School of Medicine


Showing 1-50 of 314 Results

  • Angelle Desiree LaBeaud

    Angelle Desiree LaBeaud

    Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases), Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment and Professor, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health and at the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsArthropod-borne viruses are emerging and re-emerging infections that are spreading throughout the world. Our laboratory investigates the epidemiology of arboviral infections, focusing on the burden of disease and the long-term complications on human health. In particular, Dr. LaBeaud investigates dengue, chikungunya, and Rift Valley fever viruses in Kenya, where outbreaks cause fever, arthritis, retinitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Our main research questions focus on the risk factors for arboviral infections, the development of diagnostic tests that can be administered in the field to quickly determine what kind of arboviral infection a person has, and the genetic and immunologic investigation of why different people respond differently to the same infection. Our long-term goals are to contribute to a deeper understanding of arboviral infections and their long-term health consequences and to optimize control strategies to prevent these emerging infections. Our laboratory also investigates the effects of antenatal and postnatal parasitic infections on vaccine responses, growth, and development of Kenyan children.

    My lab at Stanford supports the field work that is ongoing in Kenya, but we also have several projects that are based locally. We strive to improve diagnostics of arboviral infections and are using Luminex technology to build a new screening assay. We also have created a Luminex based platform to assess vaccine responses against multiple pathogens.

  • Norman J. Lacayo, MD

    Norman J. Lacayo, MD

    Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Hematology and Oncology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsPediatric Hematology/Oncology, Phase I drug studies for refractory and relapsed leukemia; genomic studies, biologic risk-stratification and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia; prediction or induction response and risk of relapse using phosphoproteomics in childhood AML; novel MRD techniques in childhood ALL.

  • Uri Ladabaum

    Uri Ladabaum

    Professor of Medicine (Gastroenterology and Hepatology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsGastrointestinal cancer prevention and risk management. Risk stratification. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Health services research.

  • Amy Ladd, MD

    Amy Ladd, MD

    Elsbach-Richards Professor of Surgery and Professor, by courtesy, of Medicine (Immunology & Rheumatology) and of Surgery (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsResearch Interests
    1. The kinematics and forces associated with thumb carpometcarpal (CMC) function and pathology
    2. The anatomy, microstructure, and immunofluorescent characteristics of the thumb CMC joint
    3. Pathomechaniics of CMC arthritis: biomechanical wear, injury, genetic, and environmental causes
    4. Biomechanics of the golf swing
    5. Archiving, vitalizing, and innovating medical and surgical knowledge, most recently with innovative iBook monographs

  • Richard Lafayette

    Richard Lafayette

    Professor of Medicine (Nephrology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsWe are continuing to grow a glomerulonephritis cohort study, including immunologic characterization. We have completed interventional studies of preeclampsia exploring the nitric oxide, endothelin system and effects on glomerular function and morphometry. We continue to recruit patients for treatment and observational studies of glomerular disease, including FSGS, membranous and particularly IgA nephropathy. We also are actively studying renal disease in systemic amyloidosis.

  • Teresa LaFromboise

    Teresa LaFromboise

    Professor of Education

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsBicultural competence and resilience in ethnic minority adolescent development. Particularly, the influence of enculturation and acculturation experiences on adolescent development. Cultural considerations in individual, school and community-based psychological interventions with adolescents and emerging adults.

  • Sheila Lahijani, MD, FACLP

    Sheila Lahijani, MD, FACLP

    Clinical Associate Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences - Medical Psychiatry

    BioAfter graduating from Brown Medical School, Dr. Lahijani completed the Combined Internal Medicine/Psychiatry Residency Program at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. She then served as a physician in the areas of primary care and triple diagnosis (addiction, HIV, mental health). Thereafter, Dr. Lahijani completed the Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship at the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University where she worked at the Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center. During her fellowship, she also served as a psychiatric oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    Dr. Lahijani joined the faculty of Stanford University School of Medicine in 2015 as a Clinical Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Since her initial appointment, Dr. Lahijani has served as the lead psychiatric oncologist at the Stanford Cancer Center where she provides psychiatric consultation services to patients with cancer and collaborates closely with her hematology and oncology colleagues to deliver comprehensive cancer care.

    In 2019, she was appointed as the Medical Director of the Stanford Cancer Center Psychosocial Oncology Program where she works in Stanford Cancer Center leadership and oversees the development and operationalization of psychiatric consultation for patients with cancer. Dr. Lahijani also attends on the medical/surgical units, ICUs and in the emergency department at Stanford Hospital and Clinics to provide care for patients with complex medical and psychiatric diagnoses and to teach psychiatry, internal medicine, and neurology trainees. Dr. Lahijani is trained in and administers several psychotherapeutic modalities, including Meaning Centered Psychotherapy and Dignity Therapy, in addition to practicing psychopharmacology.

