School of Medicine


Showing 1-50 of 53 Results

  • Nitish Badhwar

    Nitish Badhwar

    Clinical Professor, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine

    BioNitish Badhwar, MD is Professor of Medicine and Director of Cardiac Electrophysiology Training Program at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Badhwar received his medical degree from Maulana Azad Medical College (University of Delhi, India). After completing his internal medicine training from New York Hospital of Queens (affiliated with Cornell Medical School), he worked as faculty in the Department of Medicine at Hospital of St. Raphael (Yale University School of Medicine). He completed Cardiac Electrophysiology training at UCSF with Dr. Scheinman. After being on faculty at UCSF for 15 years he recently joined the Arrhythmia Service at Stanford Hospital. He is a Fellow of American College of Cardiology and Heart Rhythm Society. He has been named best doctor in cardiac electrophysiology in San Francisco Magazine 3 years in a row (2015-2017). This is nominated by his peers. He was given Excellence in Teaching award in Medical Education by Academy of Medical Educators in 2015. He was an invited speaker at prestigious international meetings including Oriental Congress of Cardiology (OCC) in Shanghai, China; Cardiostim EHRA /Europace in Nice, France; Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) in Seoul, S Korea; American Heart Association Annual Scientific Session in New Orleans, LA and Indian Heart Rhythm Society in New Delhi, India.


    Clinical Interest: Dr. Badhwar's clinical interest is in complex catheter ablation procedures including mapping and ventricular tachycardia (VT), atrial fibrillation (AF) and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) including junctional variants of SVT. He started the epicardial ablation program at UCSF and also worked with Dr. Randall Lee to perform the first percutaneous epicardial left atrial appendage (LAA) ligation in the Bay Area in patients with atrial fibrillation. He has also differentiated himself in the field of electrophysiology by performing hybrid procedures with CT surgeons in patients with AF and VT. He is also involved in device implantation including pacemakers, ICD and biventricular pacing for heart failure.

    Research Interest: Dr. Badhwar has published electrophysiologic characteristics of SVTs including atrial tachycardia arising from the coronary sinus musculature, para-hisian atrial tachycardia, left sided AVNRT, junctional tachycardia and nodofascicular tachycardia. He has also published on the use of nuclear medicine (ERNA) in assessing left ventricular dyssynchrony as well as optimal pacing sties in patients with heart failure requiring biventricular pacing. He has described the unique clinical characteristics of epicardial idiopathic VT arising from the cardiac crux. He has also published clinical outcomes of combining LAA ligation with catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation perform (first in human percutaneous closed chested Maze procedure) and is now part of a multi-center randomized study comparing standard ablation to ablation plus LAA ligation in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (aMAZE trial).

  • Matthew C. Baker, MD MS

    Matthew C. Baker, MD MS

    Assistant Professor of Medicine (Immunology and Rheumatology)

    BioDr. Baker is the Clinical Chief in the Division of Immunology and Rheumatology at Stanford University. He received his bachelor's degree from Pomona College, his medical degree from Harvard Medical School, and his master's degree in Epidemiology and Clinical Research from Stanford University. He completed his Internal Medicine residency at the Massachusetts General Hospital and his Rheumatology fellowship at Stanford University. Dr. Baker has established a clinical research program that is focused on clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and bench-to-bedside translational research. He has designed and led investigator-initiated and industry sponsored clinical trials with a focus on sarcoidosis, IgG4-related disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, he is the Co-Director of the Stanford Multidisciplinary Sarcoidosis Program and collaborates with other team members to advance sarcoidosis clinical care and research.

  • Niaz Banaei

    Niaz Banaei

    Professor of Pathology and of Medicine (Infectious Diseases)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsHis research interests include (1) development, assessment, and improvement of novel infectious diseases diagnostics, (2) enhancing the quality of C. difficile diagnostic results, and (3) characterization of M. tuberculosis virulence determinants.

  • Subhas Banerjee

    Subhas Banerjee

    Professor of Medicine (Gastroenterology and Hepatology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Banerjee is the Director of Endoscopy at the Stanford University Medical Center. His research interests include evaluation of advanced endoscopic procedures (ERCP, choledochoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound) in the diagnosis and management of benign and malignant pancreatic and biliary disease. Additional interests include the development of new endoscopic devices and instruments.

