Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance


Showing 101-200 of 270 Results

  • Rogelio A. Hernández-López

    Rogelio A. Hernández-López

    Assistant Professor of Bioengineering and of Genetics

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOur group works at the interface of mechanistic, synthetic, and systems biology to understand and program cellular recognition, communication, and organization. We are currently interested in engineering biomedical relevant cellular behaviors for cancer immunotherapy.

  • Hadi Hosseini

    Hadi Hosseini

    Associate Professor (Research) of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (Interdisciplinary Brain Science Research)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOur lab’s research portfolio crosses multiple disciplines including computational neuropsychiatry, cognitive neuroscience, multimodal neuroimaging and neurocognitive rehabilitation. Our computational neuropsychiatry research mainly involves investigating alterations in the organization of connectome in various neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive disorders using state of the art neuroimaging techniques (fMRI, sMRI, DWI, functional NIRS) combined with novel computational methods (graph theoretical and multivariate pattern analyses).

    The ultimate goal of our research is to translate the findings from computational neuropsychiatry research toward developing personalized interventions. We have been developing personalized interventions that integrate computerized cognitive rehabilitation, real-time functional brain imaging and neurofeedback, as well as virtual reality (VR) tailored toward targeted rehabilitation of the affected brain networks in patients with neurocognitive disorders.

  • Kristene Hossepian

    Kristene Hossepian

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences - Child & Adolescent Psychiatry and Child Development

    BioDr. Kristene Hossepian is a licensed clinical psychologist with expertise in anxiety, depression, eating disorders, parent management training, and stress. During her doctorate training at the PGSP-Stanford Psy.D. Consortium she received extensive training in a number of evidence-based treatment approaches for children and adolescents, such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. She completed her pre-doctoral internship at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital/Children’s Health Council where she worked with youth struggling with severe eating disorders, chronic medical conditions, trauma, depression, and anxiety. After receiving her doctorate in 2020, Dr. Hossepian completed her postdoctoral fellowship at the Stanford University School of Medicine, where she continued to receive training in evidence-based treatments for youth with a variety of presenting problems at the inpatient and outpatient level.

    Currently, Dr. Hossepian is a Clinical Assistant Professor within the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the Stanford University School of Medicine. She works alongside Dr. Mary Sanders and Dr. Jennifer Derenne at the Comprehensive Care Program serving children and adolescents who are medically compromised due to complications with their eating disorders. Additionally, Dr. Hossepian works within Dr. Victoria Cosgrove’s Stress, Resilience, Emotion, and Mood (StREam) Laboratory to identify the ways that psychobiological stress responsivity is implicated in the emergence and propagation of affective symptomatology. Dr. Hossepian is interested in exploring the physiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and eating disorders as well as providing children and adolescents with novel emotion regulation strategies.

  • KC Huang

    KC Huang

    Professor of Bioengineering and of Microbiology and Immunology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsHow do cells determine their shape and grow?
    How do molecules inside cells get to the right place at the right time?

    Our group tries to answer these questions using a systems biology approach, in which we integrate interacting networks of protein and lipids with the physical forces determined by the spatial geometry of the cell. We use theoretical and computational techniques to make predictions that we can verify experimentally using synthetic, chemical, or genetic perturbations.

  • Ngan F. Huang

    Ngan F. Huang

    Associate Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Cardiothoracic Surgery Research) and, by courtesy, of Chemical Engineering

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Huang's laboratory aims to understand the chemical and mechanical interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and pluripotent stem cells that regulate vascular and myogenic differentiation. The fundamental insights of cell-matrix interactions are applied towards stem cell-based therapies with respect to improving cell survival and regenerative capacity, as well as engineered vascularized tissues for therapeutic transplantation.

  • Andrew D. Huberman

    Andrew D. Huberman

    Associate Professor of Neurobiology and, by courtesy, of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsIn 2017, we developed a virtual reality platform to investigate the neural and autonomic mechanisms contributing to fear and anxiety. That involved capturing 360-degree videos of various fear-provoking situations in real life for in-lab VR movies, such as heights and claustrophobia, as well as unusual scenarios like swimming in open water with great white sharks. The primary objective of our VR platform is to develop new tools to help people better manage stress, anxiety and phobias in real-time, as an augment to in-clinic therapies.

    In May 2018, we reported the discovery of two novel mammalian brain circuits as a Research Article published in Nature. One circuit promotes fear and anxiety-induced paralysis, while the other fosters confrontational reactions to threats. This led to ongoing research into the involvement of these brain regions in anxiety-related disorders such as phobias and generalized anxiety in humans.

    In 2020, we embarked on a collaborative effort with Dr. David Spiegel's laboratory in the Stanford Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, aimed to explore how specific respiration patterns synergize with the visual system to influence autonomic arousal and stress, and other brain states, including sleep.

    In 2023, the first results of that collaboration were published as a randomized controlled trial in Cell Reports Medicine, demonstrating that specific brief patterns of deliberate respiration are particularly effective in alleviating stress and enhancing mood, and improving sleep.

    In a 2021, our collaboration with Dr. Edward Chang, professor and chair of the Department of Neurological Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), was published in Current Biology, revealing that specific patterns of insular cortex neural activity may be linked to, and potentially predict, anxiety responses.

  • Gentaro Ikeda

    Gentaro Ikeda

    Instructor, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine

    BioDr. Ikeda is a physician-scientist who develops innovative diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for patients with cardiovascular disease. Based on his clinical experience as a cardiologist, he has become aware of major clinical shortcomings, specifically in the current pharmaceutical therapies for myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic heart failure (HF). Some evidence-based drug therapies, including β-blockers, ivabradine, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone antagonists are difficult to apply to critical patients due to adverse side effects. Drugs that have shown efficacy in basic animal experiments have failed to show significant benefits in clinical trials. To address these problems, he moved to academia to conduct translational research. During his graduate training in the Egashira Lab, he focused on drug delivery systems (DDS) that target mitochondria in animal models of MI. He obtained advanced skills in molecular biology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and animal surgery. He realized the importance of translational research and the great potential of DDS to overcome many clinical problems. He developed nanoparticle-mediated DDS containing cyclosporine for the treatment of patients with MI. He published a first-author paper and received academic awards for his novel science. Since becoming a postdoctoral fellow in the Yang Lab, he has continued to build upon his previous training in translational research. He is currently developing an innovative therapy, namely, extracellular vesicles-mediated mitochondrial transfer for mitochondria-related diseases such as heart failure and mitochondrial disease.

  • Doug James

    Doug James

    Professor of Computer Science and, by courtesy, of Music

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsComputer graphics & animation, physics-based sound synthesis, computational physics, haptics, reduced-order modeling

  • Deborah Kado

    Deborah Kado

    Professor of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health

    BioDr. Kado is a board-certified, fellowship-trained doctor specializing in geriatrics. She serves as co-director of the Stanford Longevity Center. She is a professor of medicine and chief of research for the Geriatrics Section in the Department of Medicine, Division of Primary Care and Population Health. She is also the Director of the Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center (GRECC) at VA Palo Alto Health Care System.

    For each patient, Dr. Kado prepares a personalized care plan. Her objective is to help all individuals maintain the best possible health and quality of life as they age.

    A special interest of Dr. Kado is bone health. She has conducted extensive research focused on osteoporosis and the related disorder hyperkyphosis.
    Since joining the UCLA faculty in 2000, she has received continuous funding for her research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

    She has over 100 peer-reviewed publications of her research findings in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Osteoporosis International, Journal of Gerontology and Medical Sciences, Journal of Geriatric Oncology, Nature Communications, and other peer-reviewed journals.

    In 2007, she defined hyperkyphosis as a new geriatric syndrome. Her discoveries in this field were first featured in the American College or Physician’s premier internal medicine journal Annals of Internal Medicine. Later, they also appeared in a dedicated chapter in UpToDate, the electronic resource providing evidence-based clinical decision support for doctors worldwide.

    Prior to coming to Stanford, Dr. Kado practiced at UC San Diego where she started a dedicated osteoporosis clinic for patient care and research. She later broadened her research interests beyond musculoskeletal aging to study other aging-related topics such as the gut microbiome in older men and the effects of cancer treatments on aging in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    Dr. Kado is a California native. She trained at UCSF and UCLA. She also earned a Master of Science degree in epidemiology at the UCLA School of Public Health, sponsored by the John Hartford Foundation.

    She is a member of the American Geriatrics Society, American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, Gerontological Society of America, The Endocrine Society, and other professional organizations. She co-chairs the NIH National Institute on Aging Workshop for the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research. She also participates in the Bone Health Working Group of the Society for Women’s Health Research.