    As Faculty of the Advancing Communication Excellence at Stanford, Dr. Lahijani leads foundational workshops for faculty and staff to advance communication skills with patients, families, and their colleagues. She is committed to developing and contributing to efforts that focus on relationship centered skills and provider wellness.

    Her clinical and scholarly interests include the interface of medicine and psychiatry, pharmacology, psycho-oncology, collaborative care models, psychotherapy for the medically ill, interdisciplinary medical education, teaching, and writing.

  • David D. Laitin

    David D. Laitin

    James T. Watkins IV and Elise V. Watkins Professor

    BioDavid D. Laitin is the James T. Watkins IV and Elise V. Watkins Professor of Political Science at Stanford University. He received his BA from Swarthmore College, and then served as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Somalia and Grenada, where he became national tennis champion in 1970. Back in the US, he received his Ph.D. in political science from UC Berkeley, working under the direction of Ernst Haas and Hanna Pitkin.

    He has taught at three great universities: UCSD (1975-87), the University of Chicago (1987-1999) and now at Stanford. Over his career, as a student of comparative politics, he has conducted field research in Somalia, Yorubaland (Nigeria), Catalonia (Spain), Estonia, and France, all the time focusing on issues of language and religion, and how these cultural phenomena link nation to state. His books include Politics, Language and Thought: The Somali Experience (1977), Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Religious Change among the Yoruba (1986), Language Repertoires and State Construction in Africa (1992), Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad (1998); Nations, States and Violence (2007); Why Muslim Integration Fails in Christian-Heritage Societies (2016); and African Politics Since Independence (2019).

    In collaboration with James Fearon, he has published several papers on ethnicity, ethnic cooperation, the sources of civil war, and on policies that work to settle civil wars. Laitin has also collaborated with Alan Krueger on international terrorism and with Eli Berman on suicide terrorism.

    In 2008-2009, with support from the National Science Foundation, and with a visiting appointment at Sciences-Po Paris, Laitin conducted ethnographic, survey and experimental research on Muslim integration into France, seeking to assess the magnitude of religious discrimination and isolate the mechanisms that sustain it. In collaboration with Claire Adida and Marie-Anne Valfort, they published the results in Why Muslim Integration Fails in Christian Heritage Societies (Harvard Press, 2016).

    In 2016, Laitin became co-director of Stanford's Immigration Policy Lab, and has co-authored several papers published in "Science", "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences" and "Nature Human Behavior" that estimate the effects of policy on immigrant integration.

    Laitin has been a recipient of fellowships from the Howard Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the Russell Sage Foundation. He is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. In 2021 Laitin was the recipient of the John Skytte Prize in Political Science from the Johan Skytte Foundation in Uppsala University, Sweden.

  • Rayhan A. Lal, MD

    Rayhan A. Lal, MD

    Assistant Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology) and of Pediatrics (Endocrinology)

    BioI grew up in the east bay area and have had type 1 diabetes for 30+ years. I studied electrical engineering and computer science at U.C. Berkeley (Go Bears!) with the hope of applying my knowledge to diabetes technology. The significance of clinical practice became clear to me after my siblings also developed diabetes. I am devoting my life to advancing the care of diabetes in people of all ages.

  • Vinh Lam

    Vinh Lam

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    BioDr. Vinh Lam is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Primary Care and Population health. He earned his MD from the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and chose to stay in Los Angeles to complete his family medicine residency training at UCLA. During his training, Dr. Lam developed a strong interest in teaching and medical education through his involvement with resident education and the graduate medical education committee. He also spent 1 year as a resident informaticist where he also became very interested in informatics, medical technology, and innovative solutions to improving patient health outcomes and decreasing physician burnout. Dr. Lam enjoys caring for patients of all ages from pediatrics to geriatrics, performing office-based procedures, and prioritizing preventative care.
    Outside of medicine, Dr. Lam loves to travel with his family, dabbles in photography and videography, and enjoys attempting to recreate meals he has had while traveling with his wife.

  • Scott R. Lambert, MD

    Scott R. Lambert, MD

    Professor of Ophthalmology and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research has focused on improving the visual outcomes of children with congenital cataracts. I organized a randomized clinical trial, the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to compare the visual outcomes of infants optically corrected with a contact lens vs. an intraocular lens after unilateral cataract surgery. A second area of research has been ocular growth after cataract surgery.

