Dr. Sumit Shah specializes in the management of advanced urologic malignancies such as prostate, kidney, bladder, and testicular cancers. He also serves as an investigator on numerous clinical trials, with a focus on novel immunotherapy agents. His academic interests also include digital health technologies and novel healthcare delivery services, both in the domestic and international setting. Dr. Shah graduated with distinction in biomedical engineering from Duke University, received his medical doctorate from Stanford University, and Masters in Public Health from Harvard University. He completed his internal medicine residency at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) where he stayed on faculty for one year before returning to Stanford for his fellowship training in medical oncology, where he now serves on the faculty.
- Prostate Cancer
- Kidney Cancer
- Bladder Cancer
- Testicular Cancer/Germ Cell Tumor
Honors & Awards
US Fulbright Scholar, South Korea (2005)
Fellowship: Stanford University Hematology and Oncology Fellowship (2017) CA
Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (2010) CA
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Oncology (2017)
Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2013)
Residency: UCSF Internal Medicine Residency (2013) CA
Fellowship, Stanford University Hospital, Oncology/Hematology (2017)
Residency, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Internal Medicine (2013)
MPH, Harvard School of Public Health (2010)
MD, Stanford School of Medicine (2010)
BSE, Duke University (2004)
Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Multiple Immunotherapy-Based Treatments and Combinations in Patients With Urothelial Carcinoma (MORPHEUS-UC)
A Phase Ib/II, open-label, multicenter, randomized, umbrella study in participants with cisplatin-ineligible MIBC and in participants with locally advanced or metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) who have progressed during or following a platinum-containing regimen. The study is designed with the flexibility to open new treatment arms as new treatments become available, close existing treatment arms that demonstrate minimal clinical activity or unacceptable toxicity, or modify the participant population (e.g., with regard to prior anti-cancer treatment or biomarker status). Participants in the mUC Cohort who experience loss of clinical benefit or unacceptable toxicity during Stage 1 may be eligible to continue treatment with a different treatment regimen for Stage 2.
Academic Advising Dean
David Altman, Ankit Baghel, Ellie Beam, Preksha Bhagchandani, Hriday Bhambhvani, Christian Calderon, Tim Chai, Samuel Cohen, Shayna Cooperman, Kimberly DeBruler, Alexis Doyle, Areian Eghbali, Sofia Essayan-Perez, Mollie Friedlander, Cesar Garcia, Luis Garcia, Jason Gomez, Cayo Gonzalez, Jonathan Goodman, Margaret Guo, Jessica Hampton, Shammah Ike, Candice Kim, Kathy Ku, Daniel Liu, Sofia Luna, Lucy Ma, Payton Marshall, Aviva Mattingly, Jack Michaud, Paras Minhas, Daniel Mokhtari, Yanick Mulumba, Sidney Owen, Ragini Phansalkar, Santiago Sanchez, Ben Schwartz, Vinita Shivakumar, Benjie Smith, Jodi So, Austin Valido, Kunal Varshneya, Harsh Wadhwa, Allan Wang, Songnan Wang, Christine Xu, Christine Yeh, Willemijn van Deursen
Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study.