  • Robin Kamal MD MBA

    Robin Kamal MD MBA

    Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsWrist and Elbow Injuries and Quality Measures in Orthopaedic Surgery

  • Monroe Kennedy III

    Monroe Kennedy III

    Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering and, by courtesy, of Computer Science

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research focus is to develop technology that improves everyday life by anticipating and acting on the needs of human counterparts. My research can be divided into the following sub-categories: robotic assistants, connected devices and intelligent wearables. My Assistive Robotics and Manipulation lab focuses heavily on both the analytical and experimental components of assistive technology design.

  • Khizer Khaderi MD, MPH

    Khizer Khaderi MD, MPH

    Clinical Associate Professor, Ophthalmology

    BioDr. Khizer Khaderi is a Clinical Associate Professor at the Byers Eye Institute at Stanford University. Khaderi is the Founding Director of the Stanford Human Perception Laboratory (HPL) and the Stanford Vision Performance Center (VPC). He also serves as faculty at the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered AI and the Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance (HPA)

    Khaderi is a renowned Neuro-Ophthalmic surgeon, technologist and futurist. Dr. Khaderi is pioneering the field of Symbiotics, defined as the convergence of human science + computer science to design and develop human-centric technologies. Khaderi has extensive domain expertise in artificial intelligence (AI), spatial computing (virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MxR)), wearables, gaming, IoT, Web3, applied neuroscience, human factors, and human-machine interfaces/interaction. His research interests include developing personalized human intelligent systems based on the human brain and sensory systems, developing technologies to optimize human performance, and combining biological and computational principles to expand our capabilities in research, clinical practice, and everyday life. Dr. Khaderi's approach to advance research interests and develop practical applications for everyday use is building technology, companies and collaborative partnerships across academia and industry.

    Dr. Khaderi’s experience across industry sectors include consumer electronics, gaming, retail, life science, sports/Esports health care, Pharma, e-commerce, to name a few. He has developed novel technologies in these areas, and generated multiple invention patents. Selected as a “40 under 40”, he contributed to President Obama’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology regarding vision technology and the aging population. He also advises multiple companies, venture firms and organizations including the Global Esports Federation, Magic Leap, Riot Games, Intel, Activision, Unity, Epic Games, Google, FB, Microsoft, Apple, NBA, Aerie Pharma, the World Health Organization, and the World Bank.

  • Oussama Khatib

    Oussama Khatib

    Weichai Professor and Professor, by courtesy, of Electrical Engineering

    BioRobotics research on novel control architectures, algorithms, sensing, and human-friendly designs for advanced capabilities in complex environments. With a focus on enabling robots to interact cooperatively and safely with humans and the physical world, these studies bring understanding of human movements for therapy, athletic training, and performance enhancement. Our work on understanding human cognitive task representation and physical skills is enabling transfer for increased robot autonomy. With these core capabilities, we are exploring applications in healthcare and wellness, industry and service, farms and smart cities, and dangerous and unreachable settings -- deep in oceans, mines, and space.

  • Peter S. Kim

    Peter S. Kim

    Virginia and D. K. Ludwig Professor of Biochemistry

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsWe are studying the mechanism of viral membrane fusion and its inhibition by drugs and antibodies. We use the HIV envelope protein (gp120/gp41) as a model system. Some of our studies are aimed at creating an HIV vaccine. We are also characterizing protein surfaces that are referred to as "non-druggable". These surfaces are defined empirically based on failure to identify small, drug-like molecules that bind to them with high affinity and specificity.

  • Abby C. King

    Abby C. King

    David and Susan Heckerman Professor and Professor of Epidemiology & Population Health and of Medicine (Stanford Prevention Research Center)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy interests include applications of behavioral theory and social ecological approaches to achieve large scale changes impacting chronic disease prevention and control; expanding the reach and translation of evidence-based interventions through state-of-the-art technologies; exploring social and physical environmental influences on health; applying community participatory research perspectives to address health disparities; and policy-level approaches to health promotion/disease prevention.

  • Joshua W. Knowles

    Joshua W. Knowles

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsGenetic basis of coronary disease
    Genetic basis of insulin resistance
    Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)

  • Brian Knutson

    Brian Knutson

    Professor of Psychology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy lab and I seek to elucidate the neural basis of emotion (affective neuroscience), and explore implications for decision-making (neuroeconomics) and psychopathology (neurophenomics).

  • Mykel Kochenderfer

    Mykel Kochenderfer

    Associate Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics and, by courtesy, of Computer Science

    BioMykel Kochenderfer is Associate Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University. Prior to joining the faculty, he was at MIT Lincoln Laboratory where he worked on airspace modeling and aircraft collision avoidance, with his early work leading to the establishment of the ACAS X program. He received a Ph.D. from the University of Edinburgh and B.S. and M.S. degrees in computer science from Stanford University. Prof. Kochenderfer is the director of the Stanford Intelligent Systems Laboratory (SISL), conducting research on advanced algorithms and analytical methods for the design of robust decision making systems. Of particular interest are systems for air traffic control, unmanned aircraft, and other aerospace applications where decisions must be made in uncertain, dynamic environments while maintaining safety and efficiency. Research at SISL focuses on efficient computational methods for deriving optimal decision strategies from high-dimensional, probabilistic problem representations. He is an author of "Decision Making under Uncertainty: Theory and Application" (2015), "Algorithms for Optimization" (2019), and "Algorithms for Decision Making" (2022), all from MIT Press. He is a third generation pilot.

  • Feliks Kogan

    Feliks Kogan

    Assistant Professor (Research) of Radiology (Musculoskeletal Imaging)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research is focused on the development and clinical translation of novel imaging techniques geared toward early detection of musculoskeletal disease. Current projects include whole-joint molecular imaging of early disease with PET-MRI, imaging of early cartilage changes in Osteoarthritis (OA) with GagCEST, rapid knee imaging and simultaneous bilateral knee MRI.

  • Julie Kolesar

    Julie Kolesar

    Research Engineer

    BioJulie Kolesar is a Research Engineer in the Human Performance Lab, supporting teaching and interdisciplinary research at the crossroads of engineering, sports medicine, and athletics. Her work aims to understand the underlying mechanisms relating biomechanical changes with function and quality of life for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. As part of the Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance, Dr. Kolesar engages in collaborations which seek to optimize human health and performance across the lifespan. Her expertise and research interests include experimental gait analysis, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation, and clinical interventions and rehabilitation.

  • Elizabeth Bailey Kozleski

    Elizabeth Bailey Kozleski

    Professor (Research) of Education

    BioI engage in systems change and research on equity and justice issues in inclusive education in schools, school systems as well as state and national education organizations and agencies. My research interests include the analysis of systems change in education, how teachers learn in practice in complex, diverse school settings, including how educational practices improve student learning. Awards include the 2023 Luminary Award from the Division of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Children, Council of Exceptional Children; the 2018 Budig Award for Teaching Excellence in Special Education at the University of Kansas; the 2017 Boeing-Allan Visiting Endowed Chair at Seattle University; the University of Kansas 2016 Woman of Distinction award; the 2013 Scholar of the Century award from the University of Northern Colorado; the 2011 TED-Merrill award for leadership in special education teacher education in 2011; and the UNESCO Chair in Inclusive International Research. I co-lead the World Education Research Association International Research Network on Student Voice for Promoting Equity and Inclusion in Schools along with Professor Kyriaki Messiou of the University of South Hampton, UK.

    A number of my articles focus on the design and development of teacher education programs that involve extensive clinical practice in general education settings. I have led the development of such programs in three universities, and continue to do research and development work in teacher education. I have also offered technical assistance as well as conducted research on the impact of technical assistance on individuals, as well as local, state, and national systems in the U.S. and abroad.

    I have received funding for more than $35 million in federal, state, and local grants. I serve on the Board of Editors for the book series Inclusive Education and Partnerships, an international book series produced by Deep University. Recent books include Ability, Equity, and Culture (with co-author Kathleen King Thorius) published by Teachers College Press in ‘14 and Equity on Five Continents (with Alfredo Artiles and Federico Waitoller) published in ‘11 by Harvard Education Press.