  • Lukas D. Landegger

    Lukas D. Landegger

    Instructor, Otolaryngology (Head and Neck Surgery)

    BioDr. Landegger is a clinician-scientist (otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon) and Instructor at Stanford University School of Medicine. After gaining clinical as well as research experience in various countries (US, UK, France, Spain, Germany, Singapore, Australia), he specialized in otology with translational hearing research in Vienna, Austria and for five years in Boston (Mass Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School), leading to a PhD in Neuroscience. Apart from clinical projects, current basic research foci are funded by a grant obtained from the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy and include inner ear gene therapy, vestibular schwannoma, noise-induced hearing loss, and others.

  • Alfred Lane

    Alfred Lane

    Professor of Dermatology and of Pediatrics at the Stanford University Medical Center, Emeritus

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDeveloping gene therapy for genetic skin diseases is my major focus. Prior to that, we are developing methods to give effective and efficient care to infants with rare and disabling genetic skin diseases including epidermolysis bullosa and ichthyosis as well as infants and children with unusual and difficult to manage vascular malformations. I am also interested in clinical studies within the NICU protecting premature infants’ skin and clinical studies in children with common skin diseases.

  • Barton Lane

    Barton Lane

    Professor of Radiology (Diagnostic Radiology) at the Stanford University Medical Center, Emeritus

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsAs a professor in the Medical Center Line, my primary investigative interest has been in clinical neuroradiology. This encompasses spinal cord and spine disease, degenerative and demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, strokes and infarction, and chronic epilepsy syndromes. Facial and head and neck vascular malformations and hemangiomas have been a focus of interest for many years, with collaborative projects involving dermatology and functional restoration services.

  • Curtis Langlotz

    Curtis Langlotz

    Professor of Radiology (Thoracic Imaging), of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics Research), of Biomedical Data Science and Senior Fellow at the Stanford Institute for HAI

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am interested in the use of deep neural networks and other machine learning technologies to help radiologists detect disease and eliminate diagnostic errors. My laboratory is developing deep neural networks that detect and classify disease on medical images. We also develop natural language processing methods that use the narrative radiology report to create large annotated image training sets for supervised machine learning experiments.

  • Marvin Langston

    Marvin Langston

    Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health

    BioDr. Marvin Langston is an Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health. He is a member of the Stanford Cancer Institute and Urologic Cancer Epidemiology Lab. He is an epidemiologist by training who focuses on the fields of benign prostate and pelvic conditions and urological cancers including prostate and kidney cancers.

    Prior to Stanford, he served as a Research Scientist in the Division of Research at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Dr. Langston received his PhD in Epidemiology from the University of Arizona’s College of Public Health followed by postdoctoral training in Cancer Prevention and Control at Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine.

    His program of research intends to characterize and measure infectious agents, environmental toxicants, and lifestyle factors; to evaluate the role of these factors in urological cancer etiology and outcomes; and to identify populations at high risk of exposure to these factors. So far he has focused this research to address the following questions: 1) What role do sexually transmitted infections and other systemic infections have in prostate damage and ensuing prostate cancer risk? 2) How can we appropriately model and define early life risk factors for urological cancers? 3) Can we harmonize molecular and clinical aspects of urological condition diagnoses to produce well characterized outcomes for biomarker discovery and etiological investigation? He has primarily addressed these questions using a variety of molecular and clinical epidemiology approaches while developing expertise in the cross-cutting theme of cancer health disparities with particular interests in the cancer care experiences of sexual and gender minorities and racial/ethnic minorities.

    Dr. Langston has been studying the impact of exogenous factors on prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration in young men as a marker of prostate damage and inflammation for over a decade. As early life PSA has been found predictive of future prostate cancer mortality, he has now setout to optimize risk-stratified screening for prostate cancer. This promising approach uses men’s baseline PSA values to inform their risk of future aggressive and/or fatal prostate cancer and determine their frequency of further screening. Under this approach, men with high baseline age-specific total PSA levels receive more frequent screening and men with lower levels receive less frequent screening. Dr. Langston was awarded an R01 from NCI to evaluate this approach using historically collected biospecimen. His funded research trajectory to this point also includes four training awards (2-NCI and 2-NIDDK) and several internal grants. Dr. Langston was selected in the inaugural class of the White House Cancer Moonshot Scholars for his work.