  • Michele Barry, MD, FACP

    Michele Barry, MD, FACP

    Drs. Ben & A. Jess Shenson Professor, Senior Associate Dean, Global Health, Director, Center for Innovation in Global Health, Professor of Medicine and Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsAreas of research
    Ethical Aspects of research conducted overseas
    Clinical Tropical Diseases
    Globalization's Impact upon Health Disparities
    Hemorrhagic Viruses

  • Preetha Basaviah, M.D.

    Preetha Basaviah, M.D.

    Clinical Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMedical education, preparation for clerkship curricula and hospital medicine.

  • Marina Basina

    Marina Basina

    Clinical Professor, Medicine - Endocrinology, Gerontology, & Metabolism

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDiabetes type I and type II, insulin pump therapy, glucose sensor technology, insulin resistance, PCOS, thyroid disorders

  • Tina Baykaner

    Tina Baykaner

    Instructor, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine

    BioTina Baykaner is an Instructor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Electrophysiology. Following internal medicine residency, cardiovascular medicine and advanced heart failure fellowship trainings at University of California, San Diego and electrophysiology fellowship at Stanford University, Dr. Baykaner joined Stanford University faculty in 2018. She has published over 200 papers, book chapters and abstracts including over 80 original peer-reviewed articles, and delivered over 40 invited presentations in national and international meetings. She serves as associate editor, section editor and editorial board member of four electrophysiology journals.

    Dr. Baykaner’s current research interests include outcomes research, epidemiology and mechanisms of rhythm disorders. She is currently funded by the National Institutes of Health to study patient related outcomes regarding atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. She received prior research funding from American Heart Association and Heart Rhythm Society. Dr. Baykaner's clinical practice focuses on ablation of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, SVTs, inappropriate sinus tachycardia management, device implantation and device extraction.

    Dr. Baykaner is an active member of American Heart Association (AHA), American College of Cardiology (ACC), Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC). She serves as an elected member of the Communications Committee for HRS, and previously served as an elected member of the ACC Task Force ICD research committee. She also served in the Organizing Committee for Stanford Cardiovascular Institute Annual Postdoctoral Research Meeting in 2017 and 2018 and for Early Career related sessions for HRS Scientific Sessions in 2019 and 2020.

  • Laren Becker

    Laren Becker

    Assistant Professor of Medicine (Gastroenterology)

    BioI am a physician-scientist in the Division of Gastroenterology at Stanford University. My clinical and research interest has been in neurogastroenterology. Specifically, my research has been exploring the interplay between immune cells and the enteric nervous system, and evaluating how perturbations of this interaction as a result of aging disrupts gastrointestinal neuromuscular function. Ultimately, my hope is that insights from this research provide novel therapies for treating patients with motility disorders like constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

  • Harmeet Bedi

    Harmeet Bedi

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Pulmonary, Allergy & Critical Care Medicine

    BioDr. Harmeet Bedi is the Director of Interventional Pulmonology & Bronchoscopy at Stanford University. His expertise is in minimally invasive techniques used in the diagnosis and treatment of various airway and lung diseases such as lung cancer, benign & malignant airway obstruction, and pleural diseases. He specializes in rigid bronchoscopy, airway stent placement, balloon bronchoplasty, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and navigation bronchoscopy, bronchial thermoplasty, intrabronchial valve (IBV) insertion, and various pleural procedures. He also specializes in a variety of tumor ablative therapies including laser therapy, electrocautery, argon plasma coagulation (APC), brachytherapy, and cryotherapy.

    He founded the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) - guided bronchoscopy program at Stanford in 2019. CBCT-guided bronchoscopy is a novel and cutting-edge technique which combines bronchoscopy with CT imaging, allowing for improved localization and diagnosis of peripheral lung nodules. Additionally, CBCT-guided bronchoscopy will allow for numerous potential cancer therapies that are currently under development.

    Dr. Bedi is a principal investigator and co-investigator on multiple clinical trials related to bronchoscopy, thoracic imaging, pulmonary nodules, and lung cancer. Specifically, he has multiple research interests within the realm of bronchoscopic device innovation and CBCT-guided bronchoscopy.

  • Eran Bendavid

    Eran Bendavid

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsEffect of global health policies on health of individuals in developing countries, global health, HIV and TB.

  • Vivek Bhalla, MD

    Vivek Bhalla, MD

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Nephrology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Bhalla's two primary research interests are in the role of the kidney in diabetes and hypertension. We use molecular, biochemical, and transgenic approaches to study: (1) mechanisms diabetic kidney disease disease including the role of the endothelium to regulate inflammation and kidney injury; and (2) regulation of tubular transport of glucose, sodium, and potassium. These latter studies have treatment implications in diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension.