Lancet (London, England)
Data on patients with COVID-19 who have cancer are lacking. Here we characterise the outcomes of a cohort of patients with cancer and COVID-19 and identify potential prognostic factors for mortality and severe illness.In this cohort study, we collected de-identified data on patients with active or previous malignancy, aged 18 years and older, with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection from the USA, Canada, and Spain from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) database for whom baseline data were added between March 17 and April 16, 2020. We collected data on baseline clinical conditions, medications, cancer diagnosis and treatment, and COVID-19 disease course. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality within 30 days of diagnosis of COVID-19. We assessed the association between the outcome and potential prognostic variables using logistic regression analyses, partially adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and obesity. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04354701, and is ongoing.Of 1035 records entered into the CCC19 database during the study period, 928 patients met inclusion criteria for our analysis. Median age was 66 years (IQR 57-76), 279 (30%) were aged 75 years or older, and 468 (50%) patients were male. The most prevalent malignancies were breast (191 [21%]) and prostate (152 [16%]). 366 (39%) patients were on active anticancer treatment, and 396 (43%) had active (measurable) cancer. At analysis (May 7, 2020), 121 (13%) patients had died. In logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with increased 30-day mortality, after partial adjustment, were: increased age (per 10 years; partially adjusted odds ratio 1·84, 95% CI 1·53-2·21), male sex (1·63, 1·07-2·48), smoking status (former smoker vs never smoked: 1·60, 1·03-2·47), number of comorbidities (two vs none: 4·50, 1·33-15·28), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or higher (status of 2 vs 0 or 1: 3·89, 2·11-7·18), active cancer (progressing vs remission: 5·20, 2·77-9·77), and receipt of azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine (vs treatment with neither: 2·93, 1·79-4·79; confounding by indication cannot be excluded). Compared with residence in the US-Northeast, residence in Canada (0·24, 0·07-0·84) or the US-Midwest (0·50, 0·28-0·90) were associated with decreased 30-day all-cause mortality. Race and ethnicity, obesity status, cancer type, type of anticancer therapy, and recent surgery were not associated with mortality.Among patients with cancer and COVID-19, 30-day all-cause mortality was high and associated with general risk factors and risk factors unique to patients with cancer. Longer follow-up is needed to better understand the effect of COVID-19 on outcomes in patients with cancer, including the ability to continue specific cancer treatments.American Cancer Society, National Institutes of Health, and Hope Foundation for Cancer Research.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31187-9
View details for PubMedID 32473681
First-in-Human, First-in-Class Phase I Trial of the Anti-CD47 Antibody Hu5F9-G4 in Patients With Advanced Cancers.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of Hu5F9-G4 (5F9), a humanized IgG4 antibody that targets CD47 to enable phagocytosis.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients with solid tumors were treated in four cohorts: part A, to determine a priming dose; part B, to determine a weekly maintenance dose; part C, to study a loading dose in week 2; and a tumor biopsy cohort.RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were treated: 11 in part A, 14 in B, 22 in C, and 15 in the biopsy cohort. Part A used doses that ranged from 0.1 to 3 mg/kg. On the basis of tolerability and receptor occupancy studies that showed 100% CD47 saturation on RBCs, 1 mg/kg was selected as the priming dose. In subsequent groups, patients were treated with maintenance doses that ranged from 3 to 45 mg/kg, and most toxicities were mild to moderate. These included transient anemia (57% of patients), hemagglutination on peripheral blood smear (36%), fatigue (64%), headaches (50%), fever (45%), chills (45%), hyperbilirubinemia (34%), lymphopenia (34%), infusion-related reactions (34%), and arthralgias (18%). No maximum tolerated dose was reached with maintenance doses up to 45 mg/kg. At doses of 10 mg/kg or more, the CD47 antigen sink was saturated by 5F9, and a 5F9 half-life of approximately 13 days was observed. Strong antibody staining of tumor tissue was observed in a patient at 30 mg/kg. Two patients with ovarian/fallopian tube cancers had partial remissions for 5.2 and 9.2 months.CONCLUSION: 5F9 is well tolerated using a priming dose at 1 mg/kg on day 1 followed by maintenance doses of up to 45 mg/kg weekly.
View details for PubMedID 30811285
Consolidative Radiotherapy in Metastatic Urothelial Cancer.
