., Jaramillo, T. F., Skulason, E., Rossmeisl, J., Bligaard, T., Norskov, J. K. 2007; 99 (12)

    Abstract

    Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental method for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Despite its wide use, a way to quantitatively and directly relate cyclic voltammetry to ab initio calculations has been lacking. We derive the cyclic voltammogram for H on Pt(111) and Pt(100), based solely on density functional theory calculations and standard molecular tables. By relating the gas phase adsorption energy to the electrochemical electrode potential, we provide a direct link between surface science and electrochemistry.

    View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.126101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249668000046

    View details for PubMedID 17930522

  • Identification of active edge sites for electrochemical H-2 evolution from MoS2 nanocatalysts SCIENCE Jaramillo, T. F., Jorgensen, K. P., Bonde, J., Nielsen, J. H., Horch, S., Chorkendorff, I. 2007; 317 (5834): 100-102

    Abstract

    The identification of the active sites in heterogeneous catalysis requires a combination of surface sensitive methods and reactivity studies. We determined the active site for hydrogen evolution, a reaction catalyzed by precious metals, on nanoparticulate molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) by atomically resolving the surface of this catalyst before measuring electrochemical activity in solution. By preparing MoS2 nanoparticles of different sizes, we systematically varied the distribution of surface sites on MoS2 nanoparticles on Au(111), which we quantified with scanning tunneling microscopy. Electrocatalytic activity measurements for hydrogen evolution correlate linearly with the number of edge sites on the MoS2 catalyst.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1141483

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247776700058

    View details for PubMedID 17615351

  • From theory to experiment: New electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Greeley, J., Nielsen, J., H., Horch, S. 2007
  • Nano-scale molybdenum sulfides for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Horch, S., Nielsen, J., H., Chorkendorff, I. 2007
  • From alloys to bio-mimetic materials: searching for new hydrogen evolution electrocatalysts Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Greeley, J., Saadi, S., Fernandez, E. 2007
  • Identification of Active Edge Sites for Electrochemical H2 Evolution from MoS2 Nanocatalysts Science Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Nielsen, J., H., Horch, S., Chorkendorff, I. 2007; 317 (5834): 100-102
  • Cyclic voltammograms for H on Pt(111) and Pt(100) from first principles Physical Review Letters Karlberg, G., S., Jaramillo, T., F., Skúlason, E., Rossmeisl, J., Bligaard, T., Nørskov, J., K. 2007; 99 (126101)
  • Computational high-throughput screening of electrocatalytic materials for hydrogen evolution NATURE MATERIALS Greeley, J., Jaramillo, T. F., Bonde, J., Chorkendorff, I. B., Norskov, J. K. 2006; 5 (11): 909-913

    Abstract

    The pace of materials discovery for heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts could, in principle, be accelerated by the development of efficient computational screening methods. This would require an integrated approach, where the catalytic activity and stability of new materials are evaluated and where predictions are benchmarked by careful synthesis and experimental tests. In this contribution, we present a density functional theory-based, high-throughput screening scheme that successfully uses these strategies to identify a new electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The activity of over 700 binary surface alloys is evaluated theoretically; the stability of each alloy in electrochemical environments is also estimated. BiPt is found to have a predicted activity comparable to, or even better than, pure Pt, the archetypical HER catalyst. This alloy is synthesized and tested experimentally and shows improved HER performance compared with pure Pt, in agreement with the computational screening results.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nmat1752

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241732000026

    View details for PubMedID 17041585

  • New electrode materials for hydrogen production: A focus on nanoparticulate molybdenum sulfides Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Saadi, S., Bonde, J., Fernandez, E., Zhang, J. 2006
  • Low-voltage electrodeposition of fullerol thin films from aqueous solutions Journal of the Electrochemical Society Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., Sushchikh, M., McFarland, E., W. 2006; 153 (7): C483-C487
  • Low-voltage electrodeposition of fullerol thin films from aqueous solutions JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., Jaramillo, T. F., Baeck, S., Sushchikh, M., McFarland, E. W. 2006; 153 (7): C483-C487