  • Emily Kraus

    Emily Kraus

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery

    BioDr. Kraus is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Stanford Children’s Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Center trained in the specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) sports medicine. She has research and clinical interests in endurance sports medicine, injury prevention, running biomechanics, prevention of bone stress injuries, and the promotion of health and wellness at any age of life. Dr. Kraus is the director of the FASTR Program, which stands for Female Athlete Science and Translational Research. The FASTR program is supported by the Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance and seeks to close the gender gap in sports science research with an emphasis on early identification and interventions to prevent injury and identify ways to optimize performance in female athletes. Dr. Kraus is also a member of the U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Committee Women's Health Task Force and is the medical director of the Stanford Children's Motion Analysis and Sport Performance Lab. She has completed nine marathons including the Boston Marathon twice and one 50k ultramarathon. With running and staying physically active as one of her personal passions, she recognizes the importance of fitness for overall wellbeing and the prevention of chronic medical conditions.

  • Ellen Kuhl

    Ellen Kuhl

    Walter B Reinhold Professor in the School of Engineering, Robert Bosch Chair of Mechanical Engineering, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering

    Current Research and Scholarly Interestscomputaitonal simulation of brain development, cortical folding, computational simulation of cardiac disease, heart failure, left ventricular remodeling, electrophysiology, excitation-contraction coupling, computer-guided surgical planning, patient-specific simulation

  • Anshul Kundaje

    Anshul Kundaje

    Associate Professor of Genetics and of Computer Science

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsWe develop statistical and machine learning frameworks to learn predictive, dynamic and causal models of gene regulation from heterogeneous functional genomics data.

  • Andrea Lynn Kussman

    Andrea Lynn Kussman

    Member, Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Kussman conducts research on injury prevention and athlete wellness. Specific areas of interest include the female athlete, endurance athletes, bone health, mental health in athletes, exercise as medicine, and medical education. Previous research has included work on the female and male athlete triad, eating disorders in athletes, mental health in athletes, mononucleosis infection in athletes, cardiac complications of COVID-19, and concussion.

  • Amy Ladd, MD

    Amy Ladd, MD

    Elsbach-Richards Professor of Surgery and Professor, by courtesy, of Medicine (Immunology & Rheumatology) and of Surgery (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsResearch Interests
    1. The kinematics and forces associated with thumb carpometcarpal (CMC) function and pathology
    2. The anatomy, microstructure, and immunofluorescent characteristics of the thumb CMC joint
    3. Pathomechaniics of CMC arthritis: biomechanical wear, injury, genetic, and environmental causes
    4. Biomechanics of the golf swing
    5. Archiving, vitalizing, and innovating medical and surgical knowledge, most recently with innovative iBook monographs

  • Rayhan A. Lal, MD

    Rayhan A. Lal, MD

    Assistant Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology) and of Pediatrics (Endocrinology)

    BioI grew up in the east bay area and have had type 1 diabetes for 30+ years. I studied electrical engineering and computer science at U.C. Berkeley (Go Bears!) with the hope of applying my knowledge to diabetes technology. The significance of clinical practice became clear to me after my siblings also developed diabetes. I am devoting my life to advancing the care of diabetes in people of all ages.

  • James Landay

    James Landay

    Denning Co-Director (Acting) of Stanford HAI, Anand Rajaraman and Venky Harinarayan Professor and Senior Fellow at the Stanford Institute for HAI

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsLanday's current research interests include Technology to Support Behavior Change (especially for health and sustainability), Demonstrational User Interfaces, Mobile & Ubiquitous Computing, Cross-Cultural Interface Design, Human-Centered AI, and User Interface Design Tools. He has developed tools, techniques, and a top professional book on Web Interface Design.

  • Benjamin Laniakea

    Benjamin Laniakea

    Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Primary Care and Population Health

    BioDr. Benji Laniakea serves as the chief of the Stanford LGBTQ+ Adult Clinical Program, which offers comprehensive and tailored healthcare for the LGBTQ+ patient population for patients of all ages, sexualities, and gender identities. They also serve as the theme lead for the Sex, Gender, Sexuality, and Sexual Function curriculum at the Stanford School of Medicine for which they received the Arthur L. Bloomfield Award, and have the honor of advising the American Medical Association on LGBTQ+ Health.

  • Maarten Lansberg, MD, PhD

    Maarten Lansberg, MD, PhD

    Professor of Neurology (Adult Neurology) and, by courtesy, of Neurosurgery

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research involves the design and conduct of clinical trials to discover new treatments for patients who have suffered a stroke. These trials span treatment of acute stroke, stroke recovery, and stroke prevention. My research in acute stroke is primarily focused on the use of advanced neuroimaging methods (CT and MRI) to select patients who are most likely to benefit from therapies aimed at restoring blood flow to the brain in patients who have suffered a stroke.

  • Jennifer Lee

    Jennifer Lee

    Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI am a clinical scientist (PhD epidemiology), endocrinologist, and CMO at VAPA Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center. My group does pattern and prediction mapping along the life-course of interventions/outcomes and how healthcare system can positively impact health longitudinally. We use novel molecular epi, 'big' data like EHRs using multiple designs/methods/technologies. These interests cut across multiple complex chronic diseases and lifespan.
    https://med.stanford.edu/jleelab.html

  • Marc Levenston

    Marc Levenston

    Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and, by courtesy, of Radiology (Radiological Sciences Laboratory)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy lab's research involves the function, degeneration and repair of musculoskeletal soft tissues, with a focus on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage. We are particularly interested in the complex interactions between biophysical and biochemical cues in controlling cell behavior, the roles of these interactions in degenerative conditions such as osteoarthritis, and development of tissue engineered 3D model systems for studying physical influences on primary and progenitor cells.

  • Craig Levin

    Craig Levin

    Professor of Radiology (Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford/Nuclear Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Physics, of Electrical Engineering and of Bioengineering

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMolecular Imaging Instrumentation
    Laboratory

    Our research interests involve the development of novel instrumentation and software algorithms for in vivo imaging of cellular and molecular signatures of disease in humans and small laboratory animal subjects.

  • Ronglih Liao

    Ronglih Liao

    Douglass M. and Nola Leishman Professor of Cardiovascular Disease

    BioDr. Liao is a Professor of Medicine and co-Director of Stanford Cardiac Amyloid Center. The major goal of her research program focuses on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiology of heart failure and developing novel treatments to combat this process. Her laboratory has played an international leading role in the study of amyloid light chain (AL) cardiomyopathy, a rare and fatal form of cardiovascular disease. We have described the underlying pathophysiologic basis for amyloid cardiomyopathy and found that the circulating amyloidogenic light chain proteins that characterize this disease directly result in a specific cardiotoxic response. Consequently, our research work has redefined AL cardiomyopathy and has raised new treatment approaches. More recently, her research efforts have expanded to include transthyretin (ATTR) cardiac amyloidosis.

    In line with her goal of revealing novel therapeutic strategies for patients with cardiovascular disease, our efforts have also focused on characterizing and harnessing endogenous cardiac regenerative mechanisms. Her laboratory initially demonstrated the therapeutic potential of exogenous primitive muscle cells delivered to the injured heart. This work was among the earliest milestones in the field and served as the basis for an international trial of cell-based therapy. Subsequently, Liao lab identified and characterized a population of cardiac progenitor cells and its relationship and dynamic activity following cardiac injury in the adult heart. Her laboratory aims to reveal the molecular mechanisms regulating the endogenous regenerative capacity of the heart and to harness such repair mechanisms for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Dr. Liao has lectured extensively on both amyloid cardiomyopathy and stem cell biology, and have maintained a history of independent NIH funding in these areas for more than two decades.

    Over the course of her academic career, she has taken the greatest pride in mentoring the next generation of scientists. Dr. Liao has had the privilege to supervise several dozen students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty, many of whom have gone on to independent academic careers at the highest institutions. Her contribution to the advancement of scientific knowledge also includes lecturing at various university and academic institutions as well as at scores of conferences and symposia locally, nationally, and internationally.

  • Y. Joyce Liao, MD, PhD

    Y. Joyce Liao, MD, PhD

    Stanford Medicine Professor of Ophthalmology and Professor of Neurology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsIschemic optic neuropathy
    Stem cell transplantation
    Optic neuropathy
    Optic neuritis
    Eye movement disorders
    Reading
    Parkinson's disease
    Multiple sclerosis

  • Michael Lim, M.D.

    Michael Lim, M.D.

    Professor of Neurosurgery and, by courtesy, of Radiation Oncology (Radiation Therapy), of Medicine (Oncology), of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery (OHNS) and of Neurology

    BioDr. Lim is the Chair of the Department of Neurosurgery and a board-certified neurosurgeon specializing in brain tumors and trigeminal neuralgia.