Clinical genitourinary cancer
We report outcomes of a retrospective, single-institution experience with consolidative radiation after chemotherapy in metastatic urothelial cancer (MUC).From our single-institution database of 2597 patients with urothelial carcinoma treated since 1997, we identified 22 patients with MUC who underwent consolidative radiotherapy after a partial response to chemotherapy with the intent of rendering them disease-free. All patients had undergone primary surgical therapy with either cystectomy or nephroureterectomy. Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as time from completion of radiation therapy to relapse or last follow-up. Overall survival (OS) was defined as time from start of chemotherapy to death or last follow-up.In the selected group of patients with MUC, the median age was 67 years; 59% had received previous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The most common sites radiated were the regional lymph nodes (64%). Other radiated sites included the lung, adrenal glands, and omental metastases. Median survival from diagnosis to cystectomy was 48 months. Median PFS was 13 months and median OS was 29 months. Eight patients (36%) were alive and disease-free 6 years after radiation therapy. Patients who were rendered disease-free were those with nodal metastases and delivery of radiation to a single site of metastasis.In this highly selective cohort of patients with MUC treated with consolidative radiation after chemotherapy, 36% were rendered disease-free. This suggests that radiation is feasible and might contribute to long-term disease control. Further prospective studies are needed to better characterize the benefit of combined modality treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clgc.2017.04.007
View details for PubMedID 28465049
- Reply to R. Kebudi et al. JCO oncology practice 2021: OP2100105
PSMA- and GRPR-targeted PET: Results from 50 Patients with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer.
Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Rationale: Novel radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) are evaluated for the diagnosis of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BCR PC). Here, we compare the gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) - targeting 68Ga-RM2 with the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) - targeting 68Ga-PSMA11 and 18F-DCFPyL. Methods: Fifty patients had both 68Ga-RM2 PET/MRI and 68Ga-PSMA11 PET/CT (n = 23) or 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT (n = 27) at an interval ranging from 1 to 60 days (mean±SD: 15.8±17.7). Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were collected for all lesions. Results: RM2 PET was positive in 35 and negative in 15 of the 50 patients. PSMA PET was positive in 37 and negative in 13 of the 50 patients. Both scans detected 70 lesions in 32 patients. Forty-three lesions in 18 patients were identified only on one scan: 68Ga-RM2 detected 7 more lesions in 4 patients, while PSMA detected 36 more lesions in 13 patients. Conclusion: 68Ga-RM2 remains a valuable radiopharmaceutical even when compared with the more widely used 68Ga-PSMA11/18F-DCFPyL in the evaluation of BCR PC. Larger studies are needed to verify that identifying patients for whom these two classes of radiopharmaceuticals are complementary may ultimately allow for personalized medicine.
View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.120.259630
View details for PubMedID 33674398
- Myocarditis Surveillance with High-Sensitivity Troponin I During Cancer Treatment with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. JACC. CardioOncology 2021; 3 (1): 137–39
Racial and socioeconomic disparities in retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and survival in nonseminomatous germ cell tumor: A population-based study.
BACKGROUND: Though testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, there is a paucity of epidemiologic studies examining sociodemographic disparities in adjuvant therapy and outcomes. We examined the associations of sociodemographic factors with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and survival among patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs).METHODS: Within the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (2005-2015), we identified 8,573 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Multivariable logistic regression and Fine-Gray competing-risks regression models were constructed to examine the association of sociodemographic factors (neighborhood SES (nSES), race, and insurance) with, respectively, adjuvant RPLND within 1 year of diagnosis and cancer-specific mortality.RESULTS: Patients in the lowest nSES quintile (OR 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40-0.88, P = 0.01) and Black patients (OR 0.41, 95% CI = 0.15-1.00, P= 0.058) with stage II disease were less likely to receive RPLND compared to those in the highest quintile and White patients, respectively. Stage III patients with Medicaid (OR 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46-0.89, P= 0.009) or without insurance (OR 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27-0.76, P= 0.003) were less likely to receive RPLND compared to patients with private insurance. Lowest quintile nSES patients of all disease stages and Black patients with stage I disease (HR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.12-6.20, P = 0.026) or stage II disease (HR=4.93, 95% CI = 1.48-16.44, P = 0.009) had higher risks of cancer-specific mortality compared to highest quintile nSES and White patients, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: This national study found multilevel, stage-specific sociodemographic disparities in receipt of RPLND and survival.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.12.016
View details for PubMedID 33423934
- Remote Oncology Care: Review of Current Technology and Future Directions CUREUS 2020; 12 (8)
Utilization of COVID-19 treatments and clinical outcomes among patients with cancer: A COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) cohort study.