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.2196671

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237945300037

  • New materials for hydrogen production: Nanoparticulate molybdenum sulfides Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Saadi, S., Bonde, J., Fernandez, E., Zhang, J. 2006
  • Electrocatalysis at nanometer and sub-nanometer scales: Hydrogen evolution on supported MoS2 and Mo3S4 clusters Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Saadi, S., Bonde, J., Fernandez, E., Zhang, J. 2006
  • New materials for hydrogen evolution: From alloys to nanoparticles Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Greeley, J., Nielsen, J., H., Horch, S. 2006
  • Nanoparticulate MoS2 electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution Jaramillo, T., F., Jørgensen, K., P., Bonde, J., Horch, S., Nielsen, J., H., Chorkendorff, I. 2006
  • Biocatalysis and biomimetics for electrochemical hydrogen conversion. Electrocatalysis at the sub-nanometer scale: structure and function of supported Mo3S4 clusters Jaramillo, T., F., Saadi, S., Bonde, J., Zhang, J., Kristensen, J., Ooi, B., L. 2006
  • Computational high-throughput screening of electrocatalytic materials for hydrogen evolution Nature Materials Greeley, J., Jaramillo, T., F., Bonde, J., Chorkendorff, I., Nørskov, J., K. 2006; 5 (11): 909-913
  • Synthesis and characterization of Pt-WO3 as methanol oxidation catalysts for fuel cells JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Jayaraman, S., Jaramillo, T. F., Baeck, S. H., McFarland, E. W. 2005; 109 (48): 22958-22966

    Abstract

    Several compositions of Pt-WO3 catalysts were synthesized and characterized for the electro-oxidation of methanol and CO. The surface morphologies of the catalysts were found to be dependent on the composition. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggest a surface enrichment of WO3 in the codeposited Pt-WO3 catalysts. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in methanol show an improvement in catalytic activity for the Pt-WO3 catalysts. A significant improvement in the poison tolerance toward CO and other organic intermediates was observed in the mixed metal-metal oxide catalyst. The catalytic performance of the different compositions was directly compared by normalization of the current to active sites. CO-stripping voltammetry suggests the involvement of WO3 in the catalytic process as opposed to a mere physical effect as suggested by previous work. A possible mechanism for this improvement is proposed based on the electrochemical data.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp053053h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233761300035

    View details for PubMedID 16853991

  • Combinatorial electrochemical synthesis and screening of Pt-WO3 catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS Jayaraman, S., Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T. F., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E. W. 2005; 76 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1927007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229962000029

  • Synthesis of Au nanoclusters supported upon a TiO2 nanotube array JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH Liu, X., Jaramillo, T. F., Kolmakov, A., Baeck, S. H., Moskovits, M., Stucky, G. D., McFarland, E. W. 2005; 20 (5): 1093-1096
  • Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization of Zn1-xCoxO thin films for solar hydrogen production JOURNAL OF COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY Jaramillo, T. F., Baeck, S. H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., Choi, K. S., Stucky, G. D., McFarland, E. W. 2005; 7 (2): 264-271

    Abstract

    High-throughput electrochemical methods have been developed for the investigation of Zn1-xCo(x)O films for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water. A library of 120 samples containing 27 different compositions (0

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cc049864x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227708100015

