Bio


Cui studies nanoscale phenomena and their applications broadly defined. Research Interests: Nanocrystal and nanowire synthesis and self-assembly, electron transfer and transport in nanomaterials and at the nanointerface, nanoscale electronic and photonic devices, batteries, solar cells, microbial fuel cells, water filters and chemical and biological sensors.

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • David Filo and Jerry Yang Faculty Scholar, Stanford University (2010-2014)
  • Sloan Research Fellowship, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (2010)
  • Investigator Award, KAUST (2008)
  • Young Investigator Award, ONR (2008)
  • Innovators Award, MDV (2008)
  • Terman Fellowship, Stanford University (2008)
  • Top 100 Young Innovator Award, Technology Review (2004)
  • Miller Research Fellowship, Miller Institute (2003)
  • Distinguished Graduate Student Award in Nanotechnology, Foresight Institute (2002)
  • Graduate Student Gold Medal Award, Materials Research Society (2001)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Harvard University (2002)

2019-20 Courses


Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Electrochemical generation of liquid and solid sulfur on two-dimensional layered materials with distinct areal capacities Nature Nanotechnology Yang, A., Zhou, G., et al 2020
  • Dynamic Structure and Chemistry of the Silicon Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Visualized by Cryogenic Electron Microscopy Matter Huang, W., Wang, J., Braun, M. R., Zhang, Z., Li, Y., Boyle, D. T., McIntyre, P. C., Cui, Y. 2019; 1 (5)
  • Two-dimensional chalcogenide nanoplates as tunable metamaterials via chemical intercalation Nano Letters Cha, J., J., Koski, K., J., Huang, K., C. Y., Wang, K., X., Luo, W., Kong, D., Cui, Y.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402937g

  • Sulfur-Modulated Tin Sites Enable Highly Selective Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Formate Joule Zheng, X., De luna, P., de Arquer, F., Zhang, B., Becknell, N., Cui, Y., Du, X., Yang, P., Sargent, E. 2017
  • Facile synthesis of Li2S-polypyrrole composite structures for high-performance Li2S cathodes Energy and Environmental Science Seh, Z., W., Wang, H., Hsu, P., C., Zhang, Q., Li, W., Zheng, G., Cui, Y. 2014

    View details for DOI 10.1039/C3EE43395A

  • Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage Nature Communications Pasta, M., Wessells, C., D., Liu, N., Nelson, J., McDowell, M., T., Huggins, R., A., Cui, Y. 2014; 3007 (5)
  • Elastic moduli of polycrystalline Li15Si4 produced in lithium ion batteries JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES Zeng, Z., Liu, N., Zeng, Q., Ding, Y., Qu, S., Cui, Y., Mao, W. L. 2013; 242: 732-735
  • A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Yang, Y., Zheng, G., Cui, Y. 2013; 6 (5): 1552-1558

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3ee00072a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317984700020

  • Amphiphilic Surface Modification of Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Cycle Life of Lithium Sulfur Batteries NANO LETTERS Zheng, G., Zhang, Q., Cha, J. J., Yang, Y., Li, W., Seh, Z. W., Cui, Y. 2013; 13 (3): 1265-1270

    Abstract

    Tremendous effort has been put into developing viable lithium sulfur batteries, due to their high specific energy and relatively low cost. Despite recent progress in addressing the various problems of sulfur cathodes, lithium sulfur batteries still exhibit significant capacity decay over cycling. Herein, we identify a new capacity fading mechanism of the sulfur cathodes, relating to Li(x)S detachment from the carbon surface during the discharge process. This observation is confirmed by ex-situ transmission electron microscopy study and first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that this capacity fading mechanism can be overcome by introducing amphiphilic polymers to modify the carbon surface, rendering strong interactions between the nonpolar carbon and the polar Li(x)S clusters. The modified sulfur cathode show excellent cycling performance with specific capacity close to 1180 mAh/g at C/5 current rate. Capacity retention of 80% is achieved over 300 cycles at C/2.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl304795g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316243800063

    View details for PubMedID 23394300

  • Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors NANO ENERGY Yu, G., Xie, X., Pan, L., Bao, Z., Cui, Y. 2013; 2 (2): 213-234
  • Behaviors of Fe, Zn, and Ga Substitution in CuInS2 Nanoparticles Probed with Anomalous X-ray Diffraction CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS Connor, S. T., Weil, B. D., Misra, S., Cui, Y., Toney, M. F. 2013; 25 (3): 320-325

    View details for DOI 10.1021/cm302794t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315018500008

  • Topological insulator nanostructures PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS Cha, J. J., Koski, K. J., Cui, Y. 2013; 7 (1-2): 15-25
  • In Situ TEM of Two-Phase Lithiation of Amorphous Silicon Nanospheres NANO LETTERS McDowell, M. T., Lee, S. W., Harris, J. T., Korgel, B. A., Wang, C., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2013; 13 (2): 758-764

    Abstract

    To utilize high-capacity Si anodes in next-generation Li-ion batteries, the physical and chemical transformations during the Li-Si reaction must be better understood. Here, in situ transmission electron microscopy is used to observe the lithiation/delithiation of amorphous Si nanospheres; amorphous Si is an important anode material that has been less studied than crystalline Si. Unexpectedly, the experiments reveal that the first lithiation occurs via a two-phase mechanism, which is contrary to previous understanding and has important consequences for mechanical stress evolution during lithiation. On the basis of kinetics measurements, this behavior is suggested to be due to the rate-limiting effect of Si-Si bond breaking. In addition, the results show that amorphous Si has more favorable kinetics and fracture behavior when reacting with Li than does crystalline Si, making it advantageous to use in battery electrodes. Amorphous spheres up to 870 nm in diameter do not fracture upon lithiation; this is much larger than the 150 nm critical fracture diameter previously identified for crystalline Si spheres.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl3044508

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315079500072

    View details for PubMedID 23323680

  • Transparent and conductive paper from nanocellulose fibers ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Hu, L., Zheng, G., Yao, J., Liu, N., Weil, B., Eskilsson, M., Karabulut, E., Ruan, Z., Fan, S., Bloking, J. T., McGehee, M. D., Wagberg, L., Cui, Y. 2013; 6 (2): 513-518

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ee23635d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313892400013

  • Sulphur-TiO2 yolk-shell nanoarchitecture with internal void space for long-cycle lithium-sulphur batteries. Nature communications Wei Seh, Z., Li, W., Cha, J. J., Zheng, G., Yang, Y., McDowell, M. T., Hsu, P., Cui, Y. 2013; 4: 1331-?

    Abstract

    Sulphur is an attractive cathode material with a high specific capacity of 1,673 mAh g(-1), but its rapid capacity decay owing to polysulphide dissolution presents a significant technical challenge. Despite much efforts in encapsulating sulphur particles with conducting materials to limit polysulphide dissolution, relatively little emphasis has been placed on dealing with the volumetric expansion of sulphur during lithiation, which will lead to cracking and fracture of the protective shell. Here, we demonstrate the design of a sulphur-TiO(2) yolk-shell nanoarchitecture with internal void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulphur, resulting in an intact TiO(2) shell to minimize polysulphide dissolution. An initial specific capacity of 1,030 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C and Coulombic efficiency of 98.4% over 1,000 cycles are achieved. Most importantly, the capacity decay after 1,000 cycles is as small as 0.033% per cycle, which represents the best performance for long-cycle lithium-sulphur batteries so far.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2327

    View details for PubMedID 23299881

  • Strengthening effect of single-atomic-layer graphene in metal-graphene nanolayered composites Nature Communications Kim, Y., Lee, J., Yeom, M, S., Shin, J., W., Kim, H., Cui, Y. 2013; 2114 (4)
  • Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires Nature Communications Hsu, P., C., Wang, S., Wu, H., Narasimhan, V., K., Kong, D., Lee, H., R., Cui, Y. 2013; 2522 (4)
  • Self-healing chemistry enables the stable operation of silicon microparticle anodes for high-energy lithium-ion batteries Nature Chemistry Wang, C., Wu, H., Chen, Z., McDowell, M., T., Cui, Y., Bao, Z. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NCHEM.1802

  • High-performance hollow sulfur nanostructured battery cathode through a scalable, room temperature, one-step, bottom-up approach PNAS Li, W., Zheng, G., Yang, Y., Seh, Z., W., Liu, N., Cui, Y. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1220992110

  • Stable cycling of lithium sulfide cathodes through strong affinity with a bifunctional binder Chemical Science Seh, Z., W., Zhang, Q., Li, W., Zheng, G., Yaoa, H., Cui, Y. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3sc51476e

  • Critical-temperature/Peierls-stress dependent size effects in body centered cubic nanopillars Applied Physics Letters Han, S., M., Feng, G., Jung, J., Y., Jung, H., J., Groves, J., R., Nix, W., D., Cui, Y. 2013; 102: 41910

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4776658

  • Electrochemical tuning of vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and its application in improving hydrogen evolution reaction Wang, H., Lu, Z., Xu, S., Kong, D., Cha, J., J., Zheng, G., Cui, Y. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1316792110

  • Conducting nano-sponge electroporation for affordable and high-efficiency disinfection of bacteria and viruses in water. Nano Letters Liu, C., Xie, X., Zhao, W., Liu, N., Maraccini, P., A., Sassoubre, L., M., Cui, Y. 2013; 9 (13): 4288-4293
  • All-back-contact ultra-thin silicon nanocone solar cells with 13.7% power conversion efficiency Nature Communications Jeong, S., McGehee, M., D., Cui, Y. 2013; 2950 (4)
  • Understanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur Cathode Performance Nano Letters Li, W., Zhang, Q., Zheng, G., Seh, Z., W., Yao, H., Cui, Y. 2013; 13: 5534-5540
  • Understanding the Lithiation of Silicon and Other Alloying Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries (25th Anniversary Article) Advanced Materials McDowell, M., T., Lee, S., W., Nix, W., D., Cui, Y. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201301795

  • Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery. PNAS Xie, X., Ye, M., Hsu, P., C., Liu, N., Criddle, C., S., Cui, Y. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1307327110

  • Large-Area Free-Standing Ultrathin Single-Crystal Silicon as Processable Materials Nano Letters Wang, S., Weil, B., Li, Y., Wang, K., X., Garnett, E., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl402230v

  • First-row transition metal dichalcogenide catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction Energy and Environmental Science Kong, D., Cha, J., J., Wang, H., Lee, H., R., Cui, Y. 2013; 3553 (6)
  • Rice husks as a sustainable source of nanostructured silicon for high performance Li-ion battery anodes. Scientific reports Liu, N., Huo, K., McDowell, M. T., Zhao, J., Cui, Y. 2013; 3: 1919-?