    Dr. Lim’s clinical interests include the treatment of benign and malignant brain tumors, with special interest in gliomas, meningiomas, metastatic tumors, and skull base tumors. Dr. Lim also specializes in surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia. During his time at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Lim built one of the largest brain tumor and trigeminal neuralgia practices and utilized the most advanced surgical technologies and techniques for his patients. As a passionate voice for patient experience, he has been recognized by his peers and patients for his integrity and compassionate care, including a Service Excellence Award from HealthNetwork Foundation.

    As a mentor, he has garnered numerous teaching awards, including being honored as an outstanding teacher by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He is actively involved in shaping education for neurosurgery and oncology across the United States and around the world. He is the recipient of the prestigious 2023 Abhijit Guha Award in Neuro-Oncology.

    Dr. Lim’s research interests focus on harnessing the immune system to fight cancer. His laboratory focuses on understanding mechanisms of immune evasion by cancer cells. He has successfully translated his findings from the laboratory to the clinics and has conducted and led several large national immunotherapy clinical trials for brain tumors.

    Dr. Lim’s bibliography contains well over 300 articles on topics such as immunotherapy for glioblastoma, long-term survival of glioma patients treated with stereotactic radiation, and treatment of neuropathic pain. His work has appeared in Science Translational Medicine, Clinical Cancer Research, Lancet Oncology, Nature Immunology, and many more publications. He also has written 20 book chapters and monographs.

    Dr. Lim is a world leader in immunotherapy for brain tumors. In addition to being invited world-wide to give lectures and seminars, he has given platform presentations on the topics of immunotherapy for brain tumors, neurosurgical techniques and management of brain tumors at the American Society of Clinical Oncologists, American Academy of Neurological Surgeons, Radiological Society of North America, Annual Symposium on Brain and Spine Metastases, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, and other meetings. In addition, he has served as platform chairman of the CNS session at the American Society for Clinical Oncology conference.

    Dr. Lim is a member of the American Society for Clinical Oncology, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, and Society for Neuro-Oncology. Dr. Lim served as the program co-chair of the Society for Neuro-Oncology and CNS section of the American Society for Clinical Oncology. He also served on many executive committees, including the Executive Committee for the Joint Tumor Section of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  • Scott W Linderman

    Scott W Linderman

    Assistant Professor of Statistics and, by courtesy, of Computer Science and of Electrical Engineering

    BioScott is an Assistant Professor of Statistics and, by courtesy, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Stanford University. He is also an Institute Scholar in the Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute and a member of Stanford Bio-X and the Stanford AI Lab. His lab works at the intersection of machine learning and computational neuroscience, developing statistical methods to analyze large scale neural data. Previously, Scott was a postdoctoral fellow with Liam Paninski and David Blei at Columbia University, and he completed his PhD in Computer Science at Harvard University with Ryan Adams and Leslie Valiant. He obtained his undergraduate degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Cornell University and spent three years as a software engineer at Microsoft before graduate school.

  • Malene Lindholm

    Malene Lindholm

    Instructor, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsInterested in the genetics of human performance and the multi-omic response to exercise and training for optimizing human health.

  • C. Karen Liu

    C. Karen Liu

    Professor of Computer Science

    BioC. Karen Liu is a professor in the Computer Science Department at Stanford University. Prior to joining Stanford, Liu was a faculty member at the School of Interactive Computing at Georgia Tech. She received her Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from the University of Washington. Liu's research interests are in computer graphics and robotics, including physics-based animation, character animation, optimal control, reinforcement learning, and computational biomechanics. She developed computational approaches to modeling realistic and natural human movements, learning complex control policies for humanoids and assistive robots, and advancing fundamental numerical simulation and optimal control algorithms. The algorithms and software developed in her lab have fostered interdisciplinary collaboration with researchers in robotics, computer graphics, mechanical engineering, biomechanics, neuroscience, and biology. Liu received a National Science Foundation CAREER Award, an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, and was named Young Innovators Under 35 by Technology Review. In 2012, Liu received the ACM SIGGRAPH Significant New Researcher Award for her contribution in the field of computer graphics.

  • James Lock

    James Lock

    Eric Rothenberg, MD Professor and Professor, by courtesy, of Pediatrics

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsJames Lock, MD, Ph.D. is Professor of Child Psychiatry and Pediatrics in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine where he has taught since 1993. He is board certified in adult as well as child and adolescent psychiatry. He directs the eating disorder program in Child Psychiatry and is active in treatment research for children and adolescents with eating disorders.

  • Jonathan Z. Long

    Jonathan Z. Long

    Associate Professor of Pathology

    BioDr. Jonathan Long is an Associate Professor of Pathology and an Institute Scholar of Stanford ChEM-H (Chemistry, Engineering & Medicine for Human Health). His laboratory studies signaling pathways in mammalian energy metabolism. The long-term goal of this program is to discover new molecules and pathways that can be translated into therapeutic opportunities for obesity, metabolic disease, and other age-associated chronic diseases. Work from the laboratory has been recognized by numerous awards from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the American Diabetes Association, and the Ono Pharma Foundation. Prior to arriving to Stanford, Dr. Long completed his Ph.D. in Chemistry at Scripps Research and his postdoctoral work at Harvard Medical School.

  • Dr. Michael T. Longaker

    Dr. Michael T. Longaker

    Deane P. and Louise Mitchell Professor in the School of Medicine and Professor, by courtesy, of Materials Science and Engineering

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsWe have six main areas of current interest: 1) Cranial Suture Developmental Biology, 2) Distraction Osteogenesis, 3) Fibroblast heterogeneity and fibrosis repair, 4) Scarless Fetal Wound Healing, 5) Skeletal Stem Cells, 6) Novel Gene and Stem Cell Therapeutic Approaches.

  • Tanya Marie Luhrmann

    Tanya Marie Luhrmann

    Albert Ray Lang Professor

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsHer work focuses on the edge of experience: on voices, visions, the world of the supernatural and the world of psychosis. She has done ethnography on the streets of Chicago with homeless and psychotic women, and worked with people who hear voices in Chennai, Accra and the South Bay. She has also done fieldwork with evangelical Christians who seek to hear God speak back, with Zoroastrians who set out to create a more mystical faith, and with people who practice magic.

  • Angela K. Lumba-Brown

    Angela K. Lumba-Brown

    Clinical Associate Professor, Emergency Medicine
    Clinical Associate Professor (By courtesy), Neurosurgery
    Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsCurrent research includes evidence-based guidelines for the management and treatment of traumatic brain injury, research establishing an evidence and targeting treatments for the subtypes of concussion, research identifying the best outcomes in pre-hospital care of patients with traumatic brain injury, research on brain performance via sensorimotor and sensory-cognitive synchronization, and research on dynamic visual synchronization as a biomarker for attentional impairments.

  • Sean Mackey, M.D., Ph.D.

    Sean Mackey, M.D., Ph.D.

    Redlich Professor, Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine and, by courtesy, of Neurology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMultiple NIH funded projects to characterize CNS mechanisms of human pain. Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and chronic pain self-management within the context of opioid reduction (PCORI funded). Single session pain catastrophizing treatment: comparative efficacy & mechanisms (NIH R01). Development and implementation of an open-source learning healthcare system, CHOIR (http://choir/stanford.edu), to optimize pain care and innovative research in real-world patients.

  • Holden Maecker

    Holden Maecker

    Professor (Research) of Microbiology and Immunology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsI'm interested in immune monitoring of T cell responses to chronic pathogens and cancer, and the correlation of T cell response signatures with disease protection.

  • Danielle Mai

    Danielle Mai

    Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering and, by courtesy, of Materials Science and Engineering

    BioDanielle J. Mai joined the Department of Chemical Engineering at Stanford in January 2020. She earned her B.S.E. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Michigan and her M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign under the guidance of Prof. Charles M. Schroeder. Dr. Mai was an Arnold O. Beckman Postdoctoral Fellow in Prof. Bradley D. Olsen's group at MIT, where she engineered materials with selective biomolecular transport properties, elucidated mechanisms of toughness and extensibility in entangled associative hydrogels, and developed high-throughput methods for the discovery of polypeptide materials. The Mai Lab engineers biopolymers, which are the building blocks of life. Specifically, the group integrates precise biopolymer engineering with multi-scale experimental characterization to advance biomaterials development and to enhance fundamental understanding of soft matter physics. Dr. Mai's work has been recognized through the AIChE 35 Under 35 Award (2020), APS DPOLY/UKPPG Lecture Exchange (2021), Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator Program Award (2022), ACS PMSE Arthur K. Doolittle Award (2023), and MIT Technology Review List of 35 Innovators Under 35 (2023).