  • Benjamin Laniakea

    Benjamin Laniakea

    Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    BioDr. Benjamin Laniakea is a board-certified family medicine physician specializing in full-spectrum LGBTQ+ health. They are the recipient of the Arthur L. Bloomfield Award and have served as the Theme Lead for the Sex, Gender, and Sexual Function curriculum at the Stanford School of Medicine since 2018. They serve as the chief of the Stanford LGBTQ+ adult clinical program, which offers comprehensive and tailored healthcare for the LGBTQ+ patient population for patients of all ages, sexualities, and gender identities.

  • Maarten Lansberg, MD, PhD

    Maarten Lansberg, MD, PhD

    Professor of Neurology (Adult Neurology) and, by courtesy, of Neurosurgery

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research involves the design and conduct of clinical trials to discover new treatments for patients who have suffered a stroke. These trials span treatment of acute stroke, stroke recovery, and stroke prevention. My research in acute stroke is primarily focused on the use of advanced neuroimaging methods (CT and MRI) to select patients who are most likely to benefit from therapies aimed at restoring blood flow to the brain in patients who have suffered a stroke.

  • Tobias Lanz

    Tobias Lanz

    Assistant Professor of Medicine (Immunology and Rheumatology)

    BioTobias Lanz, MD is an Assistant Professor at the Institute for Immunity, Transplantation, and Infection and the Division of Immunology and Rheumatology at Stanford. His research focuses on B cell biology in neuroimmunological diseases and rheumatic diseases with neurological manifestations. He uses high-throughput screening technologies, and methods from structural and cell biology to identify new autoantigens and to understand how certain self-reactive B cells escape tolerance mechanisms. He is particularly interested in molecular mechanisms that explain the association between Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and autoimmunity.
    Tobias went to medical school at the Eberhard Karls University in Tübingen, Germany and at the University College of London. He wrote his MD thesis at Dr. Michael Platten's laboratory at the Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research in Tübingen, Germany before joining Dr. Lawrence Steinman’s neuroimmunological laboratory at Stanford as a research scholar. After medical school he pursued his scientific and clinical training at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the Department of Neurology at the University Hospital in Heidelberg, Germany. In 2015 he joined Dr. William Robinson’s lab at Stanford, where he investigated environmental triggers of autoimmunity, including viruses and milk consumption. In his most recent work, he characterized the B cell repertoire in the spinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and identified molecular mimicry between EBV EBNA1 and the glial cellular adhesion molecule GlialCAM as a driver of neuroinflammation (Lanz et al., Nature, 2022). His long term objective is to leverage these newly discovered mechanistic insights to develop next-generation biomarkers and therapeutics for autoimmune diseases.

  • Bryan Lanzman, MD

    Bryan Lanzman, MD

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Radiology

    BioDr. Bryan Lanzman completed his medical degree and radiology residency at Columbia University Medical Center, before coming to Stanford University for a 2-year Neuroradiology fellowship. He joined the faculty at Stanford in 2017 and is actively involved in medical student and resident education, as well as quality improvement efforts within the neuroradiology section. He also serves as a co-director of the Neuroradiology clerkship for medical students, and for the Neuroradiology elective for neurology residents.

  • Caleb Lareau

    Caleb Lareau

    Instructor, Pathology

    BioProfile moved to lab website: https://clareaulab.com/

  • Kathleen Larkin

    Kathleen Larkin

    Clinical Instructor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsPediatric pain, palliative care, regional anethesia, and acupuncture.

  • Nicholas Wiessner Larsen, MD

    Nicholas Wiessner Larsen, MD

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Neurology & Neurological Sciences

    BioDr. Larsen is a clinical assistant professor in the Department of Neurology, Division of Autonomic Disorders. He is a board-certified neurologist and a fellowship-trained specialist in neurophysiology and autonomics. He completed medical school at the University of Utah and neurology residency and fellowship at Stanford.

    In his clinical practice, Dr. Larsen focuses on disorders of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). His research interest is in the long-term autonomic complications of COVID-19. He is the principal investigator of a study looking at post-COVID postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Dr. Larsen’s research interests also include Global Health Neurology. Dr. Larsen helped establish the first stroke unit in Rwanda and is part of the American Academy of Neurology’s Refugees & Asylum Seekers Working Group.

    He has co-authored articles for publication in Clinical Autonomic Research, Autonomic Neuroscience, Nature Climate Change, and elsewhere. He is a recipient of the American Academy of Neurology Medical Student Prize for Excellence as well as a member of the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society.