  • Sushma Bharadwaj, MD

    Sushma Bharadwaj, MD

    Instructor, Medicine - Blood & Marrow Transplantation

    BioDr. Bharadwaj is fellowship-trained in blood and marrow transplantation, cellular therapy, hematology, and oncology. She is an instructor in the Stanford School of Medicine Department of Medicine, Division of Blood & Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

    Dr. Bharadwaj focuses her expertise on diagnosing and treating cancer in blood and bone marrow. For each patient, she develops a personalized, comprehensive, and compassionate care plan. In her diverse experience as a physician and scientist, she has served as an internal medicine doctor, hospitalist, hematologist, oncologist, and blood and marrow transplantation specialist. Dr. Bharadwaj has a degree in clinical research and is currently conducting clinical trials in transplant and cellular therapy.

    She has participated in research studies of advances in therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, melanoma, and breast cancer. She has co-authored articles published in Leukemia and Lymphoma and elsewhere. Topics include advances in cell transplantation. She also co-wrote the chapter on genome-driven personalized cancer therapy in the book Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    Dr. Bharadwaj has made presentations at meetings of the American Society of Hematology, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and other associations.
    Subjects include racial, demographic, and socioeconomic disparities in the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Dr. Bharadwaj is a member of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, American Society of Hematology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  • Ankur Bharija

    Ankur Bharija

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsPersonal and Professional (Clinical, research, and teaching) interests include promoting health and wellbeing for the frail elders and the seriously ill -- through innovation in High-value healthcare delivery systems, Public health-education, Health Information-technology and Social entrepreneurship.

  • Ami Bhatt

    Ami Bhatt

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Hematology) and of Genetics

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe Bhatt lab is exploring how the microbiota is intertwined with states of health and disease. We apply the most modern genetic tools in an effort to deconvolute the mechanism of human diseases.

  • Brian Blackburn

    Brian Blackburn

    Clinical Professor, Medicine - Infectious Diseases

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy interests include parasitology and global health; I've investigated cryptosporidium and angiostrongylus outbreaks; schistosoma/strongyloides seroprevalence in refugees, and the distribution and impact of ITNs for malaria and filariasis prevention in Nigeria and India. I have done clinical and programmatic work at teaching hospitals in Liberia and Bangladesh and have opportunities for research in Bangladesh and Kenya, in collaboration with ICDDR,B and CDC, Kenya

  • Terrence Blaschke

    Terrence Blaschke

    Professor of Medicine and of Molecular Pharmacology, Emeritus

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsClinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms of variability in drug response.

    Drug development

  • Douglas W. Blayney

    Douglas W. Blayney

    Professor of Medicine (Oncology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsImproving the quality of cancer care at Stanford, in our network of care, and nationally

  • Catherine Blish

    Catherine Blish

    Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe major goal of our research is to gain insight into the prevention and control of HIV and other viral pathogens by studying the interplay between the virus and the host immune response. We investigate the role of various arms of the immune response, but with a particular focus on NK cells. We hope to gain additional insights into control of infectious diseases by studying how pregnancy modulates immune responses.

  • Gordon Bloom

    Gordon Bloom

    Lecturer, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    BioGordon founded the Social Entrepreneurship Collaboratory (SE Labs) at Stanford, Harvard and Princeton. He teaches about the design, development and leadership of innovative social ventures in global health and environmental sustainability.

    At Stanford, Gordon is director of the Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation Lab (SE Lab)- Human & Planetary Health and is a faculty fellow of the Center for Innovation in Global Health. He is a Lecturer in the School of Medicine, Division of Primary Care and Population Health/Dept. of Medicine, an affiliate at Stanford Health Policy/Center for Health Policy, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, and a mentor in the Knight-Hennessy Scholars Program.

    At Harvard, Gordon taught jointly on the faculties of the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health (Health Policy & Management) and the Harvard Kennedy School (Management, Leadership & Decision Sciences) and served as an Expert-in-Residence (EiR) at the Harvard Innovation Lab (i-Lab), and affiliated faculty at the Center for Primary Care, Harvard Medical School (HMS). He was faculty director of the Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation Lab (SE Lab) for US & Global Health, an incubator course taught in a new interdisciplinary, collaborative model based at the i-Lab. He has also served as an Entrepreneur-in-Residence (2013-2014) at Harvard Business School in the Rock Center for Entrepreneurship, on the Faculty of Arts & Sciences in the Sociology Department, at the Harvard Kennedy School, on the Leadership & Management faculty, and as a principal of the Hauser Center for Non-Profit Organizations (2004-2007). Gordon served as one of the founding faculty of the $10 million Reynolds Fellows Program in Social Entrepreneurship, a Center for Public Leadership and Harvard President’s interdisciplinary fellowship initiative that paid full tuition and stipend for graduate students from the Harvard Kennedy School, School of Public Health and Graduate School of Education.

