Lindsey Haddock, MD, MAEd, is a geriatrician and clinician-educator with a master's degree in education. Her research in medical education focuses on learning in the clinical workplace and evaluation of workplace-based assessments. She is the co-director of Primary Care and Population Health's Quality Education Scholarship Training program (QuEST), and the associate program director of the fellowship in Geriatrics. She works clinically in Stanford Senior Care Clinic and the inpatient geriatrics service.

Clinical Focus

  • Internal Medicine
  • Geriatric Medicine

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Geriatrics Teacher of the Year, University of California, San Francisco (2021)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship, University of California San Francisco, Health Professions Education Evaluation and Research (2021)
  • Master's Degree, University of California Berkeley, Education (2020)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Geriatric Medicine (2019)
  • Fellowship: UCSF Geriatric Medicine Fellowship (2019) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2018)
  • Residency: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Dept of Internal Medicine (2018) PA
  • Medical Education: Stanford University School of Medicine (2015) CA

All Publications

  • More Than Maintaining Competence: A Qualitative Study of How Physicians Conceptualize and Engage in Lifelong Learning. Perspectives on medical education O'Brien, B. C., Collins, S., Haddock, L. M., Sani, S., Rivera, J. A. 2024; 13 (1): 380-391


    Physicians have a professional responsibility to engage in lifelong learning. Some of this lifelong learning is required to maintain licensure and certification. Yet, this conceptualization captures only a small portion of the content areas and learning processes that physicians need to engage with to ensure quality patient care. Additionally, purposes beyond regulatory requirements and professional obligations likely drive physicians lifelong learning, though these purposes have not been explored. Given the centrality of lifelong learning to quality patient care, our study explores how physicians conceptualize and engage in lifelong learning.We conducted a qualitative interview study using an interpretivist approach. In 2019, we recruited 34 academic physicians from one institution. We analyzed our data to identify themes related to conceptualization of purposes, content areas, and processes of lifelong learning and actual lifelong learning practices.We interpreted participants' descriptions and examples of lifelong learning as serving three purposes: maintaining competence, supporting personal growth and fulfillment, and engaging in professional stewardship. Much of participants' discussion of lifelong learning centered around keeping up to date with medical knowledge and clinical/procedural skills, though some also mentioned efforts to improve communication, leadership, and teamwork. Participants engaged in lifelong learning through contextual, social, and individual processes.Academic physicians engage in lifelong learning for reasons beyond maintaining competence. Medical knowledge and clinical/procedural skills receive most attention, though other areas are recognized as important. Our findings highlight opportunities for a broader, more comprehensive approach to lifelong learning that spans all areas of medical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.5334/pme.1327

    View details for PubMedID 38974779

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC11225866

  • Learning Together: Co-Learning Among Faculty and Trainees in the Clinical Workplace. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Haddock, L., Rivera, J., O'Brien, B. C. 2023; 98 (2): 228-236


    Studies of workplace learning largely focus on how individuals (clinicians and trainees) learn in the clinical workplace. By focusing on individuals, these studies miss opportunities to explore the co-constructive nature of learning that may result in clinician-educators and trainees learning alongside each other (co-learning). The purpose of this study was to explore whether and how co-learning occurs in the workplace and what value co-learning holds.Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the authors interviewed 34 faculty clinician-educators from 10 specialties at one academic institution to explore whether and how co-learning occurred in their practice and how faculty perceived its value for faculty and for trainees. Interviews were conducted and recorded June to December 2019. Through iterative analysis, the authors refined a conceptual model of co-learning.In a 3-part model of co-learning derived from faculty interviews, faculty and trainees jointly identify learning opportunities during work-related activities and choose learning strategies for learning that lead to interpretation and construction of meaning; these activities produce learning outcomes, such as understanding or insight. The model also accounts for asymmetry in experience and position between faculty and trainees. All faculty participants valued co-learning and elucidated barriers and facilitators to using it in the workplace. How faculty managed asymmetries shaped the nature of the co-learning. When faculty worked to lessen asymmetry between teacher and trainee, co-learning was often collaborative.The model of co-learning makes explicit the concept of asymmetry in workplace learning and aids consideration of how related dynamics affect the nature of learning. Faculty must be intentional in managing asymmetries to fully leverage learning opportunities afforded by the workplace.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000004836