  • Joshua Makower

    Joshua Makower

    Yock Family Professor and Professor of Bioengineering

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Josh Makower is the Boston Scientific Applied Bioengineering Professor of Medicine and of Bioengineering at the Stanford University Schools of Medicine and Engineering and the Director of the Stanford Byers Center for Biodesign, the program he co-founded with Dr. Paul Yock twenty years ago. Josh helped create the fundamental structure of the Center’s core curriculum and is the chief architect of what is now called “The Biodesign Process.” Over the past 20 years since Josh and Paul founded Biodesign, this curriculum and the associated textbook has been used at Stanford and across the world to train hundreds of thousands of students, faculty and industry leaders on the Biodesign process towards the advancement of medical innovation for the improvement of patient care. Josh has practiced these same techniques directly as the Founder & Executive Chairman of ExploraMed, a medical device incubator, creating 9 companies since 1995. Transactions from the ExploraMed portfolio include NeoTract, acquired by Teleflex, Acclarent, acquired by J&J, EndoMatrix, acquired by C.R. Bard & TransVascular, acquired by Medtronic. Other ExploraMed/NEA ventures include Moximed, NC8 and Willow. Josh is also a Special Partner at NEA where he supports the healthcare team and medtech/healthtech investing practice. Josh serves on the boards of Allay Therapeutics, Revelle Aesthetics, Setpoint Medical, DOTS Technologies, Eargo, ExploraMed, Intrinsic Therapeutics, Moximed, Willow and Coravin. Josh holds over 300 patents and patent applications. He received an MBA from Columbia University, an MD from the NYU School of Medicine, a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from MIT. Josh is a Member of the National Academy of Engineering and the College of Fellows of The American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and was awarded the Coulter Award for Healthcare Innovation by the Biomedical Engineering Society in 2018.

  • Maryam S. Makowski, PhD

    Maryam S. Makowski, PhD

    Clinical Associate Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

    BioMaryam Sarah Makowski, PhD, is a Clinical Associate Professor at Stanford University in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. She also serves as the Associate Director of Scholarship and Health Promotion for the Stanford Medicine WellMD & WellPhD program. Additionally, she is a member of the Well-being Advisory Committee and represents Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences as an alternate faculty senate member at Stanford Medicine.

    As a nutrition scientist, physician well-being expert, and National Board-Certified Health and Wellness Coach, Dr. Makowski provides well-being coaching to Stanford Medicine faculty, residents, and fellows as part of the WellConnect Program, and patients of the Lifestyle Psychiatry Clinic. She was honored with the 2024 Annual Chairman's Award for Clinical Innovation and Service in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine.

    Using evidence-based strategies, Dr. Makowski empowers her clients to optimize their well-being, energy, focus, and mental sharpness for peak performance. Dr. Makowski's research on physician well-being includes studying the effects of individual factors such as lifestyle practices, self-compassion, and self-valuation on physician well-being. Her nutrition research focuses on examining the impact of micro- and macro-nutrients, meal composition, and timing on cognitive function, mood, mental sharpness, and eating behaviors of professionals with high cognitive and physical demands, particularly physicians.
    Maryam earned her master's and doctoral degrees in clinical nutrition, nutritional epidemiology, and medical science from the University of Toronto. Before joining Stanford, she worked as a scientific associate at Toronto General Hospital-University Health Network and served as an advisor to Air Canada rouge pilots and cabin crew for fatigue management. Throughout her career, Dr. Makowski has authored highly cited scientific papers related to nutrition and well-being, making significant contributions to the field.

  • Robert Malenka

    Robert Malenka

    Nancy Friend Pritzker Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
    On Leave from 11/01/2023 To 10/31/2025

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsLong-lasting changes in synaptic strength are important for the modification of neural circuits by experience. A major goal of my laboratory is to elucidate the molecular events that trigger various forms of synaptic plasticity and the modifications in synaptic proteins that are responsible for the changes in synaptic efficacy.

  • William J. Maloney, MD

    William J. Maloney, MD

    Boswell Chair of Orthopaedics

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Maloney is nationally and internationally recognized for his contributions to the improved understanding of the causes of failure of surgical joint replacement. For example; he established a critical link between polyethylene wear debris and bony erosion, with resulting significant changes in the materials and design strategies of joint replacement surgery. More recently, he has shown that wear debris particles are coated in vivo with human proteins, such as albumin; this observation has notably improved the validity of in vitro investigation in this area. His research in the area of joint replacement has twice won awards from the Hip Society. Dr. Maloney is currently the President of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and has served on numerous AAOS committees, including the Council on Education. Previously, he was chair of the American Joint Replacement Registry Board of Directors (AJRR), and on the board of directors for the Knee Society, the Hip Society, the Western Orthopaedic Association, and the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons (AAHKS). Dr. Maloney is a past president of the Hip Society. He has been a Visiting Professor to numerous universities and institutions throughout the United States and Asia.

  • Alison Marsden

    Alison Marsden

    Douglass M. and Nola Leishman Professor of Cardiovascular Diseases, Professor of Pediatrics (Cardiology) and of Bioengineering and, by courtesy, of Mechanical Engineering

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe Cardiovascular Biomechanics Computation Lab at Stanford develops novel computational methods for the study of cardiovascular disease progression, surgical methods, and medical devices. We have a particular interest in pediatric cardiology, and use virtual surgery to design novel surgical concepts for children born with heart defects.

  • Maya Mathur

    Maya Mathur

    Assistant Professor (Research) of Pediatrics, of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsSynthesizing evidence across studies while accounting for biases

  • Michaëlle Ntala Mayalu

    Michaëlle Ntala Mayalu

    Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering

    BioDr. Michaëlle N. Mayalu is an Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering. She received her Ph.D., M.S., and B.S., degrees in Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She was a postdoctoral scholar at the California Institute of Technology in the Computing and Mathematical Sciences Department. She was a 2017 California Alliance Postdoctoral Fellowship Program recipient and a 2019 Burroughs Wellcome Fund Postdoctoral Enrichment Program award recipient. She is also a 2023 Hypothesis Fund Grantee.

    Dr. Michaëlle N. Mayalu's area of expertise is in mathematical modeling and control theory of synthetic biological and biomedical systems. She is interested in the development of control theoretic tools for understanding, controlling, and predicting biological function at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels to optimize therapeutic intervention.

    She is the director of the Mayalu Lab whose research objective is to investigate how to optimize biomedical therapeutic designs using theoretical and computational approaches coupled with experiments. Initial project concepts include: i) theoretical and experimental design of bacterial "microrobots" for preemptive and targeted therapeutic intervention, ii) system-level multi-scale modeling of gut associated skin disorders for virtual evaluation and optimization of therapy, iii) theoretical and experimental design of "microrobotic" swarms of engineered bacteria with sophisticated centralized and decentralized control schemes to explore possible mechanisms of pattern formation. The experimental projects in the Mayalu Lab utilize established techniques borrowed from the field of synthetic biology to develop synthetic genetic circuits in E. coli to make bacterial "microrobots". Ultimately the Mayalu Lab aims to develop accurate and efficient modeling frameworks that incorporate computation, dynamical systems, and control theory that will become more widespread and impactful in the design of electro-mechanical and biological therapeutic machines.

  • Jay McClelland

    Jay McClelland

    Lucie Stern Professor in the Social Sciences, Professor of Psychology and, by courtesy, of Linguistics and of Computer Science

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research addresses topics in perception and decision making; learning and memory; language and reading; semantic cognition; and cognitive development. I view cognition as emerging from distributed processing activity of neural populations, with learning occurring through the adaptation of connections among neurons. A new focus of research in the laboratory is mathematical cognition and reasoning in humans and contemporary AI systems based on neural networks.

  • Tracey McLaughlin

    Tracey McLaughlin

    Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. McLaughlin conducts clinical research related to obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current studies include: 1) the impact of macronutrient composition on metabolism, DM2 and CVD; 2) comparison of different weight loss diets on metabolism and CVD risk reduction ; 3) role of adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells in modulating insulin resistance; 4) use of continuous glucose monitoring and multi-omics to define metabolic phenotype and precision diets

  • Jennifer A McNab

    Jennifer A McNab

    Associate Professor (Research) of Radiology (Radiological Sciences Laboratory)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research is focused on developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods that probe brain tissue microstructure. This requires new MRI contrast mechanisms, strategic encoding and reconstruction schemes, physiological monitoring, brain tissue modeling and validation. Applications of these methods include neuronavigation, neurosurgical planning and the development of improved biomarkers for brain development, degeneration, disease and injury.