    Abstract

    The recovery of useful materials from earth-abundant substances is of strategic importance for industrial processes. Despite the fact that Si is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, processes to form Si nanomaterials is usually complex, costly and energy-intensive. Here we show that pure Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) can be derived directly from rice husks (RHs), an abundant agricultural byproduct produced at a rate of 1.2 × 10(8) tons/year, with a conversion yield as high as 5% by mass. And owing to their small size (10-40 nm) and porous nature, these recovered SiNPs exhibits high performance as Li-ion battery anodes, with high reversible capacity (2,790 mA h g(-1), seven times greater than graphite anodes) and long cycle life (86% capacity retention over 300 cycles). Using RHs as the raw material source, overall energy-efficient, green, and large scale synthesis of low-cost and functional Si nanomaterials is possible.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep01919

    View details for PubMedID 23715238

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3665957

  • Magnetically ultraresponsive nanoscavengers for next-generation water purification systems. Nature communications Zhang, M., Xie, X., Tang, M., Criddle, C. S., Cui, Y., Wang, S. X. 2013; 4: 1866-?

    Abstract

    The development of sustainable, robust and energy efficient water purification technology is still challenging. Although use of nanoparticles is promising, methods are needed for their efficient recovery post treatment. Here we address this issue by fabrication of magnetically ultraresponsive 'nanoscavengers', nanoparticles containing synthetic antiferromagnetic core layers and functional capping layers. When dispersed in water, the nanoscavengers efficiently interact with contaminants to remove them from the water. They are then quickly collected (<5 min) with a permanent magnet, owing to their magnetically ultraresponsive core layers. Specifically, we demonstrate fabrication and deployment of Ag-capped nanoscavengers for disinfection followed by application of an external magnetic field for separation. We also develop and validate a collision-based model for pathogen inactivation, and propose a cyclical water purification scheme in which nanoscavengers are recovered and recycled for contaminant removal.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2892

    View details for PubMedID 23673651

  • Imaging state of charge and its correlation to interaction variation in an LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4 nanorods-graphene hybrid CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS Zhou, J., Wang, J., Hu, Y., Regier, T., Wang, H., Yang, Y., Cui, Y., Dai, H. 2013; 49 (17): 1765-1767

    Abstract

    Visualization of the state of charge (SOC) in an LiMn(0.75)Fe(0.25)PO(4) nanorods-graphene hybrid nanostructure (LMFP-C) is realized by chemical mapping of the Fe valance state using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The LMFP-graphene interaction strength variation studied by C K-edge STXM has been correlated to SOC variation, i.e. a stronger interaction was observed for sample regions with a higher SOC in LMFP. Such structure-performance correlation opens new perspectives for a rational design of a better performance olivine cathode for lithium ion batteries.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3cc39015b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314424700025

    View details for PubMedID 23340608

  • Silicon-conductive nanopaper for Li-ion batteries NANO ENERGY Hu, L., Liu, N., Eskilsson, M., Zheng, G., McDonough, J., Wagberg, L., Cui, Y. 2013; 2 (1): 138-145
  • fSulphur-TiO2 yolk-shell nanoarchitecture with internal void space for long-cycle lithium-sulphur batteries NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Seh, Z. W., Li, W., Cha, J. J., Zheng, G., Yang, Y., McDowell, M. T., Hsu, P., Cui, Y. 2013; 4

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2327

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316614600001

  • Nanoparticle and Microparticle Flow in Porous and Fractured Media-An Experimental Study SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition Alaskar, M., Ames, M., Connor, S., Liu, C., Cui, Y., Li, K., Horne, R. SOC PETROLEUM ENG. 2012: 1160–71
  • Studying the Kinetics of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation with In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy ADVANCED MATERIALS McDowell, M. T., Ryu, I., Lee, S. W., Wang, C., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2012; 24 (45): 6034-?

    Abstract

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study the electrochemical lithiation of high-capacity crystalline Si nanoparticles for use in Li-ion battery anodes. The lithiation reaction slows down as it progresses into the particle interior, and analysis suggests that this behavior is due not to diffusion limitation but instead to the influence of mechanical stress on the driving force for reaction.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201202744

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312130300007

    View details for PubMedID 22945804

  • Nanoscale photon management in silicon solar cells JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A Jeong, S., Wang, S., Cui, Y. 2012; 30 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.4759260

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311458500002

  • A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Pasta, M., Wessells, C. D., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2012; 3

    Abstract

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2139

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313514100059

    View details for PubMedID 23093186

  • Designing nanostructured Si anodes for high energy lithium ion batteries NANO TODAY Wu, H., Cui, Y. 2012; 7 (5): 414-429
  • Chemical Intercalation of Zerovalent Metals into 2D Layered Bi2Se3 Nanoribbons JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Koski, K. J., Wessells, C. D., Reed, B. W., Cha, J. J., Kong, D., Cui, Y. 2012; 134 (33): 13773-13779

    Abstract

    We have developed a chemical method to intercalate a variety of zerovalent metal atoms into two-dimensional (2D) layered Bi(2)Se(3) chalcogenide nanoribbons. We use a chemical reaction, such as a disproportionation redox reaction, to generate dilute zerovalent metal atoms in a refluxing solution, which intercalate into the layered Bi(2)Se(3) structure. The zerovalent nature of the intercalant allows superstoichiometric intercalation of metal atoms such as Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Ni, and Sn. We foresee the impact of this methodology in establishing novel fundamental physical behaviors and in possible energy applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja304925t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307699000037

    View details for PubMedID 22830589

  • Effects of Magnetic Doping on Weak Antilocalization in Narrow Bi2Se3 Nanoribbons NANO LETTERS Cha, J. J., Claassen, M., Kong, D., Hong, S. S., Koski, K. J., Qi, X., Cui, Y. 2012; 12 (8): 4355-4359

    Abstract

    We report low-temperature, magnetotransport measurements of ferrocene-doped Bi(2)Se(3) nanoribbons grown by vapor-liquid-solid method. The Kondo effect, a saturating resistance upturn at low temperatures, is observed in these ribbons to indicate presence of localized impurity spins. Magnetoconductances of the ferrocene-doped ribbons display both weak localization and weak antilocalization, which is in contrast with those of undoped ribbons that show only weak antilocalization. We show that the observed magnetoconductances are governed by a one-dimensional localization theory that includes spin orbit coupling and magnetic impurity scattering, yielding various scattering and dephasing lengths for Bi(2)Se(3). The power law decay of the dephasing length on temperature also reflects one-dimensional localization regime in these narrow Bi(2)Se(3) nanoribbons. The emergence of weak localization in ferrocene-doped Bi(2)Se(3) nanoribbons presents ferrocene as an effective magnetic dopant source.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl3021472

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307211000077

    View details for PubMedID 22830578

  • Rechargeable Li-O-2 batteries with a covalently coupled MnCo2O4-graphene hybrid as an oxygen cathode catalyst ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Wang, H., Yang, Y., Liang, Y., Zheng, G., Li, Y., Cui, Y., Dai, H. 2012; 5 (7): 7931-7935

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ee21746e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305530900032

  • Improving the cycling stability of silicon nanowire anodes with conducting polymer coatings ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Yao, Y., Liu, N., McDowell, M. T., Pasta, M., Cui, Y. 2012; 5 (7): 7927-7930

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ee21437g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305530900031

  • Hybrid Silicon Nanocone-Polymer Solar Cells NANO LETTERS Jeong, S., Garnett, E. C., Wang, S., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Brongersma, M. L., McGehee, M. D., Cui, Y. 2012; 12 (6): 2971-2976

    Abstract

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm(2), which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl300713x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305106400054

    View details for PubMedID 22545674

  • In Situ X-ray Diffraction Studies of (De)lithiation Mechanism in Silicon Nanowire Anodes ACS NANO Misra, S., Liu, N., Nelson, J., Hong, S. S., Cui, Y., Toney, M. F. 2012; 6 (6): 5465-5473

    Abstract

    Silicon is a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. From previous work, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are known to undergo amorphorization during lithiation, and no crystalline Li-Si product has been observed. In this work, we use an X-ray transparent battery cell to perform in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction on SiNWs in real time during electrochemical cycling. At deep lithiation voltages the known metastable Li(15)Si(4) phase forms, and we show that avoiding the formation of this phase, by modifying the SiNW growth temperature, improves the cycling performance of SiNW anodes. Our results provide insight on the (de)lithiation mechanism and a correlation between phase evolution and electrochemical performance for SiNW anodes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn301339g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305661300100

    View details for PubMedID 22558938

  • Electrodeposited gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotube-textile: Anode material for glucose alkaline fuel cells ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS Pasta, M., Hu, L., La Mantia, F., Cui, Y. 2012; 19: 81-84
  • Stable cycling of double-walled silicon nanotube battery anodes through solid-electrolyte interphase control. Nature nanotechnology Wu, H., Chan, G., Choi, J. W., Ryu, I., Yao, Y., McDowell, M. T., Lee, S. W., Jackson, A., Yang, Y., Hu, L., Cui, Y. 2012; 7 (5): 310-315

    Abstract

    Although the performance of lithium ion-batteries continues to improve, their energy density and cycle life remain insufficient for applications in consumer electronics, transport and large-scale renewable energy storage. Silicon has a large charge storage capacity and this makes it an attractive anode material, but pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase has limited the cycle life of silicon anodes to hundreds of cycles. Here, we show that anodes consisting of an active silicon nanotube surrounded by an ion-permeable silicon oxide shell can cycle over 6,000 times in half cells while retaining more than 85% of their initial capacity. The outer surface of the silicon nanotube is prevented from expansion by the oxide shell, and the expanding inner surface is not exposed to the electrolyte, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. Batteries containing these double-walled silicon nanotube anodes exhibit charge capacities approximately eight times larger than conventional carbon anodes and charging rates of up to 20C (a rate of 1C corresponds to complete charge or discharge in one hour).