    View details for PubMedID 15762755

  • Combinatorial electrochemical synthesis and screening of Pt-WO3 catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol Review of Scientific Instruments Jayaraman, S., Baeck, S., H., Jaramillo, T., F., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005; 76 (6)
  • Automated electrochemical synthesis and characterization of TiO2 supported Au nanoparticle electrocatalysts MEASUREMENT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T. F., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E. W. 2005; 16 (1): 54-59
  • High-throughput methods for the investigation of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from Zn1-xCoxO thin films Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005
  • Mixed-metal nanoparticles for fuel cell catalysis Jaramillo, T., F., Jayaraman, S., McFarland, E., W. 2005
  • Combinatorial Discovery: New Materials for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005
  • Synthesis and characterization of Pt-WO3 films as methanol oxidation catalysts for low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells Journal of Physical Chemistry B Jayaraman, S., Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., McFarland, E., W. 2005; 109 (48): 22958-22966
  • Optimized Materials for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Jaramillo, T., F. 2005
  • New materials for energy conversion reactions: photoelectrochemical hydrogen production and electrocatalytic methanol oxidation Jaramillo, T., F., Jayaraman, S., Baeck, S.-H, Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005
  • Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical characterization of Zn1-xCoxO thin films for solar hydrogen production Journal of Combinatorial Chemistry Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., Choi, K., S., Stucky, G., D., McFarland, E., W. 2005; 7 (2): 264-271
  • Automated electrochemical synthesis and characterization of TiO2 supported Au nanoparticle electrocatalysts Measurement Science & Technology Baeck, S., H., Jaramillo, T., F., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005; 16 (1): 54-59
  • Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production: a combinatorial investigation of ZnO-based materials Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S.-H, Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005
  • New materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production: A high-throughput investigation Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S.-H, Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005
  • High throughput investigation of new materials for the photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005
  • Doped semiconductors and mixed-metal nanoparticles: New materials for energy conversion reactions Jaramillo, T., F., Jayaraman, S., Baeck, S., H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2005
  • Synthesis of titania nanotubes with supported Au nanoclusters Journal of Materials Research Liu, X., Jaramillo, T., F., Kolmokov, A., Baeck, S., H., Moskovits, M., Stucky, G. 2005; 20 (5): 1093-1096
  • Gas-phase catalysis by micelle derived Au nanoparticles on oxide supports CATALYSIS LETTERS Chou, J., Franklin, N. R., Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T. F., McFarland, E. W. 2004; 95 (3-4): 107-111
  • Parallel synthesis and characterization of photoelectrochemically and electrochromically active tungsten-molybdenum oxides CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T. F., Jeong, D. H., McFarland, E. W. 2004: 390-391

    Abstract

    Single phase tungsten-molybdenum mixed oxide films (W(1-x)Mo(x)O(3)) were successfully synthesized by automated parallel electrodeposition, and distinct structural changes were observed as a function of composition. A monoclinic structure (beta-phase) was observed in mixed oxides with less than 90% Mo, and above 90% Mo, orthorhombic structure (alpha-phase) was identified.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b313924g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220108100017

    View details for PubMedID 14765223

  • Combinatorial electrochemical synthesis and screening of mesoporous ZnO for photocatalysis MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS Jaramillo, T. F., Baeck, S. H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E. W. 2004; 25 (1): 297-301
  • Combinatorial electrochemical synthesis and screening of mesoporous ZnO for photocatalysis Macromolecular Rapid Communications Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2004; 25 (1): 297-301
  • Structure, composition, and morphology of photoelectrochemically active TiO2-xNx thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering Journal of Physical Chemistry B Mwabora, J., M., Lindgren, T., Avendaño, E., Jaramillo, T, .F., Lu, J., Lindquist, S., E. 2004; 108 (52): 20193-20198
  • Parallel synthesis and characterization of photoelectrochemically and electrochromically active tungsten molybdenum oxides Chemical Communications Baeck, S., H., Jaramillo, T., F., Jeong, D., H., McFarland, E., W. 2004; 4: 390-391
  • Size- and support-dependent electronic and catalytic properties of Au-0/Au3+ nanoparticles synthesized from block copolymer micelles JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Cuenya, B. R., Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T. F., McFarland, E. W. 2003; 125 (42): 12928-12934

    Abstract

    Supported Au nanoclusters synthesized from diblock copolymer micelles can be reliably prepared with well-controlled sizes and dispersions. For particles with diameters between approximately 1 and 6 nm, the particle size and the support were found to strongly influence the oxygen reactivity, the formation and stabilization of a metal-oxide, and the catalytic activity for electrooxidation of carbon monoxide. The smallest particles studied (1.5 nm) were the most active for electrooxidation of CO and had the largest fraction of oxygen associated with gold at the surface as measured by the Au(3+)/Au(0) X-ray photoemission intensities. Conducting and semiconducting substrates, ITO-coated glass and TiO(2), respectively, were associated with greater stabilization of Au(3+) oxide as compared to insulating, SiO(2), substrates.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja036468u

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185990300053

    View details for PubMedID 14558841

  • Synthesis of tungsten oxide on copper surfaces by electroless deposition CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T. F., Stucky, G. D., McFarland, E. W. 2003; 15 (18): 3411-3413