Among 2,186 US adults with invasive cancer and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we examined the association of COVID-19 treatments with 30-day all-cause mortality, and factors associated with treatment. Logistic regression with multiple adjustments (e.g., comorbidities, cancer status, baseline COVID-19 severity) was performed. Hydroxychloroquine with any other drug was associated with increased mortality versus treatment with any COVID-19 treatment other than hydroxychloroquine or untreated controls; this association was not present with hydroxychloroquine alone. Remdesivir had numerically reduced mortality versus untreated controls that did not reach statistical significance. Baseline COVID-19 severity was strongly associated with receipt of any treatment. Black patients were approximately half as likely to receive remdesivir as white patients. While observational studies can be limited by potential unmeasured confounding, our findings add to the emerging understanding of patterns of care for patients with cancer and COVID-19 and support evaluation of emerging treatments through prospective controlled trials inclusive of this population.
View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0941
View details for PubMedID 32699031
Development of robust artificial neural networks for prediction of 5-year survival in bladder cancer.
PURPOSE: When exploring survival outcomes for patients with bladder cancer, most studies rely on conventional statistical methods such as proportional hazards models. Given the successful application of machine learning to handle big data in many disciplines outside of medicine, we sought to determine if machine learning could be used to improve our ability to predict survival in bladder cancer patients. We compare the performance of artificial neural networks (ANN), a type of machine learning algorithm, with that of multivariable Cox proportional hazards (CPH) models in the prediction of 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with bladder cancer.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 program database was queried to identify adult patients with bladder cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2010, yielding 161,227 patients who met our inclusion criteria. ANNs were trained and tested on an 80/20 split of the dataset. Multivariable CPH models were developed in parallel. Variables used for prediction included age, sex, race, grade, SEER stage, tumor size, lymph node involvement, degree of extension, and surgery received. The primary outcomes were 5-year DSS and 5-year OS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted, and ANN models were tested for calibration.RESULTS: The area under the curve for the ANN models was 0.81 for the OS model and 0.80 for the DSS model. Area under the curve for the CPH models was 0.70 for OS and 0.81 for DSS. The ANN OS model achieved a calibration slope of 1.03 and a calibration intercept of -0.04, while the ANN DSS model achieved a calibration slope of 0.99 and a calibration intercept of -0.04.CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning algorithms can improve our ability to predict bladder cancer prognosis. Compared to CPH models, ANNs predicted OS more accurately and DSS with similar accuracy. Given the inherent limitations of administrative datasets, machine learning may allow for optimal interpretation of the complex data they contain.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.05.009
View details for PubMedID 32593506
- Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer: Data from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020
- Association of renal cell carcinoma subtypes with race/ethnicity and comorbid medical conditions AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2020
- Testicular cancer in Hispanics: Incidence of subtypes over time according to neighborhood sociodemographic factors in California AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2020
Testicular cancer in Hispanics: incidence of subtypes over time according to neighborhood sociodemographic factors in California.
Cancer causes & control : CCC
PURPOSE: Hispanic men in the USA experience the second-highest incidence rate of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), behind non-Hispanic (NH) White men, and have experienced steep increases in TGCT in recent decades. It is unknown whether increases in incidence differ according to neighborhood sociodemographic factors.METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of n=3759 Hispanic and n=8469 NH White men (n=12,228 total) diagnosed with TGCT in California during the three most recent pericensal periods. We calculated incidence rates according to neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and among Hispanics, according to ethnic enclave. We calculated incidence rate ratios to compare rates across nSES and ethnic enclave and to examine changes in rates over pericensal time periods according to these neighborhood factors for major histologic types (i.e., seminoma and nonseminoma).RESULTS: Hispanic men residing in high SES, compared to low SES, neighborhoods had greater incidence of seminoma and nonseminoma testicular cancer across pericensal periods, as did Hispanic men in low enclave (less ethnic), compared to high enclave, neighborhoods. Between the periods 1998-2002 and 2008-2012, Hispanic men residing in low SES neighborhoods experienced a 39% increased incidence of seminoma, while those residing in low and middle SES neighborhoods experienced 87% and 48% increased incidence of nonseminoma, respectively.CONCLUSION: While TGCT incidence has increased among all Hispanic men, incidence increases appear to be driven disproportionately by those residing in lower SES and lower enclave neighborhoods, particularly for nonseminoma.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10552-020-01311-2
View details for PubMedID 32440828
DEVELOPING THE ADVANCED PRACTICE ROLE IN INFUSION TREATMENT AREA
ONCOLOGY NURSING SOC. 2020
View details for Web of Science ID 000569150400015
Safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced urological cancers with pre-existing autoimmune disorders: a retrospective international multicenter study.