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2012.35

    View details for PubMedID 22447161

  • The effect of metallic coatings and crystallinity on the volume expansion of silicon during electrochemical lithiation/delithiation NANO ENERGY McDowell, M. T., Lee, S. W., Wang, C., Cui, Y. 2012; 1 (3): 401-410
  • Stable cycling of double-walled silicon nanotube battery anodes through solid-electrolyte interphase control NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Wu, H., Chan, G., Choi, J. W., Ryu, I., Yao, Y., McDowell, M. T., Lee, S. W., Jackson, A., Yang, Y., Hu, L., Cui, Y. 2012; 7 (5): 309-314

    Abstract

    Although the performance of lithium ion-batteries continues to improve, their energy density and cycle life remain insufficient for applications in consumer electronics, transport and large-scale renewable energy storage. Silicon has a large charge storage capacity and this makes it an attractive anode material, but pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase has limited the cycle life of silicon anodes to hundreds of cycles. Here, we show that anodes consisting of an active silicon nanotube surrounded by an ion-permeable silicon oxide shell can cycle over 6,000 times in half cells while retaining more than 85% of their initial capacity. The outer surface of the silicon nanotube is prevented from expansion by the oxide shell, and the expanding inner surface is not exposed to the electrolyte, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. Batteries containing these double-walled silicon nanotube anodes exhibit charge capacities approximately eight times larger than conventional carbon anodes and charging rates of up to 20C (a rate of 1C corresponds to complete charge or discharge in one hour).

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NNANO.2012.35

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303884800009

  • Graphene-sponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel cells ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Xie, X., Yu, G., Liu, N., Bao, Z., Criddle, C. S., Cui, Y. 2012; 5 (5): 6862-6866

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ee03583a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303251500019

  • Energy and environmental nanotechnology in conductive paper and textiles ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Hu, L., Cui, Y. 2012; 5 (4): 6423-6435

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c2ee02414d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301984200019

  • Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Lee, S. W., McDowell, M. T., Berla, L. A., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2012; 109 (11): 4080-4085

    Abstract

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1201088109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301426700019

    View details for PubMedID 22371565

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3306693

  • Intracellular recording of action potentials by nanopillar electroporation NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Xie, C., Lin, Z., Hanson, L., Cui, Y., Cui, B. 2012; 7 (3): 185-190

    Abstract

    Action potentials have a central role in the nervous system and in many cellular processes, notably those involving ion channels. The accurate measurement of action potentials requires efficient coupling between the cell membrane and the measuring electrodes. Intracellular recording methods such as patch clamping involve measuring the voltage or current across the cell membrane by accessing the cell interior with an electrode, allowing both the amplitude and shape of the action potentials to be recorded faithfully with high signal-to-noise ratios. However, the invasive nature of intracellular methods usually limits the recording time to a few hours, and their complexity makes it difficult to simultaneously record more than a few cells. Extracellular recording methods, such as multielectrode arrays and multitransistor arrays, are non-invasive and allow long-term and multiplexed measurements. However, extracellular recording sacrifices the one-to-one correspondence between the cells and electrodes, and also suffers from significantly reduced signal strength and quality. Extracellular techniques are not, therefore, able to record action potentials with the accuracy needed to explore the properties of ion channels. As a result, the pharmacological screening of ion-channel drugs is usually performed by low-throughput intracellular recording methods. The use of nanowire transistors, nanotube-coupled transistors and micro gold-spine and related electrodes can significantly improve the signal strength of recorded action potentials. Here, we show that vertical nanopillar electrodes can record both the extracellular and intracellular action potentials of cultured cardiomyocytes over a long period of time with excellent signal strength and quality. Moreover, it is possible to repeatedly switch between extracellular and intracellular recording by nanoscale electroporation and resealing processes. Furthermore, vertical nanopillar electrodes can detect subtle changes in action potentials induced by drugs that target ion channels.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NNANO.2012.8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301186300012

    View details for PubMedID 22327876

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3356686

  • Absorption Enhancement in Ultrathin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflection and Light-Trapping Nanocone Gratings NANO LETTERS Wang, K. X., Yu, Z., Liu, V., Cui, Y., Fan, S. 2012; 12 (3): 1616-1619

    Abstract

    Enhancing the light absorption in ultrathin-film silicon solar cells is important for improving efficiency and reducing cost. We introduce a double-sided grating design, where the front and back surfaces of the cell are separately optimized for antireflection and light trapping, respectively. The optimized structure yields a photocurrent of 34.6 mA/cm(2) at an equivalent thickness of 2 μm, close to the Yablonovitch limit. This approach is applicable to various thicknesses and is robust against metallic loss in the back reflector.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl204550q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301406800086

    View details for PubMedID 22356436

  • High-Mobility Field-Effect Transistors from Large-Area Solution-Grown Aligned C-60 Single Crystals JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Li, H., Tee, B. C., Cha, J. J., Cui, Y., Chung, J. W., Lee, S. Y., Bao, Z. 2012; 134 (5): 2760-2765

    Abstract

    Field-effect transistors based on single crystals of organic semiconductors have the highest reported charge carrier mobility among organic materials, demonstrating great potential of organic semiconductors for electronic applications. However, single-crystal devices are difficult to fabricate. One of the biggest challenges is to prepare dense arrays of single crystals over large-area substrates with controlled alignment. Here, we describe a solution processing method to grow large arrays of aligned C(60) single crystals. Our well-aligned C(60) single-crystal needles and ribbons show electron mobility as high as 11 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) (average mobility: 5.2 ± 2.1 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) from needles; 3.0 ± 0.87 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) from ribbons). This observed mobility is ~8-fold higher than the maximum reported mobility for solution-grown n-channel organic materials (1.5 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)) and is ~2-fold higher than the highest mobility of any n-channel organic material (~6 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)). Furthermore, our deposition method is scalable to a 100 mm wafer substrate, with around 50% of the wafer surface covered by aligned crystals. Hence, our method facilitates the fabrication of large amounts of high-quality semiconductor crystals for fundamental studies, and with substantial improvement on the surface coverage of crystals, this method might be suitable for large-area applications based on single crystals of organic semiconductors.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja210430b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300460600049

    View details for PubMedID 22239604

  • Weak Antilocalization in Bi-2(SexTe1-x)(3) Nanoribbons and Nanoplates NANO LETTERS Cha, J. J., Kong, D., Hong, S., Analytis, J. G., Lai, K., Cui, Y. 2012; 12 (2): 1107-1111

    Abstract

    Studying the surface states of Bi(2)Se(3) and Bi(2)Te(3) topological insulators has proven challenging due to the high bulk carrier density that masks the surface states. Ternary compound Bi(2)(Se(x)Te(1-x))(3) may present a solution to the current materials challenge by lowering the bulk carrier mobility significantly. Here, we synthesized Bi(2)(Se(x)Te(1-x))(3) nanoribbons and nanoplates via vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid growth methods where the atomic ratio x was controlled by the molecular ratio of Bi(2)Se(3) to Bi(2)Te(3) in the source mixture and ranged between 0 and 1. For the whole range of x, the ternary nanostructures are single crystalline without phase segregation, and their carrier densities decrease with x. However, the lowest electron density is still high (~10(19) cm(-3)) and the mobility low, suggesting that the majority of these carriers may come from impurity states. Despite the high carrier density, weak antilocalization (WAL) is clearly observed. Angle-dependent magnetoconductance study shows that an appropriate magnetic field range is critical to capture a true, two-dimensional (2D) WAL effect, and a fit to the 2D localization theory gives α of -0.97, suggesting its origin may be the topological surface states. The power law dependence of the dephasing length on temperature is ~T(-0.49) within the appropriate field range (~0.3 T), again reflecting the 2D nature of the WAL. Careful analysis on WAL shows how the surface states and the bulk/impurity states may interact with each other.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl300018j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299967800098

    View details for PubMedID 22263839

  • Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Yao, Y., Yao, J., Narasimhan, V. K., Ruan, Z., Xie, C., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2012; 3

    Abstract

    Light trapping across a wide band of frequencies is important for applications such as solar cells and photodetectors. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to light management by forming whispering-gallery resonant modes inside a spherical nanoshell structure. The geometry of the structure gives rise to a low quality-factor, facilitating the coupling of light into the resonant modes and substantial enhancement of the light path in the active material, thus dramatically improving absorption. Using nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) as a model system, we observe broadband absorption enhancement across a large range of incident angles. The absorption of a single layer of 50-nm-thick spherical nanoshells is equivalent to a 1-μm-thick planar nc-Si film. This light-trapping structure could enable the manufacturing of high-throughput ultra-thin film absorbers in a variety of material systems that demand shorter deposition time, less material usage and transferability to flexible substrates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1664

    View details for PubMedID 22314360

  • Functionalization of silicon nanowire surfaces with metal-organic frameworks NANO RESEARCH Liu, N., Yao, Y., Cha, J. J., McDowell, M. T., Han, Y., Cui, Y. 2012; 5 (2): 109-116
  • A Desalination Battery NANO LETTERS Pasta, M., Wessells, C. D., Cui, Y., La Mantia, F. 2012; 12 (2): 839-843

    Abstract

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl203889e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299967800052

    View details for PubMedID 22268456

  • Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage ACS NANO Wessells, C. D., McDowell, M. T., Peddada, S. V., Pasta, M., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2012; 6 (2): 1688-1694

    Abstract

    The electrical energy grid has a growing need for energy storage to address short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load leveling. Though electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries offer an attractive solution, current commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently shown to offer ultralong cycle life and high-rate performance when operated as battery electrodes in safe, inexpensive aqueous sodium ion and potassium ion electrolytes. In this report, we demonstrate that the reaction potential of copper-nickel alloy hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles may be tuned by controlling the ratio of copper to nickel in these materials. X-ray diffraction, TEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and galvanostatic electrochemical cycling of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate reveal that copper and nickel form a fully miscible solution at particular sites in the framework without perturbing the structure. This allows copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate to reversibly intercalate sodium and potassium ions for over 2000 cycles with capacity retentions of 100% and 91%, respectively. The ability to precisely tune the reaction potential of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate without sacrificing cycle life will allow the development of full cells that utilize the entire electrochemical stability window of aqueous sodium and potassium ion electrolytes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn204666v