  • Vinod Menon

    Vinod Menon

    Rachael L. and Walter F. Nichols, MD, Professor and Professor, by courtesy, of Education and of Neurology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsEXPERIMENTAL, CLINICAL AND THEORETICAL SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE

    Cognitive neuroscience; Systems neuroscience; Cognitive development; Psychiatric neuroscience; Functional brain imaging; Dynamical basis of brain function; Nonlinear dynamics of neural systems.

  • Emmanuel Mignot, MD, PhD

    Emmanuel Mignot, MD, PhD

    Craig Reynolds Professor of Sleep Medicine and Professor, by courtesy, of Genetics and of Neurology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe research focus of the laboratory is the study of sleep and sleep disorders such as narcolepsy and Kleine Levin syndrome. We also study the neurobiological and genetic basis of the EEG and develop new tools to study sleep using nocturnal polysomnography. Approaches mostly involve human genetic studies (GWAS, sequencing), EEG signal analysis (deep learning), and immunology (narcolepsy is an autoimmune disease of the brain). We also work on autoimmune encephalitis.

  • Carlos Milla

    Carlos Milla

    Professor of Pediatrics (Pulmonary Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Medicine (Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsAt Stanford University I developed and currently direct the CF Translational Research Center. The overarching goal of the center is to provide the groundwork to streamline, accelerate, and promote the translation of basic discoveries into effective therapies and interventions to benefit patients affected by cystic fibrosis. My laboratory group currently has three main lines of investigation: respiratory cell biology in CF; remote biochemical monitoring; and lung physiology in young children.

  • Stephen B. Montgomery

    Stephen B. Montgomery

    Stanford Medicine Professor of Pathology, Professor of Genetics and of Biomedical Data Science
    On Partial Leave from 06/17/2024 To 08/15/2024

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsWe focus on understanding the effects of genome variation on cellular phenotypes and cellular modeling of disease through genomic approaches such as next generation RNA sequencing in combination with developing and utilizing state-of-the-art bioinformatics and statistical genetics approaches. See our website at http://montgomerylab.stanford.edu/

  • Kelli Moran-Miller, PhD

    Kelli Moran-Miller, PhD

    Clinical Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

    BioDr. Kelli Moran-Miller joined Stanford in Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences in 2015. She is a licensed psychologist specializing in athlete mental health and sport and performance psychology. She also is a Certified Mental Performance Consultant with the Association of Applied Sport Psychology and a member of the US Olympic Committee registry. In her current role with Stanford Athletics (DAPER), she provides clinical and performance psychology services for varsity student-athletes, coaches, staff, and varsity sport teams. Prior to Stanford, she was the Director of Counseling and Sport Psychology - Athletics at the University of Iowa.

  • Paula M. L. Moya

    Paula M. L. Moya

    Danily C. and Laura Louise Bell Professor of the Humanities and Professor, by courtesy, of African and African American Studies and of Iberian and Latin American Cultures

    BioMoya is currently the Faculty Director of the Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity (CCSRE).

    She is the author of The Social Imperative: Race, Close Reading, and Contemporary Literary Criticism (Stanford UP 2016) and Learning From Experience: Minority Identities, Multicultural Struggles (UC Press 2002). She has co-edited three collections of original essays including Doing Race: 21 Essays for the 21st Century (W.W. Norton, Inc. 2010), Identity Politics Reconsidered (Palgrave 2006) and Reclaiming Identity: Realist Theory and the Predicament of Postmodernism (UC Press 2000). 

    Her teaching and research focus on twentieth-century and early twenty-first century literary studies, feminist theory, critical theory, narrative theory, speculative fiction, interdisciplinary approaches to race and ethnicity, and Chicano/a and U.S. Latina/o studies.

    At Stanford, Moya has served as the Director of the Research Institute of the Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity (CCSRE), Director of the Program of Modern Thought and Literature (MTL), Vice Chair of the Department of English, and the Director of the Undergraduate Program of CCSRE. She has been the faculty coordinator of several faculty-graduate student research networks sponsored by the Stanford Humanities Center, the Research Institute for the Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity, and Modern Thought and Literature. They include The Interdisciplinary Working Group in Critical Theory (2015-2016, 2012-2014), Feminist Theory (2007-08, 2002-03), Americanity / Coloniality / Modernity (2006-07), and How Do Identities Matter? (2003-06).

    Moya is a co-PI of the Stanford Catalyst Motivating Mobility project, and team leader of the Perfecto Project, a fitness tracking app that combines narrative theory, social psychology, and UI/UX research to leverage culturally-specific narratives and artwork to encourage positive behavior change and healthier living in middle-aged and elderly Latinx populations. She was also a founding organizer and coordinating team member of The Future of Minority Studies research project (FMS), an inter-institutional, interdisciplinary, and multigenerational research project facilitating focused and productive discussions about the democratizing role of minority identity and participation in a multicultural society.

    Moya has been a recipient of the Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching, a Ford Foundation postdoctoral fellowship, and an Outstanding Chicana/o Faculty Member award. She has been a Brown Faculty Fellow, a Clayman Institute Fellow, a CCSRE Faculty Research Fellow, and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences.

  • Jonathan N. Myers

    Jonathan N. Myers

    Clinical Professor (Affiliated), Medicine - Med/Cardiovascular Medicine

    BioDr. Myers is a Health Research Scientist at the Palo Alto VA Health Care System; a Clinical Professor at Stanford University (Affiliated), and a Senior Research Career Scientist Award recipient through the VA Rehabilitation Research and Development Program. His research has focused on primary and secondary prevention, and the clinical applications of exercise testing and rehabilitation in patients with cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. He has a lengthy history of studying the epidemiology of cardiopulmonary exercise test responses, physical activity patterns, and other lifestyle factors and their relation to health outcomes. He manages the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS), an ongoing, prospective evaluation of Veteran subjects referred for exercise testing for clinical reasons, designed to address exercise test, clinical, and lifestyle factors and their association with health outcomes.

    He earned his bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara, his master's degree from San Diego State University, and his doctorate from the University of Southern California. He has been a board member for many organizations including the American Heart Association (AHA), the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and serves on the editorial board for 9 journals. He is a recipient of the Michael Pollock Established Investigator Award through the AACVPR, a recipient of the Steven N Blair Award for excellence in physical activity research from the AHA Council on Epidemiology and Prevention and is the 2022 recipient of the American College of Sports Medicine Citation Award. He is a fellow of the AACVPR, ACSM, American College of Cardiology, and the AHA, and has authored and co-authored guidelines on exercise testing and rehabilitation for each of these organizations, including the 2021 editions of the ACSM and AACVPR guidelines.

  • Hae Young Noh

    Hae Young Noh

    Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    BioHae Young Noh is an associate professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Her research introduced the new concept of “structures as sensors” to enable physical structures (e.g., buildings and vehicle frames) to be user- and environment-aware. In particular, these structures indirectly sense humans and surrounding environments through their structural responses (i.e., vibrations) by inferring the desired information (e.g., human behaviors, environmental conditions, heating and cooling system performance), instead of directly measuring the sensing targets with additional dedicated sensors (e.g., cameras, motion sensors). This concept brought a paradigm shift in how we view these structures and how the structures interact with us.
    Traditionally, structures that we inhabit (such as buildings or vehicles) are considered as passive and unchanging objects that we need to monitor and control, utilizing a dense set of sensors to collect information. This has often been complicated by “noise” caused by the occupants and environments. For example, building vibrations induced by indoor and outdoor environmental and operational conditions (e.g., people walking around, traffic outside, heating system running, etc.), have been often seen as noise that needs to be removed in traditional building science and structural engineering; however, they are a rich source of information about structure, users, environment, and resources. Similarly, in vehicle engineering, researchers and engineers have been investigating control and dynamics to reduce vehicle vibration for safety and comfort. However, vibrations measured inside vehicles contain information about transportation infrastructure, vehicle itself, and driver.
    Noh's work utilizes this “noise” to empower the structures with the ability to perceive and understand the information about users and surroundings using their own responses, and actively adopt and/or interact to enhance their sustainability and the occupants’ quality of life. Since she utilizes the structure itself as a sensing medium, information collection involves a simpler set of hardware that can be easily maintained throughout the structural lifetime. However, the analysis of data to separate the desired information becomes more challenging. This challenge is addressed through high-rate dynamic sensing and multi-source inferencing. Ultimately, her work aims to allow structural systems to become general sensing platforms that are easier and more practical to deploy and maintain in a long-term.
    At Stanford University, Noh received her PhD and MS degrees in the CEE department and her second MS degree in Electrical Engineering. Noh earned her BS in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University.