    At Princeton, Gordon served as Dean’s Visiting Professor in Entrepreneurship in 2009-2010. Working together with the School of Engineering & Applied Science, the Woodrow Wilson School of Public & International Affairs, and the Faculty of Arts & Sciences, he launched a new set of programs and prizes in social innovation and entrepreneurship in collaboration with students, faculty and alumni.

    At Stanford in 2001-2002, Gordon created the SE Lab, a Silicon Valley and technology–influenced, interdisciplinary incubator for social ventures and global problem solving. Gordon taught on the Public Policy Program and Urban Studies Program faculties (School of Humanities & Sciences) and served as a faculty affiliate at the Center for Social Innovation at Stanford Graduate School of Business, and a Program Officer at Stanford’s Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies.

    Many of the talented students and fellows in Gordon’s SE Labs have won the top awards of prestigious idea and business plan competitions, including those at Stanford, Harvard, Princeton and MIT.

    Gordon is an author in the edited volume Frontiers in Social Innovation (N. Malhotra, ed., Harvard Business Review Press, 2021) and Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change (A. Nicholls, ed., Oxford University Press, 2006/2008) and served as a founding member of the Oxford/Ashoka led University Network for Social Entrepreneurship. His interest in entrepreneurship is informed by work in both the private and nonprofit sectors in the U.S. (New York, Cambridge, Palo Alto), Europe (London, Paris) and Asia (Hong Kong), as CEO of a medical technology company (EDAP Technomed, USA) and in international strategy consulting (Bain & Co. Ltd.).

    Gordon is married to Sara Singer- they on occasion teach together at Stanford, have a daughter Audrey (22) and son Jason (19), and live in the Frenchman's Hill residential section of campus.

  • Paul Bollyky

    Paul Bollyky

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbiology and Immunology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe Bollyky Lab studies the immunology of chronic bacterial infections with an emphasis on Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound and lung infections. Our goals are to gain insight into fundamental disease mechanisms and to generate novel therapies to improve human health.

  • Hector Fabio Bonilla

    Hector Fabio Bonilla

    Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Infectious Diseases

    BioAs a young physician at Louisiana State University, Dr. Bonilla focused on the Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS and HCV, two neglected and stigmatized diseases for which effective therapies were in their infancy. While learning the clinical aspects of the two diseases, Dr. Bonilla saw a need to create and organize a support community to promote understanding and management of the conditions. Subsequently, he went to Summa Health System in Akron, Ohio, and he continued his work where he specialized in HIV/HCV as well as in Infectious Diseases Clinical Practice. In addition to teaching medical residents and students, Dr. Bonilla participated in numerous clinical trials and developed clinical research projects. Furthermore, he led the Infection Renal Transplant Program, HIV and HCV clinics, and he participated in several cooperative studies with Case Western Reserve University. Dr. Bonilla’s interest in academia led him to the University Of Pittsburgh Medical Center where he was an Assistant Professor, Clinician, and Medical Educator in the Department of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases. Due to his interest in cytokines and immunological responses, Dr. Bonilla became a researcher at ImmunoScience Inc., a biotechnology company in California that works to develop a therapeutic HIV vaccine. Dr. Bonilla’s experience of treating HIV/HCV combined with his interest in inflammatory response is the driving force behind his desire to understand ME/CFS. Dr. Bonilla is a strong patient advocate, and he believes in integrated care—care in which physicians communicate and coordinate efforts to deliver the best medical outcome for patients. His ME/CFS patients are his inspiration, and he is committed to continuing research to seek answers to their health challenges.

  • Linda Boxer, MD, PhD

    Linda Boxer, MD, PhD

    Vice Dean of the School of Medicine and Stanley McCormick Memorial Professor

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsRegulation of expression of oncogenes in normal and malignant hematologic cells.

  • Heather E Boynton

    Heather E Boynton

    Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    BioHeather E Boynton is an emergency physician at Pioneers Memorial Hospital in Brawley, California and an Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor at the Stanford University School of Medicine in the Department of Primary Care and Population Health.

    Dr. Boynton trained in emergency medicine at UC San Diego, where she served as chief resident. She attended medical school at Georgetown University and also has a master’s degree in International Security Studies from the School of Foreign Service. She completed her undergraduate studies at Princeton University.