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cm0341641

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185221500003

  • Enhancement of photocatalytic and electrochromic properties of electrochemically fabricated mesoporous WO3 thin films ADVANCED MATERIALS Baeck, S. H., Choi, K. S., Jaramillo, T. F., Stucky, G. D., McFarland, E. W. 2003; 15 (15): 1269-?
  • Catalytic activity of supported au nanoparticles deposited from block copolymer micelles JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Jaramillo, T. F., Baeck, S. H., Cuenya, B. R., McFarland, E. W. 2003; 125 (24): 7148-7149

    Abstract

    Quasi-ordered, highly dispersed, gold nanoclusters of tightly controlled particle size were synthesized by dip-coating substrates with gold precursors encapsulated by block-copolymer micelles. By this method, gold particles (4.8 +/- 1.3 nm) were deposited on ITO-coated glass and shown to be catalytically active for electro-oxidation of carbon monoxide. XPS confirmed the catalytically active particles were predominantly Au0; however, a large fraction existed as Au3+. Whereas bulk gold is inert, these results demonstrate that catalytically active Au nanoparticles can be derived from micelle encapsulation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183503500002

    View details for PubMedID 12797767

  • A CU2O/TiO2 heterojunction thin film cathode for photoelectrocatalysis SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS Siripala, W., Ivanovskaya, A., Jaramillo, T. F., Baeck, S. H., McFarland, E. W. 2003; 77 (3): 229-237
  • Enhancement of photocatalytic and electrochromic properties of electrochemically fabricated mesoporous WO3 thin films Advanced Materials Baeck, S., H., Choi, K., S., Jaramillo, T., F., Stucky, G., D., McFarland, E., W. 2003; 15 (15): 1269-1273
  • Combinatorial Investigation of New Materials for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., Choi, K.-S, Stucky, G., D., McFarland, E., W. 2003
  • Catalytic activity of supported Au nanoparticles deposited from block copolymer micelles Journal of the American Chemical Society Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., Roldan-Cuenya, B., McFarland, E., W. 2003; 125 (24): 7148-7149
  • A Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunction thin film cathode for photoelectrocatalysis Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Siripala, W., Ivanovskaya, A., Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S., H., McFarland, E., W. 2003; 77 (3): 229-237
  • Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials Jaramillo, T., F., Baeck, S.-H, Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A., McFarland, E., W. 2003
  • Size and support dependent electronic and catalytic properties of Au0/Au3+ nanoparticles synthesized from block co-polymer micelles Journal of the American Chemical Society Roldan-Cuenya, B., Baeck, S., H., Jaramillo, T., F., McFarland, E., W. 2003; 125 (42): 12928-12934
  • Combinatorial Electrochemical Synthesis and Screening of Transition-Metal Doped Zinc Oxides as Water-Splitting Photocatalysts for H2 Production Jaramillo, T., F., Choi, K.-S, Baeck, S., H., McFarland, E., W. 2003
  • Synthesis of tungsten oxide on copper surfaces by electroless deposition Chemistry of Materials Baeck, S., H., Jaramillo, T., F., Stucky, G., D., McFarland, E., W. 2003; 15 (18): 3411-3413
  • Combinatorial electrochemical synthesis and characterization of tungsten-based mixed-metal oxides JOURNAL OF COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T. F., Brandli, C., McFarland, E. W. 2002; 4 (6): 563-568

    Abstract

    Automated systems for electrochemical synthesis and high-throughput screening of photoelectrochemical materials were developed and used to prepare tungsten-based mixed-metal oxides, W(n)O(m)M(x) [M = Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pt, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag], specifically for hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. Two-dimensional arrays (libraries) of diverse metal oxides were synthesized by automated cathodic electrodeposition of the oxides on Ti foil substrates. Electrolytes for the mixed oxides were prepared from various metal salts added to a solution containing tungsten stabilized as a peroxo complex. Electrodeposition of the peroxo-stabilized cations gave rise to three distinguishable oxide groups: (1) mixed-metal oxides [Ni], (2) metal-doped tungsten oxides [Pt, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag], and (3) metal-metal oxide composites [Co, Cu, Zn]. The oxides typically showed n-type semiconducting behavior. Automated measurement of photocurrent using a scanning photoelectrochemical cell showed the W-Ni mixed oxide had the largest relative zero bias photocurrent, particularly at a low Ni concentration (5-10 atomic percent Ni). Pt and Ru were also found to increase the photoactivity of bulk tungsten oxide at relatively low concentrations; however, at concentrations above 5 atomic percent, crystallization of WO(3) was inhibited and photoactivity was diminished. Addition of Co, Cu, and Zn to WO(3) was not found to improve the photoelectrochemical activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cc020014w