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300757900079

    View details for PubMedID 22283739

  • Nanosecond in situ transmission electron microscope studies of the reversible Ge2Sb2Te5 crystalline double left right arrow amorphous phase transformation JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Santala, M. K., Reed, B. W., Topuria, T., Raoux, S., Meister, S., Cui, Y., LaGrange, T., Campbell, G. H., Browning, N. D. 2012; 111 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3678447

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299792400078

  • Nanofabricated optical and detector elements for light-field camera sensors Conference on Nanoengineering - Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices IX Narasimhan, V. K., Cui, Y. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2012

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.929264

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312959400008

  • The surface surfaces Nature Nanotechnology Cha, J., J., Cui, Y. 2012; 7: 85-86
  • Antimicrobial Nanomaterials for Water Disinfection in Nano-Antimicrobials Liu, C., Xie, X., Cui, Y. 2012: 465-494
  • High-capacity micrometer-sized Li(2)S particles as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries JACS Yang, Y., Zheng, G., Misra, S., Nelson, J., Toney, M., F., Cui, Y. 2012; 37 (134): 15387-94
  • Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticle Electrodes For Aqueous Sodium and Potassium Ion Batteries NANO LETTERS Wessells, C. D., Peddada, S. V., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2011; 11 (12): 5421-5425

    Abstract

    The electrical power grid faces a growing need for large-scale energy storage over a wide range of time scales due to costly short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load balancing. The durability, high power, energy efficiency, and low cost needed for grid-scale storage pose substantial challenges for conventional battery technology. (1, 2) Here, we demonstrate insertion/extraction of sodium and potassium ions in a low-strain nickel hexacyanoferrate electrode material for at least five thousand deep cycles at high current densities in inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Its open-framework structure allows retention of 66% of the initial capacity even at a very high (41.7C) rate. At low current densities, its round trip energy efficiency reaches 99%. This low-cost material is readily synthesized in bulk quantities. The long cycle life, high power, good energy efficiency, safety, and inexpensive production method make nickel hexacyanoferrate an attractive candidate for use in large-scale batteries to support the electrical grid.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl203193q

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297950200055

    View details for PubMedID 22043814

  • Improving the Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries by Conductive Polymer Coating ACS NANO Yang, Y., Yu, G., Cha, J. J., Wu, H., Vosgueritchian, M., Yao, Y., Bao, Z., Cui, Y. 2011; 5 (11): 9187-9193

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn203436j

    View details for PubMedID 21995642

  • Symmetrical MnO2-Carbon Nanotube-Textile Nanostructures for Wearable Pseudocapacitors with High Mass Loading ACS NANO Hu, L., Chen, W., Xie, X., Liu, N., Yang, Y., Wu, H., Yao, Y., Pasta, M., Alshareef, H. N., Cui, Y. 2011; 5 (11): 8904-8913

    Abstract

    While MnO(2) is a promising material for pseudocapacitor applications due to its high specific capacity and low cost, MnO(2) electrodes suffer from their low electrical and ionic conductivities. In this article, we report a structure where MnO(2) nanoflowers were conformally electrodeposited onto carbon nanotube (CNT)-enabled conductive textile fibers. Such nanostructures effectively decrease the ion diffusion and charge transport resistance in the electrode. For a given areal mass loading, the thickness of MnO(2) on conductive textile fibers is much smaller than that on a flat metal substrate. Such a porous structure also allows a large mass loading, up to 8.3 mg/cm(2), which leads to a high areal capacitance of 2.8 F/cm(2) at a scan rate of 0.05 mV/s. Full cells were demonstrated, where the MnO(2)-CNT-textile was used as a positive electrode, reduced MnO(2)-CNT-textile as a negative electrode, and 0.5 M Na(2)SO(4) in water as the electrolyte. The resulting pseudocapacitor shows promising results as a low-cost energy storage solution and an attractive wearable power.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn203085j

    View details for PubMedID 21923135

  • Lithium-Ion Textile Batteries with Large Areal Mass Loading ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Hu, L., La Mantia, F., Wu, H., Xie, X., McDonough, J., Pasta, M., Cui, Y. 2011; 1 (6): 1012-1017
  • Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS McDowell, M. T., Cui, Y. 2011; 1 (5): 894-900
  • Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries NANO LETTERS Zheng, G., Yang, Y., Cha, J. J., Hong, S. S., Cui, Y. 2011; 11 (10): 4462-4467

    Abstract

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li(2)S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO(3) additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl2027684

    View details for PubMedID 21916442

  • Enhancing the Supercapacitor Performance of Graphene/MnO2 Nanostructured Electrodes by Conductive Wrapping NANO LETTERS Yu, G., Hu, L., Liu, N., Wang, H., Vosgueritchian, M., Yang, Y., Cui, Y., Bao, Z. 2011; 11 (10): 4438-4442

    Abstract

    MnO2 is considered one of the most promising pseudocapactive materials for high-performance supercapacitors given its high theoretical specific capacitance, low-cost, environmental benignity, and natural abundance. However, MnO2 electrodes often suffer from poor electronic and ionic conductivities, resulting in their limited performance in power density and cycling. Here we developed a "conductive wrapping" method to greatly improve the supercapacitor performance of graphene/MnO2-based nanostructured electrodes. By three-dimensional (3D) conductive wrapping of graphene/MnO2 nanostructures with carbon nanotubes or conducting polymer, specific capacitance of the electrodes (considering total mass of active materials) has substantially increased by ∼20% and ∼45%, respectively, with values as high as ∼380 F/g achieved. Moreover, these ternary composite electrodes have also exhibited excellent cycling performance with >95% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles. This 3D conductive wrapping approach represents an exciting direction for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrochemical supercapacitors and can be generalized for designing next-generation high-performance energy storage devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl2026635

    View details for PubMedID 21942427

  • Size-dependent fracture of Si nanowire battery anodes JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS Ryu, I., Choi, J. W., Cui, Y., Nix, W. D. 2011; 59 (9): 1717-1730
  • Transparent lithium-ion batteries PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Yang, Y., Jeong, S., Hu, L., Wu, H., Lee, S. W., Cui, Y. 2011; 108 (32): 13013-13018

    Abstract

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1102873108

    View details for PubMedID 21788483

  • Improved Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance with Nanostructured Electrolytes ACS NANO Chao, C., Hsu, C., Cui, Y., Prinz, F. B. 2011; 5 (7): 5692-5696

    Abstract

    Considerable attention has been focused on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to their potential for providing clean and reliable electric power. However, the high operating temperatures of current SOFCs limit their adoption in mobile applications. To lower the SOFC operating temperature, we fabricated a corrugated thin-film electrolyte membrane by nanosphere lithography and atomic layer deposition to reduce the polarization and ohmic losses at low temperatures. The resulting micro-SOFC electrolyte membrane showed a hexagonal-pyramid array nanostructure and achieved a power density of 1.34 W/cm(2) at 500 °C. In the future, arrays of micro-SOFCs with high power density may enable a range of mobile and portable power applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn201354p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293035200047

    View details for PubMedID 21657222

  • Interconnected Silicon Hollow Nanospheres for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life NANO LETTERS Yao, Y., McDowell, M. T., Ryu, I., Wu, H., Liu, N., Hu, L., Nix, W. D., Cui, Y. 2011; 11 (7): 2949-2954

    Abstract

    Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major research challenge. Here, we report a novel interconnected Si hollow nanosphere electrode that is capable of accommodating large volume changes without pulverization during cycling. We achieved the high initial discharge capacity of 2725 mAh g(-1) with less than 8% capacity degradation every hundred cycles for 700 total cycles. Si hollow sphere electrodes also show a Coulombic efficiency of 99.5% in later cycles. Superior rate capability is demonstrated and attributed to fast lithium diffusion in the interconnected Si hollow structure.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl201470j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292849400066

    View details for PubMedID 21668030

  • Solution-Processed Graphene/MnO2 Nanostructured Textiles for High-Performance Electrochemical Capacitors NANO LETTERS Yu, G., Hu, L., Vosgueritchian, M., Wang, H., Xie, X., McDonough, J. R., Cui, X., Cui, Y., Bao, Z. 2011; 11 (7): 2905-2911

    Abstract

    Large scale energy storage system with low cost, high power, and long cycle life is crucial for addressing the energy problem when connected with renewable energy production. To realize grid-scale applications of the energy storage devices, there remain several key issues including the development of low-cost, high-performance materials that are environmentally friendly and compatible with low-temperature and large-scale processing. In this report, we demonstrate that solution-exfoliated graphene nanosheets (∼5 nm thickness) can be conformably coated from solution on three-dimensional, porous textiles support structures for high loading of active electrode materials and to facilitate the access of electrolytes to those materials. With further controlled electrodeposition of pseudocapacitive MnO(2) nanomaterials, the hybrid graphene/MnO(2)-based textile yields high-capacitance performance with specific capacitance up to 315 F/g achieved. Moreover, we have successfully fabricated asymmetric electrochemical capacitors with graphene/MnO(2)-textile as the positive electrode and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-textile as the negative electrode in an aqueous Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte solution. These devices exhibit promising characteristics with a maximum power density of 110 kW/kg, an energy density of 12.5 Wh/kg, and excellent cycling performance of ∼95% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Such low-cost, high-performance energy textiles based on solution-processed graphene/MnO(2) hierarchical nanostructures offer great promise in large-scale energy storage device applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl2013828

    View details for PubMedID 21667923

  • Anomalous Shape Changes of Silicon Nanopillars by Electrochemical Lithiation NANO LETTERS Lee, S. W., McDowell, M. T., Choi, J. W., Cui, Y. 2011; 11 (7): 3034-3039

    Abstract

    Silicon is one of the most attractive anode materials for use in Li-ion batteries due to its ∼10 times higher specific capacity than existing graphite anodes. However, up to 400% volume expansion during reaction with Li causes particle pulverization and fracture, which results in rapid capacity fading. Although Si nanomaterials have shown improvements in electrochemical performance, there is limited understanding of how volume expansion takes place. Here, we study the shape and volume changes of crystalline Si nanopillars with different orientations upon first lithiation and discover anomalous behavior. Upon lithiation, the initially circular cross sections of nanopillars with <100>, <110>, and <111> axial orientations expand into cross, ellipse, and hexagonal shapes, respectively. We explain this by identifying a high-speed lithium ion diffusion channel along the <110> direction, which causes preferential volume expansion along this direction. Surprisingly, the <111> and <100> nanopillars shrink in height after partial lithiation, while <110> nanopillars increase in height. The length contraction is suggested to be due to a collapse of the {111} planes early in the lithiation process. These results give new insight into the Si volume change process and could help in designing better battery anodes.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl201787r