    View details for PubMedID 35830270

  • Are You Thinking What I'm Thinking? Exploring Response Process Validity Evidence for a Workplace-based Assessment for Operative Feedback. Journal of surgical education Zhao, N. W., Haddock, L. M., O'Brien, B. C. 2022; 79 (2): 475-484


    Workplace-based assessments (WBAs) are used in multiple surgical specialties to facilitate feedback to residents as a form of formative assessment. The validity evidence to support this purpose is limited and has yet to include investigations of how users interpret the assessment and make rating decisions (response processes). This study aimed to explore the validity evidence based on response processes for a WBA in surgery.Semi-structured interviews explored the reasonings and strategies used when answering questions in a surgical WBA, the System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning (SIMPL). Interview questions probed the interpretation of the three assessment questions and their respective answer categories (level of autonomy, operative performance, case complexity). Researchers analyzed transcripts using directed qualitative content analysis to generate themes.Single tertiary academic medical center.Eight residents and 13 faculty within the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery participating in a 6-month pilot of SIMPL.We identified four overarching themes that that characterized faculty and resident response processes while completing SIMPL: (1) Faculty and resident users had similar content-level interpretations of the questions and corresponding answer choices; (2) Users employed a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional processes to make rating decisions; (3) Contextual factors influenced ratings; and (4) Tensions during interpretation contributed to rating uncertainty.Response processes are a key source of evidence to support the validity for the formative use of WBAs. Evaluating response process evidence should go beyond basic content-level analysis as contextual factors and tensions that arise during interpretation also play a large role in rating decisions. Additional work and a continued critical lens are needed to ensure that WBAs can truly meet the needs for formative assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsurg.2021.09.007

    View details for PubMedID 34666934

  • More POLST forms are being completed in nursing homes, but is this meaningful? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Lam, K., Haddock, L., Yukawa, M. 2022; 70 (7): 1950-1953

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jgs.17904

    View details for PubMedID 35642687

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9283298

  • Interprofessional 30-day readmission review novel curriculum. Journal of interprofessional care Haddock, L. M., Upton, M., Polomano, R. C., Myers, J. S., Nandiwada, D. R., Miller, R. K. 2021; 35 (1): 153-156


    Planning and coordination among health-care professionals decrease readmission rates, yet workers have few opportunities to learn interprofessionally to improve transitions of care. An interprofessional readmission review curriculum engaged medical residents, pharmacy residents, nurse practitioner students, early-career nurses, and social work students in a critical analysis of readmissions. Learners (N = 98) participated in a 2 h, collaborative learning session to review health records from a patient readmitted within 30 days of discharge and determine plausible root causes for readmissions. A 5-item post-session survey completed by 83 (85%) evaluated knowledge and perceived competencies in transitions of care before and after participation. Significant improvements (p < .001) occurred in ratings for all five items. Two open-ended questions captured learners' perceptions of understanding and appreciating the roles of other disciplines in the discharge process and importance of interprofessional communication. Several themes emerged including understanding gaps in the discharge process, improving interprofessional collaboration and communication, and paying more attention to discharge documentation. This innovative program helped build essential skills to ensure safe discharges by introducing learners to interprofessional perspectives in analyzing root causes for readmissions, strategies to improve discharge planning, and the value of team-based care.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/13561820.2020.1711719

    View details for PubMedID 32078415

  • Divergent Patterns of Incidence in Peripheral Neuroblastic Tumors. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology Merrihew, L. E., Fisher, P. G., Effinger, K. E. 2015; 37 (7): 502-506