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179254700006

    View details for PubMedID 12425600

  • Controlled electrodeposition of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide NANO LETTERS Baeck, S. H., Jaramillo, T., Stucky, G. D., McFarland, E. W. 2002; 2 (8): 831-834

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl025587p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177485500008

  • Influence of composition and morphology on photo and electrocatalytic activity of electrodeposited Pt/WO3 Baeck, S., H, Jaramillo, T., F., McFarland, E., W. 2002
  • Controlled electrodeposition of nanoparticulate tungsten oxide Nano Letters Baeck, S., H., Jaramillo, T., F., Stucky, G., D., McFarland, E. 2002; 2 (8): 831-834
  • High-throughput screening system for catalytic hydrogen-producing materials JOURNAL OF COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY Jaramillo, T. F., Ivanovskaya, A., McFarland, E. W. 2002; 4 (1): 17-22

    Abstract

    A high-throughput screening system and methodology were developed for libraries of hydrogen (H(2)) producing catalytic materials. The system is based on the chemo-optical properties of WO(3), which give rise to reflectance changes in the presence of H(2). Pd-coated WO(3) sensors were synthesized and examined for their hydrogen sensitivity, wavelength-dependent reflectance, and performance in the presence of water vapor. For high-throughput screening, a polypropylene reactor block was designed and constructed to house 8 x 12 catalyst libraries deposited as thin films. When the library and reactor block are assembled together, 96 independent microreactor units are formed. A large-area Pd/WO(3) sensor film covers and seals all microreactors, forming a 96-element 2-D H(2) sensor array. As H(2) is produced differentially across the library, the reflectance changes of the Pd/WO(3) film are monitored by reflectivity sensors that scan the surface every 30 s. The time-dependent changes in reflectance indicate relative rates of H(2) production. A library of cathode electrocatalysts was synthesized from Ti, Pt, Ni, Au, Pd, Al, Ag, Ge, and mixtures thereof to demonstrate the H(2) high-throughput screening system. The results of the electrolytic screening are in agreement with expected literature trends: mixtures of Ni and samples containing Pt and Pd generated H(2) at the greatest rates, while Ge- and Ti-based materials were the least effective electrocatalysts. A mixture of 80% Al and 20% Pt was found to have the highest rate of H(2) production. This high-throughput screening system is applicable in a variety of catalytic screening applications where hydrogen is the desired product.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cc010054k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174085200002

    View details for PubMedID 11831878

  • Combinatorial electrochemical synthesis and characterization of tungsten-based mixed metal oxides Journal of Combinatorial Chemistry Baeck, S., H., Jaramillo, T., F., Brändli, C., McFarland, E. 2002; 4 (6): 563-568
  • High-throughput screening system for catalytic hydrogen-producing materials Journal of Combinatorial Chemistry Jaramillo, T., F., Ivanovskaya, A., McFarland, E., W. 2002; 4 (1): 17-22
  • Automated synthesis and characterization of diverse libraries of macroporous alumina ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA Brandli, C., Jaramillo, T. F., Ivanovskaya, A., McFarland, E. W. 2001; 47 (4): 553-557
  • Automated synthesis and characterization of diverse libraries of macroporous alumina Electrochimica Acta Brandli, C., Jaramillo, T., F., Ivanovskaya, A., McFarland, E., W. 2001; 47 (4): 553-557
  • The Investigation of Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using Combinatorial Chemistry Jaramillo, T., F., Ivanovskaya, A., Brändli, C., McFarland, E., W. 2000