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292849400080

    View details for PubMedID 21657250

  • Silicon-Carbon Nanotube Coaxial Sponge as Li-Ion Anodes with High Areal Capacity ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Hu, L., Wu, H., Gao, Y., Cao, A., Li, H., McDough, J., Xie, X., Zhou, M., Cui, Y. 2011; 1 (4): 523-527
  • Electrochemical characterization of LiCoO2 as rechargeable electrode in aqueous LiNO3 electrolyte 17th International Conference on Solid State Ionics Ruffo, R., La Mantia, F., Wessells, C., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2011: 289–92
  • Rapid Surface Oxidation as a Source of Surface Degradation Factor for Bi2Se3 ACS NANO Kong, D., Cha, J. J., Lai, K., Peng, H., Analytis, J. G., Meister, S., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Fisher, I. R., Shen, Z., Cui, Y. 2011; 5 (6): 4698-4703

    Abstract

    Bismuth selenide (Bi(2)Se(3)) is a topological insulator with metallic surface states (SS) residing in a large bulk bandgap. In experiments, synthesized Bi(2)Se(3) is often heavily n-type doped due to selenium vacancies. Furthermore, it is discovered from experiments on bulk single crystals that Bi(2)Se(3) gets additional n-type doping after exposure to the atmosphere, thereby reducing the relative contribution of SS in total conductivity. In this article, transport measurements on Bi(2)Se(3) nanoribbons provide additional evidence of such environmental doping process. Systematic surface composition analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal fast formation and continuous growth of native oxide on Bi(2)Se(3) under ambient conditions. In addition to n-type doping at the surface, such surface oxidation is likely the material origin of the degradation of topological SS. Appropriate surface passivation or encapsulation may be required to probe topological SS of Bi(2)Se(3) by transport measurements.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn200556h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292055200052

    View details for PubMedID 21568290

  • Compressional Behavior of Bulk and Nanorod LiMn2O4 under Nonhydrostatic Stress JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Lin, Y., Yang, Y., Ma, H., Cui, Y., Mao, W. L. 2011; 115 (20): 9844-9849

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp112289h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290652200003

  • Effects of Nanostructured Back Reflectors on the External Quantum Efficiency in Thin Film Solar Cells NANO RESEARCH Hsu, C., Burkhard, G. F., McGehee, M. D., Cui, Y. 2011; 4 (2): 153-158
  • Nanowire Solar Cells ANNUAL REVIEW OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, VOL 41 Garnett, E. C., Brongersma, M. L., Cui, Y., McGehee, M. D. 2011; 41: 269-295
  • Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes Energy Environ. Sci. Xie, X., Ye, M., Hu, L., Liu, N., McDonough, J., R., Chen, W., Cui, Y. 2011

    View details for DOI 10.1039/C1EE02122B

  • Symmetrical MnO2 Carbon Nanotube Textile Nanostructures for Wearable Pseudocapacitors with High Mass Loading ACS Nano Hu, L., Chen, W., Xie, X., Liu, N., Yang, Y., Wu, H., Cui, Y. 2011

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn203085j

  • Low-Temperature Self-CatalyticGrowth of Tin Oxide Nanocones overLarge Area ACS Nano Jeong, S., McDowell, M., T., Cui, Y. 2011; 5: 5800-5807
  • Copper hexacyanoferrate battery electrodes with long cycle life and high power Nature Communications Wessells, C., D., Huggins, R., A., Cui, Y. 2011; 2:550

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms1563

  • LiMn1-xFexPO4 Nanorods Grown on Graphene Sheets for Ultrahigh-Rate-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION Wang, H., Yang, Y., Liang, Y., Cui, L., Casalongue, H. S., Li, Y., Hong, G., Cui, Y., Dai, H. 2011; 50 (32): 7364-7368

    View details for DOI 10.1002/anie.201103163

    View details for PubMedID 21710671

  • Synthesis of Nanoscale Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials Using a Porous Polymer Precursor Method JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY Deshazer, H. D., La Mantia, F., Wessells, C., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2011; 158 (10): A1079-A1082

    View details for DOI 10.1149/1.3611428

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294063000003

  • Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube-Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel Cells NANO LETTERS Xie, X., Hu, L., Pasta, M., Wells, G. F., Kong, D., Criddle, C. S., Cui, Y. 2011; 11 (1): 291-296

    Abstract

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl103905t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286029400050

    View details for PubMedID 21158405

  • Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Ding, I., Zhu, J., Cai, W., Moon, S., Cai, N., Wang, P., Zakeeruddin, S. M., Graetzel, M., Brongersma, M. L., Cui, Y., McGehee, M. D. 2011; 1 (1): 52-57
  • First principles study of lithium insertion in bulk silicon JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-CONDENSED MATTER Wan, W., Zhang, Q., Cui, Y., Wang, E. 2010; 22 (41)

    Abstract

    Si is an important anode material for the next generation of Li ion batteries. Here the energetics and dynamics of Li atoms in bulk Si have been studied at different Li concentrations on the basis of first principles calculations. It is found that Li prefers to occupy an interstitial site as a shallow donor rather than a substitutional site. The most stable position is the tetrahedral (T(d)) site. The diffusion of a Li atom in the Si lattice is through a T(d)-Hex-T(d) trajectory, where the Hex site is the hexagonal transition site with an energy barrier of 0.58 eV. We have also systematically studied the local structural transition of a Li(x)Si alloy with x varying from 0 to 0.25. At low doping concentration (x = 0-0.125), Li atoms prefer to be separated from each other, resulting in a homogeneous doping distribution. Starting from x = 0.125, Li atoms tend to form clusters induced by a lattice distortion with frequent breaking and reforming of Si-Si bonds. When x ≥ 0.1875, Li atoms will break some Si-Si bonds permanently, which results in dangling bonds. These dangling bonds create negatively charged zones, which is the main driving force for Li atom clustering at high doping concentration.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0953-8984/22/41/415501

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282227500006

    View details for PubMedID 21386598

  • High Speed Water Sterilization Using One-Dimensional Nanostructures NANO LETTERS Schoen, D. T., Schoen, A. P., Hu, L., Kim, H. S., Heilshorn, S. C., Cui, Y. 2010; 10 (9): 3628-3632

    Abstract

    The removal of bacteria and other organisms from water is an extremely important process, not only for drinking and sanitation but also industrially as biofouling is a commonplace and serious problem. We here present a textile based multiscale device for the high speed electrical sterilization of water using silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and cotton. This approach, which combines several materials spanning three very different length scales with simple dying based fabrication, makes a gravity fed device operating at 100000 L/(h m(2)) which can inactivate >98% of bacteria with only several seconds of total incubation time. This excellent performance is enabled by the use of an electrical mechanism rather than size exclusion, while the very high surface area of the device coupled with large electric field concentrations near the silver nanowire tips allows for effective bacterial inactivation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl101944e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281498200068

    View details for PubMedID 20726518

  • Fast and Scalable Printing of Large Area Monolayer Nanoparticles for Nanotexturing Applications NANO LETTERS Jeong, S., Hu, L., Lee, H. R., Garnett, E., Choi, J. W., Cui, Y. 2010; 10 (8): 2989-2994

    Abstract

    Recently, there have been several studies demonstrating that highly ordered nanoscale texturing can dramatically increase performance of applications such as light absorption in thin-film solar cells. However, those methods used to make the nanostructures are not compatible with large-scale fabrication. Here we demonstrate that a technique currently used in roll-to-roll processing to deposit uniform thin films from solution, a wire-wound rod coating method, can be adapted to deposit close-packed monolayers or multilayers of silica nanoparticles on a variety of rigid and flexible substrates. Amorphous silicon thin films deposited on these nanoparticle monolayers exhibit 42% higher absorption over the integrated AM 1.5 spectrum than the planar controls. This simple assembly technique can be used to improve solar cells, fuel cells, light emitting diodes and other devices where ordered nanoscale texturing is critical for optimal performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl101432r

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280728900043

    View details for PubMedID 20698612

  • Ultrathin Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanoribbons Exfoliated by Atomic Force Microscopy NANO LETTERS Hong, S. S., Kundhikanjana, W., Cha, J. J., Lai, K., Kong, D., Meister, S., Kelly, M. A., Shen, Z., Cui, Y. 2010; 10 (8): 3118-3122

    Abstract

    Ultrathin topological insulator nanostructures, in which coupling between top and bottom surface states takes place, are of great intellectual and practical importance. Due to the weak van der Waals interaction between adjacent quintuple layers (QLs), the layered bismuth selenide (Bi(2)Se(3)), a single Dirac-cone topological insulator with a large bulk gap, can be exfoliated down to a few QLs. In this paper, we report the first controlled mechanical exfoliation of Bi(2)Se(3) nanoribbons (>50 QLs) by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip down to a single QL. Microwave impedance microscopy is employed to map out the local conductivity of such ultrathin nanoribbons, showing drastic difference in sheet resistance between 1-2 QLs and 4-5 QLs. Transport measurement carried out on an exfoliated (50 QLs) ribbons. These AFM-exfoliated thin nanoribbons afford interesting candidates for studying the transition from quantum spin Hall surface to edge states.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl1018E4h

    View details for PubMedID 20698625

  • Mechanism of glucose electrochemical oxidation on gold surface ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA Pasta, M., La Mantia, F., Cui, Y. 2010; 55 (20): 5561-5568
  • Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning NANO LETTERS Zhu, J., Hsu, C., Yu, Z., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2010; 10 (6): 1979-1984