  • Douglas Noordsy

    Douglas Noordsy

    Clinical Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

    BioDouglas L. Noordsy, MD, is Clinical Professor and Director of Lifestyle Psychiatry, and psychiatrist on the INSPIRE Early Psychosis Clinic in the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Noordsy was previously Professor of Psychiatry, Director of Psychosis Services and Investigator in the Psychopharmacology Research Group at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. His research interests include medication and lifestyle interventions for individuals with psychotic disorders; methods to facilitate recovery and promote achievement of optimal outcomes for people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; and methods to prevent progression of early psychotic disorders. He is particularly interested in the role of physical exercise for prevention of progression of early psychosis and for potentiating learning in CBTp and supported employment and education. Dr. Noordsy is a member of the Schizophrenia International Research Society, the International Early Psychosis Association, and is a fellow of the American Psychiatric Association. He is a member of the editorial boards for Community Mental Health Journal, Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychosis, and Schizophrenia Bulletin. Dr. Noordsy was recognized with the Exemplary Psychiatrist Award from the National Alliance on Mental Illness in 2001, and the Excellence in Leadership Award from the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at Stanford in 2018.

    http://med.stanford.edu/psychiatry/patient_care/inspire.html

    http://med.stanford.edu/psychiatry/patient_care/sports.html

  • Anthony Norcia

    Anthony Norcia

    Professor (Research) of Psychology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsVision, development, functional imaging, systems analysis

  • Paul Nuyujukian

    Paul Nuyujukian

    Assistant Professor of Bioengineering and of Neurosurgery and, by courtesy, of Electrical Engineering

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOur group explores neuroengineering and its application to both basic and clinical neuroscience. Our goal is to develop brain-machine interfaces as a platform technology for a variety of brain-related medical conditions including stroke and epilepsy.

  • Johanna O'Day

    Johanna O'Day

    Scientific Program Manager - Education and Communications

    BioI believe in using human-centered design and bioengineering to improve health. I have developed open-source tools that use wearables to better understand and improve mobility. I am passionate about building empathetic communities equipped with the skills and knowledge to make our world healthier, smarter, and more collaborative.

  • Jelena Obradović

    Jelena Obradović

    Professor of Education

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsAdaptation, resilience, and developmental psychopathology of disadvantaged children populations; Stress reactivity and biological sensitivity to contextual influences; Executive function and self-regulatory abilities; Effects of risk, adversity, and social status on children’s development.

  • Michelle Odden

    Michelle Odden

    Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Population Health

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMultilevel - from cells to society - epidemiologic study of healthy aging

  • Allison Okamura

    Allison Okamura

    Richard W. Weiland Professor in the School of Engineering

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research focuses on developing the principles and tools needed to realize advanced robotic and human-machine systems capable of physical interaction. Application areas include surgery, simulation and training, rehabilitation, prosthetics, neuromechanics, exploration of hazardous and remote environments (e.g. space), design, and education.

  • Marily Oppezzo

    Marily Oppezzo

    Instructor, Medicine - Stanford Prevention Research Center

    BioMarily Oppezzo is a behavioral and learning scientist. She completed her doctorate in Educational Psychology at Stanford in 2013. She also is a registered dietitian and has her master's of nutritional science. She completed her dietetic internship at the Palo Alto Veterans Hospital, and currently consults as a sports dietitian for Stanford's Runsafe program. Her research interests leverage her interdisciplinary training, with a focus on how to get people to change to improve their health and well-being. Specifically, these areas include: using social media to motivate physical activity changes in those with or at risk for heart disease; culturally tailoring nutrition and physical activity recommendations and education materials for an Alaskan native population; how walking can be used to improve people's cognitive and creative thinking; and applying learning theories to medical education topics.

  • Sergiu P. Pasca

    Sergiu P. Pasca

    Kenneth T. Norris, Jr. Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Bonnie Uytengsu and Family Director of the Stanford Brain Organogenesis Program

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsA critical challenge in understanding the intricate programs underlying development, assembly and dysfunction of the human brain is the lack of direct access to intact, functioning human brain tissue for detailed investigation by imaging, recording, and stimulation.
    To address this, we are developing bottom-up approaches to generate and assemble, from multi-cellular components, human neural circuits in vitro and in vivo.
    We introduced the use of instructive signals for deriving from human pluripotent stem cells self-organizing 3D cellular structures named brain region-specific spheroids/organoids. We demonstrated that these cultures, such as the ones resembling the cerebral cortex, can be reliably derived across many lines and experiments, contain synaptically connected neurons and non-reactive astrocytes, and can be used to gain mechanistic insights into genetic and environmental brain disorders. Moreover, when maintained as long-term cultures, they recapitulate an intrinsic program of maturation that progresses towards postnatal stages.
    We also pioneered a modular system to integrate 3D brain region-specific organoids and study human neuronal migration and neural circuit formation in functional preparations that we named assembloids. We have actively applied these models in combination with studies in long-term ex vivo brain preparations to acquire a deeper understanding of human physiology, evolution and disease mechanisms.
    We have carved a unique research program that combines rigorous in vivo and in vitro neuroscience, stem cell and molecular biology approaches to construct and deconstruct previously inaccessible stages of human brain development and function in health and disease.
    We believe science is a community effort, and accordingly, we have been advancing the field by broadly and openly sharing our technologies with numerous laboratories around the world and organizing the primary research conference and the training courses in the area of cellular models of the human brain.

  • Michele Lanpher Patel

    Michele Lanpher Patel

    Instructor, Medicine - Stanford Prevention Research Center

    BioMichele L. Patel, PhD is an Instructor at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Her research focuses on optimizing digital health interventions for treating & preventing obesity. She is particularly interested in improving engagement in these interventions and examining the impact of psychosocial factors on treatment success.

    Dr. Patel received a K23 career development award from NIH (2022-2027). This work investigates the most potent combination of self-monitoring strategies in a behavioral weight loss intervention for adults with overweight or obesity. Dr. Patel is interested in using digital tools such as commercial apps, wearables, text-messaging, and telehealth to improve access to and engagement in treatment.

    Dr. Patel received her BA in psychology from Duke University in 2010 and her PhD in clinical psychology from Duke in 2018. She completed her clinical internship at the VA Palo Alto, specializing in behavioral medicine, and her postdoctoral fellowship at the Stanford Prevention Research Center.

    Primary Research Interests:
    -- Conducting clinical trials to evaluate digital health interventions for obesity
    -- Improving engagement in self-monitoring and other behavioral intervention strategies
    -- Examining the impact of psychosocial factors (e.g., health literacy, stress) on treatment success
    -- Applying the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) framework to efficiently construct behavioral interventions

    Methods:
    -- RCTs, including factorial designs
    -- systematic reviews
    -- signal detection analysis (upcoming)
    -- mixed methods (upcoming)

  • Marco Perez

    Marco Perez

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine)

    BioDr. Marco Perez's research goal is to better understand the fundamental causes of cardiovascular disease through the study of genetics and epidemiology. His group studies the genetic variations and environmental exposures that are associated with conditions such as atrial fibrillation and heart failure. He has led the studies of atrial fibrillation in Women's Health Initiative, one of the largest nation-wide population-based cohorts. He is currently conducting a large study monitoring for silent or asymptomatic atrial fibrillation in women from the WHI randomized to exercise intervention, and was co-PI of the Apple Heart Study, a clinical trial that validated the ability of a smartwatch to detect atrial fibrillation. He is now PI of the Clinical Coordinating Center at Stanford for the REACT-AF which is a clinical trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of a "pill-in-the pocket" approach to anticoagulation for AF using a smartwatch. He is interested in understanding the paradox that atrial fibrillation is less common in African Americans and Hispanics, despite a greater burden of risk factors such as hypertension. As director of the Stanford Inherited Arrhythmia Clinic, he evaluates families with rare inherited arrhythmias associated with sudden death such as Long QT and Brugada Syndromes and explores their links with novel genes. He also studies the genetic causes of very early onset atrial fibrillation. He also studies how best to use the electrocardiogram and imaging modalities using Machine Learning techniques to identify patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. Dr. Perez receives funding from the NIH/NHLBI, Apple Inc., Janssen and the Colson Foundation.