    As an emergency physician practicing in a rural, cross-border community she hopes to challenge and engage rotating students to provide patient-centered care in a resource-limited setting.

  • Brian Brady

    Brian Brady

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Nephrology

    BioDr. Brady is a fellowship-trained nephrologist with board certification in nephrology and in internal medicine. He is a clinical assistant professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, at Stanford University School of Medicine.

    He provides care at the Stanford Health Care Boswell Kidney Clinic as well as the Stanford Health Care Kidney Clinic in Emeryville.

    Dr. Brady is particularly interested in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). He also treats end-stage kidney disease, hypertension, kidney stones, glomerular disease and other kidney related conditions.

    His research in value-based health care focuses on methods to improve care delivery for patients with CKD and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). He has received funding for his research from sources including the National Institutes of Health.

    Dr. Brady has published his research findings in JAMA Internal Medicine the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, and elsewhere.

    He has presented invited talks on high-value care delivery to policy makers on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC. He also has made presentations to his peers at national, regional, and local meetings of kidney disease specialists.

    He has delivered lectures to the Institute for Healthcare Improvement National Forum, Satellite Healthcare Home Dialysis Academy, and other meetings. He has shared his insights in presentations to faculty and students in the Division of Nephrology at Peking Union Medical College in Beijing, China.

    Dr. Brady is a member of the American Society of Nephrology, International Society of Nephrology, and American College of Physicians.

  • Rondeep Brar

    Rondeep Brar

    Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Hematology

    BioI aim to provide high quality care in a diverse patient practice. My clinic includes all types of hematologic disorders, ranging from anemia, clotting/bleeding disorders, and low blood counts to complex malignancies such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloma, and lymphoma. I aim to combine the efficiency of a private office with the complex care expected of a tertiary institution like Stanford. I value your time and strive to maintain an on-schedule clinic.

    As the interim medical co-director of the Stanford Cancer Center, it is my privilege to partner with my colleagues in advancing innovative research alongside high quality, coordinated, and compassionate care for our patients.

  • Michelle Elizabeth Yael Braunschweig, MD, PhD, MPH

    Michelle Elizabeth Yael Braunschweig, MD, PhD, MPH

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    BioDr. Braunschweig is a board-certified family medicine doctor. She provides care for the entire family and welcomes patients of all ages.

    Her special interests include women’s health, children’s health, and mental health. For each patient, she develops a personalized plan of care. Her goal is to help every individual achieve the best possible health and quality of life.

    Another special interest of Dr. Braunschweig is medical education. She is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, at Stanford University School of Medicine.

    The training of health care professionals in low-resource settings is one of her key research interests. Another is reproductive justice.

    Dr. Braunschweig grew up in San Jose. Prior to medical school, Dr. Braunschweig studied music and earned a PhD in musicology from UC Berkeley. Her interest in women’s health led her to volunteer as a birth doula at San Francisco General Hospital.

    There, she became passionate about maternal and child health, and was inspired to go to medical school to become a doctor.

    Outside of her clinical practice and research, she enjoys spending time with her family, going for walks, and trying out new recipes.

  • Keri Brenner

    Keri Brenner

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    BioKeri Brenner, MD, MPA is a palliative care physician and a psychiatrist. Her clinical work includes inpatient palliative care consults and psychotherapy for palliative care patients at Stanford. Dr. Brenner’s scholarly interests and research focus on psychodynamic and existential issues in patients with serious illness. Dr. Brenner completed her medical degree at Yale School of Medicine, where she received honors for her thesis on the phenomenology of suffering with terminal illness. She also has a Master in Public Administration from Harvard’s Kennedy School. Dr. Brenner trained in adult psychiatry residency at Massachusetts General Hospital / McLean and palliative care fellowship at Harvard.

  • Wes (Janice) Brown

    Wes (Janice) Brown

    Professor of Medicine (Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy)

    BioDr. Janice (Wes) Brown specializes in the treatment of infectious complications that occur in patients who are receiving cancer treatments or are undergoing transplantation of solid organs or hematopoietic cells. She has been a member of the Blood and Marrow Transplantation faculty for more than twenty years and co-founded the Immunocompromised Host Infectious Diseases consultation service. Dr. Brown’s special interest is to understand the nature of immunodeficiency resulting from an ever- evolving spectrum of targeted and immunomodulatory therapy. Her laboratory studies approaches to enhance and/or rebuild protective immunity. She is a leader in the design and execution of clinical trials of new treatments for infections that have significantly improved the outcomes of high-risk patients.