    Abstract

    Here for the first time, we demonstrate novel nanodome solar cells, which have periodic nanoscale modulation for all layers from the bottom substrate, through the active absorber to the top transparent contact. These devices combine many nanophotonic effects to both efficiently reduce reflection and enhance absorption over a broad spectral range. Nanodome solar cells with only a 280 nm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer can absorb 94% of the light with wavelengths of 400-800 nm, significantly higher than the 65% absorption of flat film devices. Because of the nearly complete absorption, a very large short-circuit current of 17.5 mA/cm(2) is achieved in our nanodome devices. Excitingly, the light management effects remain efficient over a wide range of incident angles, favorable for real environments with significant diffuse sunlight. We demonstrate nanodome devices with a power efficiency of 5.9%, which is 25% higher than the flat film control. The nanodome structure is not in principle limited to any specific material system and its fabrication is compatible with most solar manufacturing; hence it opens up exciting opportunities for a variety of photovoltaic devices to further improve performance, reduce materials usage, and relieve elemental abundance limitations. Lastly, our nanodome devices when modified with hydrophobic molecules present a nearly superhydrophobic surface and thus enable self-cleaning solar cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl9034237

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278449200002

    View details for PubMedID 19891462

  • Few-Layer Nanoplates of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 with Highly Tunable Chemical Potential NANO LETTERS Kong, D., Dang, W., Cha, J. J., Li, H., Meister, S., Peng, H., Liu, Z., Cui, Y. 2010; 10 (6): 2245-2250

    Abstract

    A topological insulator (TI) represents an unconventional quantum phase of matter with insulating bulk band gap and metallic surface states. Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements show that group V-VI materials Bi(2)Se(3), Bi(2)Te(3), and Sb(2)Te(3) are TIs with a single Dirac cone on the surface. These materials have anisotropic, layered structures, in which five atomic layers are covalently bonded to form a quintuple layer, and quintuple layers interact weakly through van der Waals interaction to form the crystal. A few quintuple layers of these materials are predicted to exhibit interesting surface properties. Different from our previous nanoribbon study, here we report the synthesis and characterizations of ultrathin Bi(2)Te(3) and Bi(2)Se(3) nanoplates with thickness down to 3 nm (3 quintuple layers), via catalyst-free vapor-solid (VS) growth mechanism. Optical images reveal thickness-dependent color and contrast for nanoplates grown on oxidized silicon (300 nm SiO(2)/Si). As a new member of TI nanomaterials, ultrathin TI nanoplates have an extremely large surface-to-volume ratio and can be electrically gated more effectively than the bulk form, potentially enhancing surface state effects in transport measurements. Low-temperature transport measurements of a single nanoplate device, with a high-k dielectric top gate, show decrease in carrier concentration by several times and large tuning of chemical potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl101260j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278449200046

    View details for PubMedID 20486680

  • Printed energy storage devices by integration of electrodes and separators into single sheets of paper APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Hu, L., Wu, H., Cui, Y. 2010; 96 (18)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3425767

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277422000055

  • Stepwise Nanopore Evolution in One-Dimensional Nanostructures NANO LETTERS Choi, J. W., McDonough, J., Jeong, S., Yoo, J. S., Chan, C. K., Cui, Y. 2010; 10 (4): 1409-1413

    Abstract

    We report that established simple lithium (Li) ion battery cycles can be used to produce nanopores inside various useful one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as zinc oxide, silicon, and silver nanowires. Moreover, porosities of these 1D nanomaterials can be controlled in a stepwise manner by the number of Li-battery cycles. Subsequent pore characterization at the end of each cycle allows us to obtain detailed snapshots of the distinct pore evolution properties in each material due to their different atomic diffusion rates and types of chemical bonds. Also, this stepwise characterization led us to the first observation of pore size increases during cycling, which can be interpreted as a similar phenomenon to Ostwald ripening in analogous nanoparticle cases. Finally, we take advantage of the unique combination of nanoporosity and 1D materials and demonstrate nanoporous silicon nanowires (poSiNWs) as excellent supercapacitor (SC) electrodes in high power operations compared to existing devices with activated carbon.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl100258p

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276557100056

    View details for PubMedID 20334444

  • Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Laminated Top Electrode NANO LETTERS Lee, J., Connor, S. T., Cui, Y., Peumans, P. 2010; 10 (4): 1276-1279

    Abstract

    We demonstrate semitransparent small molecular weight organic photovoltaic cells using a laminated silver nanowire mesh as a transparent, conductive cathode layer. The lamination process does not damage the underlying solar cell and results in a transparent electrode with low sheet resistance and high optical transmittance without impacting photocurrent collection. The resulting semitransparent phthalocyanine/fullerene organic solar cell has a power conversion efficiency that is 57% of that of a device with a conventional metal cathode due to differences in optical absorption.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl903892x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276557100032

    View details for PubMedID 20350007

  • Aharonov-Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons NATURE MATERIALS Peng, H., Lai, K., Kong, D., Meister, S., Chen, Y., Qi, X., Zhang, S., Shen, Z., Cui, Y. 2010; 9 (3): 225-229

    Abstract

    Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport measurements. Recently, Bi(2)Se(3) and related materials have been proposed as three-dimensional topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface, protected by time-reversal symmetry. The topological surface states have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. However, few transport measurements in this context have been reported, presumably owing to the predominance of bulk carriers from crystal defects or thermal excitations. Here we show unambiguous transport evidence of topological surface states through periodic quantum interference effects in layered single-crystalline Bi(2)Se(3) nanoribbons, which have larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk materials and can therefore manifest surface effects. Pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance clearly demonstrate the coherent propagation of two-dimensional electrons around the perimeter of the nanoribbon surface, as expected from the topological nature of the surface states. The dominance of the primary h/e oscillation, where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge, and its temperature dependence demonstrate the robustness of these states. Our results suggest that topological insulator nanoribbons afford promising materials for future spintronic devices at room temperature.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NMAT2609

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274700900017

    View details for PubMedID 20010826

  • Nanostructured Photon Management for High Performance Solar Cells 3rd IEEE International NanoElectronics Conference (INEC)/Symposium on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in China Cui, Y. IEEE. 2010: 32–33
  • Amorphous silicon core-shell nanowire solar cellls Zhu, J., Xu, Y., Wang, Q., Cui, Y. 2010
  • Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics Garnett, E., C., Peters, C., Brongersma, M., Cui, Y., McGehee, M., D. 2010
  • High Speed Water Sterilization Using One-Dimentional Nanostructures Nano Letters Schoen, D., T., Schoen, A., P., Hu, L., Kim, H., S., Heilshorn, S., C., Cui, Y. 2010; 10: 3628-3632
  • Low Reflectivity and High Flexibility of Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Nanofiber Transparent Electrodes Journal of the American Chemical Society Wu, H., Hu, L., Carney, T., Ruan, Z., Kong, D., Yu, Z., Cui, Y. 2010
  • More solar cells for less Nature Materials Zhu, J., Cui, Y. 2010; 9: 183-184
  • AMORPHOUS SILICON CORE-SHELL NANOWIRE Schottky SOLAR CELLS 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Zhu, J., Xu, Y., Wang, Q., Cui, Y. IEEE. 2010: 453–456
  • Hard X-ray Full Field Nano-imaging of Bone and Nanowires at SSRL 10th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Andrews, J. C., Pianetta, P., Meirer, F., Chen, J., Almeida, E., van der Meulen, M. C., Alwood, J. S., Lee, C., Zhu, J., Cui, Y. AMER INST PHYSICS. 2010: 79–82

    Abstract

    A hard X-ray full field microscope from Xradia Inc. has been installed at SSRL on a 54-pole wiggler end station at beam line 6-2. It has been optimized to operate from 5-14 keV with resolution as high as 30 nm. High quality images are achieved using a vertical beam stabilizer and condenser scanner with high efficiency zone plates with 30 nm outermost zone width. The microscope has been used in Zernike phase contrast, available at 5.4 keV and 8 keV, as well as absorption contrast to image a variety of biological, environmental and materials samples. Calibration of the X-ray attenuation with crystalline apatite enabled quantification of bone density of plate-like and rod-like regions of mouse bone trabecula. 3D tomography of individual lacuna revealed the surrounding cell canaliculi and processes. 3D tomography of chiral branched PbSe nanowires showed orthogonal branches around a central nanowire.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283705500016

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2944249

  • FACETING AND DISORDER IN NANOWIRE SOLAR CELL ARRAYS 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Pickett, E., Gu, A., Huo, Y., Garnett, E., Hu, S., Sarmiento, T., Thombare, S., Liang, D., Li, S., Cui, Y., McGehee, M., McIntyre, P., Harris, J. IEEE. 2010: 1848–1853
  • Highly conductive paper for energy-storage devices PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Hu, L., Choi, J. W., Yang, Y., Jeong, S., La Mantia, F., Cui, L., Cui, Y. 2009; 106 (51): 21490-21494

    Abstract

    Paper, invented more than 2,000 years ago and widely used today in our everyday lives, is explored in this study as a platform for energy-storage devices by integration with 1D nanomaterials. Here, we show that commercially available paper can be made highly conductive with a sheet resistance as low as 1 ohm per square (Omega/sq) by using simple solution processes to achieve conformal coating of single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and silver nanowire films. Compared with plastics, paper substrates can dramatically improve film adhesion, greatly simplify the coating process, and significantly lower the cost. Supercapacitors based on CNT-conductive paper show excellent performance. When only CNT mass is considered, a specific capacitance of 200 F/g, a specific energy of 30-47 Watt-hour/kilogram (Wh/kg), a specific power of 200,000 W/kg, and a stable cycling life over 40,000 cycles are achieved. These values are much better than those of devices on other flat substrates, such as plastics. Even in a case in which the weight of all of the dead components is considered, a specific energy of 7.5 Wh/kg is achieved. In addition, this conductive paper can be used as an excellent lightweight current collector in lithium-ion batteries to replace the existing metallic counterparts. This work suggests that our conductive paper can be a highly scalable and low-cost solution for high-performance energy storage devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0908858106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272994200007

    View details for PubMedID 19995965

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2799859

  • Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS McDonough, J. R., Choi, J. W., Yang, Y., La Mantia, F., Zhang, Y., Cui, Y. 2009; 95 (24)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3273864

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272954900056

  • Single Nanorod Devices for Battery Diagnostics: A Case Study on LiMn2O4 NANO LETTERS Yang, Y., Xie, C., Ruffo, R., Peng, H., Kim, D. K., Cui, Y. 2009; 9 (12): 4109-4114