  • Suzanne Pfeffer

    Suzanne Pfeffer

    Emma Pfeiffer Merner Professor of Medical Sciences

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe major focus of our research is to understand the molecular basis of inherited Parkinson's Disease (PD). We focus on the LRRK2 kinase that is inappropriately activated in PD and how it phosphorylates Rab GTPases, blocking the formation of primary cilia in specific regions of the brain. The absence of primary cilia renders cells unable to carry out Hedgehog signaling that is critical for neuroprotective pathways that sustain dopamine neurons.

  • Jennifer Pien MD

    Jennifer Pien MD

    Clinical Associate Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

    BioJennifer H. Pien is a Clinical Associate Professor and Stanford Medical Humanities & Arts faculty through the Department of Psychiatry at Stanford University. She is the Director of The Pegasus Physician Writers, Founder of The Pegasus Review, and is on the faculty editorial team for the Oxford Review of Books x Stanford collaboration. She also serves on the Advisory Board for The Bellevue Literary Press and the Stanford School of Medicine Medical Humanities Fellowship. Jennifer's fiction writing is represented by Lisa Grubka of United Talent Agency and her nonfiction by Amy Collins of Talcott Notch. She is the author of Healing the Healers, Johns Hopkins University Press, forthcoming 2025.

    In addition to her work in Medical Humanities, her interests include advocacy for adults with developmental disabilities where she cofounded Puente Clinic through the San Mateo County Medical System, an innovative dev. disabilities subspecialty clinic. She serves on the Regional Advisory Committee to the California State Council on Developmental Disabilities. Currently, her clinical focus is on physician well-being through the WellConnect team.

  • Russell Poldrack

    Russell Poldrack

    Albert Ray Lang Professor of Psychology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOur lab uses the tools of cognitive neuroscience to understand how decision making, executive control, and learning and memory are implemented in the human brain. We also develop neuroinformatics tools and resources to help researchers make better sense of data.

  • Lisa Post

    Lisa Post

    Clinical Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

    BioDr. Lisa Post, Ph.D. is a licensed clinical psychologist specializing in the treatment of anxiety, depression and adjustment disorders in adults. She has been a practicing clinician at Stanford Hospital and Clinics since 1993. Since 2000, she has been Director of a clinical program for Stanford Varsity Athletes and for nine years has been the Team Clinician for the San Francisco 49ers. Her primary interest are in the treatment of high performing individuals and in stress management.

  • Manu Prakash

    Manu Prakash

    Associate Professor of Bioengineering, Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment and Associate Professor, by courtesy, of Oceans and of Biology

    BioWe use interdisciplinary approaches including theory and experiments to understand how computation is embodied in biological matter. Examples include cognition in single cell protists and morphological computing in animals with no neurons and origins of complex behavior in multi-cellular systems. Broadly, we invent new tools for studying non-model organisms with significant focus on life in the ocean - addressing fundamental questions such as how do cells sense pressure or gravity? Finally, we are dedicated towards inventing and distributing “frugal science” tools to democratize access to science (previous inventions used worldwide: Foldscope, Abuzz), diagnostics of deadly diseases like malaria and convening global citizen science communities to tackle planetary scale environmental challenges such as mosquito surveillance or plankton surveillance by citizen sailors mapping the ocean in the age of Anthropocene.

  • Carla Pugh, MD, PhD

    Carla Pugh, MD, PhD

    Thomas Krummel Professor

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsThe Technology Enabled Clinical Improvement (T.E.C.I.) Center is a multidisciplinary team of researchers dedicated to the design and implementation of advanced engineering technologies that facilitate data acquisition relating to clinical performance.

  • Stephen Quake

    Stephen Quake

    Lee Otterson Professor in the School of Engineering and Professor of Bioengineering, of Applied Physics and, by courtesy, of Physics

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsSingle molecule biophysics, precision force measurement, micro and nano fabrication with soft materials, integrated microfluidics and large scale biological automation.

  • Nilam Ram

    Nilam Ram

    Professor of Communication and of Psychology

    BioNilam Ram studies the dynamic interplay of psychological and media processes and how they change from moment-to-moment and across the life span.

    Nilam’s research grows out of a history of studying change. After completing his undergraduate study of economics, he worked as a currency trader, frantically tracking and trying to predict the movement of world markets as they jerked up, down and sideways. Later, he moved on to the study of human movement, kinesiology, and eventually psychological processes - with a specialization in longitudinal research methodology. Generally, Nilam studies how short-term changes (e.g., processes such as learning, information processing, emotion regulation, etc.) develop across the life span, and how longitudinal study designs contribute to generation of new knowledge. Current projects include examinations of age-related change in children’s self- and emotion-regulation; patterns in minute-to-minute and day-to-day progression of adolescents’ and adults’ emotions; and change in contextual influences on well-being during old age. He is developing a variety of study paradigms that use recent developments in data science and the intensive data streams arriving from social media, mobile sensors, and smartphones to study change at multiple time scales.

  • Allan L. Reiss

    Allan L. Reiss

    Howard C. Robbins Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Professor of Radiology

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy laboratory, the Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research (CIBSR), focuses on multi-level scientific study of individuals with typical and atypical brain structure and function. Data are obtained from genetic analyses, structural and functional neuroimaging studies, assessment of endocrinological status, neurobehavioral assessment, and analysis of pertinent environmental factors. Our overarching focus is to model how brain disorders arise and to develop disease-specific treatments.

  • Laura Roberts, MD, MA

    Laura Roberts, MD, MA

    Katharine Dexter McCormick and Stanley McCormick Memorial Professor and Professor, by courtesy, of Psychology
    On Partial Leave from 06/24/2024 To 07/31/2024

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Roberts has performed numerous empirical studies of contemporary ethics issues in medicine and health policy and has been funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Energy, the National Alliance of Schizophrenia and Depression, the Arnold P. Gold Foundation, and other private and public foundations.

  • Thomas Robinson

    Thomas Robinson

    The Irving Schulman, M.D. Professor of Child Health, Professor of Medicine (Stanford Prevention Research Center) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsDr. Robinson originated the solution-oriented research paradigm and directs the Stanford Solutions Science Lab. He is known for his pioneering obesity prevention and treatment research, including the concept of stealth interventions. His research applies social cognitive models of behavior change to behavioral, social, environmental and policy interventions for children and families in real world settings, making the results relevant for informing clinical and public health practice and policy.

  • William H. Robinson, MD PhD

    William H. Robinson, MD PhD

    James W. Raitt, M.D. Professor

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsOur lab investigates the molecular mechanisms of and develops therapies to treat autoimmune and rheumatic diseases, with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and osteoarthritis.

    The overriding objectives of our laboratory are:
    1. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying autoimmune and rheumatic diseases.
    2. To investigate the role of innate immune inflammation in osteoarthritis.
    3. To develop novel diagnostics and therapeutics

  • Fatima Rodriguez

    Fatima Rodriguez

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine)

    BioFatima Rodriguez, MD, MPH is an Associate Professor in Cardiovascular Medicine and (by courtesy) the Stanford Prevention Research Center. Dr. Rodriguez earned her medical degree from Harvard Medical School and her MPH from the Harvard School of Public Health. She then completed internal medicine residency at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and fellowship in cardiovascular medicine at Stanford University. She currently serves as the Section Chief of Preventive Cardiology. Dr. Rodriguez specializes in cardiovascular disease prevention, inherited lipid disorders, and cardiovascular risk assessment in high-risk populations.

    Dr. Rodriguez’s research includes a range of topics around racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in cardiovascular disease prevention, developing novel interventions to address disparities, and opportunistic screening of coronary artery disease.

  • Eugene Y. Roh, MD

    Eugene Y. Roh, MD

    Clinical Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsTherapeutic Efficacy of biologic treatments(Platelet Rich Plasma, adipose, mfat, bone marrow, stem cell) in OA and tendonitis
    Application of musculoskeletal ultrasound for sports medicine and other musculoskeletal disease.
    AI-based musculoskeletal diagnosis and treatment in sports, OA and tendinitis

  • Christian Rose, MD

    Christian Rose, MD

    Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine (Adult Clinical/Academic)

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsUncertainty permeates the practice of emergency medicine. I want to answer the question: what do you do when you don't know what to do?

  • Brian Rutt

    Brian Rutt

    Professor of Radiology (Radiological Sciences Lab), Emeritus

    Current Research and Scholarly InterestsMy research interests center on MRI research, including high-field and high-resolution MRI technology development as well as applications of advanced MRI techniques to studying the brain, cardiovascular system and cancer.