Journal for immunotherapy of cancer
2020; 8 (1)
BACKGROUND: There is limited experience regarding the safety and efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) in patients with autoimmune disorders (AD) and advanced urological cancers as they are generally excluded from clinical trials due to risk of exacerbations.METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of patients with advanced renal cell cancer (RCC) and urothelial cancer (UC) with pre-existing AD treated with CPI catalogued the incidence of AD exacerbations, new immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and clinical outcomes. Competing risk models estimated cumulative incidences of exacerbations and new irAEs at 3 and 6 months.RESULTS: Of 106 patients with AD (58 RCC, 48 UC) from 10 centers, 35 (33%) had grade 1/2 clinically active AD of whom 10 (9%) required corticosteroids or immunomodulators at baseline. Exacerbations of pre-existing AD occurred in 38 (36%) patients with 17 (45%) requiring corticosteroids and 6 (16%) discontinuing CPI. New onset irAEs occurred in 40 (38%) patients with 22 (55%) requiring corticosteroids and 8 (20%) discontinuing CPI. Grade 3/4 events occurred in 6 (16%) of exacerbations and 13 (33%) of new irAEs. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Median follow-up was 15 months. For RCC, objective response rate (ORR) was 31% (95% CI 20% to 45%), median time to treatment failure (TTF) was 7 months (95% CI 4 to 10) and 12-month overall survival (OS) was 78% (95% CI 63% to 87%). For UC, ORR was 40% (95% CI 26% to 55%), median TTF was 5.0 months (95% CI 2.3 to 9.0) and 12-month OS was 63% (95% CI 47% to 76%).CONCLUSIONS: Patients with RCC and UC with well-controlled AD can benefit from CPI with manageable toxicities that are consistent with what is expected of a non-AD population. Prospective study is warranted to comprehensively evaluate the benefits and safety of CPI in patients with AD.
View details for DOI 10.1136/jitc-2020-000538
View details for PubMedID 32217762
Remote Oncology Care: Review of Current Technology and Future Directions.
2020; 12 (8): e10156
Cancer patients frequently develop tumor and treatment-related complications, leading to diminished quality of life, shortened survival, and overutilization of emergency department and hospital services. Outpatient oncology treatment has potential to leave cancer patients unmonitored for long periods while at risk of clinical deterioration which has been exaggerated during the COVID19 pandemic. Visits to cancer clinics and hospitals risk exposing immunocompromised patients to infectious complications. Remote patient reported outcomes monitoring systems have been developed for use in cancer treatment, showing benefits in economic and survival outcomes. While advanced devices such as pulmonary artery pressure monitors and implantable loop recorders have proven benefits in cardiovascular care, similar options do not exist for oncology. Here we review the current literature around remote patient monitoring in cancer care and propose the use of reliable devices for capturing and reporting patient symptoms and physiology.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.10156
View details for PubMedID 33014652
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7526951
Changes in Cancer Management due to COVID-19 Illness in Patients with Cancer in Northern California.
JCO oncology practice
The response to the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the management of patients with cancer. In this pooled retrospective analysis, we describe changes in management patterns for patients with cancer diagnosed with COVID-19 in two academic institutions in the San Francisco Bay Area.Adult and pediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with a current or historical diagnosis of malignancy were identified from the electronic medical record at the University of California, San Francisco, and Stanford University. The proportion of patients undergoing active cancer management whose care was affected was quantified and analyzed for significant differences with regard to management type, treatment intent, and the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. The duration and characteristics of such changes were compared across subgroups.A total of 131 patients were included, of whom 55 were undergoing active cancer management. Of these, 35 of 55 (64%) had significant changes in management that consisted primarily of delays. An additional three patients not undergoing active cancer management experienced a delay in management after being diagnosed with COVID-19. The decision to change management was correlated with the time of COVID-19 diagnosis, with more delays identified in patients treated with palliative intent earlier in the course of the pandemic (March/April 2020) compared with later (May/June 2020) (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.03 to 17.3; P = .0497). This difference was not seen among patients treated with curative intent during the same timeframe.We found significant changes in the management of cancer patients with COVID-19 treated with curative and palliative intent that evolved over time. Future studies are needed to determine the impact of changes in management and treatment on cancer outcomes for patients with cancer and COVID-19.