    Abstract

    This paper presents single nanostructure devices as a powerful new diagnostic tool for batteries with LiMn(2)O(4) nanorod materials as an example. LiMn(2)O(4) and Al-doped LiMn(2)O(4) nanorods were synthesized by a two-step method that combines hydrothermal synthesis of beta-MnO(2) nanorods and a solid state reaction to convert them to LiMn(2)O(4) nanorods. lambda-MnO(2) nanorods were also prepared by acid treatment of LiMn(2)O(4) nanorods. The effect of electrolyte etching on these LiMn(2)O(4)-related nanorods is investigated by both SEM and single-nanorod transport measurement, and this is the first time that the transport properties of this material have been studied at the level of an individual single-crystalline particle. Experiments show that Al dopants reduce the dissolution of Mn(3+) ions significantly and make the LiAl(0.1)Mn(1.9)O(4) nanorods much more stable than LiMn(2)O(4) against electrolyte etching, which is reflected by the magnification of both size shrinkage and conductance decrease. These results correlate well with the better cycling performance of Al-doped LiMn(2)O(4) in our Li-ion battery tests: LiAl(0.1)Mn(1.9)O(4) nanorods achieve 96% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 1C rate at room temperature, and 80% at 60 degrees C, whereas LiMn(2)O(4) shows worse retention of 91% at room temperature, and 69% at 60 degrees C. Moreover, temperature-dependent I-V measurements indicate that the sharp electronic resistance increase due to charge ordering transition at 290 K does not appear in our LiMn(2)O(4) nanorod samples, suggesting good battery performance at low temperature.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl902315u

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272395400027

    View details for PubMedID 19807129

  • Carbon-Silicon Core-Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries NANO LETTERS Cui, L., Yang, Y., Hsu, C., Cui, Y. 2009; 9 (9): 3370-3374

    Abstract

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires showed great performance as anode material. Since carbon has a much smaller capacity compared to silicon, the carbon core experiences less structural stress or damage during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway. These nanowires have a high charge storage capacity of approximately 2000 mAh/g and good cycling life. They also have a high Coulmbic efficiency of 90% for the first cycle and 98-99.6% for the following cycles. A full cell composed of LiCoO(2) cathode and carbon-silicon core-shell nanowire anode is also demonstrated. Significantly, using these core-shell nanowires we have obtained high mass loading and an area capacity of approximately 4 mAh/cm(2), which is comparable to commercial battery values.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl901670t

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269654900049

    View details for PubMedID 19655765

  • Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Ruffo, R., Hong, S. S., Chan, C. K., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2009; 113 (26): 11390-11398

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp901594g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267324600033

  • Printable Thin Film Supercapacitors Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes NANO LETTERS Kaempgen, M., Chan, C. K., Ma, J., Cui, Y., Gruner, G. 2009; 9 (5): 1872-1876

    Abstract

    Thin film supercapacitors were fabricated using printable materials to make flexible devices on plastic. The active electrodes were made from sprayed networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) serving as both electrodes and charge collectors. Using a printable aqueous gel electrolyte as well as an organic liquid electrolyte, the performances of the devices show very high energy and power densities (6 W h/kg for both electrolytes and 23 and 70 kW/kg for aqueous gel electrolyte and organic electrolyte, respectively) which is comparable to performance in other SWCNT-based supercapacitor devices fabricated using different methods. The results underline the potential of printable thin film supercapacitors. The simplified architecture and the sole use of printable materials may lead to a new class of entirely printable charge storage devices allowing for full integration with the emerging field of printed electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl8038579

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266157100026

    View details for PubMedID 19348455

  • Nanoscale Electronic Inhomogeneity in In2Se3 Nanoribbons Revealed by Microwave Impedance Microscopy NANO LETTERS Lai, K., Peng, H., Kundhikanjana, W., Schoen, D. T., Xie, C., Meister, S., Cui, Y., Kelly, M. A., Shen, Z. 2009; 9 (3): 1265-1269

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl900222j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264142100060

  • Efficient Multiple Exciton Generation Observed in Colloidal PbSe Quantum Dots with Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Intraband Excitation NANO LETTERS Ji, M., Park, S., Connor, S. T., Mokari, T., Cui, Y., Gaffney, K. J. 2009; 9 (3): 1217-1222

    Abstract

    We have spectrally resolved the intraband transient absorption of photogenerated excitons to quantify the exciton population dynamics in colloidal PbSe quantum dots (QDs). These measurements demonstrate that the spectral distribution, as well as the amplitude, of the transient spectrum depends on the number of excitons excited in a QD. To accurately quantify the average number of excitons per QD, the transient spectrum must be spectrally integrated. With spectral integration, we observe efficient multiple exciton generation in colloidal PbSe QDs.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl900103f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264142100052

    View details for PubMedID 19226125

  • Crystalline-Amorphous Core-Shell Silicon Nanowires for High Capacity and High Current Battery Electrodes NANO LETTERS Cui, L., Ruffo, R., Chan, C. K., Peng, H., Cui, Y. 2009; 9 (1): 491-495

    Abstract

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon's large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline-amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li(+) ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity ( approximately 1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with approximately 90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, approximately 20 times of carbon at 1 h rate).

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl8036323

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262519100090

    View details for PubMedID 19105648

  • Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays NANO LETTERS Zhu, J., Yu, Z., Burkhard, G. F., Hsu, C., Connor, S. T., Xu, Y., Wang, Q., McGehee, M., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2009; 9 (1): 279-282

    Abstract

    Hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) is an important solar cell material. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a-Si:H nanowires (NWs) and nanocones (NCs), using an easily scalable and IC-compatible process. We also investigate the optical properties of these nanostructures. These a-Si:H nanostructures display greatly enhanced absorption over a large range of wavelengths and angles of incidence, due to suppressed reflection. The enhancement effect is particularly strong for a-Si:H NC arrays, which provide nearly perfect impedance matching between a-Si:H and air through a gradual reduction of the effective refractive index. More than 90% of light is absorbed at angles of incidence up to 60 degrees for a-Si:H NC arrays, which is significantly better than NW arrays (70%) and thin films (45%). In addition, the absorption of NC arrays is 88% at the band gap edge of a-Si:H, which is much higher than NW arrays (70%) and thin films (53%). Our experimental data agree very well with simulation. The a-Si:H nanocones function as both absorber and antireflection layers, which offer a promising approach to enhance the solar cell energy conversion efficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl802886y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262519100052

    View details for PubMedID 19072061

  • Nanoscale Electronic Inhomogeneity in In(2)Se(3) Nanoribbons Revealed by Microwave Impedance Microscopy. Nano letters Lai, K., Peng, H., Kundhikanjana, W., Schoen, D. T., Xie, C., Meister, S., Cui, Y., Kelly, M. A., Shen, Z. X. 2009

    Abstract

    Driven by interactions due to the charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom, nanoscale inhomogeneity has emerged as a new theme for materials with novel properties near multiphase boundaries. As vividly demonstrated in complex metal oxides (see refs 1-5) and chalcogenides (see refs 6 and 7), these microscopic phases are of great scientific and technological importance for research in high-temperature superconductors (see refs 1 and 2), colossal magnetoresistance effect (see ref 4), phase-change memories (see refs 5 and 6), and domain switching operations (see refs 7-9). Direct imaging on dielectric properties of these local phases, however, presents a big challenge for existing scanning probe techniques. Here, we report the observation of electronic inhomogeneity in indium selenide (In(2)Se(3)) nanoribbons (see ref 10) by near-field scanning microwave impedance microscopy (see refs 11-13). Multiple phases with local resistivity spanning 6 orders of magnitude are identified as the coexistence of superlattice, simple hexagonal lattice and amorphous structures with approximately 100 nm inhomogeneous length scale, consistent with high-resolution transmission electron microscope studies. The atomic-force-microscope-compatible microwave probe is able to perform a quantitative subsurface electrical study in a noninvasive manner. Finally, the phase change memory function in In(2)Se(3) nanoribbon devices can be locally recorded with big signals of opposite signs.

    View details for PubMedID 19215080

  • Void Formation Induced Electrical Switching in Phase-Change Nanowires NANO LETTERS Meister, S., Schoen, D. T., Topinka, M. A., Minor, A. M., Cui, Y. 2008; 8 (12): 4562-4567

    Abstract

    Solid-state structural transformation coupled with an electronic property change is an important mechanism for nonvolatile information storage technologies, such as phase-change memories. Here we exploit phase-change GeTe single-nanowire devices combined with ex situ and in situ transmission electron microscopy to correlate directly nanoscale structural transformations with electrical switching and discover surprising results. Instead of crystalline-amorphous transformation, the dominant switching mechanism during multiple cycling appears to be the opening and closing of voids in the nanowires due to material migration, which offers a new mechanism for memory. During switching, composition change and the formation of banded structural defects are observed in addition to the expected crystal-amorphous transformation. Our method and results are important to phase-change memories specifically, but also to any device whose operation relies on a small scale structural transformation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl802808f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261630700082

    View details for PubMedID 19367977

  • Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanorods as Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes NANO LETTERS Kim, D. K., Muralidharan, P., Lee, H., Ruffo, R., Yang, Y., Chan, C. K., Peng, H., Huggins, R. A., Cui, Y. 2008; 8 (11): 3948-3952

    Abstract

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and highly abundant material for Li-ion battery cathodes. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline beta-MnO2 nanorods and their chemical conversion into free-standing single-crystalline LiMn2O4 nanorods using a simple solid-state reaction. The LiMn2O4 nanorods have an average diameter of 130 nm and length of 1.2 microm. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that LiMn2O4 nanorods have a high charge storage capacity at high power rates compared with commercially available powders. More than 85% of the initial charge storage capacity was maintained for over 100 cycles. The structural transformation studies showed that the Li ions intercalated into the cubic phase of the LiMn2O4 with a small change of lattice parameter, followed by the coexistence of two nearly identical cubic phases in the potential range of 3.5 to 4.3 V.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl8024328

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260888600070

    View details for PubMedID 18826287

  • Large anisotropy of electrical properties in layer-structured In2Se3 nanowires NANO LETTERS Peng, H., Xie, C., Schoen, D. T., Cui, Y. 2008; 8 (5): 1511-1516