    Prior research on trends in neuroblastoma incidence has conflicted. We aimed to compare how ganglioneuroblastoma and neuroblastoma incidence have changed.Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 9 population-based registry, we identified 2081 malignant peripheral neuroblastic tumors in patients 0 to 14 years from 1973 to 2009. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates were calculated using SEER*Stat, and Joinpoint Regression Program was used to calculate annual percent change (APC) and analyze trends. Data were stratified by histology, age, and stage.Overall peripheral neuroblastic tumor incidence increased by an APC of 0.47 (P=0.045). However, ganglioneuroblastoma incidence decreased (APC=-1.48; P=0.003), whereas neuroblastoma incidence increased (APC=0.79; P=0.008). When divided by age and stage, locoregional neuroblastoma incidence increased in infants until a significant inflection point in 1996 (APC=4.19; P<0.001) and then decreased sharply (APC=-6.80; P=0.160).Ganglioneuroblastoma incidence has decreased, whereas neuroblastoma incidence has increased. These changes could be real, or reflect bias from classification changes or increased detection. Neuroblastoma incidence increased most markedly in infants with locoregional disease only until 1996, then declined, which may reflect changes in tumor ascertainment and folate supplementation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000383

    View details for PubMedID 26133942

  • Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Valganciclovir in a Subset of Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY Montoya, J. G., Kogelnik, A. M., Bhangoo, M., Lunn, M. R., Flamand, L., Merrihew, L. E., Watt, T., Kubo, J. T., Paik, J., Desai, M. 2013; 85 (12): 2101-2109


    There is no known treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Little is known about its pathogenesis. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been proposed as infectious triggers. Thirty CFS patients with elevated IgG antibody titers against HHV-6 and EBV were randomized 2:1 to receive valganciclovir (VGCV) or placebo for 6 months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical endpoints aimed at measuring physical and mental fatigue included the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) scores, self-reported cognitive function, and physician-determined responder status. Biological endpoints included monocyte and neutrophil counts and cytokine levels. VGCV patients experienced a greater improvement by MFI-20 at 9 months from baseline compared to placebo patients but this difference was not statistically significant. However, statistically significant differences in trajectories between groups were observed in MFI-20 mental fatigue subscore (P = 0.039), FSS score (P = 0.006), and cognitive function (P = 0.025). VGCV patients experienced these improvements within the first 3 months and maintained that benefit over the remaining 9 months. Patients in the VGCV arm were 7.4 times more likely to be classified as responders (P = 0.029). In the VGCV arm, monocyte counts decreased (P < 0.001), neutrophil counts increased (P = 0.037) and cytokines were more likely to evolve towards a Th1-profile (P < 0.001). Viral IgG antibody titers did not differ between arms. VGCV may have clinical benefit in a subset of CFS patients independent of placebo effect, possibly mediated by immunomodulation and/or antiviral effect. Further investigation with longer treatment duration and a larger sample size is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmv.23713

    View details for PubMedID 23959519

  • Response to valganciclovir in chronic fatigue syndrome patients with human herpesvirus 6 and Epstein-Barr virus IgG antibody titers JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY Watt, T., Oberfoell, S., Balise, R., Lunn, M. R., Kar, A. K., Merrihew, L., Bhangoo, M. S., Montoya, J. G. 2012; 84 (12): 1967-1974


    Valganciclovir has been reported to improve physical and cognitive symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with elevated human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG antibody titers. This study investigated whether antibody titers against HHV-6 and EBV were associated with clinical response to valganciclovir in a subset of CFS patients. An uncontrolled, unblinded retrospective chart review was performed on 61 CFS patients treated with 900 mg valganciclovir daily (55 of whom took an induction dose of 1,800 mg daily for the first 3 weeks). Antibody titers were considered high if HHV-6 IgG ≥ 1:320, EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG ≥ 1:640, and EBV early antigen (EA) IgG ≥ 1:160. Patients self-rated physical and cognitive functioning as a percentage of their functioning prior to illness. Patients were categorized as responders if they experienced at least 30% improvement in physical and/or cognitive functioning. Thirty-two patients (52%) were categorized as responders. Among these, 19 patients (59%) responded physically and 26 patients (81%) responded cognitively. Baseline antibody titers showed no significant association with response. After treatment, the average change in physical and cognitive functioning levels for all patients was +19% and +23%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Longer treatment was associated with improved response (P = 0.0002). No significant difference was found between responders and non-responders among other variables analyzed. Valganciclovir treatment, independent of the baseline antibody titers, was associated with self-rated improvement in physical and cognitive functioning for CFS patients who had positive HHV-6 and/or EBV serologies. Longer valganciclovir treatment correlated with an improved response.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmv.23411

    View details for PubMedID 23080504