  • David Larson

    David Larson

    Professor of Radiology (Pediatric Radiology)

    BioDavid B. Larson, MD, MBA, is Professor of Radiology (Pediatric Radiology) and Executive Vice Chair in the Department of Radiology at Stanford University. He also serves as the Associate Chief Quality Officer for Improvement for Stanford Health Care, overseeing improvement training programs at SHC. Dr. Larson is a national thought leader in radiology quality improvement and patient safety, and a regular speaker regarding topics ranging from pediatric CT radiation dose optimization to radiology peer learning. He is the founder of Stanford’s Realizing Improvement through Team Empowerment (RITE) program and co-founder of the Clinical Effectiveness Leadership Training (CELT) program, continuing to serve as co-executive director of both programs. He also founded and leads the Stanford Medicine Improvement Capability Development Program (ICDP) and the Advanced Course in Improvement Science (ACIS).

    Dr. Larson is the founder and program chair for the annual Radiology Improvement Summit held annually at Stanford, which began in 2015. He currently serves on the Board of Trustees of the American Board of Radiology, overseeing quality and safety, and on the Board of Chancellors for the American College of Radiology as the chair of the ACR's Commission on Quality and Safety. He also founded and leads the ACR Learning Network, which was launched in 2021.

    Prior to his position at Stanford, Dr. Larson was the Janet L. Strife Chair for Quality and Safety in Radiology and a faculty member of the James M. Anderson Center for Health Systems Excellence at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. He holds MD and MBA degrees from Yale University and completed his training at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, Colorado. Dr. Larson is a pediatric radiologist at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford. He and his wife, Tara, live in Portola Valley, California and have four children.

  • Ruth Lathi, M.D.

    Ruth Lathi, M.D.

    Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsRecurrent miscarriage, genetic and other causes of miscarriage, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, effects of fertility treatments on androgen levels in early pregnancy and how fertility diagnosis and treatments affect pregnancy outcomes.

  • Amira Latif Hernandez

    Amira Latif Hernandez

    Instructor, Neurology & Neurological Sciences

    BioAmira obtained her Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the KU Leuven, Belgium, in summer 2017. During her doctoral studies, she used clinically valid tests of murine cognition, neuronal plasticity measures in hippocampal and cortical slices, brain lesion methods, pharmacological applications and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the pathophysiology of novel mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One of her most gratifying contributions was the development of a new electrophysiology tool to assess synaptopathies, and the establishment of long-term synaptic plasticity from prefrontal cortex of APP knock-in mice. In Autumn 2017, she moved to Dr. Longo’s lab at the Stanford School of Medicine, where she investigates signaling pathways involved in synaptic degeneration. During 3 years of postdoctoral work, she established a multi-electrode array system with eight independent recording chambers that allows high-throughput analyses of multiple long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity. She also gained experience in RNA-sequencing, molecular biochemistry, signaling mechanisms, target validation and drug development strategies for AD. In October 2020, Amira has been appointed as an Instructor in Neurodegenerative Disease Research, in the Longo lab, to help develop improved and more powerful approaches that will better reveal key synaptic mechanisms and candidate modules associated with neuroplasticity and affected in AD mouse models, by identifying activity-dependent gene expression signatures.

  • Philip W. Lavori

    Philip W. Lavori

    Professor of Biomedical Data Science, Emeritus

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsBiostatistics, clinical trials, longitudinal studies, casual inference from observational studies, genetic tissue banking, informed consent. Trial designs for dynamic (adaptive) treatment regimes, psychiatric research, cancer.

  • Shelby Scott Lazarow, Psy.D.

    Shelby Scott Lazarow, Psy.D.

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

    BioDr. Lazarow is a licensed psychologist who specializes in providing clinical care for individuals and couples dealing with acute and chronic medical conditions. She received her doctorate in Clinical Psychology from the PGSP-Stanford Psy.D. Consortium and completed her clinical internship and postdoctoral fellowship at California Pacific Medical Center in the Health Psychology track. Dr. Lazarow is currently serving patients of the Neuropsychiatry Clinic at Stanford University's School of Medicine. In addition to providing individual and couples therapy, Dr. Lazarow has created multiple therapy groups specifically designed for individuals dealing with neurological conditions.

  • Laura C. Lazzeroni, Ph.D.

    Laura C. Lazzeroni, Ph.D.

    Professor (Research) of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and, by courtesy, of Biomedical Data Science

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsStatistics/Data Science. I develop & apply models, methods & algorithms for complex data in medical science & biology. I am also interested in the interplay between fundamental statistical properties (e.g. variability, bias, p-values) & how scientists actually use & interpret data. My work in statistical genetics includes: the invention of Plaid bi-clustering for gene expression data; methods for twin, association, & family studies; multiple testing & estimation for high dimensional arrays.