    Abstract

    Layer-structured indium selenide (In 2Se 3) nanowires (NWs) have large anisotropy in both shape and bonding. In 2Se 3 NWs show two types of growth directions: [11-20] along the layers and [0001] perpendicular to the layers. We have developed a powerful technique combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigation with single NW electrical transport measurement, which allows us to correlate directly the electrical properties and structure of the same individual NWs. The NW devices were made directly on a 50 nm thick SiN x membrane TEM window for electrical measurements and HRTEM study. NWs with the [11-20] growth direction exhibit metallic behavior while the NWs grown along the [0001] direction show n-type semiconductive behavior. Excitingly, the conductivity anisotropy reaches 10 (3)-10 (6) at room temperature, which is 1-3 orders magnitude higher than the bulk ratio.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl080524d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255906400043

    View details for PubMedID 18407699

  • Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes NANO LETTERS Lee, J., Connor, S. T., Cui, Y., Peumans, P. 2008; 8 (2): 689-692

    Abstract

    Transparent conductive electrodes are important components of thin-film solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and many display technologies. Doped metal oxides are commonly used, but their optical transparency is limited for films with a low sheet resistance. Furthermore, they are prone to cracking when deposited on flexible substrates, are costly, and require a high-temperature step for the best performance. We demonstrate solution-processed transparent electrodes consisting of random meshes of metal nanowires that exhibit an optical transparency equivalent to or better than that of metal-oxide thin films for the same sheet resistance. Organic solar cells deposited on these electrodes show a performance equivalent to that of devices based on a conventional metal-oxide transparent electrode.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl073296g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253166200058

    View details for PubMedID 18189445

  • Towards electrically driven nanowire single-photon sources SMALL Zhu, J., Cui, Y. 2007; 3 (8): 1322-1323

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.200700237

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248641600002

    View details for PubMedID 17600801

  • Electrical switching and phase transformation in silver selenide nanowires JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Schoen, D. T., Xie, C., Cui, Y. 2007; 129 (14): 4116-?

    View details for DOI 10.1021/ja068365s

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245723800004

    View details for PubMedID 17367137

  • Hyperbranched lead selenide nanowire networks NANO LETTERS Zhu, J., Peng, H., Chan, C. K., Jarausch, K., Zhang, X. F., Cui, Y. 2007; 7 (4): 1095-1099

    Abstract

    Lead chalcogenide nanostructures are good potential candidates for applications in multiexciton solar cells, infrared photodetectors, and electroluminescence devices. Here we report the synthesis and electrical measurements of hyperbranched PbSe nanowire networks. Hyperbranched PbSe nanowire networks are synthesized via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The branching is induced by continuously feeding the PbSe reactant with the vapor of a low-melting-point metal catalyst including In, Ga, and Bi. The branches show very regular orientation relationships: either perpendicular or parallel to each other. The diameter of the individual NWs depends on the size of the catalyst droplets, which can be controlled by the catalyst vapor pressure. Significantly, the hyperbranched networks can be grown epitaxially on NaCl, a low-cost substrate for future device array applications. Electrical measurements across branched NWs show the evolution of charge carrier transport with distance and degree of branching.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl0700393

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245600500046

    View details for PubMedID 17348716

  • Fast, completely reversible Li insertion in vanadium pentoxide nanoribbons NANO LETTERS Chan, C. K., Peng, H., Twesten, R. D., Jarausch, K., Zhang, X. F., Cui, Y. 2007; 7 (2): 490-495

    Abstract

    Layered-structure nanoribbons with efficient electron transport and short lithium ion insertion lengths are promising candidates for Li battery applications. Here we studied at the single nanostructure level the chemical, structural, and electrical transformations of V2O5 nanoribbons. We found that transformation of V2O5 into the omega-Li3V2O5 phase depends not only on the width but also the thickness of the nanoribbons. Transformation can take place within 10 s in thin nanoribbons, suggesting a Li diffusion constant 3 orders of magnitude faster than in bulk materials, resulting in a significant increase in battery power density (360 C power rate). For the first time, complete delithiation of omega-Li3V2O5 back to the single-crystalline, pristine V2O5 nanoribbon was observed, indicating a 30% higher energy density. These new observations are attributed to the ability of facile strain relaxation and phase transformation at the nanoscale. In addition, efficient electronic transport can be maintained to charge a Li3V2O5 nanoribbon within less than 5 s. These exciting nanosize effects can be exploited to fabricate high-performance Li batteries for applications in electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl062883j

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244206500049

    View details for PubMedID 17256918

  • Phase-change nanowires for non volatile memory Symposium on Materials and Processes for Nonvolatile Memories II held at the 2007 MRS Spring Meeting Cui, Y., Meister, S., Peng, H. MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. 2007: 299–304
  • Nanowires for Nanoscale Electronics, Biosensors and Energy Applications (invited paper) Meister, S., Chan, C., K., Peng, H., Cui, Y. 2007
  • Mechanical and Electrical Properties of CdTe Tetrapods Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy J. Chem. Phys. Fang, L., Park, J., Y., Cui, Y., Alivisatos, P., Shcrier, J., Lee, B. 2007; 127: 184704
  • Phase-Change Nanowires for Non Volatile Memory Meister, S., Peng, H., Cui, Y. 2007
  • Synthesis and characterization of phase-change nanowires NANO LETTERS Meister, S., Peng, H., Mcilwrath, K., Jarausch, K., Zhang, X. F., Cui, Y. 2006; 6 (7): 1514-1517

    Abstract

    Phase-change memory materials have stimulated a great deal of interest although the size-dependent behaviors have not been well studied due to the lack of method for producing their nanoscale structures. We report the synthesis and characterization of GeTe and Sb(2)Te(3) phase-change nanowires via a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. The as-grown GeTe nanowires have three different types of morphologies: single-crystalline straight and helical rhombohedral GeTe nanowires and amorphous curly GeO(2) nanowires. All the Sb(2)Te(3) nanowires are single-crystalline.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nl061102b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238973100041

    View details for PubMedID 16834441

  • Electrical Transport Through a Single Nanoscale Semiconductor Branch Point Nano Letters Cui, Y., Banin, U., Bj?rk, M., Alivisatos, A., P. 2005; 5: 1519-1523
  • Multiplexed Electrical Detection of Cancer Markers with Nanowire Sensor Arrays Nature Biotech. Zheng, G., Patolsky, F., Cui, Y., Wang, W., U., Lieber, C., M. 2005; 23: 1294-1301
  • Colloidal Nanocrystal Heterostructures with Linear and Branched Topology Nature Milliron, D., Hughes, S., Cui, Y., Manna, L., Li, J., Wang, L., W. 2004; 430: 190-195
  • Lithographically Directed Self-Assembly of Nanostructures J. Vac. Sci. Tech. Liddle, J., A., Cui, Y., Alivisatos, A., P. 2004; B22: 3409-3414
  • Controlled Growth and Structures of Molecular-Scale Silicon Nanowires Nano Letters Wu, Y., Cui, Y., Huynh, L., Barlett, C., Lieber, C., M. 2004; 4: 433-436
  • Integration of Colloidal Nanocrystals into Lithographicall Patterned Devices Nano Letters Cui, Y., Bj?rk, M., Liddle, J., A., S?nnichsen, C., Boussert, B., Alivisatos, A., P. 2004; 4: 1093-1098
  • in Molecular Nanoelectronics Nanowires as Building Blocks for Nanoscale Electronics and Optoelectronic Duan, X., Huang, Y., Cui, Y., Lieber, C., M. edited by Reed, M., Lee, T. American Scientific Publisher. 2003: 1
  • Nanowire Crossbar Arrays as Address Decoders for Integrated Nanosystems Science Zhong, Z., Wang, D., Cui, Y., Bockrath, M., W., Lieber, C., M. 2003; 302: 1377-1379
  • High Performance Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors Nano Letters Cui, Y., Zhong, Z., Wang, D., Wang, W., U., Lieber, C., M. 2003; 3: 149-152
  • Nanowires as Building Blocks for Nanoscale Electronics and Optoelectronics in Molecular Nanoelectronics Duan, X., Huang, Y., Cui, Y., Lieber, C., M. edited by Reed, M., Lee, T. American Scientific Publisher. 2003: 1
  • in Nanowires and Nanobelts- Materials, Properties, and Devices Nanowires as Building Blocks for Nanoscale Science and Technology Cui, Y., Duan, X., Huang, Y., Lieber, C., M. edited by Wang, Z., L. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 2003: 1
  • Nanowires as Building Blocks for Nanoscale Science and Technology in Nanowires and Nanobelts- Materials, Properties, and Devices Cui, Y., Duan, X., C., Y., Huang edited by Wang, Z., L. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 2003: 1
  • Gallium Nitride Nanowire Nanodevices Nano Letters Huang, Y., Duan, X., Cui, Y., Lieber, C., M. 2002; 2: 101-104
  • Diameter-Controlled Synthesis of Single Crystal Silicon Nanowires App. Phys. Lett. Cui, Y., Lauhon, L., J., Gudiksen, M., S., Wang, J., Lieber, C., M. 2001; 78: 2214-2216
  • Functional Nanoscale Electronic Devices Assembled using Silicon Nanowire Building Block Scienc Cui, Y., Lieber, C., M. 2001; 291: 851-853
  • Indium Phosphide Nanowires as Building Blocks for Nanoscale Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices Nature Duan, X., Huang, Y., Cui, Y., Wang, J., Lieber, C., M. 2001; 409: 66-69
  • Logic Gates and Computation from Assembled Nanowire Building Blocks Science Huang, Y., Duan, X., Cui, Y., Lauhon, L., J., Kim, K., Lieber, C., M. 2001; 294: 1313-1317
  • Nanowire Nanosensors for Highly-Sensitive, Selective and Integrated Detection of Biological and Chemical Species Scienc Cui, Y., Wei, Q., Park, H., Lieber, C., M. 2001; 293: 1289-1292
  • Highly Polarized Photoluminescence and Polarization-Sensitive Photodetectors from Single Indium Phosphide Nanowirees Science Wang, J., Gudiksen, M., K., Duan, X., Cui, Y., Lieber, C., M. 2001; 293: 1455-1457
  • Doping and Electrical Transport in Silicon Nanowires J. Phys. Chem. Cui, Y., Duan, X., Hu, J., Lieber, C., M. 2000; B 104: 5213-5216