View details for DOI 10.1200/OP.20.00790
View details for PubMedID 33332170
- Feasibility and design of a cloud-based digital platform in patients with advanced cancer. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2019
Retrospective analysis of the safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) among patients (pts) with pre-existing autoimmune disorders (AD) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or urothelial carcinoma (UC).
AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2019
View details for Web of Science ID 000487345805393
- Cabozantinib in advanced non-clear-cell renal cell carcinoma: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study LANCET ONCOLOGY 2019; 20 (4): 581–90
Undertreatment of High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer in the California Latino Population.
Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
2018; 16 (11): 1353–60
Background: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology recommend definitive therapy for all men with high-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa) who have a life expectancy >5 years or who are symptomatic. However, the application of these guidelines may vary among ethnic groups. We compared receipt of guideline-concordant treatment between Latino and non-Latino white men in California. Methods: California Cancer Registry data were used to identify 2,421 Latino and 8,636 non-Latino white men diagnosed with high-risk localized PCa from 2010 through 2014. The association of clinical and sociodemographic factors with definitive treatment was examined using logistic regression, overall and by ethnicity. Results: Latinos were less likely than non-Latino whites to receive definitive treatment before (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.88) and after adjusting for age and tumor characteristics (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95). Additional adjustment for sociodemographic factors eliminated the disparity. However, the association with treatment differed by ethnicity for several factors. Latino men with no health insurance were considerably less likely to receive definitive treatment relative to insured Latino men (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.23-0.49), an association that was more pronounced than among non-Latino whites (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47-0.83). Intermediate-versus high-grade disease was associated with lower odds of definitive treatment in Latinos (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.97) but not non-Latino whites. Younger age and care at NCI-designated Cancer Centers were significantly associated with receipt of definitive treatment in non-Latino whites but not in Latinos. Conclusions: California Latino men diagnosed with localized high-risk PCa are at increased risk for undertreatment. The observed treatment disparity is largely explained by sociodemographic factors, suggesting it may be ameliorated through targeted outreach, such as that aimed at younger and underinsured Latino men.
View details for PubMedID 30442735
In situ vaccination against mycosis fungoides by intratumoral injection of a TLR9 agonist combined with radiation: a phase 1/2 study
2012; 119 (2): 355-363
We have developed and previously reported on a therapeutic vaccination strategy for indolent B-cell lymphoma that combines local radiation to enhance tumor immunogenicity with the injection into the tumor of a TLR9 agonist. As a result, antitumor CD8(+) T cells are induced, and systemic tumor regression was documented. Because the vaccination occurs in situ, there is no need to manufacture a vaccine product. We have now explored this strategy in a second disease: mycosis fungoides (MF). We treated 15 patients. Clinical responses were assessed at the distant, untreated sites as a measure of systemic antitumor activity. Five clinically meaningful responses were observed. The procedure was well tolerated and adverse effects consisted mostly of mild and transient injection site or flu-like symptoms. The immunized sites showed a significant reduction of CD25(+), Foxp3(+) T cells that could be either MF cells or tissue regulatory T cells and a similar reduction in S100(+), CD1a(+) dendritic cells. There was a trend toward greater reduction of CD25(+) T cells and skin dendritic cells in clinical responders versus nonresponders. Our in situ vaccination strategy is feasible also in MF and the clinical responses that occurred in a subset of patients warrant further study with modifications to augment these therapeutic effects. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00226993.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-05-355222
View details for PubMedID 22045986